(19)
(11)EP 2 628 023 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
04.12.2019 Bulletin 2019/49

(21)Application number: 11833508.2

(22)Date of filing:  14.10.2011
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G01V 1/00  (2006.01)
G01V 1/36  (2006.01)
G01V 1/047  (2006.01)
G01V 1/28  (2006.01)
G01V 1/37  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2011/056409
(87)International publication number:
WO 2012/051561 (19.04.2012 Gazette  2012/16)

(54)

SEISMIC DATA FILTERING BASED ON VIBRATOR-COUPLED GROUND MODEL

FILTERUNG SEISMISCHER DATEN AUF BASIS EINES MIT EINEM VIBRATOR GEKOPPELTEN BODENMODELLS

FILTRAGE DE DONNÉES SISMIQUES BASÉ SUR UN MODÈLE TERRESTRE COUPLÉ À UN VIBRATEUR


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 14.10.2010 US 393106 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
21.08.2013 Bulletin 2013/34

(73)Proprietor: INOVA Ltd.
George Town (KY)

(72)Inventors:
  • WEI, Zhouhong
    Stafford, TX 77477 (US)
  • PHILLIPS, Thomas
    Stafford, TX 77477 (US)

(74)Representative: Dehns 
St. Bride's House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
GB-A- 2 190 746
US-A1- 2005 267 695
US-A1- 2007 230 268
US-A- 6 161 076
US-A1- 2007 133 354
US-A1- 2009 210 158
  
  • Z Wei: "Estimation of Ground Stiffness, Ground Viscosity and Captured Ground Mass Using Vibrator Field Measurements", 70th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, 12 June 2008 (2008-06-12), pages 1-6, XP055289550, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:www.earthdoc.org/publication/download/ ?publication=10099 [retrieved on 2016-07-19]
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS



[0001] This is a non-provisional of U.S. Pat. Appl. No. 61/393,106, filed 14-OCT-2010, to which priority is claimed.

BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE



[0002] The oil and gas exploration industry employ geophysical tools and techniques to identify a subterranean structure having potential hydrocarbon deposits. Commonly referred to as seismic exploration, these techniques and tools generate an image of subsurface structures by recording energy in the form of vibrations reflected or refracted from geologic formations. In seismic exploration, for example, seismic waves generated by a source and imparted into the ground reflect off rocks in the subsurface. Boundaries between different rocks often reflect seismic waves, and information relating to these waves is collected and processed to generate a representation or images of the subsurface.

[0003] When seismic waves generated by the source reach a bedding plane separating rocks of different acoustic density, then a portion of the waves reflects back to the surface, causing the ground surface to rise or fall depending on whether the expansion or compression phase of the wave is being recorded. The remaining portion of the waves is refracted and diffracted. A two-dimensional image, which is called a seismic line, is essentially a cross-sectional view of the earth oriented parallel to the line of geophones. The information may also be collected as an intersecting grid of seismic lines referred to as a 3-D seismic volume.

[0004] Any number of exploration systems can gather the desired information for processing. Dynamite explosions, vibrator trucks, air guns or the like can create the seismic waves. Sensors such as velocity geophones, accelerometers, and/or hydrophones can be laid out in lines, or towed in the case of hydrophones, to measure how long it takes the waves to leave the seismic source, reflect off a rock boundary, and return to the sensors used.

[0005] Exemplary systems are described in US 6161076, GB 2190746 Z Wei: "Estimation of Ground Stiffness, Ground Viscosity and Captured Ground Mass using Vibrator Field Measurements", XP055289550, US 2009/210158, US 2007/230268, US 2005/267695 and US 2007/133354. An example seismic system 10 in Figure 1 can generate geophysical information to image earth subsurface structures. The system 10 has a central controller/recorder 90 in communication with a seismic acquisition array 12 known as a spread. The array 12 has spaced sensor stations 20, which can each have one or more sensors 22. The sensors 22 measure geophysical information and can include 3-component sensors for obtaining 3-dimensional energy known as 3D seismic. The sensors 22 can include accelerometers, velocity geophones, microphones, or the like, and the array 12 can be deployed on land or a seabed location.

[0006] A seismic source 30 imparts acoustic energy into the ground, and the sensors 22 receive energy after reflection and refraction at boundaries in subsurface structures. The array 12 then communicates sensor data with the central controller or recorder 90 using wireless technology or other communication technique.

[0007] To impart the acoustic energy, the seismic source 30 can be a vibrator, such as shown in Figure 2, although other types of sources can be used. The vibrator 30 transmits force to the ground using a baseplate 70 and a reaction mass 50. As is typical for land seismic, the vibrator 30 is mounted on a carrier vehicle (not shown) that uses bars 32/34 to lower the vibrator 30 to the ground. With the vibrator 30 lowered, the weight of the vehicle holds the baseplate 70 engaged with the ground so seismic source signals can be transmitted into the earth.

[0008] The reaction mass 50 positions directly above baseplate 70 and stilts 52 extend from the baseplate 70 and through the mass 50 to stabilize it. Internally, the reaction mass 50 has a cylinder 56 formed therein. A vertically extending piston 60 extends through this cylinder 56, and a head 62 on the piston 60 divides the cylinder 56 into chambers. The ends of the piston 60 connect to cross-pieces 54U-L that connect to the stilts 52.

[0009] Feet 36 with isolators 40 isolate the baseplate 70 from the bars 34, and tension members 42 interconnect between the feet 36 and the baseplate 70. The tension members 42 hold the baseplate 70 when the vibrator 30 is raised and lowered to the ground. Finally, shock absorbers 44 are also mounted between the bottom of the feet 36 and the baseplate 70 to isolate vibrations therebetween.

[0010] During operation, a controller 80 receives signals from a first sensor 85 that measures acceleration of the baseplate 70 and receives signals from a second sensor 87 that measure acceleration of the reaction mass 50. Based on feedback from these sensors 85/87 and a desired sweep signal for operating the vibrator 30, the controller 80 generates a pilot signal to control a servo valve assembly 82. Driven by the drive signal, the servo valve assembly 82 alternatingly routes hydraulic fluid between a hydraulic fluid supply 84 and the piston 60. The reaction mass 50 reciprocally vibrates on the piston 60. In turn, the force generated by the vibrating mass 50 transfers to the baseplate 70 via the stilts 52 and the piston 60 so that the baseplate 70 vibrates at a desired amplitude and frequency or sweep to generate a seismic source signal into the ground.

[0011] As the moving reaction mass 50 acts upon the baseplate 70 to impart a seismic source signal into the earth, the signal travels through the ground, reflects at discontinuities and formations, and then travels toward the earth's surface. At the surface, the array 12 of Figure 1 having the geophone receivers or other sensors 22 coupled to the ground detect the reflected signals, and the recorder 90 of Figure 1 records the seismic data 92 received from the geophone receivers 22.

[0012] At some point, a data processing system 98 receives the seismic data 92 from the seismic recorder 90. (The seismic data 92 can also include recorded data from the seismic vibrator 30 if information such as pilot signal, acceleration data, and weighted sum ground force are stored separately.) The data processing system 98 can use a correlation processor to correlate the computed ground force supplied by the vibrator 30 to the seismic data 92 received by the geophone receivers 22. Ultimately, the correlated information can be used to create an image or representation of the earth's subsurface structures.

[0013] When operating such a prior art vibrator 30, operators experience problems in accurately determining the ground force that the vibrator 30 is applying to the ground and in accurately correlating the vibrator's operation with the generated source signal. Ideally, operators would like to know the actual ground force applied by the baseplate 70 to the ground when imparting the seismic energy. As shown in Figure 2, a local sensor 85 (e.g., accelerometer or geophone) is typically positioned on the upper cross piece 54U of the vibrator 50, which positions above the reaction mass 50.

[0014] In operation, the controller 80 shown in Figure 2 measures the signal imparted into the ground using the local sensor 85 located on the upper cross-piece 54U and using the sensor 87 located on the reaction mass 50. When the data processing system 98 of Figure 1 receives the seismic data 92 making up the seismic spread, it also receives the acceleration signals from these sensors 85/87 on the source 30. The system 98's correlation processor then uses various algorithms to distinguish wave signal data from distortions and other spurious signals.

