(19)
(11)EP 2 615 770 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
17.06.2020 Bulletin 2020/25

(21)Application number: 12192244.7

(22)Date of filing:  12.11.2012
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H04L 7/04  (2006.01)
H04B 7/185  (2006.01)
H04L 27/00  (2006.01)

(54)

Fast acquisition of frame timing and frequency

Schnelle Erfassung von Rahmentakt- und -frequenz

Acquisition rapide du rythme de trame et de fréquence


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 11.01.2012 US 201261585389 P
05.11.2012 US 201213668788

(43)Date of publication of application:
17.07.2013 Bulletin 2013/29

(73)Proprietor: Gilat Satellite Networks Ltd.
49130 Petah-Tikva (IL)

(72)Inventors:
  • Ram, Uzi
    Kiryat Arye, 49130 Petah-Tikva (IL)
  • Levitsky, Michael
    Kiryat Arye, 49130 Petah-Tikva (IL)
  • Bialer, Oded
    Kiryat Arye, 49130 Petah-Tikva (IL)
  • Levitas, Guy
    Kiryat Arye, 49130 Petah-Tikva (IL)

(74)Representative: V.O. 
P.O. Box 87930
2508 DH Den Haag
2508 DH Den Haag (NL)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-99/20023
US-A- 5 383 225
DE-A1- 4 130 864
US-A1- 2004 218 699
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] Aspects of the disclosure pertain to the general field of communication modems. Aspects of the disclosure pertain to communication modems for wireless communication and satellite communication.

    BACKGROUND



    [0002] Modern digital signals, for example over satellite links, may include some kind of framing. Framing may be needed, for instance, in order to determine an end of one code word (e.g. a data frame) and a start of a next code word (e.g. a next data frame) within the transmission. A known sequence of transmission symbols, which may be sometimes referred to as Unique Word (UW), may be used for framing synchronization. For example, in burst transmissions, a single UW (e.g. at the beginning of the burst) may be used for synchronizing the burst framing. In another example, in continuous transmission, a UW sequence may be occasionally transmitted, though for simplifying synchronization UW instances may be periodically transmitted, e.g. at constant intervals or distances (for example measured in symbols).

    [0003] A UW sequence may be detected using a coherent correlator. The correlator may rotate the known symbols of the UW "backwards", so that all the UW symbols may be added coherently (i.e. in phase). In some examples, if the phase of the received signal is unknown, an amplitude detector or a power detector may be used at the output of the correlator for detecting the UW existence. However, if a transmitted signal is received at some frequency offset, the UW symbols may be undesirably rotated while being added by a correlator (i.e. due to the frequency offset), causing the said addition of symbols to be at least somewhat incoherent. Thus, this undesired rotation may introduce degradation to the coherent detection, and in severe cases it may prevent detection of the UW. For example, if the transmission symbol rate is denoted as Rs, the UW length in symbols is denoted as L, and the frequency error is denoted as ΔF, a degradation in detection performance (in dB) may be calculated as:

    wherein LOG is the decimal logarithm function and SINC is the normalized SINC function, defined as:

    wherein SIN is the known trigonometric sinus function.

    [0004] For example, at a frequency offset of Rs/(4L), the resulting degradation in detection performance might be in the excess of 1dB. In another example, at a frequency offset of Rs/L, detection might be entirely impossible (e.g. as ΔF aims to Rs/L, the expression SINC(LAF/Rs) aims to 0 and the expression 20LOG(SINC(LΔF/Rs)) aims to minus infinity, i.e. the degradation at such a frequency offset might exceed the detector capabilities).

    [0005] Therefore, when trying to determine reception timing of a UW in presence of a relatively large frequency error, a receiver may use one or more techniques in order to enable detection of the UW. One technique is to determine the frequency offset through frequency scanning. The receiver may be set to receive the signal at a certain frequency and to try locating the UW. If the UW is not detected, the receiver frequency may be modified to a close neighbor frequency within a preconfigured frequency offset range, where the receiver may try again to locate the UW, and so on until the UW is located or the entire preconfigured frequency offset range may be scanned. However, this scanning method may significantly increase the acquisition time (e.g. the time it may take to synchronize or to lock the receiver on the received signal). It may be noted that if a frequency step size is in the order of Rs/2L, the residual maximal frequency error is Rs/4L, hence ensuring up to 1dB degradation in detection performance. However, selecting a frequency step size in the order of Rs/2L may imply a relatively large number of frequency steps (e.g. scanning iterations) that may be required before a correct frequency offset may be found.

    [0006] An alternative method to deal with frequency offset may be to divide the UW correlator into short segments, i.e. to perform the correlation in parts, so that any exiting frequency offset may result in smaller loss of coherency within each segment. The correlation results of all segments may then be further assembled in a non-coherent manner. For example, the amplitude-square of each segment correlation output may be computed and the results from all segments may be then combined. However, a disadvantage of this method may be its use of non-linear operation (e.g. such as squaring) before all fragment contributions may be added. This non-linear operation may introduce another source of detection-loss, often denoted as "Squaring Loss" that may become quite significant, for example in negative SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) scenarios. The SNR at an output of a short-segment correlation of length m (SNRsegment_out) may be represented as:

    wherein SNRin is the SNR of the signal at the input to the correlation. If SNRin is low and the segment length (m) is short, SNRsegment_out may still be low. For example, considering SNRin = -15dB, UW length L=64, and short segment correlation length m = 4. In such example:





    [0007] The squaring loss may be significantly increased as SNRsegment_out becomes more negative (e.g. Squaring_Loss ≈ -SNRsegment_out for negative SNRsegment_out values and at least 3dB for positive or high SNRsegment_out values). Thus, considering the above example:



    [0008] However, if the frequency offset is negligible, a full correlation may be calculated without segmentation. In such case:



    [0009] Thus, a more efficient technique for synchronizing to a signal framing under a significant frequency offset error may be useful. Such a technique should be fast on one hand and resulting in no or little degradation to detection performance on the other hand.

    [0010] WO 99/20023 discloses synchronizing and demodulating radio wave signals transmitted in frame format with an unique word, involving correcting the frequency offset of the received signal and differentially correlating the frequency corrected signal with the unique word. A first timing estimate is further refined by a 2-D search between frequency and time and a first frequency estimate is further refined by quadratic interpolation. The finely synchronized signal is demodulated using a Viterbi-based demodulator.

    [0011] US 2004/0218699 discloses detecting a message identifier or preamble that has been generated and provided by a transmitter 200 that uses FFTs to estimate frequency and time offset. The wireless receiver 300 scans, asynchronously and sequentially during a wakeup time, a plurality of predetermined frequencies for the message identifier or specialized preamble. A plurality of received sample sequences are collected, one received sample sequence collected at each of the plurality of predetermined frequencies. A correlation between data corresponding to the preamble and data corresponding to a received sample sequence is compared to a threshold value to determine when the preamble has been detected. The wireless receiver 300 is wakened from a low power mode when the preamble is detected.

    BRIEF SUMMARY



    [0012] The present invention is defined in its method aspect in claim 1 and in its system aspect in claim 11. The following presents a simplified summary in order to provide a basic understanding of some aspects of the disclosure. The summary is not an extensive overview of the disclosure. It is neither intended to identify key or critical elements of the disclosure nor to delineate the scope of the disclosure. The following summary merely presents some aspects of the disclosure in a simplified form as a prelude to the description below.

