(19)
(11)EP 2 611 888 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
21.09.2016 Bulletin 2016/38

(21)Application number: 11748953.4

(22)Date of filing:  26.08.2011
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C10J 3/76(2006.01)
F23J 3/00(2006.01)
F28F 9/00(2006.01)
F28G 9/00(2006.01)
F28D 7/00(2006.01)
F28D 7/16(2006.01)
F28G 1/16(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2011/064719
(87)International publication number:
WO 2012/028550 (08.03.2012 Gazette  2012/10)

(54)

GASIFICATION REACTOR

VERGASUNGSREAKTOR

RÉACTEUR DE GAZÉIFICATION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 30.08.2010 EP 10174505

(43)Date of publication of application:
10.07.2013 Bulletin 2013/28

(73)Proprietor: Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V.
2596 HR Den Haag (NL)

(72)Inventors:
  • HEITMANN, Alfons
    51647 Gummersbach (DE)
  • VON KOSSAK-GLOWCZEWSKI, Thomas Paul
    51647 Gummersbach (DE)
  • KOWALOW, Juergen
    51647 Gummersbach (DE)

(74)Representative: Matthezing, Robert Maarten et al
Shell International B.V. Intellectual Property Services P.O. Box 384
2501 CJ The Hague
2501 CJ The Hague (NL)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 0 077 729
WO-A2-2010/023306
US-A- 4 456 057
EP-A1- 0 314 929
GB-A- 2 061 758
US-A- 4 520 760
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention relates to a gasification reactor with a heat exchange unit comprising a gas flow channel running from an inlet area to an outlet area and one or more heat exchangers arranged within the gas flow channel, the heat exchangers comprising heat exchange surfaces and associated structures, such as a support structure and deflectors or cover plates to guide the gas flow towards the heat exchange surfaces.

    [0002] Such gasification reactors can be used for the production of synthetic gas, or syngas. In such a process, carbonaceous feedstock, such as coal, biomass or oil, is partially oxidised in a gasifier unit of the gasification reactor. Subsequently, the syngas flows to the heat exchange unit to be cooled.

    [0003] US 5,482,110 discloses a heat exchanger for cooling syngas from a partial combustion reactor comprising nested heat exchange surfaces and associated structures in a channel defined by an outer channel wall. The heat exchange surfaces are formed by meandering, helically wound or vertical tubes interconnected to form a gastight wall. The associated structures include a support structure carrying the heat exchange surfaces and a plate blocking the central passage through the central heat exchange surface in order to guide the hot gas as much as possible along the heat exchange surfaces.

    [0004] When the hot syngas leaves the gasifier unit, it carries fly ash generated as a by-product during the gasification process. Fly ash tends to cause fouling and slag deposits, particularly when the fly ash is still hot and sticky. Fouling and slag deposits on the heat exchange surfaces reduce the cooling efficiency of the heat exchange surfaces. Generally, rappers are used intermittently impacting the heat exchange surfaces to remove foulings and fly ash deposits.

    [0005] GB2061758 shows a radiation boiler for recovering heat from a synthesis gas stream, showing various heat exchange surfaces being cleaned by blasters. A further deflector element with support structures is situated in the middle of the gas flow. The support structures are cleaned by blasters. EP0314929 shows a heat exchange boiler comprising 3 individual heat exchange coils being freed from slag and ash deposits by blowers installed in the side walls and rappers, hitting the heat exchange surfaced at intervals.

    [0006] It is an object of the present invention to further prevent efficiency reduction of heat exchangers in the heat exchange section of a gasification reactor by fly ash fouling and slag deposits.

    [0007] The object of the invention is achieved by providing a gasification reactor with a heat exchange unit comprising heat exchange surfaces and associated structures, wherein the associated structures are provided with one or more fouling protection devices according to claim 1.