[0015] A problem with this method is that original source signal distortion may vary and make correlation difficult. When calculated ground force signals at the vibrator 30 are cross-correlated with far-field signals measured in the field, the results may be corrupted by unrealistic assumptions used in modeling the system 10. In particular, the vibrator 30 works on the surface of the ground, which can vary dramatically from location to location due to the presence of sand, rock, vegetation, etc. Thus, the baseplate 70 is often not evenly supported when deployed against the ground at a given location. In addition, the baseplate 70 will flex and directly affect the control system during operation. As a result, the radiated energy produced can vary from location to location depending on where the vibrator 30 is deployed. Therefore, the vibrator's source signature is not the same (or nearly the same) from location to location and is not characteristically repeatable, which is desirable when performing seismic analysis. Thus, a more accurate knowledge of the source signal imparted into the ground by the source 30 can make the correlation easier at the data processing stage.

[0016] The subject matter of the present disclosure is directed to overcoming, or at least reducing the effects of, one or more of the problems set forth above.

SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE



[0017] A vibrator-coupled ground filter improves seismic data recorded during a seismic operation. This filter is based on a ground model that takes into consideration the vibrator system, the coupling system between the baseplate and captured ground, and the coupled ground system. Using acceleration data from the baseplate and the reaction mass, the ground model can be used to derive particular variables for the ground model to help characterize the system. Using the derived variables in the ground filter, the recorded seismic data can be corrected to remove errors in the trace data produced by typical assumptions.

[0018] According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a seismic data processing method as claimed in claim 1.

[0019] According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a seismic data processing apparatus as claimed in claim 14.

[0020] The foregoing summary is not intended to summarize each potential embodiment or every aspect of the present disclosure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0021] 

Fig. 1 illustrates a seismic system for generating geophysical information according to the prior art.

Fig. 2 schematically illustrates a prior art vibrator.

Fig. 3 illustrates a seismic system for generating geophysical information according to the present disclosure.

Fig. 4 schematically illustrates a vibrator-coupled ground model according to the present disclosure.

Fig. 5 schematically illustrates a vibrator-coupled ground filter according to the present disclosure.

Fig. 6A graphs a theoretical frequency response of reaction mass acceleration and baseplate acceleration where reaction mass acceleration is the input and baseplate acceleration is the output.

Fig. 6B graphs a frequency response of reaction mass acceleration and baseplate acceleration using data recorded on a standard vibrator, where the reaction mass acceleration is input and the baseplate acceleration is output.

Fig. 7 shows a process for deriving the vibrator-coupled ground filter of the present disclosure.

Fig. 8 shows a process for using the vibrator-coupled ground filter of the present disclosure.

Fig. 9 graphs power spectra of downhole geophones at different depths and with the filtered weighted-sum ground force.

Fig. 10 graphs wavelets produced by a pilot sweep cross-correlated with 1000-ft (304.8 m) geophone data and with the vibrator-coupled ground model data, respectively.

Fig. 11A graphs a cross-correlation of the derivative of the pilot sweep with the 1000-ft downhole geophone data and a cross-correlation of the filtered pilot sweep with the 1000-ft downhole geophone data using standard vibrator modeling.

Fig. 11B graphs a cross-correlation of the derivative of the pilot sweep with the 1000-ft downhole geophone data and a cross-correlation of the filtered pilot sweep with the 1000-ft downhole geophone data using modified vibrator modeling.

Fig. 12A graphs a cross-correlation of the derivative of the weighted-sum ground force with the 1000-ft downhole geophone data and a cross-correlation of the filtered weighted-sum ground force with the 1000-ft downhole geophone data using he standard vibrator modeling.

Fig. 12B graphs a cross-correlation of the derivative of the weighted-sum ground force with the 1000-ft downhole geophone data and a cross-correlation of the filtered weighted-sum ground force with the 1000-ft downhole geophone data using modified vibrator modeling.

Fig. 13 graphs a comparison in amplitude spectra of a surface geophone and the velocity computed from baseplate accelerometer data.

Fig. 14 shows a geophysical information processing system that can be used in accordance with the present disclosure.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCLOSURE


A. Seismic System



[0022] An example seismic system 10 in Figure 3 can generate geophysical information to image earth subsurface structures. The system 10 has a central controller/recorder 90 in communication with a seismic acquisition array 12 known as a spread. As before, the array 12 has spaced sensor stations 20, which can each have one or more sensors 22. The sensors 22 measure geophysical information and can include 3-component sensors for obtaining 3-dimensional energy known as 3D seismic. The sensors 22 can include accelerometers, velocity geophones, microphones, or the like, and the array 12 can be deployed on land or a seabed location.

[0023] As before, a seismic source 30 imparts acoustic energy into the ground, and the sensors 22 receive energy after reflection and refraction at boundaries in earth subsurface structures. The seismic source 30 can be similar to the vibrator disclosed previously with reference to Figures 2. For the benefit of the present discussion, reference is made to the components of the vibrator 30 of Figure 2, including a reaction mass 50, a baseplate 70, and a controller 80 as diagramed in Figure 3. However, the seismic source 30 according to the present disclosure need not necessarily be a hydraulically operated vibrator. Instead, the seismic source 30 can be a seismic vibrator have an electric motor, can have an internal or external drive, and can generate seismic shear waves (S-waves) or seismic compression waves (P-waves). In general, the vibrator 30 can be any type of vibrator having a controller 80 and having a reaction mass 50 and a baseplate 70 for imparting energy into the ground.

[0024] As before, the moving reaction mass 50 acts upon the baseplate 70 of the vibrator 30 to impart seismic source signals into the ground. The signals travel through the ground, reflect at discontinuities and formations, and then travel toward the earth's surface. At the surface, the array 12 having the geophone receivers 22 coupled to the earth detects the reflected signals, and the array 12 communicates seismic data with the central controller or recorder 90 using wireless technology or other communication technique.

[0025] The recorder 90 records the seismic data 92 from the geophone receivers 22. At some point, a data processing system 98 is employed to process the seismic data 92. (The seismic data 92 can also include recorded data from the seismic vibrator 30 if information such as pilot signal, acceleration data, and weighted sum ground force are stored separately.) To improve the subsequent imaging produced by the data processing system 98, a vibrator-coupled ground filter system 94 according to the present disclosure is used to refine or improve the original seismic data 92 so that the improved data 96 can be provided to the data processing system 98. When this is done, the data processing system 98 can use its correlation processor (not shown) to correlate a computed ground force from the information supplied by the vibrator 30 to the seismic data 96 and can ultimately provide more clear data for seismic imaging.

[0026] As noted previously, the vibrator's controller 80 measures the acceleration data from local sensors. Part of the seismic data 92 received at the recorder 90 includes the acceleration data for both the baseplate 70 and reaction mass 50 of the vibrator 30 from such local sensors. The dynamic motions related to the coupling conditions of the vibrator 30 are recorded and embedded in the baseplate acceleration data. In addition, the motion of the vibrator's actuator (e.g., hydraulic system) is recorded and embedded in the reaction mass acceleration data. These measurements are recorded during data acquisition using the recorder 90 and are used by the filter system 94 to process the data. In particular, the ground filter system 94 uses this acceleration data and a model of the coupling between the vibrator 30 and the ground to filter or correct the seismic data 92 before processing with the data processing system 98.

[0027] Before turning to particular details of the filter system 94, discussion first focuses on a vibrator-coupled ground model used for the filter system 94.

B. Vibrator-Coupled Ground Model



[0028] As noted above, the vibrator 30 works on the earth surface where the surface medium can change dramatically from location to location. When the vibrator's baseplate 70 is coupled with the ground by applying the hold-down weight force to the baseplate 70, the baseplate 70 and the coupled ground join together and become one system. Due to the low rigidity of the baseplate 70 and variant surface conditions, the vibrator-coupled ground model can be a complex system.