    [0013] Aspects of the disclosure are directed to a method for fast acquisition of symbol and/or frame timing of a signal, which may be received with frequency uncertainty. In some embodiments, the method may include steps of Unique Word (UW) modulation elimination, optional partial coherent addition and Fourier Transform (FT) processing, and a two-dimensional search of UW timing and/or of frequency offset. Such method may be useful for speeding timing acquisition of a framed signal, including in the presence of a frequency uncertainty or offset.

    [0014] Aspects of the disclosure are directed to a receiver, which may be configured to use an algorithm for acquiring frame timing (e.g. UW location within a frame) in presence of frequency uncertainty. In some embodiments, the algorithm may be implemented using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0015] Having thus described the disclosure in general terms, reference will now be made to the accompanying drawings, which are not necessarily drawn to scale, and wherein:

    Fig 1 shows a block diagram of a demodulation path in accordance with aspects of the disclosure.

    Fig 2 shows a block diagram of a fast acquisition function in accordance with aspects of the disclosure.

    Fig 3 shows a diagram of unique-word pattern elimination functionality in accordance with aspects of the disclosure.

    Fig 4 shows an example representation of a two-dimensional search map in accordance with aspects of the disclosure.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0016] A receiver may be configured to receive a signal at a given frequency and to synchronize with a framing property of the received signal, wherein framing may be marked by a predefined sequence of symbols, known as Unique Word (UW). For the purpose of simplifying the disclosure description and for maintaining coherency of the examples given, let L represent the length in symbols of a UW (for example, L = 64) and let UWFL represent the length in symbols of a UW frame, i.e. the distance between adjacent UW instances, (for example UWFL = 2000). Given the above terminology, the methods disclosed herein may be directed at detecting the UW sequence (or pattern) within the UW frame, while there may be UWFL possible timings (i.e. locations on a time axis with a symbol period grid) and wherein said detection may be influenced by receiving the signal with a frequency uncertainty or at some frequency offset.

    [0017] Furthermore, for the sake of simplicity, reference may be made herein to use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm for computing a Fourier Transform (FT). However, any other method or algorithm for computing a Fourier Transform (FT) may be used without leaving the scope of this disclosure and without changing any of its aspects.

    [0018] Fig 1 shows an example of elements that may be included in a reception flow of a signal, in accordance with aspects of the disclosure. A signal (1) (e.g. in Intermediate Frequency (IF)) may be presented at the input of I/Q Demodulator (2), which may be configured to convert the signal to a baseband complex signal (3). Baseband signal (3) may be then presented at the input of an antialiasing low pass filter (LPF) (4) which may be configured to filter the baseband signal before it may be sampled by analog to digital converter (ADC) (5), wherein said sampling may transform the received signal to a digital complex representation. In some embodiments, said sampling may be performed using sampling frequency fs.

    [0019] The digital signal present at the output of ADC (5), may be presented at the input of re-sampler (6), which may be configured to resample the signal in accordance with at least a symbol rate property of the received signal (Rs), for example in order to provide Ns samples per symbol (wherein Ns>1 may be useful since an optimal sampling timing of a symbol may be initially unknown). In some embodiments, re-sampler (6) may be configured to output the resampled signal using a sampling rate of 4Rs (where Rs is the signal's symbol rate), hence providing 4 samples per each symbol (i.e. Ns = 4). The resampled complex sample stream, at a sampling rate of NsRs, may be presented at the input of matched filter (7), which may be configured to maximize the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and to provide its output signal at the same sampling rate as its input signal (e.g. NsRs). The output signal of matched filter (7) may be presented at the input of automatic gain control (AGC) block (8), which may be configured to adjust the amplitude of the signal for at least the purpose of providing a signal having a predefined level at the input of fast acquisition block (Fast ACQ) (10). In some embodiments, fast acquisition block (10) may be configured to process the signal at a sampling rate of NaRs (for example, Na = 2), thus an additional decimation block (9) of factor Ns/Na may be used before fast acquisition block (10) (for example, where Ns = 4 and Na = 2, a decimation factor of 2 may be used).

    [0020] In some embodiments, re-sampler (6), matched filter (7), AGC block (8), decimation block (9) and fast acquisitions block (10) may be implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). However, other embodiments in which the above functions may be implemented either in hardware, firmware, software, any mix of hardware, firmware and software, or any other means for implementing such functions, may also be possible and are therefore envisaged by this disclosure.

    [0021] Fig 2 shows an example block diagram of fast acquisition block (10) of Fig 1. Samples, at rate of Na samples per symbol (12) may be presented at the input to the fast acquisition block and provided to UW modulation elimination block (11), an example description of which may be presented in Fig 3. The complex input signal samples, sampled at NaRs (12), may be fed into two shift registers of length NaL (e.g. shift register 28 for the I component and shift register 29 for the Q component). The samples may be backward rotated in accordance with the UW pattern (13 in Fig 2), wherein backward rotation may be performed by multiplying the input samples by an inversed pattern of the UW, as shown in Fig 3. In some embodiments, where the UW may be transmitted as a binary sequence, for example using BPSK modulation, elimination of the UW pattern may require multiplying the I and Q components (26 and 27 respectively) of the input signal by UW pattern (30) (for example, by 1 for a "1" bit and by -1 for a "0" bit). UW modulation elimination block (11) may be configured to present at its output a vector of L samples (elements) in length (i.e. the UW length), each sampled at Rs, every 1/(NaRs) time period. These vectors may represent un-modulated samples at intervals of 1/Rs.

    [0022] In parallel to processing the input samples, fast acquisition block (10) may be configured to include a samples counter (23), which may be configured to count the samples vectors coming out of UW modulation elimination block (11) (e.g. in accordance with a clock at a rate of NaRs) and associate each samples vector with an index. Samples counter (23) may be configured with modulo of NaUWFL, hence each samples vector may have an initial arbitrary index within a UW frame (i.e. between 0 and NaUWFL-1). Following the above example, where Na = 2 and UWFL = 2000, samples counter 23 may be configured with modulo of 4000 (i.e. the count value may be ranging from 0 to 3999).

    [0023] In some aspects of the disclosure, a method is presented for synchronizing samples counter (23) to a first symbol of a UW, so that sample counter (23) may show a predefined count value (for example, 0) at the same time that said first symbol of a UW may be valid at the input of fast acquisitions block (10).

    [0024] Referring again to Fig 2, the output vectors of UW modulation elimination block (11) may optionally be passed through pre-summation block (14), having a configurable summation factor N. Pre-summation block (14) may optionally decimate groups of N adjacent samples by summing each group of N samples to form a single sample, at least for the purpose of reducing an input vector size of L samples to an output vector size of L/N samples. In one example, wherein the signal may be received at a relatively large frequency offset, pre-summation block (14) may be bypassed (i.e. N = 1, at least in order to avoid loss of SNR that may result from coherent addition of neighbor symbols). In another example, wherein a UW length may be L = 64, pre-summation with a factor being a power of 2 (e.g. 2, 4, 8, 16, etc.) may be used. An output vector of pre-summation (14), of length L/N, may be presented at the input of FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) module (16). Thus, the summation factor N may define the size of the FFT input and output vectors (FFT_size) and in some embodiments as described above it may reduce the vector size. Though reducing the FFT vector size may result in reducing the number of coefficients in the FFT input and output vectors, detection resolution may remain unchanged since said pre-summation also reduces the effective sampling rate by the same ratio. In order to improve detection performance and the FFT grid resolution, the FFT vector size is enlarged using time domain zero padding (15), thus providing at least a finer frequency resolution. In some embodiments, an FFT vector may be P(L/N) samples long, i.e. (L/N)(P-1) zeroes may be added to the L/N pre-summation samples (for example, a zero padding factor P=2 may be used).