    [0008] Although the contribution of the associated structures to the cooling of the gas is limited, it has surprisingly been found that prevention of slag built-up on these parts does substantially contribute to an overall efficiency of the heat exchanger as a whole.

    [0009] The one or more fouling protection devices can for instance include one or more soot blowers or blast lances, actively removing slag upon actuation. Good results are obtained with blasters blasting in a radial direction perpendicular to the main gas flow. The blasters can for instance have horizontally directed nozzles in a vertical gas flow channel having an upper inlet and a lower outlet.

    [0010] Additionally, the one or more fouling protection devices may include flow guiding surfaces, guiding the fly ash bearing gas flow away from the parts to be protected. Such guiding surfaces can for instance be cooled, e.g., they can be formed by one or more interconnected cooling medium conduits, e.g., interconnected parallel or spirally wound conduits or a surface formed by shaped plates with one side forming the guiding surface, optionally having the opposite side thermoconductively connected to cooling medium channels.

    [0011] It is noted that WO 2010/023306 discloses a quenching vessel cooling hot syngas by using spray conduits provided with a self cleaning arrangement. No heat exchange surfaces with associated structures are used.

    [0012] The heat exchangers comprise heat exchange surfaces and associated structures. The heat exchange surfaces can, e.g., be built of vertical, meandering or spirally wound cooling medium conduits, which can for instance be interconnected to form a gastight wall. The heat exchange surfaces can for instance be coaxially nested tubular surfaces.

    [0013] The associated structures of the heat exchangers include one or more support structures carrying the one or more heat exchangers. Such a support structure can for instance be located at the inlet side of the heat exchange channel, e.g., with the supported heat exchange surfaces hanging down from the support structure. The support structure is provided with one or more blasters directed to blast over an upstream surface of the support structure. Where the gas flow in the heat exchange section of a gasification reactor is typically a vertical downward flow, the upstream surface of the support structure will generally be its top surface. The support structure comprises a plurality of radial arms, e.g., extending from a central point, wherein at least a part of the arms are within the scope of the one or more blasters. The blasters can for instance comprise a blast gas supply line extending over the upstream surface of the arm, one longitudinal side of the blast gas supply line being connected to the arm, while the opposite longitudinal side is provided with at least one nozzle oriented into a direction parallel to the longitudinal direction of the blast gas supply line. Optionally, the blaster can have one or more pairs of oppositely directed nozzles.

    [0014] The associated structures include one or more deflectors to guide the gas flow towards the heat exchange surfaces. For instance, if the heat exchange surfaces comprise a set of coaxially nested tubular surfaces, a cover plate is be used to block the central passage in order to prevent that gas flows at a distance from the heat exchange surface which is too large to cool the passing gas effectively. A suitable fouling protection device for such a structure can for instance be a flow guiding surface covering the upstream surface of the cover plate to guide approaching gas alongside the cover plate. Such a flow guiding surface can for instance be a cone or conical flow guide pointing in upstream direction. Such a conical flow guide can for example be formed by one or more conically spiralling cooling medium conduits operatively connected to a cooling medium supply.

    [0015] The cover plate is arranged within the blasting scope of one or more blasters. The blaster has one or more nozzles directed to blast in a direction parallel to the upstream surface of the cover plate. This way the one or more blasters blow over the surface to keep it clean in an effective manner. The one or more blasters can for instance have one or more radially extending nozzles branching off under right angles from a lance or central blast gas supply conduit. The conduit or lance can be positioned under right angles with the upstream surface of the cover plate.

    [0016] Optionally, the associated structures can also include a tubular inner wall defining the channel around the heat exchange surfaces, the inner wall being surrounded by an outer wall. Such an inner wall can for instance be formed by one or more vertical or spirally wound cooling medium conduits interconnected to form a gastight wall structure or membrane. This tubular inner wall will typically be a cylindrical wall but may also have a different type of tubular configuration. The annular space between the inner wall and the outer wall can be in open connection with the lower end of the flow channel enclosed by the inner wall to more or less equalize the pressure at both sides of the inner wall. That way, the inner wall is mainly subjected to thermal stresses while the outer wall is mainly subjected to stresses caused by the gas pressure. Due to this separation of thermal and pressure induced loads the inner and outer channel walls can be constructed in a more economic way.

