(19)
(11)EP 2 657 988 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
07.06.2017 Bulletin 2017/23

(21)Application number: 13165493.1

(22)Date of filing:  26.04.2013
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H02S 40/44  (2014.01)
H01L 31/048  (2014.01)
H02S 40/22  (2014.01)

(54)

Solar photovoltaic-thermal system

Photovoltaisch-Thermisches Solarsystem

Système photovoltaïque thermal solaire


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 26.04.2012 CN 201210127145

(43)Date of publication of application:
30.10.2013 Bulletin 2013/44

(73)Proprietor: Changzhou Almaden Co., Ltd.
Changzhou, Jiangsu (CN)

(72)Inventors:
  • Lin, Jinxi
    Changzhou (CN)
  • Lin, Jinhan
    Changzhou (CN)
  • Lin, Yuting
    Wufeng Township; Taichung County (TW)

(74)Representative: 2K Patentanwälte Blasberg Kewitz & Reichel 
Partnerschaft mbB Schumannstrasse 27
60325 Frankfurt am Main
60325 Frankfurt am Main (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2009/093780
DE-A1- 10 322 048
WO-A2-2010/138086
US-A- 4 892 593
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


    1. Field of the Invention



    [0001] The present invention relates to a solar photovoltaic-thermal system, and more particularly to an integrated system having a solar heat collection assembly with a light collection cavity and having a double-glass solar cell component.

    2. Description of the Related Art



    [0002] Solar energy is the most prevalently used environmentally friendly source of energy. Generally, there are two principal manners by which solar energy is utilized. In the first manner, a solar heat collector directly absorbs radiant heat from sunlight, and in the second manner, solar energy is converted into electric energy by utilizing the photovoltaic effect of a solar cell.

    [0003] Solar heat collectors are most commonly employed in solar heaters, which are generally operated by guiding sunlight to a water pipe through a condensing reflecting plate or a vacuum heat collector, so that optical energy from sunlight is converted into heat energy to heat water in the pipe.

    [0004] The solar cell assembly is generally formed by combining a multilayered structure of glass, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), a photovoltaic component and a solar energy back sheet, and peripheral components such as an outer frame made of aluminum, galvanized steel sheet, wood and synthetic materials (such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and ethylene propylene rubber), a junction box, lead wires, and a battery. Under sunlight irradiation, the solar cell assembly outputs a certain working voltage and working current through photovoltaic effect. However, efficiency of the solar cell assembly is limited, and a large part of solar energy is converted into heat energy and accumulated in a solar energy component, which results in increased temperature of the solar energy component and causes damage to the solar cell assembly and decrease in the total output power.

    [0005] DE 103 22 048 A1 discloses a solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to the preamble of claim 1. A plurality of heat exchangers is disposed on the bottom of a box-shaped housing, which is covered by a heat-insulating layer that may be reflective. Above the plurality of heat exchangers a photovoltaic panel is disposed. The top of the box-shaped housing is covered by a glass panel. A vacuum cavity is formed inside the box-shaped housing.

    [0006] WO 2009/093780 A1 discloses a transparent photovoltaic module in which a solar cell is encapsulated using an EVA film between top and bottom tempered glasses.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0007] It is an object of the present invention to provide an enhanced highly efficient and reliable solar photovoltaic-thermal system.

    [0008] This problem is solved by a solar photovoltaic-thermal system as claimed by claim 1. Further advantageous embodiments are the subject-matter of the dependent claims.

    [0009] Because according to the present invention the solar cell assembly and the solar heat collector can be integrated to form a solar photovoltaic-thermal system, not only can solar energy be utilized more effectively, but also the heat energy accumulated by the solar energy component can be effectively reduced, thereby avoiding the aforementioned problems. Moreover, according to the present invention the solar cell assembly and the solar heat collector can be integrated to form a solar photovoltaic-thermal system. Thus, a reduced amount of materials is required to form a solar photovoltaic-thermal system of the present invention, which is economically beneficial.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0010] The invention will be described according to the appended drawings, in which:
    FIG. 1
    is a schematic top view of a solar photovoltaic-thermal system of the present invention;
    FIG. 2
    is a schematic cross-sectional view of the solar photovoltaic-thermal system of the present invention; and
    FIG. 3 to FIG. 5
    show light wavelength and transmission data of different examples of a long-waveband light reflecting layer in the present invention.

    PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE PRESENT INVENTION



    [0011] In this context, unless otherwise limited, a singular term (such as "a") also includes a plural form thereof. In this context, all embodiments and exemplary terms (for example, "such as") only aim at making the present invention more prominent, but are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention; terms in this specification should not be construed as implying that any component not claimed may form a necessary component for implementing the present invention.

    [0012] As shown in the top view of Fig. 1, the solar photovoltaic-thermal system of the present invention comprises a photovoltaic component 3, a heat exchanger 5. The arrows indicate the flow direction of the working fluid to be heated by the heat exchanger 5. The fluid flows to a heating system not shown in the drawings, such as a heating system of a building.

    [0013] As shown in the schematic cross-sectional view of Fig. 2, the solar photovoltaic-thermal system of the present invention comprises a transparent glass front cover 1, a transparent encapsulating material 2 for encapsulating a plurality of photovoltaic components 3, transparent glass back sheet 4, the afore-mentioned heat exchanger 5, a light reflective member 6 and a light reflecting plate 7. The space enclosed by the light reflecting members 6 and the light reflecting plate 7 forms a light collection cavity. More specifically, the space between the transparent glass back sheet 4 and the light reflecting plate 7 is subdivided by the plurality of light reflecting members 6, which are preferably disposed at regular spacings, into a plurality of light collection cavities, which accommodate a respective heat exchanger 5. As shown in Fig. 2, preferably the heat exchangers 5 are disposed in the middle of the associated light collection cavity and are fixed (or abut) the bottom surface of the transparent glass back sheet 4.

    [0014] Figs. 3 to 5 show light wavelength and transmission data of different examples of a long-waveband light reflecting layer in the present invention. The selected long-waveband light reflecting layers considered for Fig. 3 are respectively a multilayered structure of silver film/gallium zinc oxide (GZO) film/silver film. The multilayered structure considered for Fig. 4 is a multilayer structure consisting of silver film/GZO film/aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) film/GZO film/silver film. The alternating-layered structure considered for Fig. 5 consists of GZO and AZO (GZO/AZO/GZO/AZO/GZO/AZO/GZO/AZO/GZO/AZO/GZO). These layers are preferably used in the solar photovoltaic-thermal system of the present invention as explained in more detail in the following.

    [0015] Parts and technical features of the solar photovoltaic-thermal system of the present invention are further illustrated below.

    Solar cell assembly



    [0016] The solar cell assembly of the present invention may be any type of solar cell assembly. In addition to the front cover, the encapsulating material, the photovoltaic component, and the back sheet, the solar cell assembly of the present invention may include peripheral components such as an outer frame, an injunction box, lead wires, and a battery. All the peripheral components may be manufactured by means of conventional technology, and therefore are not described in any further detail in the present invention.

    [0017] No special limitation is imposed on the front cover used in the solar cell assembly of the present invention; generally, a low reflective transparent glass plate is used, so as to provide sufficient light transmissive property and mechanical strength, such as compressive strength, tensile strength and hardness, and prevent moisture from entering the solar cell assembly.

    [0018] The encapsulating material used in the solar cell assembly of the present invention is mainly for fixing the photovoltaic component of the solar cell and providing physical protection to the photovoltaic component, such as resisting shock and preventing moisture from entering. The encapsulating layer in the solar cell assembly of the present invention may be made of any conventional material; currently, EVA is the most extensively used encapsulating material for a solar cell plate. EVA is a thermosetting resin, has properties such as high light transmission, heat resistance, low-temperature resistance, moisture resistance, and weather proofing after curing, has good adherence with metal, glass and plastic, and also has certain elasticity, shock resistance and heat conductivity, and therefore is an ideal solar cell encapsulating material.