    [0025] FFT module (16) may be configured to compute a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of an input vector of a configurable size (e.g. FFT_size) and to output the transformed vector towards ABS block (17), as described further herein. FFT module (16) may be further configured to generate a second output, which may be used for driving FFT index counter (22), wherein FFT index counter (22) may be configured to count FFT output vector samples (i.e. FFT index counter may be configured with modulo of FFT_size). In some embodiments, FFT module (16) may have one output which may be used both for providing transformed vectors to ABS block (17) and for driving FFT index counter (22). In some embodiments, the output of FFT index counter (22) (i.e. its count value) may be used for providing at least a frequency axis index (FFT_ind) to address generation module (21). In addition, each FFT input/output vector may be already indexed using samples counter (23) (i.e. using the corresponding sample index for the FFT input vector), wherein samples counter (23) may be configured with modulo of NaUWFL, as previously described. In some embodiments, said the output of samples counter (23) (i.e. its count value) may be used for providing at least a time axis index (Time_ind) to address generation module (21).

    [0026] A summation operation may reduce an equivalent sampling rate of a signal presented at FFT module (16) input, for example to Rs/N, wherein Rs is the signal's symbol rate and N may be the pre-summation factor (Fig 2, 14). Consequently, FFT bin resolution (i.e. the frequency difference between neighboring FFT coefficients) may equal to (Rs/N)/((L/N)P) = Rs/(PL). The pre-summation factor (N) may be determined at least in accordance with a ratio between a maximal frequency uncertainty (e.g. frequency offset or frequency error) a signal may be received at (ΔF), and a symbol rate property of the received signal (Rs). In some embodiments, wherein said determining may be performed at least for the purpose of minimizing a degradation that may result from a pre-summation operation, the pre-summation factor (N) may be selected so that ΔF/Rs < 1/(4N) (i.e. the ratio between the signal's symbol rate and the maximal frequency uncertainty at which the signal may be received may be higher than 4 times the pre-summation factor). Thus, as the symbol rate of a received signal may be higher, a higher pre-summation factor may be used. In some embodiments, said pre-summation factor may be used for adjusting an FFT vector size (FFT_size) to a desired size and/or for maintaining a constant maximal FFT processing rate over a range of input signals having a range of symbol rates. For example, assuming that for a minimal symbol rate that a receiver may be configured to receive (Rsmin) a maximal FFT vector size may be set as FFT_size = PL (e.g. pre-summation might not be used in this case, i.e. N = 1). Consequently, FFT module (16) may process a 2L points' FFT (e.g. in case P = 2) at a rate of NaRsmin. However, for a higher symbol rate, for example a symbol rate being twice the minimal symbol rate (i.e. 2Rsmin) and a zero-padding factor of P = 2, the pre-summation factor may be set to N = 2, resulting in FFT vector size of FFT_size = (L/N)2 = L. In other words, FFT module (16) may process L points' FFT at a rate of 2NaRsmin. Thus, using such determining of the pre-summation factor, an overall processing rate of FFT module (16) may be maintained, at least for the purpose of facilitating an implementation of such FFT module. In some embodiments, where fast acquisitions block (10) may be implemented using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), the blocks preceding FFT module (16) may be operated at NaRs clock rate, while the rest of the functions, including perhaps FFT module (16), may be operated using a faster clock, at least for the purpose of supporting a required processing rate for FFT calculations.

    [0027] The complex output vectors of FFT module (16) may be presented at the input of absolute value calculation (ABS) block (17), for at least the purpose of obtaining a metric of magnitude (also referred to herein as FFT amplitude). ABS block (17) may be implemented in many ways. In some embodiments, the amplitude value of FFT results may be calculated, for example by using the following approximation:



    [0028] In some embodiments, other metrics of magnitude (i.e. other than FFT amplitude value), which are monotonic, may be used. For example, such metrics of magnitude may include the absolute value of the amplitude, a square power of the amplitude, or any other monotonic function over amplitude.

    [0029] In cases where the received signal may be of low signal to noise ratio (SNR), a single pass over all NaUWFL time hypothesis may be insufficient for accurately determining a UW timing. Consequently, multiple FFT amplitude values, which may be calculated by ABS block (17) for multiple UW frames (i.e. consecutive values may refer to samples which may be UWFL symbols apart), may be averaged for at least the purpose of increasing the probability for correctly determining the UW timing. After a first UW frame, averaging of FFT amplitudes for all possible time and frequency indexes may be done using Infinite Impulse Response filter (IIR) (18). IIR filtering may be done by reading a previous IIR state from a memory (20), updating the IIR with the current FFT amplitude value (e.g. inp_data), and storing the result (H) back into memory (20). IIR filter (18) output values may be stored in memory (20), which may be configured to be of sufficient size for storing FFT_sizeNaUWFL values representing all time-frequency hypothesizes, wherein each value requires a single storage address. An address generation block (21) may be used for generating addresses for accessing memory (20), wherein each address may be composed of a least significant part representing a frequency index (FFT_ind) and a most significant part representing a timing index (Time_ind). A value stored in memory (20) during a previous iteration (prev val) may be read and used together with a current FFT cell amplitude value (inp_data from ABS block (17)) for calculating a new IIR (18) value. The resulting IIR new value (next val) may then be stored in memory (20) at the same address holding the IIR result value of the previous iteration (prev val).

    [0030] It should be noted that use of an IIR filter for averaging amplitude results is merely an example for such averaging. Other averaging methods may be used without leaving the scope of this disclosure, including for example any of summation, a sliding window, or use of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters.

    [0031] FIG 4 shows an example of memory (20) organization and addressing (40). A frequency search range (41) may be set in accordance with a maximal possible frequency uncertainty (e.g. offset or error) that may be expected (ΔF). It may be noted that the FFT frequency range may be larger than the maximal possible frequency error, for example the FFT frequency range may be ±(Rs/(2N)) while only part of the FFT cells may be of interest. For example, where the expected maximal frequency uncertainty (e.g. offset or error) may be ±Rs/4 and wherein N=1 (i.e. pre-summation may be bypassed), the number of FFT cells of interest may be only about half of the resulting FFT cell. Consequently, in the above example, the memory size of interest may be in the order of NaUWFLFFT_size/2. In such embodiments, memory (20) may be reduced in size to hold only the cells of interest, wherein non-interesting results may be discarded.

    [0032] Memory (20) may be visualized as a two-dimensional histogram of timing and frequency offset hypothesis, as shown in Fig 4. In some embodiments, where fast acquisitions block (10) may be implemented in an FPGA, memory (20) may be a single dimension vector and said two-dimensional view may be obtained through having a frequency index (42) (FFT_ind), which may be used for driving the least significant bits (LSB) of the address, and a timing index (43) (Time_ind), which may be used for driving the most significant bits (MSB) of the address. It may be noted that in the worst case (i.e. wherein memory (20) may be configured to hold all the FFT results of FFT module (16)), the address may include LOG2(NaUWFLFFT_size) bits, denoting the time-frequency cell address (for instance, the least significant address bits may be used for FFT bin index, while most significant address bits may denote the half-symbol location of the FFT input vector within samples counter (23) range).