    [0017] Such an inner wall or membrane can be provided with a fouling protection device, preferably at the inlet area of the gas flow channel. For instance, one or more radially extending blast lances can extend through the inner wall having nozzles within the gas flow channel. The nozzles can for instance be interconnected by one or more common blasting gas supply lines positioned between the inner wall and the outer wall. Generally the hot gas inlet is not in line with the centreline of the heat exchange channel. It has been found that it suffices if blast lances are provided only in the cross sectional area below the hot gas inlet, e.g., a 180 degrees semi-circular section of the cross sectional area. For instance two common supply lines extending over 90 degrees can be used to feed blast lances arranged over a semi-circular 180 degrees section of the cross sectional area of the tubular inner wall below the hot gas inlet. Other configurations, for instance spanning 270, 300 or 360 degrees or any other angle, can also be used if so desired. By blasting only the parts particularly exposed to slag formation, blasting gas consumption can be saved.

    [0018] Typically, the cooling medium used is water. That way, the heat exchanger can be used as a steam generator. The generated steam can be used for other useful purposes, thereby contributing to the economic efficiency of the gasification process as a whole.

    [0019] The blasting gas can for instance be nitrogen. Alternatively, or additionally, other types of blasting gases can be used, if so desired.

    [0020] An embodiment of the invention will now be described by way of example in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.

    Figure 1: shows a section of an exemplary embodiment of a gasification reactor according to the invention;

    Figure 2: shows in detail the associate structures of the embodiment of Figure 1 with a configuration of blasters;

    Figure 3A: shows in longitudinal cross section a nozzle of a blaster of the embodiment of Figure 1;

    Figure 3B: shows the nozzle of Figure 3A in cross section;

    Figure 4: shows in plan view a blaster configuration for the inner tubular wall in the embodiment of Figure 1;

    Figure 5: shows the configuration of blasters in the reactor of Figure 1 without the rest of the reactor;

    Figure 6: shows schematically a fouling protection device for a flow deflector for an alternative embodiment of a reactor according to the invention;

    Figure 7: shows schematically in cross section a further exemplary embodiment of a heat exchange section of a gasification reactor according to the invention.



    [0021] Figure 1 shows in cross section the top section of a gasification reactor 1 for the partial combustion of a carbonaceous feed to form syngas. The reactor 1 comprises a gasifier unit 2 having an upwardly inclined discharge section 3 opening into the top section of a heat exchange unit 4 where the produced syngas is cooled. The heat exchange unit 4 comprises a closed outer wall 5 forming a pressure vessel and encasing a cylindrical inner wall 6, schematically indicated in the drawing by dash dotted lines. The inner wall 6 is formed by parallel vertical cooling liquid conduits interconnected to form a gastight tubular membrane confining a gas flow channel 7. The discharge 3 of the gasifier unit 2 opens into an inlet area 8 of the channel 7. Syngas flows in the direction of arrows A, upwardly from discharge 3 of the gasifier unit 2 into the heat exchange unit 4 through the channel 7 to a lower outlet area (not shown).

    [0022] A heat exchanger 9 is arranged within the channel 7. The heat exchanger 9 comprises a set of, e.g., six nested cylindrical heat exchange surfaces 10, which are schematically represented in the drawing by dash dotted lines. In alternative embodiments, the number of heat exchange surfaces can be less than six or more than six, if so desired. The heat exchange surfaces 10 are formed by spirally wound cooling medium conduits interconnected to form a gastight structure. The nested heat exchange surfaces 10 are coaxial with the inner wall 6 and the outer wall 5. The heat exchanger 9 further comprises associated structures 11, including a support structure 12 and a cover plate 13 blocking the central passage 14 through the inner heat exchange surface 10. The heat exchange surfaces 10 hang down from the support structure 12, which is in turn supported by the inner wall 6.