    [0019] No particular limitation is imposed on the photovoltaic component in the solar cell assembly of the present invention, which may be selected from various forms of photovoltaic components, such as a crystalline silicon photovoltaic component, a thin-film photovoltaic component, and a dye light-sensitive photovoltaic component.

    [0020] In the solar photovoltaic-thermal system of the present invention, at least one part of the irradiation area should not be covered by the photovoltaic component, so that light can penetrate the layer of the solar cell assembly and reach the light collection cavity at the bottom thereof, so as to heat the fluid in the heat exchanger. The proportion left uncovered may be adjusted to accommodate particular conditions of its implementation, such as the conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic component, duration and intensity of sunlight, and the demand for electric power relative to that for thermal power. Generally, it would be appropriate that the amount covered is from 30% to 80%, preferably from 40% to 60%. In a specific embodiment, the solar photovoltaic-thermal system of the present invention has the configuration of the solar cell assembly and the heat exchanger as shown in FIG. 1.

    [0021] In a specific embodiment of the present invention, the photovoltaic component in the solar cell assembly may be a double-facial photovoltaic component, such as HIT Double® of SANYO Corporation, Japan, which can fully utilize the optical energy reflected by the light collection cavity back to the photovoltaic component.

    [0022] The back sheet in the solar cell assembly of the present invention simultaneously serves as the top cover of the light collection cavity, and therefore needs to have special properties. Firstly, the back sheet has to be transparent, so that light can enter the light collection cavity. Secondly, the back sheet is supported only by the outer frame and the light guide, leaving a large portion thereof suspended in the air, and therefore has to have excellent mechanical properties. Generally, an appropriate back sheet material should have compressive strength of at least about 120 MPa, bending strength of at least about 120 MPa and tensile strength of at least about 90 MPa.

    [0023] A novel type of physical tempered glass, which may be made through treatment procedures such as aerodynamic heating and cooling, may be used as the back sheet glass of the present invention. Specifically, this physical tempered glass may be made by performing heating in a aerodynamic-heating tempering furnace (such as a flatbed tempering furnace produced by LiSEC corporation) at a temperature ranging from about 600°C to about 750°C, preferably from 630°C to about 700°C, and then performing rapid cooling through, for example, an air nozzle. In this context, the term "aerodynamic heating" refers to a process of transferring heat to an object through high-temperature gas generated when the object and air or other gases move at a high relative velocity. When the tempered glass is heated in the aerodynamic heating manner, the glass and the tempering furnace do not directly contact, so the glass is not deformed, and is suitable for thin glass. For a more detailed physical tempered glass preparation method, reference may be made to the content in the US Patent Publication No. 2013/0008500 A1.

    [0024] The solar back sheet of most conventional solar cells is made of polyvinyl fluoride (such as Tedlar® of DuPont Corporation, US). Such material does not have the requisite mechanical properties as described above, and therefore is not applicable to the present invention.

    [0025] Normal glass does not have the requisite mechanical properties, either (for example, normal glass only has a tensile strength of about 40MPa), and thus cannot be applied to the present invention. Moreover, a conventional physically tempered glass might have sufficient mechanical properties, but must normally be over 3 millimeters thick to avoid deformation, which makes it heavy, and thus not only imposes an increased load on the light guide but also makes it unsuitable for mounting on the roof of a residential building. As for conventional chemically tempered glass, it might meet the requisite mechanical properties and is not subject to the limitations imposed on thickness by machining. However, chemically tempered glass degrades very easily due to environmental factors, and has certain other disadvantages that limit its range of application, such as being difficult to coat, stripping easily and being costly.

    Solar heat collection assembly



    [0026] The solar heat collection assembly of the present invention is formed of a light collection cavity enclosed by the back sheet of a solar cell assembly, a light reflecting member, and a light reflecting plate, and a heat exchanger disposed therein.

    [0027] The main aim of the light collection cavity lies in that: the incident sunlight that enters is confined in the light collection cavity, and optical energy is converted into radiant heat through mechanisms such as scattering and reflecting so that the radiant heat is concentrated on the heat exchanger and heats the fluid therein. In addition, because the temperature of the light collection cavity is higher than the temperature of the fluid in the heat exchanger, a part of the heat energy is transferred to the fluid through conduction.