    [0033] Again in reference to Fig 2, in some embodiments IIR memory (20) may be initially filled with zeroes (0). The IIR filter (18) output, H(n), may be calculated from input X(n) using the equation:

    wherein K (33) may be a leakage factor value defining an averaging length (for example, it may be significantly lower than 1). In some embodiments, the leakage factor (K) may be set in accordance with a number of iterations that may be sufficient for obtaining a reliable acquisition decision, wherein 1/K may approximately be the said number of iterations.

    [0034] In parallel to updating IIR memory (20), the memory location of a maximal amplitude level may be tracked. After a sufficient number of iterations, an index to the maximal amplitude level within memory (20) may indicate the frequency offset and the UW Frame timing index for the received signal.

    [0035] Again in reference to Fig 2, in order to estimate a cell holding a value representing maximal power, calculation results from IIR (18) may be streamed to max search block (19), which may be configured to provide an index to a maximal value (referred to herein as max index), corresponding to a chosen time-frequency hypothesis. The least significant portion of said max index may be used for frequency error estimation (Frequency Estimation block (24), while the most significant portion of said max index may be used as frame start time estimation (Time_est (31)) and possibly applied to samples counter (23) for at least the purpose of synchronizing samples counter (23) with the frame timing.

    [0036] The averaging factor (e.g. dictated by K in the IIR equation) may be configurable. In some embodiments, the averaging factor may be selected in accordance with specific SNR conditions. Maximum peak searching may be performed "on the fly", i.e. with each new index of IIR memory (20) being updated. Maximum search block (19) may be configured to provide any of the following on its outputs: a maximum peak value (maxvalue), a maximum peak time (Time_est) and a frequency index (FFT_ind).

    [0037] A lock detection decision (Fig 2, 25) may be conditioned to the maximum averaged amplitude value determined by max search (19) being higher than a threshold (32) (i.e. MAX(H) > Thr). Referring to Fig 1, in some embodiments an automatic gain control block, AGC (8), may be included in the demodulation chain, at least for the purpose of regulating a power level property of the received signal at the input to fast acquisition module (10) and/or allowing reliable lock detection using threshold (32) independently of the power level of the received signal at the input of the demodulation path.

    [0038] In some embodiments, frequency error and frame timing estimates may become valid immediately after lock detection may be provided by lock detection block (25). The threshold value (32) (Thr) may be either predefined or configurable, and it may depend on any of a required acquisition detection probability, a false detection probability and said IIR leakage factor (33). In some embodiments, determining termination of the acquisition process (e.g. lock detection) may be based on using a first maximum and a second maximum peak ratio compared to a threshold, wherein said second maximum peak might not be associated with a nearest neighbor in either time or frequency to said first maximum peak.

    [0039] In some embodiments, wherein the processed signal may be a burst signal, a transmission may include a single frame having a single UW. In such embodiments, the UW timing within an uncertainty time window may be determined in parallel to determining a frequency offset at which the burst may be received. In addition, burst reception may not allow averaging of a metric of magnitude as previously described, as the UW may appear only once. Thus, burst timing and frequency offset may be determined by a maximal value of a metric of magnitude in the two-dimensional time-frequency map corresponding to a time-frequency search window.

    [0040] In some embodiments, the methods described above may be used in a satellite communication system. A receiver configured to receive a signal from a satellite may be configured to use one or more of the methods described above at least for the purpose of acquiring frame timing (e.g. of a UW located within a frame) of a received signal wherein the signal may be received with frequency uncertainty.

    [0041] Various aspects of the disclosure may be embodied as one or more methods, systems, apparatuses (e.g., components of a satellite communication network), and/or computer program products. Accordingly, those aspects may take the form of an entirely hardware embodiment, an entirely software embodiment, an entirely firmware embodiment, or an embodiment combining firmware, software, and/or hardware aspects. Furthermore, such aspects may take the form of a computer program product stored by one or more computer-readable storage media having computer-readable program code, or instructions, embodied in or on the storage media. Any suitable computer readable storage media may be utilized, including hard disks, CD-ROMs, optical storage devices, magnetic storage devices, and/or any combination thereof. In some embodiments, one or more computer readable media storing instructions may be used. The instructions, when executed, may cause one or more apparatuses to perform one or more acts described herein. The one or more computer readable media may comprise transitory and/or non-transitory media. In addition, various signals representing data or events as described herein may be transferred between a source and a destination in the form of electromagnetic waves traveling through signal-conducting media such as metal wires, optical fibers, and/or wireless transmission media (e.g., air and/or space).

    [0042] Modifications may be made to the various embodiments described herein by those skilled in the art. It will also be appreciated and understood that modifications may be made without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. The description is thus to be regarded as illustrative instead of restrictive on the present disclosure.


    Claims

    1. A method including:

    receiving a modulated signal comprising a framing property marked by a unique word comprising a predefined sequence of symbols;

    producing a digitally sampled signal corresponding to the modulated signal, the digitally sampled signal having a sampling rate of Na Rs, wherein Rs is a symbol rate of the modulated signal and Na is a number of samples per symbol;

    determining a frequency offset associated with the modulated signal and a location of the unique word within a frame of the modulated signal, wherein the determining is based on a two-dimensional search in a time-frequency map and wherein the determining comprises:

    a.) eliminating a unique word modulation from the digitally sampled signal to produce a plurality of vectors each having L un-modulated samples at intervals of 1/Rs, wherein L is a length, in symbols, of the unique word;

    b.) counting the plurality of vectors using a first counter and associating each of the plurality of vectors with a time index corresponding to a count value of the first counter;

    c.) summing groups of N adjacent samples within each of the plurality of vectors to produce decimated vectors of L/N samples, wherein N is a positive integer;

    d.) padding the decimated vectors with time-domain zeroes to produce padded vectors of P(L/N) samples, wherein P ≥ 1;

    e.) performing a Fourier Transform, FT, on the padded vectors to produce transformed vectors;

    f.) counting FT samples of the transformed vectors using a second counter and associating each of the FT samples with a frequency index corresponding to a count value of the second counter;

    g.) calculating at least one metric of magnitude for each sample in the transformed vectors; and

    h.) storing the at least one metric of magnitude at a storage address in a memory, wherein the storage address is determined in accordance with the time index and the frequency index associated with a sample corresponding to the at least one metric of magnitude.


     
    2. The method of claim 1, wherein producing the digitally sampled signal comprises:

    demodulating the modulated signal to produce a complex baseband signal;

    converting the complex baseband signal to a digitally sampled complex signal;

    filtering the digitally sampled complex signal using a matched filter to produce a matched filter output signal; and

    decimating the matched filter output signal to produce the digitally sampled signal having the sampling rate of Na Rs.


     
    3. The method of claim 1, wherein calculating the at least one metric of magnitude comprises averaging results that are UWFL symbols apart, wherein UWFL is a distance, in symbols, between adjacent instances of the unique word, wherein the averaging is performed through filtering the at least one metric of magnitude using an Infinite Impulse Response, IIR, filter and wherein the filtering comprises:

    reading a previously stored value, H(n-1), from the storage address of the memory;

    calculating an IIR filter output value, H(n), in accordance with the following expression: H(n) = KX(n) + (1-K)H(n-1), wherein K is a leakage factor value and X(n) corresponds to a value of a sample presented at an input of the IIR filter; and

    storing the calculated IIR filter output value, H(n), in the memory at the storage address.


     
    4. The method of claim 1, further comprising determining of the storage address in accordance with the time index and the frequency index by using the frequency index to form a first portion of bits of the storage address and using the time index to form a second portion of bits of the storage address.
     