[0029] Figure 4 diagrammatically depicts a vibrator-coupled ground model 100 according to the present disclosure. In addition to the vibrator system 30, the ground model 100 has three subsystems, which include a coupling system 110, an inhomogeneous and elastic coupled ground system 120, and a homogenous elastic deep ground 130. These subsystems express the complicated transmission of the Vibroseis wavelet from the vibrator system (30) to the ground (130).

[0030] The vibrator-coupled ground model 100 expresses the rigidity of the baseplate 70 as part of non-ideal contact stiffness present at the boundary interaction of the baseplate 70 and the ground. This model 100 can serve as a more realistic representation of the vibrator-ground interaction and can describe a wide range of non-linear contact behavior (such as a partial contact and a full contact).

[0031] In Figure 4, the ground system 120 is described as a linear second-order system that consists of a ground mass Mg, a ground stiffness Kg, and a ground viscosity Dg. The vibrator system 30 is also treated as a linear and rigid body. In this model 100, the baseplate 70 is only considered to have a mass MBP and its stiffness is distributed to become a part of the contact stiffness. Therefore, the contact stiffness in this model 100 is located in between the vibrator baseplate 70 and the ground. The contact stiffness here is defined as a group of "springs" (kc1, kc2, etc.) connecting the vibrator baseplate 70 and the ground 130, and the value depends on the number of "springs" (kc1, kc2, etc.) that physically connect the baseplate 70 and the ground during vibrator operation. Therefore, the contact stiffness is a variable stiffness.

[0032] As is known, partial decoupling often occurs as the vibrator 30 shakes at high frequencies due to the low rigidity of the vibrator baseplate 70. Such decoupling becomes even worse on uneven ground. When the vibrator 30 is in a compressing mode, there are more contact areas between the vibrator baseplate 70 and the ground. More contact areas mean more "springs" and more stiffness in the model 100.

[0033] As the vibrator 30 goes to a releasing mode, however, partial decoupling may happen. This means that the baseplate 70 loses some contact with the ground so that the contact stiffness is reduced. The contact stiffness is reduced halfway through the compression cycle until halfway through the release cycle, and its value decreases as the sweep frequency increases. When the vibrator 30 is located on uneven ground, the vibrator baseplate 70 is subject to many motions such as bending, flexing, and twisting so that the contact stiffness becomes more unpredictable, and harmonic distortion becomes more severe.

[0034] In the model 100 of Figure 4, the coupling system 110 attempts to describe the coupling conditions at the interface between the baseplate 70 and the coupled ground system 120. The coupling system 110 can be modeled by a group of springs kc1, kc2,...,kcn and a damper Dc. In this system 120, the springs kc1, kc2,..., kcn connect the vibrator's baseplate 70 and the coupled ground system 120 and are used to represent the variant contact stiffness in between the baseplate 70 and the coupled ground system 120 during operation of the vibrator 30. Notably, the baseplate's stiffness is separated as a number of small local stiffness coefficients distributed to join with these springs kc1, kc2,...,kcn depending on the contact area between the baseplate 70 and the coupled ground. The damper Dc represents the viscosity of the surface medium (e.g., thin layer of vegetation or grass on the ground).

[0035] For its part, the coupled ground system 120 in Figure 4 is described as an inhomogeneous and elastic system and can be represented by a mass-spring-damper model. This system 120 is inhomogeneous because the values of the captured ground mass Mg, the ground stiffness Kg, and the ground viscosity Dg vary from location to location. When loaded to the vibrator's baseplate 70 during vibration, this system 120 (and especially the captured ground mass Mg) joins with the baseplate 70 and becomes a part of the vibration source.

[0036] At each vibrator shaking spot, the vibrator's baseplate 70 feels this coupled ground system 120, and the motion of this system 120 is embedded and detected in the baseplate acceleration data being recorded, as noted previously. The three parameters Mg, Kg, and Dg of this ground coupled system 120 can be estimated using vibrator field measurements as described in more detail later. Fortunately, this system 120 can be treated as an elastic linear system because the total effect of its nonlinearities may be small and may be ignored, especially when compared to the nonlinearities existing in the vibrator hydraulic system and the nonlinearities due to low rigidity of the baseplate 70.

[0037] The deep ground body 130 in Figure 4 is described as a homogeneous and elastic system. In this deep ground body 130, the traveled wavelet remains practically invariant. In particular, experimental testing can show that far-field wavelets remain invariant in deep ground and that the deep ground can be treated homogenously and elastically.

[0038] All of the systems 30, 110, 120 combined together make up the vibrator-coupled ground model 100. Additional details of the ground model 100 can be found in Zhouhong Wei, "Modeling and modal analysis of seismic vibrator baseplate," Geophysical Prospecting, 58, 19-31 (2010).

C. Vibrator-Coupled Ground Filter



[0039] Given the vibrator-coupled ground model 100 of Figure 4, the block diagram of Figure 5 shows particular details to be quantified in the vibrator-coupled ground model 100 for creating a vibrator-coupled ground filter 150 for use in the purposes disclosed herein. Essentially, the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150 of Figure 5 contains the vibrator's baseplate system 105, the coupling system 110, and the inhomogeneous elastic coupled ground system 120 expressed in formulas. This vibrator-coupled ground filter 150 is minimum phase.

[0040] In the ground filter 150, the vibrator's baseplate system 105 can be represented by the following transfer function:



[0041] In this baseplate system 105, Mbp is the mass of the vibrator baseplate (70), Dc is the contact viscosity of the coupling system 110, and Kc is the contact stiffness of the coupling system 110, which consists of many small springs.

[0042] For its part, the coupling system 110 in the ground filter 150 can be represented by the following transfer function:



[0043] Finally, the coupled ground system 120 in the ground filter 150 can be represented by the following transfer function:



[0044] In the coupled ground system 120, Mg is the mass of the captured ground mass, Dg is the contact viscosity, and Kg is the contact stiffness for the captured ground.

[0045] Thus, the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150 is based on the transfer functions of these systems G1(s), G2(s), and G3(s), as well as the variables for Mbp, Dc, Kc, Mg, Dg, Kg, etc.

[0046] Input 102 to the ground filter 150 includes either a pilot sweep (Tref) or a weighted-sum ground force (Ws-gf), which are supplied by the vibrator (30). The weighted-sum ground force (Ws-gf) is characterized by the equation:



[0047] Therefore, the weighted-sum ground force (Ws-gf) is determined by the masses Mrm and Mbp of the reaction mass (50) and baseplate (70), which are known, and the acceleration data Accrm and Accbp of the reaction mass (50) and baseplate (70) recorded at the vibrator (30).

[0048] Output 104 of the ground filter 150 includes a filtered pilot signal (filtered Tref) or a filtered weighted-sum ground force (filtered Ws-gf). This output 104 is used by the ground filter system (94) of Figure 3 to filter the seismic data (92) of the recorder (90) before processing by the data processing system (98) so that the seismic data is processed with the more accurate vibrator-captured ground model 100 of the present disclosure. In turn, for example, the filtered weighted-sum ground force (filtered Ws-gf) can give better cross-correlated results between the vibrator's seismic energy and the seismic sensor responses and can reduce noise.

[0049] As discussed earlier, the dynamic motions related to the coupling condition and the inhomogeneous and elastic coupled ground system 120 are recorded and embedded in the baseplate acceleration data Accbp supplied by the vibrator (30) to the recorder (90). In addition, the motion of the vibrator's actuator (e.g., hydraulic system) is recorded and embedded in the reaction mass acceleration data Accrm supplied by the vibrator (30) to the recorder (90). As noted above, the vibrator measurements Accbp and Accrm are often recorded during data acquisition as the weighted-sum ground force (Ws-gf) using the recorder (90). To obtain the required variables for the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150, the dynamic motions of the coupling system 110 and the coupled ground system 120 are extracted from the baseplate and reaction mass acceleration data Accbp and Accrm as described below.