    [0028] The light guide and the bottom-most light reflecting plate in the solar heat collection assembly of the present invention may be made of various materials, such as glass or plastic. The plastic material may be formed of one or more polymeric resin layers. The type of resin used for forming the polymeric resin layer is not particularly limited, and can be, for example, but not limited to, polyester resin, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN); polyacrylate resin, such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA); polyolefin resin, such as polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP); polystyrene resin; polycycloolefin resin; polyimide resin; polycarbonate resin; polyurethane resin; triacetate cellulose (TAC); polylactic acid; or a mixture thereof, and preferably is PET, PMMA, polycycloolefin resin, TAC, polylactic acid or a mixture thereof.

    [0029] The surface shape of the light reflecting member in the present invention is not particularly limited. However, its main purpose is to reflect the incident light onto the heat exchanger as much as possible, so it preferably has a plane with a slant angle (such as a side of a triangle), an arc surface or a parabolic surface.

    [0030] In order to increase heat collection efficiency of the light collection cavity, a surface of the light reflecting member and a surface of the light reflecting plate may be covered with a reflecting layer. The primary function of the reflecting layer on the light reflecting member and the light reflecting plate is to reflect full-waveband light, so the type of material employed is not particularly limited and preferably may be metal, such as silver, gold, aluminum or chromium; and a metal oxide or a non-metal material. Materials such as TiO2, BaSO4, and Teflon have a white appearance, and therefore may provide more effective reflection of light, and are thus preferable materials. The reflecting layer may be bonded to the light reflecting member or the light reflecting plate by means of any suitable method; for example, they can be bonded by using an adhesive. When the reflecting layer is made of a metal material while the light reflecting member or the light reflecting plate is made of a glass material, a preferable method is to directly deposit a metal on a glass substrate by utilizing methods such as physical vapor deposition. This method does not need any adhesive, so in addition to reducing manufacturing process steps, it avoids problems associated with deterioration of the adhesive. Such method is preferable in view of reliability.

    [0031] Alternatively, the light reflecting member may be made of metals.

    [0032] Likewise, in order to improve effectiveness of the light collection cavity, the back of the back sheet of the solar cell assembly is to be covered with a reflecting layer. However, in order to allow sunlight to enter the light collection cavity, the reflecting layer on the back of the back sheet has to be capable of selectively reflecting light. Further, the incident sunlight is mainly short waveband, while the light reflected after irradiating the object is converted into long-waveband light, so the back of the back sheet of the solar cell assembly of the present invention is covered with a reflecting layer that mainly reflects long-waveband light.

    [0033] Generally, the long-waveband light reflecting layer is a multilayered structure formed primarily of a metal film and a transparent metal oxide film, and may employ any of the following types of design:
    1. (1) highly reflective metal film layer/transparent metal oxide film layer/highly reflective metal film layer;
    2. (2) highly reflective metal film layer/transparent metal oxide film layer (A)/transparent metal oxide film layer (B)/transparent metal oxide film layer (A)/highly reflective metal film layer, where the optical refractive index of the transparent metal oxide film layer A is greater than the optical refractive index of the transparent metal oxide film layer B; and
    3. (3) repetitive alternating multilayered structure of different transparent metal oxide film layers.


    [0034] Suitable highly reflective metal includes, for example, silver, gold, aluminum or chromium, and preferably silver. The suitable transparent metal oxide includes, for example, an indium tin oxide (ITO), an indium oxide plus titanium oxide (ITiO), an indium molybdenum oxide (IMO), a zinc oxide (ZnO), an indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO), an AZO, a GZO, and an indium zinc oxide (IZO), and preferably GZO and AZO. As a specific example (1), the long-waveband light reflecting layer is a multilayered structure of silver film/GZO film/silver film and the light transmission-wavelength data thereof are as shown in FIG. 3; as a specific example (2), the long-waveband light reflecting layer is a multilayered structure of silver film/GZO (n = 2.1) film/AZO (n = 1.9) film/GZO (n = 2.1) film/silver film, and the light transmission-wavelength data thereof are as shown in FIG. 4. As a specific example (3), the long-waveband light reflecting layer is an alternating multilayered structure (GZO/AZO/GZO/AZO/GZO/AZO/GZO/AZO/GZO/AZO/GZO) of GZO and AZO, and the light transmission-wavelength data thereof are as shown in FIG. 5.