    5. The method of claim 1, further comprising setting N equal to 1 to reduce effects of the summing of the groups of N adjacent samples.
     
    6. The method of claim 1, further comprising determining N in accordance with a ratio between a maximal frequency uncertainty, ΔF, and the symbol rate, Rs, of the modulated signal.
     
    7. The method of claim 1, further comprising:

    providing values, H, stored in memory for a maximum search in parallel to storing the values in the memory;

    determining a maximal value, MAX(H), of the provided values;

    comparing the maximum value with a threshold, Thr; and

    determining a lock on the modulated signal if the maximum value is greater than the threshold, MAX(H) > Thr, wherein determining a lock on the modulated signal comprises:

    determining a first maximum value from a plurality of values stored in the memory, the first maximum value corresponding to a first time index and a first frequency index;

    determining a second maximum value from the plurality of values stored in the memory, the second maximum value corresponding to a second time index and a second frequency index, wherein the second time index is not a nearest neighbor of the first time index and the second frequency index is not a nearest neighbor of the first frequency index;

    calculating a ratio between the first maximum value and the second maximum value;

    comparing the calculated ratio to a threshold; and

    determining the lock on the modulated signal if the ratio exceeds the threshold.


     
    8. The method of claim 1, further comprising:

    providing values, H, stored in memory for a maximum search in parallel to storing the values in the memory;

    determining a maximal value, MAX(H), of the provided values;

    comparing the maximum value with a threshold, Thr,

    determining a lock on the modulated signal if the maximum value is greater than the threshold, MAX(H) > Thr;

    determining a maximum index corresponding to the determined maximal value when the lock is determined;

    determining a frequency offset of the modulated signal using a first portion of the maximum index; and

    determining a frame start time estimation using a second portion of the maximum index, wherein the frame start time estimation is used for synchronizing the first counter with frame timing.


     
    9. The method of claim 1, wherein the eliminating the unique word modulation comprises:
    backward rotating the digitally sampled signal.
     
    10. The method of claim 1, wherein the eliminating the unique word modulation comprises:
    multiplying I and Q components of the digitally sampled signal by the UW.
     
    11. A system, comprising:

    memory; and

    a receiver coupled to the memory, the receiver configured to:

    receive a modulated signal (1) comprising a framing property marked by a unique word comprising a predefined sequence of symbols;

    produce a digitally sampled signal (12) corresponding to the modulated signal, the digitally sampled signal having a sampling rate of Na Rs, wherein Rs is a symbol rate of the modulated signal and Na is a number of samples per symbol;

    determine (10) a frequency offset associated with the modulated signal and a location of the unique word within a frame of the modulated signal, wherein the determining is based on a search in a time-frequency search window and wherein the determining comprises:

    a.) eliminating a unique word modulation (11) from the digitally sampled signal (12) to produce a plurality of vectors each having L un-modulated samples at intervals of 1/Rs, wherein L is a length, in symbols, of the unique word;

    b.) counting the plurality of vectors using a first counter (23) and associating each of the plurality of vectors with a time index corresponding to a count value of the first counter;

    c.) summing groups of N adjacent samples within each of the plurality of vectors (14) to produce decimated vectors of L/N samples, wherein N is a positive integer;

    d.) padding the decimated vectors (15) with time-domain zeroes to produce padded vectors of P(L/N) samples, wherein P ≥ 1;

    e.) performing a Fourier Transform, FT, (16) on the padded vectors to produce transformed vectors;

    f.) counting FT samples of the transformed vectors using a second counter (22) and associating each of the FT samples with a frequency index corresponding to a count value of the second counter;

    g.) calculating at least one metric of magnitude (17) for each sample in the transformed vectors; and

    h.) storing the at least one metric of magnitude at a storage address in the memory (20), wherein the storage address is determined in accordance with the time index and the frequency index associated with a sample corresponding to the at least one metric of magnitude.


     
    12. The system of claim 11, wherein the receiver comprises:

    a demodulator (2) configured for demodulating the modulated signal and producing a complex baseband signal (3);

    an analog to digital converter (5) configured for converting the complex baseband signal to a digitally sampled complex signal at a sampling rate of fs;

    a re-sampler (6) configured for resampling the digitally sampled complex signal at a sampling rate of Ns Rs to produce a resampled complex signal, wherein Ns is a number of samples per symbol;

    a matched filter (7) configured for filtering the resampled complex signal to produce a matched filter output signal; and

    a decimator (9) configured for decimating the matched filter output signal to produce the digitally sampled signal having the sampling rate of Na Rs.


     
    13. The system of claim 11, wherein the receiver comprises:

    an Infinite Impulse Response, IIR, filter (18) configured for averaging metric of magnitude values using a leakage factor (33),

    wherein the receiver is further configured to store the averaged metric of magnitude values in the memory (20), wherein a storage address for each value of the averaged metric of magnitude values is determined in accordance with a time index and a frequency index associated with a sample corresponding to the value.


     
    14. The system of claim 11, wherein the receiver is configured to receive signals transmitted from a satellite.
     
    15. The system of claim 12,

    wherein the re-sampler, the matched filter, and the decimator are implemented using one or more Field Programmable Gate Array, FPGA, devices, and

    wherein the one or more FPGA devices are used for determining the frequency offset associated with the modulated signal and the location of the unique word within the frame of the modulated signal.


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren, aufweisend:

    Empfangen eines modulierten Signals, das eine Rahmenbildungs-Eigenschaft umfasst, die durch ein eindeutiges Wort (UW) markiert ist, das eine vordefinierte Abfolge von Symbolen umfasst;

    Erzeugen eines digital abgetasteten Signals, das dem modulierten Signal entspricht, wobei das digital abgetastete Signal eine Abtastrate von Na Rs hat, wobei Rs eine Symbolrate des modulierten Signals ist und Na eine Anzahl von Abtastungen pro Symbol ist;

    Bestimmen eines Frequenzversatzes, der dem modulierten Signal zugeordnet ist, und einer Anordnung des eindeutigen Worts innerhalb eines Rahmens des modulierten Signals, wobei das Bestimmen auf einer zweidimensionalen Suche in einer Zeit-Frequenz-Abbildung basiert und wobei das Bestimmen umfasst:

    a) Eliminieren einer auf einem eindeutigen Wort basierenden Modulation aus dem digital abgetasteten Signal zum Erzeugen einer Mehrzahl von Vektoren, die jeweils L unmodulierte Abtastungen in Intervallen von 1/Rs haben, wobei L eine Länge des eindeutigen Worts in Symbolen ist;

    b) Zählen der Mehrzahl von Vektoren unter der Verwendung eines ersten Zählers und Zuordnen eines jeden der Mehrzahl von Vektoren einem Zeitindex, der einem Zählwert des ersten Zählers entspricht;

    c) Summieren von Gruppen von N beieinanderliegenden Abtastungen innerhalb eines jeden der Mehrzahl von Vektoren zum Erzeugen dezimierter Vektoren von L/N Abtastungen, wobei N eine positive ganze Zahl ist;

    d) Auffüllen der dezimierten Vektoren mit Nullen im Zeitbereich zum Erzeugen aufgefüllter Vektoren von P(L/N) Abtastungen, wobei P ≥ 1 ist;

    e) Durchführen einer Fourier-Transformation, FT, an den aufgefüllten Vektoren zum Erzeugen transformierter Vektoren;

    f) Zählen von FT-Abtastungen der transformierten Vektoren unter der Verwendung eines zweiten Zählers und Zuordnen einer jeden der FT-Abtastungen einem Frequenzindex, der einem Zählwert des zweiten Zählers entspricht;

    g) Berechnen mindestens einer Größenmetrik für jede Abtastung in den transformierten Vektoren; und

    h) Speichern mindestens einer Größenmetrik an einer Speicheradresse in einem Speicher, wobei die Speicheradresse gemäß dem Zeitindex und dem Frequenzindex, die einer Abtastung zugeordnet sind, die der mindestens einen Größenmetrik entspricht, bestimmt wird.