D. Derivation of Filter Values



[0050] Figure 6A shows an example frequency response for a vibrator. In this frequency response, the reaction mass acceleration AccRM is used as an input signal, and baseplate acceleration AccBP is used as output responding to the input signal based on the ground model's transfer functions described previously. Thus, the frequency response in Figure 6A is based on the following:



[0051] In other words, the frequency response of the vibrator is analyzed with the reaction mass acceleration data as input and with the baseplate acceleration as output. The inverse could also be done so that a frequency response can be analyzed with the baseplate acceleration data as input and with the reaction mass acceleration as output. Although the frequency responses would appear different, it is understood that the frequency response analysis can generally relate the reaction mass acceleration data and the baseplate acceleration data as input and output relative to one another.

[0052] The magnitude plot 200A shows the magnitude ratio (dB) of AccBP to AccRM relative to frequency, and the phase plot 250A shows the phase (degrees) relative to frequency. As shown in the magnitude plot 200A, the magnitude ratio increases at a sloped section 202 of about 40dB/dec as frequency increases. The magnitude ratio then reaches a turning point 204 at a resonant frequency between the baseplate (70) and the ground. Beyond this turning point 204, the magnitude ratio flattens out to a sloped section 206 of 0dB/dec. The phase in the phase plot 250A shifts from 0 degrees to -180 degrees. At the resonant frequency 254, the phase is expected to be -90 degrees.

[0053] In the frequency response, the turning point 204 is defined by the values of Mg, Kg, and Dg in the coupled ground system (120; Figs. 3-4). The subsequent plateau section 206 is defined by the values of kc1, kc2, Dc1, and Dc2 of the coupling system (110; Figs. 3-4). Knowing this theoretical nature of the frequency response having reaction mass acceleration AccRM as input and baseplate acceleration AccBP as output, an actual measured frequency response from measured data can be compared to the disclosed ground model 100 to derive values for Mg, Kg, Dg, kc1-2, Dc1-2 for the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150.

[0054] To that end, Figure 6B shows a measured frequency response using example vibrator measurement data 214 compared to model data 212 using the disclosed ground model 100. In these frequency responses, reaction mass acceleration data Accrm is again used as an input signal, and baseplate acceleration data Accbp is used as output responding to the input signal.

[0055] For the measured frequency response curves 214/254, the baseplate and reaction mass accelerations Accbp and Accrm have been measured and recorded on a standard vibrator (30) using a recorder (90). The measured frequency response curves 214/254 in Figure 6B are then compared to model frequency response curves 212/252 generated by the model data using the disclosed ground model 100.

[0056] The values for the variables (Mg, Kg, Dg) in the ground model filter 150 are then obtained by successively modeling the measured frequency response seen in the measured data 214. In the magnitude plot 200B, the magnitude ratio spectra of the measured and model data curves 212/214 are shown. In the phase plot 250B, the corresponding phase spectra curves 262/264 are shown. The plots 200B/250B show that the model data curves 212/262 track the measured curves 214/264. Based on this, it can be seen that the main dynamic motions have been captured by the disclosed ground model 100, although some discrepancies are visible in these plots.

[0057] In both magnitude-ratio and phase spectra plots 200B/250B, first regions 204/254 show the main resonance produced by the baseplate (30) and the coupled ground system 110, which corresponds to flexure of the baseplate (30). In both magnitude-ratio and phase spectra plots 200B/250B, the second regions 206/256 illustrate the dynamic modes resulting from the coupling system 110.

[0058] Based on this understanding of the frequency responses, values for the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150 can be derived. Figure 7 shows a process 300 for deriving the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150 of the present disclosure.

[0059] Initially, recorded data from a survey is obtained (Block 302). As noted above, this data includes the seismic signals obtained with the sensors (22) in the array (12) as in Figure 3. Likewise, this data includes the pilot signal (Tref) and the weighted-sum ground force (Ws-gf), which includes the reaction mass and baseplate accelerations Accbp and Accrm.

[0060] The acceleration data Accbp and Accrm for the reaction mass (50) and baseplate (70) are input into the transfer functions of the systems (i.e., G1(s), G2(s), and G3(s)) in the ground force model 100 (Block 304). (As noted previously, the dynamic motions related to the coupling conditions are recorded and embedded in the baseplate acceleration data AccBP. In addition, the motion of the vibrator's actuator system is recorded and embedded in the reaction mass acceleration data AccRM.)

[0061] Useful information for the variables of the ground model 100 is then obtained from knowledge of the frequency response (as in Figures 6A-6B) and the transfer functions G1(s), G2(s), and G3(s) for the system 100. In particular, variables that describe the captured ground force system 120 are extracted from the transfer functions G1(s), G2(s), and G3(s) (Block 306). These variables include Mg, Kg, and Dg. For a given vibrator, the values for these variables are generally known and would be expected to lie within some target range. Yet, given the dynamic nature of the vibrator's operation, the values vary dynamically. Using the transfer functions G1(s), G2(s), and G3(s) and numerical analysis, the appropriate values for the variables Mg, Kg, and Dg can be derived. In particular, these variables Mg, Kg, and Dg govern the first turning point 204/254 in the frequency response of Figure 6B. Using polynomial fitting, the values for these variables Mg, Kg, and Dg can then be derived from the first region of the frequency response.

[0062] Additionally, variables that describe the coupling system 110 are extracted from the transfer functions of the system (Block 308). These variables include kc1-2 and Dc1-2. For a given vibrator, the values for these variables kc1-2 and Dc1-2 are generally known and would be expected to lie within some target range. Yet, given the dynamic nature of the vibrator's operation, the values vary dynamically. Using the transfer functions G1(s), G2(s), and G3(s) and numerical analysis, the appropriate values for the variables kc1-2 and Dc1-2 can be derived. In particular, these variables kc1-2 and Dc1-2 govern the second region 206/256 in the frequency response of Figure 6B past the turning point 204/254. Using polynomial fitting, the values for these variables kc1-2 and Dc1-2 can then be derived from the second region of the frequency response for the ground model 100.

[0063] At this point, the derived values for the variables Mg, Kg, Dg, kc1-2, and Dc1-2 as well as the mass of the baseplate MBP are input into transform functions to convert the transfer functions G1(s), G2(s), and G3(s) into the frequency domain. Using standard mathematical techniques, the ground model with extracted variables is then converted into the frequency domain (Block 310) so the desired vibrator-coupled ground model filter 150 can be calculated (Block 312).

E. Data Processing Using Filter



[0064] Figure 8 shows a process 350 for using the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150 of the present disclosure. As is typically, the array (12) and recorder (90) of Figure 3 obtain recorded data from a survey as discussed previously (Block 352). At some point, the seismic data (92) is to be handled by the data processing system (98). To improve the subsequent imaging produced by the data processing system (98), the system filters the original seismic data (92) with the ground filter system (94) using the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150 of the present disclosure (Block 354).

[0065] The improved data (96) can then be provided to the data processing system (98). In turn, the data processing system (98) can use its correlation processor to cross-correlate survey data using the filtered pilot reference signal (filtered Tref) or filtered weighted sum ground force (filtered Ws-gf) (Block 356). The system (98) can then output the cross-correlated results, which can then be used for imaging purposes (Block 358).

F. Analyses and results



[0066] As depicted in Figure 5, when the input 102 (either the pilot sweep Tref or the weighted-sum ground force Ws-gf) is injected into the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150, it is passed through transfer functions corresponding to the vibrator's baseplate system 105, the coupling system 110, and the elastic coupled ground system 120. This means that the input 102 (the pilot sweep or the weighted-sum ground force) will be sequentially filtered by these systems (105, 110, 120). The output 104 from the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150 becomes the filtered pilot sweep (filtered Tref) or the filtered weighted-sum ground force (filtered Ws-gf), which is the expected input to the deep ground (130) by the vibrator 30. In other words, the wavelet produced by the cross-correlation function between the input 102 (pilot sweep or the weighted-sum ground force) and the output 104 (the filtered pilot sweep or the filtered weighted-sum ground force) will be indicative of an accurate wavelet that travels through the deep ground 130. It should be in phase with the downhole wavelets except for a time shift.