    [0023] The associated structures 11, including the support structure 12 and the cover plate 13, are shown in more detail in Figure 2. The support structure 12 is a symmetrical support cross having four radial arms 15 extending from a central point 16.

    [0024] The associated structures 6, 12, 13 are provided with fouling protection devices 19. These include blasters 20 on the top edge of each of the arms 15 of the support structure 12. Each blaster 20 comprises a conduit 21 with a closed end 22 and with its lower side connected to the corresponding arm 15, while the opposite top side carries nozzles 23, 24 oriented in a direction parallel to the conduit 21. Nozzles 23 closest to the inner wall 6 are nozzles with a single orifice directed away from the inner wall 6. The other nozzles 24 have two oppositely directed orifices 25, as shown in more detail in Figures 3A and 3B. The nozzles 24 have a cylindrical body 26 with a central bore 27 narrowing at its outer ends as a venturi reduction forming the orifices 25. The central bore 27 is in open connection with the inner space 28 of the conduit 21 via a channel 29.

    [0025] As shown in Figure 2, a nitrogen supply line 30 branches off from the conduit 20 of the blaster 21 on one of the arms 15 of the support structure 12. This supply line 30 leads to a blast lance 31 centrally disposed within the central passage 14 through the inner heat exchange surface 10. The blast lance 31 extends to the cover plate 13 where a plurality of radially directed nozzles 32 branches off from the lance 31, as shown in plan view in Figure 4. This way, the nozzles 32 can blast the cover plate 13 free from slag deposits.

    [0026] A further blast gas supply line 35 leads to radially extending horizontal blast lances 36 crossing the inner wall 6, as shown in plan view in Figure 4. The blast lances 36 have nozzles 37 within the gas flow channel 7. The blast lances 36 are interconnected by two blasting gas supply lines 38 positioned between the inner wall 6 and the outer wall 5. The two supply lines 38 are 90 degrees circle segments and feed blast lances arranged over a semi-circular 180 degrees section of the cross sectional area of the gas flow channel 7. This way, only the half of the gas flow channel 7 below the hot gas inlet area 8 (see Figure 1), where most fouling takes place, is blasted. By blasting only the parts particularly exposed to slag formation nitrogen consumption can be saved.

    [0027] Figure 5 shows a perspective view of the complete configuration of all blasters, without showing the rest of the heat exchange area of the gasification reactor 1.

    [0028] Figure 6 shows an alternative fouling protection device 40 for the cover plate 13 of a heat exchange unit of a gasification reactor according to the invention. The fouling protection device 40 comprises a conical guiding surface 41 covering the cover plate 13 with its top pointing away from the cover plate 13 in an upstream direction. The conical guiding surface 41 is made of spirally wound cooling medium conduits 42 operatively connected to a cooling medium supply line 43 and a cooling medium discharge line 44. The conical surface 41 guides the hot gas flow around the cover plate 13 to the flow path along the heat exchange surfaces 10 to prevent or at least reduce slag deposition on the cover plate 13.

    [0029] Figure 7 shows an alternative embodiment, similar to the embodiment shown in Figure 6. Same reference numbers are used for the same parts. Besides the guiding surface 41 it comprises a further fouling protection device 46 comprising a blast gas supply line 48 leading to a point close to the central point 16 of the support cross 12, where it turns downwardly into the space 49 enclosed by the conical surface 41 where it opens into a ring line 50. A plurality of blasters 51 branch off from the ring line 50 and turn from a vertical to a radial direction. The ends of the blasters 51 comprise nozzles 52 horizontally directed towards the inner heat exchange surface 10.