     
    2. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei das Erzeugen des digital abgetasteten Signals umfasst:

    Demodulieren des modulierten Signals zum Erzeugen eines komplexen Basisbandsignals;

    Umwandeln des komplexen Basisbandsignals in ein digital abgetastetes komplexes Signal;

    Filtern des digital abgetasteten komplexen Signals unter der Verwendung eines angepassten Filters zum Erzeugen eines Ausgangssignals des angepassten Filters; und

    Dezimieren des Ausgangssignals des angepassten Filters zum Erzeugen des digital abgetasteten Signals, das die Abtastrate Na * Rs hat.


     
    3. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei das Berechnen der mindestens einen Größenmetrik umfasst: Mitteln von Ergebnissen, die UWFL Symbole voneinander entfernt sind, wobei UWFL ein Abstand in Symbolen zwischen benachbarten Instanzen des eindeutigen Worts ist, wobei die Mittelung durch Filtern der mindestens einen Größenmetrik unter der Verwendung eines Filters mit unendlicher Impulsantwort, IIR-Filters, durchgeführt wird und wobei das Filtern umfasst:

    Lesen eines zuvor gespeicherten Werts, H(n-1), aus der Speicheradresse des Speichers;

    Berechnen eines IIR-Filter-Ausgangswerts, H(n), gemäß dem folgenden Ausdruck: H(n) = K*X(n) + (1-K)*H(n-1), wobei K ein Leckagefaktor-Wert ist und X(n) einem Wert einer Abtastung entspricht, die am Eingang des IIR-Filters anliegt; und

    Speichern des berechneten IIR-Filter-Ausgangswerts, H(n), in dem Speicher an der Speicheradresse.


     
    4. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend: Bestimmen der Speicheradresse gemäß dem Zeitindex und dem Frequenzindex unter der Verwendung des Frequenzindexes zur Ausbildung eines ersten Teils von Bits der Speicheradresse und unter der Verwendung des Zeitindexes zur Ausbildung eines zweiten Teils von Bits der Speicheradresse.
     
    5. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend: Setzen von N gleich 1 zum Verringern der Auswirkungen des Summierens der Gruppen von N beieinanderliegenden Abtastungen.
     
    6. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend: Bestimmen von N gemäß einem Verhältnis zwischen einer maximalen Frequenzunsicherheit, ΔF, und der Symbolrate, Rs, des modulierten Signals.
     
    7. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend:

    Vorsehen von Werten, H, die im Speicher abgelegt sind, für eine Maximum-Suche parallel zum Ablegen der Werte in dem Speicher;

    Bestimmen eines Maximalwerts, MAX(H), der vorgesehenen Werte;

    Vergleichen des Maximalwerts mit einem Schwellenwert, Thr; und

    Bestimmen einer Synchronisierung auf das modulierte Signal, wenn der Maximalwert größer als der Schwellenwert, MAX(H) > Thr, ist, wobei das Bestimmen einer Synchronisation auf das modulierte Signal umfasst:

    Bestimmen eines ersten Maximalwerts aus einer Mehrzahl von Werten, die in dem Speicher abgelegt sind, wobei der erste Maximalwert einem ersten Zeitindex und einem ersten Frequenzindex entspricht;

    Bestimmen eines zweiten Maximalwerts aus der Mehrzahl von Werten, die in dem Speicher abgelegt sind, wobei der zweite Maximalwert einem zweiten Zeitindex und einem zweiten Frequenzindex entspricht, wobei der zweite Zeitindex nicht ein nächster Nachbar des ersten Zeitindexes ist und der zweite Frequenzindex nicht ein nächster Nachbar des ersten Frequenzindexes ist;

    Berechnen eines Verhältnisses zwischen dem ersten Maximalwert und dem zweiten Maximalwert;

    Vergleichen des berechneten Verhältnisses mit einem Schwellenwert; und

    Bestimmen der Synchronisation auf das modulierte Signal, wenn das Verhältnis den Schwellenwert übersteigt.


     
    8. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend:

    Vorsehen von Werten, H, die im Speicher abgelegt sind, für eine Maximum-Suche parallel zum Ablegen der Werte in dem Speicher;

    Bestimmen eines Maximalwerts, MAX(H), der vorgesehenen Werte;

    Vergleichen des Maximalwerts mit einem Schwellenwert, Thr;

    Bestimmen einer Synchronisierung auf das modulierte Signal, wenn der Maximalwert größer als der Schwellenwert, MAX(H) > Thr, ist;

    Bestimmen eines Maximalindexes, der dem bestimmten Maximalwert entspricht, wenn die Synchronisation bestimmt wurde;

    Bestimmen eines Frequenzversatzes des modulierten Signals unter der Verwendung eines ersten Teils des Maximalindexes; und

    Bestimmen einer Rahmen-Startzeitschätzung unter der Verwendung eines zweiten Teils des Maximalindexes, wobei die Rahmen-Startzeitschätzung zum Synchronisieren des ersten Zählers mit dem Rahmen-Timing verwendet wird.


     
    9. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei das Eliminieren der auf dem eindeutigen Wort basierenden Modulation umfasst:
    Rückwärtsrotieren des digital abgetasteten Signals.
     
    10. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei das Eliminieren der auf dem eindeutigen Wort basierenden Modulation umfasst:
    Multiplizieren von I- und Q-Komponenten des digital abgetasteten Signals mit dem eindeutigen Wort.
     
    11. System, umfassend:

    einen Speicher; und

    einen mit dem Speicher gekoppelten Empfänger, wobei der Empfänger dazu konfiguriert ist:
    ein moduliertes Signal (1) zu empfangen, das eine Rahmenbildungs-Eigenschaft umfasst, die von einem eindeutigen Wort (UW) markiert ist, das eine vordefinierte Abfolge von Symbolen umfasst:

    ein digital abgetastetes Signal (12) zu erzeugen, das dem modulierten Signal entspricht, wobei das digital abgetastete Signal eine Abtastrate von Na * Rs hat, wobei Rs eine Symbolrate des modulierten Signals ist und Na eine Anzahl von Abtastungen pro Symbol ist;

    einen Frequenzversatz, der dem modulierten Signal zugeordnet ist, und eine Anordnung des eindeutigen Worts innerhalb eines Rahmens des modulierten Signals zu bestimmen (10), wobei das Bestimmen auf einer Suche in einem Zeit-Frequenz-Suchfenster basiert und wobei das Bestimmen umfasst:

    a) Eliminieren einer auf dem eindeutigen Wort basierenden Modulation (11) aus dem digital abgetasteten Signal (12) zum Erzeugen einer Mehrzahl von Vektoren, die jeweils L unmodulierte Abtastungen in Intervallen von 1/Rs haben, wobei L eine Länge des eindeutigen Worts in Symbolen ist;

    b) Zählen der Mehrzahl von Vektoren unter der Verwendung eines ersten Zählers (23) und Zuordnen eines jeden der Mehrzahl von Vektoren einem Zeitindex, der einem Zählwert des ersten Zählers entspricht;