[0067] To test the results, the graph 400 in Figure 9 plots amplitude spectra 402 from six downhole geophones and the amplitude spectrum 404 from a filtered pilot sweep (filtered Tref). The downhole geophone spectra 402 have been recorded using a standard vibrator driven by a linear sweep from 2 Hz to 160 Hz in 20 seconds. This linear sweep (pilot sweep) has been recorded as well. The downhole geophone spectra 402 plotted in Figure 9 are selected in 200 ft (60.96 m) intervals from 200 ft (60.96 m) to 1000 ft (304.8 m).

[0068] The filtered pilot sweep spectrum 404 is obtained by passing the pilot sweep through the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150. It is observed that the amplitude spectrum 404 of the filtered pilot sweep (filtered Tref) matches very well with the amplitude spectra 402 from six downhole geophones. This indicates that the filtered pilot sweep (filtered Tref) is in the downgoing wavelet. Furthermore, the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150 does appear to accurately describe the filtering effects caused by the vibrator (30), the coupling condition between the baseplate (70) and the coupled ground, and the coupled ground system (120).

[0069] The plot 410 in Figure 10 provides another example and shows a comparison of two wavelets 412/414. One wavelet 414 is produced by the cross-correlation between an original pilot sweep and the 1000 ft (304.8 m) downhole geophone data. Compensation for time delay of this wavelet 414 is made to provide a better comparison. The other wavelet 412 is the result of the cross-correlation function between the pilot sweep (Tref) and the filtered pilot sweep (filtered Tref), which is labeled as the Vibrator-Coupled Ground Model data 412 in Figure 10. The two wavelets 412/414 match very well. The similarity of two wavelets 412/414 further confirms that the vibrator-coupled ground model 100 of the present disclosure is a reasonable model and each sub-model 110, 120, etc. can be used to represent its own system.

[0070] Standard Vibroseis theory indicates that far-field particle velocity is proportional to a time differential of a true ground force. Again, this theory is built on an assumption that the ground can be treated as an isotropic homogeneous elastic body. As demonstrated above, the deep ground can be assumed to be a relatively homogeneous and elastic body 130, at least in the P-wave direction. However, the coupled ground system 120 of Figures 4-5 is definitely not a homogeneous body. Therefore, standard Vibroseis theory should be modified slightly to allow for the more realistic situation. The far-field particle velocity is proportional to the input of the deep ground 130, which is the output 104 of the pilot sweep (Tref) or the weighted-sum ground force (Ws-gf) after it has passed through the vibrator-coupled ground model filter 150.

[0071] Figures 11A-11B depict comparisons of wavelets generated by using the derivative of the pilot sweep (Tref) as well as the filtered pilot sweep (filtered Tref). In plot 420 of Fig. 11A, wavelets 422/424 were obtained using the standard vibrator modeling. In plot 430 of Fig. 11B, wavelets 432/434 were obtained from the modified vibrator modeling of the present disclosure. Curves 422/432 are produced by cross-correlating the derivatives of the pilot sweeps (Tref) with the 1000-ft (304.8 m) downhole geophone traces. The curves 424/434 are results of the cross-correlation function between the filtered pilot sweeps (filtered Tref) and the 1000-ft (304.8 m) downhole geophone traces. Figures 11A-11B clearly demonstrates that the zero-phase wavelets can be obtained when the filtered pilot sweep (filtered Tref) was cross-correlated to the downhole geophone data.

[0072] Figures 12A-12B depict another representative example to show that the Vibrator-Coupled Ground Model 100 can describe the filtering effects seen in a Vibroseis wavelet caused by the vibrator-coupled ground system. These plots 440/450 depict the wavelets obtained by using the derivative of the weighted-sum ground force (Ws-gf) as well as the filtered weighted-sum ground force (filtered Ws-gf). In the plot 440 of Fig. 12A, the wavelets 442/444 are generated using the standard vibrator modeling. In the plot 450 of Fig. 12B, the wavelets 452/454 are produced by using the modified vibrator modeling. Once again, the wavelets 442/452 are produced when the derivatives of the weighted-sum ground force (Ws-gf) was cross-correlated with the 1000-ft (304.8 m) downhole geophone traces. The other wavelets 444/454 are resulted from the cross-correlation of the filtered weighted-sum ground force (filtered Ws-gf) with the 1000-ft (304.8 m) downhole geophone traces.

[0073] Figures 12A-12B show that the zero-phase wavelets can be obtained when the filtered weighted-sum ground force (filtered Ws-gf) was used to cross-correlate to the downhole geophone data. It can be observed that the wavelets in Figures 12A-12B delay slightly comparing to the wavelets in Figures 11A-11B. This tiny time-delay is due to the phase error between the pilot sweep (Tref) and the weighted-sum ground force (Ws-gf).

[0074] To prove the validity of the vibrator-coupled ground model 100 shown in Figure 4 and determine the robustness of the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150 shown in Figure 5, another experimental test was performed in a completely different area from the downhole geophone site. Figure 13 shows an amplitude spectrum 460 comparing data recorded in an experimental test using a standard vibrator modeling. The curve 462 is produced from a surface geophone that was placed 1-m apart from the vibrator baseplate (70). The curve 462 represents the velocity power spectrum of particles where the surface geophone is located. The spectrum 460 was computed after geophone response removal.

[0075] Because the baseplate accelerometer is mounted on the top cross of the baseplate stilt structure, the signal recorded by the baseplate accelerometer needs to physically pass through the baseplate (70), the coupling system (110), and the coupled ground system (120) in order to connect with any nodes in the coupled ground system (120). Additionally, because the surface geophone records the particle velocity, it makes more sense to convert the baseplate acceleration into the baseplate velocity. Therefore, the other curve 464 is calculated from the data output from the vibrator-coupled ground filter 150 where the input to the filter 150 is the baseplate velocity, which is obtained by integrating the baseplate acceleration.

[0076] As can be seen, the curve 464 in the amplitude spectrum 460 obtained by utilizing the baseplate acceleration matches closely with the amplitude spectrum produced by using the surface geophone trace. Figure 13 indicates that the vibrator-coupled ground model 100 can simulate the filtering effects caused by the baseplate (70) and its vicinity. Moreover, it demonstrates that the coupled ground is a part of the source.

[0077] Portions of the present disclosure may be implemented in terms of logic, software, or code typically encoded on a variety of media including, but not limited to, computer-readable media, machine-readable media, program storage media, or computer program product. Such media may be handled, read, sensed, and/or interpreted by a computing device having a processor. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that such media may take various forms such as cards, tapes, magnetic disks (e.g., floppy disk or hard drive) and optical disks (e.g., compact disk read only memory ("CD-ROM") or digital versatile disc ("DVD")). It should be understood that the given implementations are illustrative only and shall not limit the present disclosure.

[0078] For example, Figure 14 shows a geophysical information processing system 500 that can be used in accordance with the present disclosure. Geophysical information may be received by the geophysical information processing system 500 after being gathered by a geophysical information collector such as the collector or recorder 90 as described above and shown in Figure 3. The information collector 90 can include one or more or any combination of the components shown in Figure 14. In one example, the geophysical information processing system 500 may include one or more processing devices, such as a computer 520 with a storage device 510. The computer 500 can be, but is not limited to, a laptop computer, a desktop computer, a mainframe, or the like. The computer 520 may be in communication with the storage device 510 via any known interface and an interface for entering information into the computer 520 may be any acceptable interface. For example, the interface may include the use of a network interface 530.

[0079] The storage device 510 can be any useful storage device having a computer-readable media. Instructions for carrying out methods described herein may be stored on computer-readable media in the computer 520 or may be stored on an external storage device.