    Claims

    1. A gasification reactor (1) with a heat exchange unit (4) comprising a gas flow channel (7) and one or more heat exchangers (9) arranged within the gas flow channel, the heat exchangers comprising one or more heat exchange surfaces (10) and one or more support structures (12) carrying at least one heat exchanger (9) and at least one deflector to guide the gas flow towards the heat exchange surfaces (10), wherein the support structures (12) are provided with one or more blasters (20) directed to blast over an upstream surface of the support structure (12) and wherein the deflector comprises a cover plate (13) with an upstream surface provided with a blaster (31) having one or more nozzles (32) directed to blast in a direction parallel to the upstream surface; and wherein the support structure comprises a plurality of radial arms (15) extending from a central point (16), wherein at least part of the arms are within the scope of the one or more blasters (20).
     
    2. A gasification reactor according to claim 1 wherein one or more of the arms (15) of the support structure carries a blaster (20) comprising a blast gas supply line (21) extending over the upstream surface of the arm, one longitudinal side of the blast gas supply line being connected to the arm while the opposite longitudinal side is provided with a plurality of nozzles (23, 24) directed in a direction parallel to the arm.
     
    3. A gasification reactor according to claim 2 wherein the nozzles (24) on the arm are at least partly arranged in pairs of oppositely directed nozzles.
     
    4. A gasification reactor according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the nozzles (32) branch off under right angles from a central supply conduit (31).
     
    5. A gasification reactor according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the cover plate (13) blocks a central passage (14) through a tubular heat exchange surface (10), provided with a conical flow guide (41) pointing in upstream direction covering the upstream surface of the cover plate.
     
    6. A gasification reactor according to claim 5 wherein the conical flow guide (41) is formed by one or more conically spiralling cooling medium conduits (42).
     
    7. A gasification reactor according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the associated structures include a tubular inner wall (6) defining the gas flow channel (7), coaxially surrounded by an outer wall (5), the inner wall being formed by cooling medium conduits interconnected to form a gastight membrane, wherein one or more radially extending blasters (36) extend through the membrane having nozzles (37) within the gas flow channel (7).
     
    8. A gasification reactor according to claim 7 wherein one or more of the blasters (36) are interconnected by one or more common blast gas supply lines (38) between the inner wall (5) and the outer wall (6).
     
    9. A gasification reactor according to claim 8 wherein a hot gas discharge (3) of a gasifier unit (2) opens eccentrically into the inlet area (8) of the gas flow channel (7) and the one or more blasters (36) crossing the inner wall (6) are located in an area below the hot gas discharge (3).
     
    10. A gasification reactor according to claim 9 wherein the area occupied by the blasters (36) spans a semi-circular section of the gas flow channel cross sectional area.
     
    11. A gasification reactor according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the gas flow channel (7) runs vertically downwards and wherein at least a part of the fouling protection devices (19) comprise blasters (20, 31, 36) with horizontally directed nozzles.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Vergasungsreaktor (1) mit einer Wärmetauscheinheit (4), der einen Gasflusskanal (7) und einen oder mehrere Wärmetauscher (9), die in dem Gasflusskanal angeordnet sind, umfasst, wobei die Wärmetauscher eine oder mehrere Wärmetauschflächen (10) und eine oder mehrere Trägerstrukturen (12) umfassen, die mindestens einen Wärmetauscher (9) und mindestens eine Ablenkvorrichtung, um den Gasfluss zu den Wärmetauschflächen (10) zu lenken, tragen, wobei die Trägerstrukturen (12) mit einem oder mit mehreren Strahlern (20) versehen sind, die ausgerichtet sind, über eine Stromaufwärtsfläche der Trägerstruktur (12) zu strahlen und wobei die Ablenkvorrichtung eine Abdeckplatte (13) mit einer Stromaufwärtsfläche, die mit einem Strahler (31) versehen ist, der eine oder mehrere Düsen (32) aufweist, die ausgerichtet sind, in eine Richtung parallel zu der Stromaufwärtsfläche zu strahlen, umfasst; und wobei die Trägerstruktur mehrere radiale Arme (15), die sich von einem Mittelpunkt (16) erstrecken, umfasst, wobei sich mindestens ein Teil der Arme innerhalb der Reichweite des einen oder der mehreren Strahler (20) befindet.
     