    c) Summieren von Gruppen von N beieinanderliegenden Abtastungen innerhalb eines jeden der Mehrzahl von Vektoren (14) zum Erzeugen dezimierter Vektoren von L/N Abtastungen, wobei N eine positive ganze Zahl ist;

    d) Auffüllen der dezimierten Vektoren (15) mit Nullen im Zeitbereich zum Erzeugen aufgefüllter Vektoren von P*(L/N) Abtastungen, wobei P ≥ 1 ist;

    e) Durchführen einer Fourier-Transformation, FT, (16) an den aufgefüllten Vektoren zum Erzeugen transformierter Vektoren;

    f) Zählen von FT-Abtastungen der transformierten Vektoren unter der Verwendung eines zweiten Zählers (22) und Zuordnen einer jeden der FT-Abtastungen einem Frequenzindex, der einem Zählwert des zweiten Zählers entspricht;

    g) Berechnen mindestens einer Größenmetrik (17) für jede Abtastung in den transformierten Vektoren; und

    h) Speichern mindestens einer Größenmetrik an einer Speicheradresse in dem Speicher (20), wobei die Speicheradresse gemäß dem Zeitindex und dem Frequenzindex, die einer Abtastung zugeordnet sind, die der mindestens einen Größenmetrik entspricht, bestimmt wird.


     
    12. System gemäß Anspruch 11, wobei der Empfänger umfasst:

    einen Demodulator (2), der zum Demodulieren des modulierten Signals und zum Erzeugen eines komplexen Basisbandsignals (3) konfiguriert ist;

    einen Analog-Digital-Wandler (5), der zum Wandeln des komplexen Basisbandsignals in ein digital abgetastetes Signal mit einer Abtastrate von fs konfiguriert ist;

    einen Resampler (6), der zum Resampeln des digital abgetasteten komplexen Signals mit einer Abtastrate von Ns * Rs zum Erzeugen eines resampelten komplexen Signals konfiguriert ist, wobei Ns eine Anzahl von Abtastungen pro Symbol ist;

    ein angepasstes Filter (7), das zum Filtern des resampelten komplexen Signals zum Erzeugen eines Ausgangssignals des angepassten Filters konfiguriert ist; und

    einen Dezimator (9), der zum Dezimieren des Ausgangssignals des angepassten Filters zum Erzeugen des digital abgetasteten Signals, das die Abtastrate von Na * Rs hat, konfiguriert ist.


     
    13. System gemäß Anspruch 11, wobei der Empfänger umfasst:

    ein Filter mit unendlicher Impulsantwort, IIR-Filter, (18), das zur Durchschnittsbildung von Größenmetrikwerten unter der Verwendung eines Leckagefaktors (33) konfiguriert ist,

    wobei der Empfänger ferner dazu konfiguriert ist, die gemittelten Größenmetrikwerte in dem Speicher (20) abzulegen, wobei eine Speicheradresse für jeden Wert der gemittelten Größenmetrikwerte gemäß einem Zeitindex und einem Frequenzindex bestimmt werden, die einer Abtastung zugeordnet sind, die dem Wert entspricht.


     
    14. System gemäß Anspruch 11, wobei der Empfänger dazu konfiguriert ist, von einem Satelliten übertragene Signale zu empfangen.
     
    15. System gemäß Anspruch 12,

    wobei der Resampler, das angepasste Filter und der Dezimator unter der Verwendung einer oder mehrerer FPGA-Vorrichtungen (Field Programmable Gate Array) implementiert sind, und

    wobei die eine oder die mehreren FPGA-Vorrichtungen dazu verwendet werden, den Frequenzversatz, der dem modulierten Signal zugeordnet ist, sowie die Anordnung des eindeutigen Worts innerhalb des Rahmens des modulierten Signals zu bestimmen.


     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé incluant :

    la réception d'un signal modulé comprenant une propriété de tramage marquée par un mot unique comprenant une séquence de symboles prédéfinie ;

    la production d'un signal échantillonné numériquement correspondant au signal modulé, le signal échantillonné numériquement ayant un taux d'échantillonnage de Na Rs, où Rs est un débit de symboles du signal modulé et Na est un nombre d'échantillons par symbole ;

    la détermination d'un décalage de fréquence associé au signal modulé et d'un emplacement du mot unique à l'intérieur d'une trame du signal modulé, où la détermination est basée sur une recherche bidimensionnelle dans une mappe temps-fréquence et où la détermination comprend :

    a.) l'élimination d'une modulation de mot unique du signal échantillonné numériquement pour produire une pluralité de vecteurs ayant chacun L échantillons non modulés à des intervalles de 1/Rs, où L est une longueur, en symboles, du mot unique ;

    b.) le comptage de la pluralité de vecteurs en utilisant un premier compteur et l'association de chacun de la pluralité de vecteurs à un indice de temps correspondant à une valeur de compte du premier compteur ;

    c.) la sommation de groupes de N échantillons adjacents à l'intérieur de chacun de la pluralité de vecteurs pour produire des vecteurs décimés de L/N échantillons, où N est un entier positif ;

    d.) le remplissage des vecteurs décimés avec des zéros de domaine temporel pour produire des vecteurs remplis de P(L/N) échantillons, où P ≥ 1 ;

    e.) la réalisation d'une Transformée de Fourier, FT, sur les vecteurs remplis pour produire des vecteurs transformés ;

    f.) le comptage d'échantillons FT des vecteurs transformés en utilisant un second compteur et l'association de chacun des échantillons FT à un indice de fréquence correspondant à une valeur de compte du second compteur ;

    g.) le calcul d'au moins une métrique de grandeur pour chaque échantillon dans les vecteurs transformés ; et

    h.) le stockage de l'au moins une métrique de grandeur au niveau d'une adresse de stockage dans une mémoire, où l'adresse de stockage est déterminée conformément à l'indice de temps et à l'indice de fréquence associés à un échantillon correspondant à l'au moins une métrique de grandeur.


     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la production du signal échantillonné numériquement comprend :

    la démodulation du signal modulé pour produire un signal de bande de base complexe ;

    la conversion du signal de bande de base complexe en un signal complexe échantillonné numériquement ;

    le filtrage du signal complexe échantillonné numériquement en utilisant un filtre adapté pour produire un signal de sortie de filtre adapté ; et

    la décimation du signal de sortie de filtre adapté pour produire le signal échantillonné numériquement ayant le taux d'échantillonnage de Na Rs.


     
    3. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le calcul de l'au moins une métrique de grandeur comprend le moyennage de résultats qui sont des symboles UWFL séparés, où UWFL est une distance, en symboles, entre des instances adjacentes du mot unique, où le moyennage est réalisé par l'intermédiaire du filtrage de l'au moins une métrique de grandeur en utilisant un filtre à Réponse Impulsionnelle Infinie, IIR, et où le filtrage comprend :

    la lecture d'une valeur stockée précédemment, H(n-1), à partir de l'adresse de stockage de la mémoire ;

    le calcul d'une valeur de sortie de filtre IIR, H(n), conformément à l'expression suivante : H(n) = K X(n) + (1-K) H(n-1), où K est une valeur de facteur de fuite et X(n) correspond à une valeur d'un échantillon présenté au niveau d'une entrée du filtre IIR ; et

    le stockage de la valeur de sortie de filtre IIR, H(n), calculée dans la mémoire au niveau de l'adresse de stockage.