[0080] Imaging, as used herein includes any representation of a subsurface structure including, but not limited to, graphical representations, mathematical or numerical representation, strip charts or any other process output representative of the subsurface structure. Geophysical information as used herein means information relating to the location, shape, extent, depth, content, type, properties, and/or number of geologic bodies. Geophysical information includes, but is not necessarily limited to marine and land seismic information. Seismic information includes, but is not limited to, one or more or any combination of the following, analog signals, digital signals, recorded data, data structures, database information, parameters relating to surface geology, source type, source location, receiver location, receiver type, time of source activation, source duration, source frequency, energy amplitude, energy phase, energy frequency, wave acceleration, wave velocity and/or wave direction.

[0081] Seismic information may be gathered using sensors monitoring seismic activities using, for example, a system as described above and shown in Figure 3. The seismic activities result from active energy sources, including vibrator devices. The sensors can include geophones, accelerometers, pressure sensors, single component sensors, and/or multi-component sensors.

[0082] The foregoing description of preferred and other embodiments is not intended to limit or restrict the scope or applicability of the inventive concepts conceived of by the Applicants. It will be appreciated with the benefit of the present disclosure that features described above in accordance with any embodiment or aspect of the disclosed subject matter can be utilized, either alone or in combination, with any other described feature, in any other embodiment or aspect of the disclosed subject matter.

[0083] In exchange for disclosing the inventive concepts contained herein, the Applicants desire all patent rights afforded by the appended claims. Therefore, it is intended that the appended claims include all modifications and alterations to the full extent that they come within the scope of the following claims.


Claims

1. A seismic data processing method, comprising:

imparting acoustic energy into the ground with a seismic source (30) including a vibrator provided with a reaction mass (50) and a baseplate (70);

obtaining reaction mass acceleration data of the source (30) of seismic energy;

obtaining baseplate acceleration data of the source (30);

obtaining seismic data of one or more seismic sensors (22) responsive to the seismic energy of the source (30);

defining a ground model (100), said ground model (100) including a set of variables;

deriving a transfer function from the ground model (100):

deriving said variables included in the ground model (100) by analyzing a frequency response for the vibrator based on the ground model's transfer function, the frequency response relating the reaction mass acceleration data and the baseplate acceleration data as input and output relative to one another;

filtering a source signal configured to operate said seismic source (30) using the transfer function derived from the ground model (100) with the derived values for the variables; and

making the filtered source signal available for processing with the seismic data of the one or more seismic sensors (22),

the processing method characterized in that the ground model (100) defines the coupling between the vibrator and the ground on which the vibrator is placed and the ground model variables describe said coupling.


 
2. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein obtaining the reaction mass acceleration data comprises obtaining readings of an accelerometer associated with a reaction mass (50) of the source (30), and wherein obtaining the baseplate acceleration data comprises obtaining reading of an accelerometer associated with a baseplate (70) of the source (30).
 
3. A method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein obtaining the reaction mass (50) and baseplate acceleration data comprises receiving the reaction mass (50) and baseplate acceleration data from a recorder associated with the source (30), and wherein obtaining the seismic data of one or more seismic sensors (22) comprises receiving the seismic data from a recorder associated with the one or more seismic sensors (22).
 
4. A method as claimed in claim 1, 2 or 3, wherein deriving the variables for the ground model (100) comprises deriving a mass, a viscosity, and a stiffness of captured ground of the ground model (100) based on a resonant frequency indicated by the frequency response.
 
5. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein filtering the source signal comprises filtering a weighted sum ground force for the source (30).
 
6. A method as claimed in claim 5, wherein the weighted sum ground force comprises a first force summed with a second force, the first force defined by a mass of a reaction mass (50) of the source (30) times the reaction mass acceleration data, the second force defined by a mass of a baseplate (70) of the source (30) times the baseplate acceleration data.
 
7. A method as claimed in any of claims 1-4, wherein filtering the source signal comprises filtering a pilot signal for the source (30).
 
8. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, further comprising correlating the seismic data with the filtered source signal.
 
9. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein deriving the variables for the ground model (100) comprises modeling a baseplate system of the source in the ground model (100) with a first transform function based on a mass value Mbp of a baseplate (70) of the source, a damper value Dc representative of a viscosity of a surface medium, and a stiffness value Kc representative of a contact stiffness of the ground model (100), and the first transform function is optionally of the form:


 
10. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein deriving the variables for the ground model (100) comprises modeling a coupling system of the source in the ground model (100) with a second transform function based on a dampening value Dc representative of a viscosity of a surface medium and a stiffness value Kc representative of a contact stiffness of the coupling system, and the second transform function is optionally of the form:


 
11. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein deriving the variables for the ground model (100) comprises modeling a coupled ground system of the source in the ground model (100) with a third transform function based on a mass value Mg of captured ground, a dampening value Dg representative of a contact viscosity of the captured ground, and a stiffness value Kg representative of a contact stiffness of the captured ground, and the third transform function is optionally of the form:


 
12. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein deriving the variables for the ground model (100) by analyzing the frequency response relating the reaction mass acceleration data and the baseplate acceleration data as input and output relative to one another comprises applying curve fitting to a first region of the frequency response below a resonant frequency of a baseplate (70) and the ground to derive a mass value Mg representative of a mass of captured ground in the ground model (100), a stiffness value Kg representative of a contact stiffness of the captured ground, and a dampening value Dg representative of a contact viscosity of the captured ground.
 
13. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein deriving the variables for the ground model (100) by analyzing the frequency response relating the reaction mass acceleration data and the baseplate acceleration data as input and output relative to one another comprises applying curve fitting to a second region of the frequency response above a resonant frequency of a baseplate (70) of the source and the ground to derive a dampening value Dc representative of a viscosity of a surface medium and a stiffness value Kc representative of a contact stiffness.
 
14. A seismic data processing apparatus, comprising:

a seismic source (30) configured to impart acoustic energy into the ground, wherein said seismic source (30) includes a vibrator comprising a reaction mass (50) and a baseplate (70);

memory storing a ground model, said ground model including a set of variables and a transfer function, a source signal configured to operate said seismic source, reaction mass acceleration data of the source (30), baseplate acceleration data of the source (30), and seismic data of one or more seismic sensors (22) responsive to the seismic energy of the source (30); and

one or more processing units operatively coupled to the memory and configured to:

analyze a frequency response for the vibrator based on the ground model's transfer function, the frequency response relating the reaction mass acceleration data and the baseplate acceleration data as input and output relative to one another,

derive said variables included in the ground model (100) based on the analyzed frequency response,

filter the source signal using the transfer function derived from the ground model (100) with the derived values for the variables, and

make the filtered source signal available for processing with derived values for the seismic data,

the apparatus characterized in that the ground model (100) defines the coupling between the vibrator and the ground on which the vibrator is placed and the ground model (100) variables describe said coupling.


 
15. Apparatus as claimed in claim 14, wherein the one or more processing units is operable to correlate the seismic data with the filtered source signal.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verarbeitungsverfahren für seismische Daten, umfassend:

Weiterleiten von akustischer Energie in den Boden mit einer seismischen Quelle (30), die einen Vibrator einschließt, der mit einer Reaktionsmasse (50) und einer Grundplatte (70) bereitgestellt ist;

Erhalten von Reaktionsmasse-Beschleunigungsdaten der Quelle (30) seismischer Energie;

Erhalten von Grundplatten-Beschleunigungsdaten der Quelle (30);

Erhalten von seismischen Daten eines oder mehrerer seismischer Sensoren (22), die auf die seismische Energie der Quelle (30) reagieren;

Definieren eines Bodenmodells (100), wobei das Bodenmodell (100) einen Satz von Variablen einschließt;

Ableiten einer Übertragungsfunktion von dem Bodenmodell (100):

Ableiten der Variablen, die im Bodenmodell (100) eingeschlossen sind, durch Analysieren einer Frequenzreaktion für den Vibrator basierend auf der Übertragungsfunktion des Bodenmodells, wobei die Frequenzreaktion die Reaktionsmasse-Beschleunigungsdaten und die Grundplatten-Beschleunigungsdaten als Eingabe und Ausgabe in Bezug aufeinander in Beziehung setzt;

Filtern eines Quellensignals, das zum Betreiben der seismischen Quelle (30) konfiguriert ist, unter Verwendung der aus dem Bodenmodell (100) abgeleiteten Übertragungsfunktion mit den abgeleiteten Werten für die Variablen; und

Verfügbarmachen des gefilterten Quellensignals zur Verarbeitung mit den seismischen Daten des einen oder der mehreren seismischen Sensoren (22),

wobei das Verarbeitungsverfahren dadurch gekennzeichnet ist, dass das Bodenmodell (100) die Kopplung zwischen dem Vibrator und dem Boden definiert, auf dem der Vibrator platziert ist, und die Bodenmodellvariablen diese Kopplung beschreiben.