    [0035] If each light collection cavity, at least one heat exchanger should be provided to remove the heat energy in the cavity. The material of the heat exchanger used in the present invention has no special limitation, and may be made of a heat conducting material such as copper or stainless steel. The type of heat exchanger also has no limitation; for example, a column tube heat exchanger or a spiral-tube heat exchanger may be used. The heat exchanger may be coated or covered with a dark heat absorbing material, so as to increase heat transfer efficiency.

    [0036] The fluid in the heat exchanger may be any suitable fluid, preferably one with a high specific heat, such as water. However, a gas is also possible.

    [0037] In a specific embodiment, the solar photovoltaic-thermal system of the present invention may have the cross-section configuration as shown in FIG. 2.


    Claims

    1. A solar photovoltaic-thermal system comprising:

    a solar cell assembly comprising a plurality of photovoltaic components (3),

    a light reflecting plate (7) disposed below the solar cell assembly,

    a light collection cavity located below the solar cell assembly, and

    a heat exchanger (5), wherein

    at least a part of an irradiation area of the solar cell assembly is not covered by the photovoltaic components (3) so that light can penetrate the layer of the solar cell assembly and reach the light collection cavity,

    characterized in that the solar cell assembly comprises a transparent glass front cover (1), a transparent encapsulating material (2) and a transparent glass back sheet (4), wherein the plurality of photovoltaic components (3) is encapsulated by the transparent encapsulating material (2); wherein

    the transparent glass back sheet (4) is a physically tempered glass or a chemically tempered glass;

    the light collection cavity is formed by a space enclosed by a plurality of light reflecting members (6) located below the transparent glass back sheet (4), the light reflecting plate (7) disposed below the solar cell assembly and the transparent glass back sheet (4);

    the space between the transparent glass back sheet (4) and the light reflecting plate (7) is subdivided by the plurality of light reflecting members (6) into a plurality of light collection cavities, which accommodate a respective heat exchanger (5); and

    the surface of the transparent glass back sheet (4) facing the light collection cavity is covered with a selectively reflecting layer, which reflects long-waveband light.


     
    2. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to claim 1, wherein the physically tempered glass has a compressive strength ranging from about 120 MPa to about 300 MPa, a bending strength ranging from about 120 MPa to about 300 MPa and a tensile strength ranging from about 90 MPa to about 180 MPa, wherein the physically tempered glass preferably has a thickness of at least 3 millimeters.
     
    3. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the long-waveband light reflecting layer is a multilayered structure of highly reflective metal film/transparent metal oxide film/highly reflective metal film.
     
    4. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to Claim 3, wherein the highly reflective metal film is a silver film, and the transparent metal oxide film is a zinc oxide film.
     
    5. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the long-waveband light reflecting layer is a multilayered structure of highly reflective metal film/transparent metal oxide film (A)/transparent metal oxide film (B)/transparent metal oxide film (A)/highly reflective metal film, and wherein the optical refractive index of the transparent metal oxide film (A) is greater than the optical refractive index of the transparent metal oxide film (B).
     
    6. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to Claim 5, wherein the highly reflective metal film of the long-waveband light reflecting layer is silver, the transparent metal oxide film (A) is a gallium zinc oxide (GZO) film, and the transparent metal oxide film (B) is an aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) film.
     
    7. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the long-waveband light reflecting layer is bonded to the transparent glass back sheet (4) by direct deposition.
     
    8. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the light reflecting plate (7) or the plurality of light reflecting members (6) or both are covered with a reflecting layer on the surfaces facing the light collection cavity.
     
    9. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to claim 8, wherein the reflecting layer is a metal material selected from silver, gold, aluminum or chromium or a metal oxide or a non-metal material selected from TiO2, BaSO4 or Teflon.
     