    2. Vergasungsreaktor nach Anspruch 1, wobei einer oder mehrere der Arme (15) der Trägerstruktur einen Strahler (20) tragen, der eine Strahlgaszuleitung (21), die sich über die Stromaufwärtsfläche des Arms erstreckt, umfasst, wobei eine Längsseite der Strahlgaszuleitung mit dem Arm verbunden ist, während die gegenüberliegende Längsseite mit mehreren Düsen (23, 24) versehen ist, die in einer Richtung parallel zum Arm ausgerichtet sind.
     
    3. Vergasungsreaktor nach Anspruch 2, wobei die Düsen (24) auf dem Arm zumindest teilweise in Paaren gegenüberliegend ausgerichteter Düsen angeordnet sind.
     
    4. Vergasungsreaktor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Düsen (32) in rechten Winkeln von einer zentralen Versorgungsleitung (31) abzweigen.
     
    5. Vergasungsreaktor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Abdeckplatte (13) einen zentralen Durchlass (14) durch eine röhrenförmige Wärmetauschfläche (10) blockiert, die mit einer konischen Flussführung (41) versehen ist, die in Stromaufwärtsrichtung zeigt, wobei sie die Stromaufwärtsfläche der Abdeckplatte bedeckt.
     
    6. Vergasungsreaktor nach Anspruch 5, wobei die konische Flussführung (41) durch eine oder durch mehrere konisch spiralförmige Kühlmittelleitungen (42) gebildet wird.
     
    7. Vergasungsreaktor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die zugeordneten Strukturen eine röhrenförmige Innenwand (6) enthalten, die den Gasflusskanal (7) definiert, die koaxial von einer Außenwand (5) umgeben ist, wobei die Innenwand durch Kühlmittelleitungen gebildet wird, die derart miteinander verbunden sind, dass sie eine gasdichte Trennwand bilden, wobei sich ein oder mehrere Strahler (36), die sich radial erstrecken, durch die Trennwand erstrecken und Düsen (37) innerhalb des Gasflusskanals (7) aufweisen.
     
    8. Vergasungsreaktor nach Anspruch 7, wobei einer oder mehrere der Strahler (36) durch eine oder durch mehrere gemeinsame Strahlgaszuleitungen (38) zwischen der Innenwand (5) und der Außenwand (6) miteinander verbunden sind.
     
    9. Vergasungsreaktor nach Anspruch 8, wobei sich ein Heißgasabfluss (3) einer Vergasungseinheit (2) exzentrisch in den Einlassbereich (8) des Gasflusskanals (7) erstreckt und wobei der eine oder die mehreren Strahler (36), die die Innenwand (6) kreuzen, in einem Bereich unterhalb des Heißgasabflusses (3) angeordnet sind.
     
    10. Vergasungsreaktor nach Anspruch 9, wobei der Bereich, der von den Strahlern (36) belegt ist, einen halbkreisförmigen Abschnitt des Gasflusskanalquerschnittsbereichs umspannt.
     
    11. Vergasungsreaktor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei der Gasflusskanal (7) vertikal nach unten verläuft und wobei mindestens ein Teil der Faulschutzvorrichtungen (19) Strahler (20, 31, 36) mit horizontal ausgerichteten Düsen umfasst.
     