     
    4. Procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre la détermination de l'adresse de stockage conformément à l'indice de temps et à l'indice de fréquence en utilisant l'indice de fréquence pour former une première partie de bits de l'adresse de stockage et en utilisant l'indice de temps pour former une seconde partie de bits de l'adresse de stockage.
     
    5. Procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre l'établissement de N égal à 1 pour réduire des effets de la sommation des groupes de N échantillons adjacents.
     
    6. Procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre la détermination de N conformément à un rapport entre une incertitude de fréquence maximale, ΔF, et le débit de symboles, Rs, du signal modulé.
     
    7. Procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre :

    la fourniture de valeurs, H, stockées dans une mémoire pour une recherche maximum en parallèle avec le stockage des valeurs dans la mémoire ;

    la détermination d'une valeur maximale, MAX(H), des valeurs fournies ;

    la comparaison de la valeur maximum avec un seuil, Thr ; et

    la détermination d'un verrou sur le signal modulé si la valeur maximum est supérieure au seuil, MAX(H) > Thr, où la détermination d'un verrou sur le signal modulé comprend :

    la détermination d'une première valeur maximum parmi une pluralité de valeurs stockées dans la mémoire, la première valeur maximum correspondant à un premier indice de temps et à un premier indice de fréquence ;

    la détermination d'une seconde valeur maximum parmi la pluralité de valeurs stockées dans la mémoire, la seconde valeur maximum correspondant à un second indice de temps et à un second indice de fréquence, où ledit second indice de temps n'est pas un voisin le plus proche du premier indice de temps et le second indice de fréquence n'est pas un voisin le plus proche du premier indice de fréquence ;

    le calcul d'un rapport entre la première valeur maximum et la seconde valeur maximum ;

    la comparaison du rapport calculé à un seuil ; et

    la détermination du verrou sur le signal modulé si le rapport dépasse le seuil.


     
    8. Procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre :

    la fourniture de valeurs, H, stockées dans une mémoire pour une recherche maximum en parallèle avec le stockage des valeurs dans la mémoire ;

    la détermination d'une valeur maximale, MAX(H), des valeurs fournies ;

    la comparaison de la valeur maximum avec un seuil, Thr ;

    la détermination d'un verrou sur le signal modulé si la valeur maximum est supérieure au seuil, MAX(H) > Thr ;

    la détermination d'un indice maximum correspondant à la valeur maximale déterminée lorsque le verrou est déterminé ;

    la détermination d'un décalage de fréquence du signal modulé en utilisant une première partie de l'indice maximum ; et

    la détermination d'une estimation de temps de début de trame en utilisant une seconde partie de l'indice maximum, où l'estimation de temps de début de trame est utilisée pour synchroniser le premier compteur avec un rythme de trame.


     
    9. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'élimination de la modulation de mot unique comprend :
    la rotation en arrière du signal échantillonné numériquement.
     
    10. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'élimination de la modulation de mot unique comprend :
    la multiplication des composantes I et Q du signal échantillonné numériquement par l'UW.
     
    11. Système, comprenant :

    une mémoire ; et

    un récepteur couplé à la mémoire, le récepteur configuré pour :

    recevoir un signal modulé (1) comprenant une propriété de tramage marquée par un mot unique comprenant une séquence de symboles prédéfinie ;

    produire un signal échantillonné numériquement (12) correspondant au signal modulé, le signal échantillonné numériquement ayant un taux d'échantillonnage de Na Rs, où Rs est un débit de symboles du signal modulé et Na est un nombre d'échantillons par symbole ;

    déterminer (10) un décalage de fréquence associé au signal modulé et un emplacement du mot unique à l'intérieur d'une trame du signal modulé, où la détermination est basée sur une recherche dans une fenêtre de recherche temps-fréquence et où la détermination comprend :

    a.) l'élimination d'une modulation de mot unique (11) du signal échantillonné numériquement (12) pour produire une pluralité de vecteurs ayant chacun L échantillons non modulés à des intervalles de 1/Rs, où L est une longueur, en symboles, du mot unique ;

    b.) le comptage de la pluralité de vecteurs en utilisant un premier compteur (23) et l'association de chacun de la pluralité de vecteurs à un indice de temps correspondant à une valeur de compte du premier compteur ;

    c.) la sommation de groupes de N échantillons adjacents à l'intérieur de chacun de la pluralité de vecteurs (14) pour produire des vecteurs décimés de L/N échantillons, où N est un entier positif ;

    d.) le remplissage des vecteurs décimés (15) avec des zéros de domaine temporel pour produire des vecteurs remplis de P(L/N) échantillons, où P ≥ 1 ;

    e.) la réalisation d'une Transformée de Fourier, FT, (16) sur les vecteurs remplis pour produire des vecteurs transformés ;

    f.) le comptage d'échantillons FT des vecteurs transformés en utilisant un second compteur (22) et l'association de chacun des échantillons FT à un indice de fréquence correspondant à une valeur de compte du second compteur ;

    g.) le calcul d'au moins une métrique de grandeur (17) pour chaque échantillon dans les vecteurs transformés ; et

    h.) le stockage de l'au moins une métrique de grandeur au niveau d'une adresse de stockage dans la mémoire (20), où l'adresse de stockage est déterminée conformément à l'indice de temps et à l'indice de fréquence associés à un échantillon correspondant à l'au moins une métrique de grandeur.


     
    12. Système selon la revendication 11, dans lequel le récepteur comprend :

    un démodulateur (2) configuré pour démoduler le signal modulé et produire un signal de bande de base complexe (3) ;

    un convertisseur analogique-numérique (5) configuré pour convertir le signal de bande de base complexe en un signal complexe échantillonné numériquement à un taux d'échantillonnage de fs ;

    un ré-échantillonneur (6) configuré pour rééchantillonner le signal complexe échantillonné numériquement à un taux d'échantillonnage de Ns Rs pour produire un signal complexe rééchantillonné, où Ns est un nombre d'échantillons par symbole ;

    un filtre adapté (7) configuré pour filtrer le signal complexe rééchantillonné pour produire un signal de sortie de filtre adapté ; et

    un décimateur (9) configuré pour décimer le signal de sortie de filtre adapté pour produire le signal échantillonné numériquement ayant le taux d'échantillonnage de Na Rs.


     
    13. Système selon la revendication 11, dans lequel le récepteur comprend :

    un filtre à Réponse Impulsionnelle Infinie, IIR, (18) configuré pour moyenner des valeurs de métrique de grandeur en utilisant un facteur de fuite (33),

    dans lequel le récepteur est en outre configuré pour stocker les valeurs de métrique de grandeur moyennées dans la mémoire (20), où une adresse de stockage pour chaque valeur des valeurs de métrique de grandeur moyennées est déterminée conformément à un indice de temps et à un indice de fréquence associés à un échantillon correspondant à la valeur.


     
    14. Système selon la revendication 11, dans lequel le récepteur est configuré pour recevoir des signaux transmis depuis un satellite.
     
    15. Système selon la revendication 12,
    dans lequel le ré-échantillonneur, le filtre adapté, et le décimateur sont mis en œuvre en utilisant un ou plusieurs dispositifs de Réseau Prédiffusé Programmable par l'Utilisateur, FPGA, et
    dans lequel les un ou plusieurs dispositifs FPGA sont utilisés pour déterminer le décalage de fréquence associé au signal modulé et l'emplacement du mot unique à l'intérieur de la trame du signal modulé.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description