    10. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the proportion of the irradiation area of the solar cell assembly left uncovered by the photovoltaic components (3) is in the range from 30% to 80%, preferably in the range from 40% to 60%.
     
    11. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein transparent glass back sheet (4) is supported only by an outer frame of the solar photovoltaic-thermal system and by the plurality of light reflecting members (6).
     
    12. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the plurality of light reflecting members (6) have a plane with a slant angle, particularly as a side of a triangle, or an arc surface or a parabolic surface to reflect light incident on the solar photovoltaic-thermal system on the heat exchangers.
     
    13. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the plurality of light reflecting members (6) are disposed at regular spacings.
     
    14. The solar photovoltaic-thermal system according to claim 13, wherein the heat exchangers (5) are disposed in the middle of an associated light collection cavity of the plurality of light collection cavities and are fixed to or abut the bottom surface of the transparent glass back sheet (4).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem, umfassend:

    eine Solarzellenanordnung mit einer Mehrzahl von photovoltaischen Komponenten (3),

    eine lichtreflektierende Platte (7), die unterhalb der Solarzellenanordnung angeordnet ist,

    einen Lichtsammelhohlraum, der sich unterhalb der Solarzellenanordnung befindet, und

    einen Wärmetauscher (5), wobei

    zumindest ein Teil eines Bestrahlungsbereichs der Solarzellenanordnung nicht von den photovoltaischen Komponenten (3) abgedeckt ist, so dass Licht in die Schicht der Solarzellenanordnung eindringen und den Lichtsammelhohlraum erreichen kann,

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Solarzellenanordnung eine transparente vorderseitige Glasabdeckung (1), ein transparentes Einkapselungsmaterial (2) und eine transparente rückseitige Glasplatte (4) aufweist, wobei die Mehrzahl von photovoltaischen Komponenten (3) durch das transparente Einkapselungsmaterial (2) eingekapselt ist; wobei

    die transparente rückseitige Glasplatte (4) ein physikalisch wärmebehandeltes Glas oder ein chemisch wärmebehandeltes Glas ist;

    der Lichtsammelhohlraum durch einen Raum ausgebildet ist, der von einer Mehrzahl von lichtreflektierenden Elementen (6) umgeben ist, die unterhalb der transparenten rückseitigen Glasplatte (4) angeordnet sind, wobei die lichtreflektierende Platte (7) unterhalb der Solarzellenanordnung und der transparenten rückseitigen Glasplatte (4) angeordnet ist;

    der Raum zwischen der transparenten rückseitigen Glasplatte (4) und der lichtreflektierenden Platte (7) durch die Mehrzahl von lichtreflektierenden Elementen (6) in eine Mehrzahl von Lichtsammelhohlräumen unterteilt ist, die einen jeweiligen Wärmetauscher (5) aufnehmen; und

    die Oberfläche der transparenten rückseitigen Glasplatte (4), die dem Lichtsammelhohlraum zugewandt ist, mit einer langwellig lichtreflektierenden Schicht bedeckt ist, die Licht im langwelligen Bereich reflektiert.


     
    2. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach Anspruch 1, wobei das physikalisch wärmebehandelte Glas eine Druckfestigkeit im Bereich von etwa 120 MPa bis etwa 300 MPa, eine Biegefestigkeit im Bereich von etwa 120 MPa bis etwa 300 MPa und eine Zugfestigkeit von etwa 90 MPa bis etwa 180 Mpa hat, wobei das physikalisch wärmebehandelte Glas vorzugsweise eine Dicke von mindestens drei Millimetern aufweist.
     
    3. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die langwellig lichtreflektierende Schicht eine Mehrschicht-Struktur aus einer hochreflektierendem Metallschicht / transparente Metalloxidschicht/ hochreflektierende Metallschicht ist.
     
    4. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach Anspruch 3, wobei die hochreflektierende Metallschicht eine Silberschicht ist und die transparente Metalloxidschicht eine Zinkoxidschicht ist.
     