    Revendications

    1. Réacteur (1) de gazéification doté d'une unité (4) d'échange de chaleur comportant un canal (7) d'écoulement de gaz et un ou plusieurs échangeurs (9) de chaleur disposés à l'intérieur du canal d'écoulement de gaz, les échangeurs de chaleur comportant une ou plusieurs surfaces (10) d'échange de chaleur et une ou plusieurs structures (12) de soutien portant au moins un échangeur (9) de chaleur et au moins un déflecteur pour guider l'écoulement de gaz vers les surfaces (10) d'échange de chaleur, les structures (12) de soutien étant munies d'un ou plusieurs moyens (20) de soufflage dirigés pour souffler par-dessus une surface amont de la structure (12) de soutien et le déflecteur comportant une plaque (13) de couverture dotée d'une surface amont munie d'un moyen de soufflage (31) comprenant une ou plusieurs buses (32) dirigés pour souffler dans une direction parallèle à la surface amont ; et la structure de soutien comportant une pluralité de bras radiaux (15) s'étendant à partir d'un point central (16), au moins une partie des bras se trouvant à l'intérieur du champ du ou des moyens (20) de soufflage.
     
    2. Réacteur de gazéification selon la revendication 1, un ou plusieurs des bras (15) de la structure de soutien portant un moyen (20) de soufflage comportant une canalisation (21) d'alimentation en gaz de soufflage s'étendant par-dessus la surface amont du bras, un côté longitudinal de la canalisation d'alimentation en gaz de soufflage étant relié au bras tandis que le côté longitudinal opposé est muni d'une pluralité de buses (23, 24) dirigées dans une direction parallèle au bras.
     
    3. Réacteur de gazéification selon la revendication 2, les buses (24) situées sur le bras étant au moins partiellement disposées en paires de buses dirigées de façon opposée.
     
    4. Réacteur de gazéification selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, les buses (32) se ramifiant à angles droits à partir d'un conduit central (31) d'alimentation.
     
    5. Réacteur de gazéification selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, la plaque (13) de couverture obturant un passage central (14) à travers une surface tubulaire (10) d'échange de chaleur, munie d'un guide conique (41) d'écoulement orienté en direction de l'amont recouvrant la surface amont de la plaque de couverture.
     
    6. Réacteur de gazéification selon la revendication 5, le guide conique (41) d'écoulement étant formé par un ou plusieurs conduits (42) d'agent de refroidissement décrivant une spirale conique.
     
    7. Réacteur de gazéification selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, les structures associées comprenant une paroi intérieure tubulaire (6) définissant le canal (7) d'écoulement de gaz, entourée de façon coaxiale par une paroi extérieure (5), la paroi intérieure étant formée par des conduits d'agent de refroidissement interconnectés pour former une membrane étanche au gaz, un ou plusieurs moyens (36) de soufflage s'étendant radialement s'étendant à travers la membrane étant dotés de des buses (37) à l'intérieur du canal (7) d'écoulement de gaz.
     
    8. Réacteur de gazéification selon la revendication 7, un ou plusieurs des moyens (36) de soufflage étant interconnectés par une ou plusieurs canalisations communes (38) d'alimentation en gaz de soufflage entre la paroi intérieure (5) et la paroi extérieure (6).
     
    9. Réacteur de gazéification selon la revendication 8, une évacuation (3) de gaz chauds d'une unité (2) de gazogène débouchant de façon excentrique dans la zone (8) d'entrée du canal (7) d'écoulement de gaz et le ou les moyens (36) de soufflage traversant la paroi intérieure (6) étant situés dans une zone au-dessous de l'évacuation (3) de gaz chauds.
     
    10. Réacteur de gazéification selon la revendication 9, la zone occupée par les moyens (36) de soufflage couvrant un tronçon semi-circulaire de la section transversale du canal d'écoulement de gaz.
     
    11. Réacteur de gazéification selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, le canal (7) d'écoulement de gaz passant verticalement vers le bas et au moins une partie des dispositifs (19) de protection contre l'encrassement comportant des moyens (20, 31, 36) de soufflage dotés de buses dirigées horizontalement.
     




    Drawing


























    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description