 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Erhalten der Reaktionsmasse-Beschleunigungsdaten das Erhalten von Messwerten eines Beschleunigungsmessers umfasst, der einer Reaktionsmasse (50) der Quelle (30) zugeordnet ist, und wobei das Erhalten der Grundplatten-Beschleunigungsdaten das Erhalten einer Auslesung eines Beschleunigungsmessers umfasst, der einer Grundplatte (70) der Quelle (30) zugeordnet ist.
 
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei das Erhalten der Reaktionsmasse (50) und der Grundplatten-Beschleunigungsdaten das Empfangen der Reaktionsmasse (50) und der Grundplatten-Beschleunigungsdaten von einer Aufzeichnungsvorrichtung umfasst, die der Quelle (30) zugeordnet ist, und wobei das Erhalten der seismischen Daten eines oder mehrerer seismischer Sensoren (22) das Empfangen der seismischen Daten von einer Aufzeichnungsvorrichtung umfasst, die dem einen oder den mehreren seismischen Sensoren (22) zugeordnet ist.
 
4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, 2 oder 3, wobei das Ableiten der Variablen für das Bodenmodell (100) das Ableiten einer Masse, einer Viskosität und einer Steifigkeit von erfasstem Boden des Bodenmodells (100) basierend auf einer Resonanzfrequenz umfasst, die durch die Frequenzreaktion angezeigt wird.
 
5. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Filtern des Quellensignals das Filtern einer gewichteten Summen-Bodenkraft für die Quelle (30) umfasst.
 
6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, wobei die gewichtete Summen-Bodenkraft eine erste Kraft umfasst, die mit einer zweiten Kraft summiert wird, wobei die erste Kraft durch eine Masse einer Reaktionsmasse (50) der Quelle (30) multipliziert mit den Reaktionsmasse-Beschleunigungsdaten definiert wird, wobei die zweite Kraft durch eine Masse einer Grundplatte (70) der Quelle (30) multipliziert mit den Grundplatten-Beschleunigungsdaten definiert wird.
 
7. Verfahren nach einem Ansprüche 1-4, wobei das Filtern des Quellensignals das Filtern eines Pilotsignals für die Quelle (30) umfasst.
 
8. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, weiter umfassend das Korrelieren der seismischen Daten mit dem gefilterten Quellensignal.
 
9. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Ableiten der Variablen für das Bodenmodell (100) das Modellieren eines Grundplattensystems der Quelle in dem Bodenmodell (100) mit einer ersten Transformationsfunktion basierend auf einem Massenwert Mbp einer Grundplatte (70) der Quelle, einem Dämpfungswert Dc, der für eine Viskosität eines Oberflächenmediums steht, und auf einem Steifigkeitswert Kc basiert, das für eine Kontaktsteifigkeit des Bodenmodells (100) steht, und wobei die erste Transformationsfunktion wahlweise die folgende Form aufweist:


 
10. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Ableiten der Variablen für das Bodenmodell (100) das Modellieren eines Kopplungssystems der Quelle in dem Bodenmodell (100) mit einer zweiten Transformationsfunktion basierend auf einem Dämpfungswert Dc, der für eine Viskosität eines Oberflächenmediums steht, und auf einem Steifigkeitswert Kc, das für eine Kontaktsteifigkeit des Kopplungssystems steht, umfasst, und wobei die zweite Transformationsfunktion wahlweise die folgende Form aufweist:


 
11. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Ableiten der Variablen für das Bodenmodell (100) das Modellieren eines gekoppelten Bodensystems der Quelle in dem Bodenmodell (100) mit einer dritten Transformationsfunktion basierend auf einem Massenwert Mg von erfasstem Boden, einem Dämpfungswert Dg, der für eine Kontaktviskosität des erfassten Bodens steht, und auf einem Steifigkeitswert Kg basiert, das für eine Kontaktsteifigkeit des erfassten Bodens steht, und wobei die dritte Transformationsfunktion wahlweise die folgende Form aufweist:


 
12. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Ableiten der Variablen für das Bodenmodell (100) durch Analysieren der Frequenzreaktion, welche die Reaktionsmasse-Beschleunigungsdaten und die Grundplatten-Beschleunigungsdaten als Eingabe und Ausgabe in Bezug aufeinander in Beziehung setzt, das Anwenden einer Kurvenanpassung an eine erste Region der Frequenzreaktion unterhalb einer Resonanzfrequenz einer Grundplatte (70) und des Bodens umfasst, um einen Massenwert Mg, der für eine Masse von erfasstem Boden in dem Bodenmodell (100) steht, einen Steifigkeitswert Kg, der für eine Kontaktsteifigkeit des erfassten Bodens steht, und einen Dämpfungswert Dg, das für eine Kontaktviskosität des erfassten Bodens steht, abzuleiten.
 
13. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Ableiten der Variablen für das Bodenmodell (100) durch Analysieren der Frequenzreaktion, welche die Reaktionsmasse-Beschleunigungsdaten und die Grundplatten-Beschleunigungsdaten als Eingabe und Ausgabe in Bezug aufeinander in Beziehung setzt, das Anwenden einer Kurvenanpassung an eine zweite Region der Frequenzreaktion oberhalb einer Resonanzfrequenz einer Grundplatte (70) der Quelle und des Bodens umfasst, um einen Dämpfungswert Dc, der für eine Viskosität eines Oberflächenmediums steht, und einen Steifigkeitswert Kc, das für eine Kontaktsteifigkeit steht, abzuleiten.
 
14. Verarbeitungseinrichtung für seismische Daten, umfassend:

eine seismische Quelle (30), konfiguriert zum Weiterleiten von akustischer Energie in den Boden, wobei die seismische Quelle (30) einen Vibrator einschließt, der eine Reaktionsmasse (50) und eine Grundplatte (70) umfasst;

einen Speicher, der ein Bodenmodell speichert, wobei das Bodenmodell einen Satz von Variablen und eine Übertragungsfunktion, ein Quellensignal, konfiguriert zum Betreiben der seismischen Quelle, Reaktionsmasse-Beschleunigungsdaten der Quelle (30), Grundplatten-Beschleunigungsdaten der Quelle (30) und seismische Daten eines oder mehrerer seismischer Sensoren (22), die auf die seismische Energie der Quelle (30) reagieren, einschließt; und

eine oder mehrere Verarbeitungseinheiten, die mit dem Speicher betriebsbereit gekoppelt und konfiguriert sind zum:

Analysieren einer Frequenzreaktion für den Vibrator basierend auf der Übertragungsfunktion des Bodenmodells, wobei die Frequenzreaktion die Reaktionsmasse-Beschleunigungsdaten und die Grundplatten-Beschleunigungsdaten als Eingabe und Ausgabe in Bezug aufeinander in Beziehung setzt,

Ableiten der im Bodenmodell (100) eingeschlossenen Variablen basierend auf der analysierten Frequenzreaktion,

Filtern des Quellensignals unter Verwendung der aus dem Bodenmodell (100) abgeleiteten Übertragungsfunktion mit den abgeleiteten Werten für die Variablen und

Verfügbarmachen des gefilterten Quellensignals zum Verarbeiten mit abgeleiteten Werten für die seismischen Daten,

wobei die Einrichtung dadurch gekennzeichnet ist, dass das Bodenmodell (100) die Kopplung zwischen dem Vibrator und dem Boden definiert, auf dem der Vibrator platziert ist, und die Variablen des Bodenmodells (100) diese Kopplung beschreiben.