    5. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die langwellig lichtreflektierende Schicht eine Mehrschicht-Struktur aus einer hochreflektierende Metallschicht / transparenten Metalloxidschicht (A) / transparenten Metalloxidschicht (B) / transparenten Metalloxidschicht (A) / hochreflektierenden Metallschicht ist und wobei der optische Brechungsindex der transparenten Metalloxidschicht (A) größer als der optische Brechungsindex der transparenten Metalloxidschicht (B) ist.
     
    6. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach Anspruch 5, wobei die hochreflektierende Metallschicht der langwellig lichtreflektierenden Schicht Silber ist, die transparente Metalloxidschicht (A) eine Gallium-Zinkoxid(GZO)-Schicht ist und die transparente Metalloxidschicht (B) eine Aluminium-Zinkoxid(AZO)-Schicht ist.
     
    7. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die langwellig lichtreflektierende Schicht durch direkte Abscheidung mit der transparenten rückseitigen Glasplatte (4) verbunden ist.
     
    8. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die lichtreflektierende Platte (7) oder die Mehrzahl von lichtreflektierenden Elementen (6) oder beide mit einer reflektierenden Schicht auf den Oberflächen bedeckt sind, die dem Lacksammelhohlraum zugewandt ist.
     
    9. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach Anspruch 8, wobei die reflektierende Schicht aus metallischem Material ist, das aus Silber, Gold, Aluminium oder Chrom ausgewählt ist, oder aus einem Metalloxid oder aus einem nichtmetallischen Material besteht, das aus TiO2, BaSO4 oder Teflon ausgewählt ist.
     
    10. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei der Anteil des Bestrahlungsbereichs der Solarzellenanordnung, der von den photovoltaischen Komponenten (3) nicht bedeckt ist, im Bereich von 30% bis 80% liegt, vorzugsweise im Bereich von 40% bis 60%.
     
    11. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die transparente rückseitige Glasplatte (4) nur durch einen Außenrahmen des photovoltaisch-thermischen Solarsystems und durch die Mehrzahl von lichtreflektierenden Elementen (6) abgestützt ist.
     
    12. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Mehrzahl von lichtreflektierenden Elementen (6) eine Ebene mit einem Neigungswinkel haben, insbesondere als eine Seite eines Dreiecks, oder eine bogenförmig Oberfläche oder eine parabolische Oberfläche, um das auf das photovoltaisch-thermische Solarsystem auf den Wärmetauschern einfallende Licht zu reflektieren.
     
    13. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Mehrzahl von lichtreflektierenden Elementen (6) unter regelmäßigen Abständen angeordnet sind.
     
    14. Photovoltaisch-thermisches Solarsystem nach Anspruch 13, wobei die Wärmetauscher (5) in der Mitte eines zugeordneten Lichtsammelhohlraums der Mehrzahl von Lichtsammelhohlräumen angeordnet sind und an der Unterseite der transparenten rückseitigen Glasplatte (4) befestigt sind oder an dieser anliegen.
     


    Revendications

    1. Un système photovoltaïque thermal solaire comprenant :

    un ensemble de cellules solaires comprenant une pluralité de composants photovoltaïques (3),

    une plaque réfléchissant la lumière (7) disposée sous l'ensemble de cellules solaires,

    une cavité de collecte lumineuse située sous l'ensemble de cellules solaires, et

    un échangeur de chaleur (5), dans lequel

    au moins une partie de la surface d'irradiation de l'ensemble de cellules solaires n'est pas couverte par les composants photovoltaïques (3) de telle manière que la lumière peut pénétrer la couche de l'ensemble de cellules solaires et rejoindre la cavité de collecte lumineuse,

    caractérisé en ce que l'ensemble de cellules solaires comporte une couverture avant en verre transparent (1), un matériau d'encapsulation transparent (2) et une feuille de fond en verre transparent (4), dans lequel la pluralité de composants photovoltaïques (3) est encapsulée par le matériau d'encapsulation transparent (2) ; dans lequel

    la feuille de fond en verre transparent (4) est un verre trempé physiquement ou chimiquement ;

    la cavité de collecte lumineuse est formée par un espace entouré d'une pluralité d'éléments de réflexion lumineuse (6) situés sous la feuille arrière en verre transparent (4), la plaque réfléchissant la lumière (7) étant disposée sous l'ensemble de cellules solaires et sous la feuille de fond en verre transparent (4) ;

    l'espace entre la feuille arrière en verre transparent (4) et la plaque réfléchissant la lumière (7) est subdivisée par la pluralité d'éléments de réflexion lumineuse (6) en une pluralité de cavités de collecte lumineuse, logeant un échangeur de chaleur respectif (5) ; et

    la surface de la feuille de fond en verre transparent (4) faisant face à la cavité de collecte lumineuse est couverte avec une couche réfléchissante sélective, laquelle réfléchit la lumière à longues bandes d'ondes.


     
    2. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le verre physiquement trempé a une résistance à la compression allant d'environ 120 MPa à environ 300 MPa, une résistance à la flexion allant d'environ 120 MPa à environ 300 MPa et une résistance à la traction allant d'environ 90 MPa à environ 180 Mpa, dans lequel le verre physiquement trempé a de préférence une épaisseur égale à au moins 3 mm.
     
    3. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédente, dans lequel la couche de réflexion de lumière à longues bandes d'ondes est une structure multicouche de film métallique hautement réfléchissant/film oxyde métallique transparent/film métallique hautement réfléchissant.
     
    4. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le film métallique hautement réfléchissant un film d'argent, et le film d'oxyde métallique transparent est un film d'oxyde de zinc.
     
    5. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel la couche réfléchissant la lumière à longues bandes d'onde est une structure multicouche de film métallique hautement réfléchissant/ film d'oxyde métallique transparent (A) / film d'oxyde métallique transparent (B) / film d'oxyde métallique transparent (A) / film métallique hautement réfléchissant, et dans lequel l'indice de réfraction optique du film d'oxyde métallique transparent (A) est plus élevé que l'indice de réfraction optique du film d'oxyde métallique transparent (B).
     
    6. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon la revendication 5, dans lequel le film métallique hautement réfléchissant de la couche réfléchissant la lumière à longue bande d'ondes est de l'argent, le film d'oxyde métallique transparent (A) est un film d'oxyde de zinc et de gallium (GZO) et le film d'oxyde métallique transparent (B) est un film d'oxyde de zinc (AZO).
     
    7. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications 4 à 8, dans lequel la couche réfléchissant la lumière à longue bande d'ondes est soudée à la feuille de fond de verre transparente (4) par dépôt direct.
     
    8. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la plaque réfléchissante de lumière (7) ou la pluralité d'éléments réfléchissant la lumière (6) ou les deux sont recouverts d'une couche réfléchissante sur les surfaces tournées vers la cavité de collecte de lumière.
     
    9. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon la revendication 8, dans lequel la couche réfléchissante est un matériau métallique choisi parmi l'argent, l'or, l'aluminium ou le chrome ou un oxyde métallique ou un matériau non métallique choisi parmi TiO2, BaSO4 ou Teflon
     
    10. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la proportion de la surface d'irradiation de l'ensemble de cellules solaires non recouverte par les composants photovoltaïques (3) est dans la plage de 30% à 80%, de préférence dans la plage de 40% à 60%.
     
    11. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la feuille de fond en verre transparent (4) est soutenue uniquement par un cadre extérieur du système photovoltaïque thermal solaire et par la pluralité d'éléments réfléchissant la lumière (6).
     
    12. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la pluralité d'éléments réfléchissant la lumière (6) ont un plan qui est un angle incliné, particulièrement tel un côté d'un triangle, ou une surface d'arc ou une surface parabolique pour réfléchir la lumière incidente sur le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire sur les échangeurs de chaleur.
     
    13. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la pluralité d'éléments réfléchissant la lumière (6) sont disposés avec des espacements réguliers.
     
    14. Le système photovoltaïque thermal solaire selon la revendication 13, dans lequel les échangeurs de chaleur (5) sont disposés sur le milieu d'une cavité de collecte de lumière associée à la pluralité de cavités de collecte de lumière et sont fixée à ou viennent en butée sur la surface de fond de la feuille de fond en verre transparent.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description