 
15. Einrichtung nach Anspruch 14, wobei die eine oder die mehreren Verarbeitungseinheiten betrieben werden können, um die seismischen Daten mit dem gefilterten Quellensignal zu korrelieren.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé de traitement de données sismiques, comprenant :

la transmission d'une énergie acoustique dans le sol avec une source sismique (30) incluant un vibrateur pourvu d'une masse réactionnelle (50) et d'une plaque de base (70) ;

l'obtention de données d'accélération de masse réactionnelle de la source (30) d'énergie sismique ;

l'obtention de données d'accélération de plaque de base de la source (30) ;

l'obtention de données sismiques d'un ou de plusieurs capteurs sismiques (22) sensible à l'énergie sismique de la source (30) ;

la définition d'un modèle terrestre (100), ledit modèle terrestre (100) incluant un ensemble de variables ;

le fait de dériver une fonction de transfert à partir du modèle terrestre (100) ;

le fait de dériver lesdites variables inclus dans le modèle terrestre (100) par l'analyse d'une réponse en fréquence pour le vibrateur sur la base de la fonction de transfert du modèle terrestre, la réponse en fréquence reliant les données d'accélération de masse réactionnelle et les données d'accélération de plaque de base en tant qu'entrée et sortie les unes par rapport aux autres ;

le filtrage d'un signal de source configuré pour faire fonctionner ladite source sismique (30) en utilisant la fonction de transfert dérivée à partir du modèle terrestre (100) avec les valeurs dérivées pour les variables ; et

le fait de rendre le signal de source filtré disponible pour un traitement avec les données sismiques des un ou plusieurs capteurs sismiques (22),

le procédé de traitement étant caractérisé en ce que le modèle terrestre (100) définit le couplage entre le vibrateur et le sol sur lequel le vibrateur est placé et les variables de modèle terrestre décrivent ledit couplage.


 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'obtention des données d'accélération de masse réactionnelle comprend l'obtention de lectures d'un accéléromètre associé à la masse réactionnelle (50) de la source (30), et dans lequel l'obtention des données d'accélération de plaque de base comprend l'obtention d'une lecture d'un accéléromètre associé à une plaque de base (70) de la source (30).
 
3. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel l'obtention des données d'accélération de masse réactionnelle (50) et de plaque de base comprend la réception des données d'accélération de masse réactionnelle (50) et de plaque de base provenant d'un enregistreur associé à la source (30), et dans lequel l'obtention des données sismiques d'un ou de plusieurs capteurs sismiques (22) comprend la réception des données sismiques provenant d'un enregistreur associé aux un ou plusieurs capteurs sismiques (22).
 
4. Procédé selon la revendication 1, 2 ou 3, dans lequel le fait de dériver les variables pour le modèle terrestre (100) comprend le fait de dériver une masse, une viscosité, et une rigidité de sol capturé du modèle terrestre (100) sur la base d'une fréquence de résonance indiquée par la réponse en fréquence.
 
5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le filtrage du signal de source comprend le filtrage d'une force de sol de somme pondérée pour la source (30).
 
6. Procédé selon la revendication 5, dans lequel la force de sol de somme pondérée comprend une première force additionnée à une seconde force, la première force étant définie par une masse d'une masse réactionnelle (50) de la source (30) fois les données d'accélération de masse réactionnelle, la seconde force étant définie par une masse d'une plaque de base (70) de la source (30) fois les données d'accélération de plaque de base.
 
7. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1-4, dans lequel le filtrage du signal de source comprend le filtrage d'un signal pilote pour la source (30).
 
8. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant en outre la mise en corrélation des données sismiques avec le signal de source filtré.
 
9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le fait de dériver les variables pour le modèle terrestre (100) comprend la modélisation d'un système de plaque de base de la source dans le modèle terrestre (100) avec une première fonction de transformée basée sur une valeur de masse Mbp de la plaque de base (70) de la source, une valeur d'amortissement Dc représentant une viscosité d'un milieu de surface, et une valeur de rigidité Kc représentant une rigidité de contact du modèle terrestre (100), et la première fonction de transformée est facultativement sous la forme :


 
10. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le fait de dériver les variables pour le modèle terrestre (100) comprend la modélisation d'un système de couplage de la source dans le modèle terrestre (100) avec une deuxième fonction de transformée basée sur une valeur d'amortissement Dc représentant une viscosité d'un milieu de surface et une valeur de rigidité Kc représentant une rigidité de contact du système de couplage, et la deuxième fonction de transformée est facultativement sous la forme :


 
11. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le fait de dériver les variables pour le modèle terrestre (100) comprend la modélisation d'un système terrestre couplé de la source dans le modèle terrestre (100) avec une troisième fonction de transformée basée sur une valeur de masse Mg de sol capturé, une valeur d'amortissement Dg représentant une viscosité de contact du sol capturé, et une valeur de rigidité Kg représentant une rigidité de contact du sol capturé, et la troisième fonction de transformée est facultativement sous la forme :


 
12. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le fait de dériver les variables pour le modèle terrestre (100) par l'analyse de la réponse en fréquence reliant les données d'accélération de masse réactionnelle et les données d'accélération de plaque de base en tant qu'entrée et sortie les unes par rapport aux autres comprend l'application d'un ajustement de courbe à une première région de la réponse en fréquence en dessous d'une fréquence de résonance d'une plaque de base (70) et du sol pour dériver une valeur de masse Mg représentant une masse de sol capturé dans le modèle terrestre (100), une valeur de rigidité Kg représentant une rigidité de contact du sol capturé, et une valeur d'amortissement Dg représentant une viscosité de contact du sol capturé.
 
13. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le fait de dériver les variables pour le modèle terrestre (100) par l'analyse de la réponse en fréquence reliant les données d'accélération de masse réactionnelle et les données d'accélération de plaque de base en tant qu'entrée et sortie les unes par rapport aux autres comprend l'application d'un ajustement de courbe à une seconde région de la réponse en fréquence au-dessus d'une fréquence de résonance d'une plaque de base (70) de la source et du sol pour dériver une valeur d'amortissement Dc représentant une viscosité d'un milieu de surface et une valeur de rigidité Kc représentant une rigidité de contact.
 
14. Appareil de traitement de données sismiques, comprenant :

une source sismique (30) configurée pour transmettre une énergie acoustique dans le sol, dans lequel ladite source sismique (30) inclut un vibrateur comprenant une masse réactionnelle (50) et une plaque de base (70) ;

une mémoire stockant un modèle terrestre, ledit modèle terrestre incluant un ensemble de variables et une fonction de transfert, un signal de source configuré pour faire fonctionner ladite source sismique, des données d'accélération de masse réactionnelle de la source (30), des données d'accélération de plaque de base de la source (30), et des données sismiques d'un ou de plusieurs capteurs sismiques (22) sensibles à l'énergie sismique de la source (30) ; et

une ou plusieurs unités de traitement couplées de manière fonctionnelle à la mémoire et configurées pour :

analyser une réponse en fréquence pour le vibrateur sur la base de la fonction de transfert du modèle terrestre, la réponse en fréquence reliant les données d'accélération de masse réactionnelle et les données d'accélération de plaque de base en tant qu'entrée et sortie les unes par rapport aux autres,

dériver lesdites variables inclus dans le modèle terrestre (100) sur la base de la réponse en fréquence analysée,

filtrer le signal de source en utilisant la fonction de transfert dérivée à partir du modèle terrestre (100) avec les valeurs dérivées pour les variables, et

rendre le signal de source filtré disponible pour un traitement avec les valeurs dérivées pour les données sismiques,

l'appareil étant caractérisé en ce que le modèle terrestre (100) définit le couplage entre le vibrateur et le sol sur lequel le vibrateur est placé et les variables de modèle terrestre (100) décrivent ledit couplage.


 
15. Appareil selon la revendication 14, dans lequel les une ou plusieurs unités de traitement sont utilisables pour mettre en corrélation les données sismiques avec le signal de source filtré.
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description