(19)
(11)EP 2 677 351 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
18.11.2020 Bulletin 2020/47

(21)Application number: 13172844.6

(22)Date of filing:  19.06.2013
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G02B 5/18  (2006.01)

(54)

Method of manufacturing a diffraction grating

Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Diffraktionsgitters

Procédé de fabrication d'un réseau de diffraction


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 20.06.2012 JP 2012138392

(43)Date of publication of application:
25.12.2013 Bulletin 2013/52

(73)Proprietor: CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA
Ohta-ku Tokyo 146-8501 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • Sukegawa, Takashi
    Ohta-ku, Tokyo (JP)
  • Sugiyama, Shigeru
    Ohta-ku, Tokyo (JP)

(74)Representative: Canon Europe Limited 
European Intellectual Property Group 3 The Square, Stockley Park
Uxbridge UB11 1ET
Uxbridge UB11 1ET (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A2- 0 059 304
US-A- 4 475 792
JP-A- 2003 075 622
  
  • MOHAMMAD KAZEM SHAMS ET AL: "Preferential chemical etching of blazed gratings in (110)-oriented GaAs", OPTICS LETTERS, vol. 4, no. 3, 1 March 1979 (1979-03-01), pages 96-98, XP055078516, ISSN: 0146-9592, DOI: 10.1364/OL.4.000096
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


Field of the Invention



[0001] The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a diffraction grating. Such a diffraction grating may be used, for example, in an optical apparatus such as a spectroscope.

Description of the Related Art



[0002] A phase diffraction grating is a diffraction grating made so that a phase difference is given to incident light in one cycle of grating by making the shape of a grating groove into a blazed shape, a sinusoidal shape, or a rectangular wave shape so that a diffraction light intensity property can be selected according to its use. A blazed diffraction grating is a phase diffraction grating having a grating groove with a triangular cross-section, and is manufactured by sequentially forming a ruling, with a grating groove of a predetermined cross-sectional shape, by a cutting process using a grind stone or a shaving process using a diamond cutting tool.

[0003] A blazed diffraction grating made of a crystalline material is a diffraction grating designed to use high-order diffraction light. In order to obtain good optical properties, it is necessary that the machining in which the grating groove is formed is performed in a ductile mode. A critical cutting thickness determines a boundary between the ductile mode and a brittle mode. It is known that the critical cutting thickness depends on a relation between a crystal orientation of a slip surface and a worked surface, a relation between a crystal axis and a cutting direction, and a relation between the crystal axis and a cutting force direction (which depends on a tool rake angle and the cutting direction) in a crystal. For example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2003-075622 discusses that the grating groove is formed by using a groove processing surface (a surface on which the grating groove is to be formed) as a (111) plane, using a cutting direction as a (111) plane in a crystalline material made of Si or Ge, and using a single crystal diamond cutting tool in an ultra-precision cutting process.

[0004] However, a stable ductile mode is not obtained even when the crystal orientation (plane direction of crystal) of the groove processing surface (diffraction grating plain surface) and the critical cutting thickness are used as parameters. The blazed diffraction grating is influenced by at least one of the long side and the short side that constitute the grating groove when the blazed diffraction grating is used as a transmission type or an immersion type (backside reflection type). However, it is common to use the blazed diffraction grating so that the incident direction of light is perpendicular to the short side of the cross-sectional shape of the grating. The surface roughness (profile irregularity) of the short side is important in the case of a reflection diffraction grating.

[0005] The crystalline materials made of gallium phosphide (GaP) or gallium arsenide (GaAs) are used as optical materials, but the machining in which the grating groove of a blazed diffraction grating is formed from these crystalline materials has not been proposed.
MOHAMMAD KAZEM SHAMS et al. :"Preferential chemical etching of blazed gratings in (110)-oriented GaAs", OPTICS LETTERS, vol. 4, no. 3, 1 March 1979, pages 96-98, XP055078516, ISSN:0146-9592, DOI:10.1364/OL.4.000096 describes blazed gratings with a theoretical blaze angle of 33° 16' etched into GaAs surfaces by preferential chemical etching, using a photoresist mask. JP2003075622 describes a diffraction grating manufactured by mechanical processing with high accuracy, a method for processing the diffraction grating and an optical element which uses the diffraction grating. A material of Ge single crystal or Si single crystal is used and grating grooves are formed on the (111) plane of the crystal orientation by a fly cut method by using a diamond cutting tool.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0006] According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for manufacturing a blazed diffraction grating made of single crystalline GaP or single crystalline GaAs as set out in claim 1. According to a further aspect, there is provided a blazed diffraction grating as set out in accompanying claim 9.

[0007] Further features of the present invention will become apparent from the following description of embodiments with reference to the attached drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0008] 

Fig. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating a blazed diffraction grating according to an embodiment of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is a schematic perspective view illustrating a processing machine according to the embodiment of the present invention.

Fig. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating a method of manufacturing the blazed diffraction grating illustrated in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 is a flowchart illustrating the method of manufacturing the blazed diffraction grating illustrated in Fig. 1.

Figs. 5A, 5B, 5C, and 5D are cross-sectional views of a workpiece in respective steps in Fig. 4.


DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS



[0009] Fig. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating a blazed diffraction grating (sometimes called an Echelle diffraction grating) 10 that diffracts incident light. The blazed diffraction grating is a diffraction grating in which a grating groove has a saw tooth shape (blazed shape), and has a high diffraction efficiency for a specific order and wavelength. The blazed diffraction grating of the present embodiment is an immersion diffraction grating (transmission type, backside reflection diffraction grating) as illustrated in Fig. 1. However, the blazed diffraction grating 10 may also be configured as a reflection diffraction grating that reflects the light on its front surface.

[0010] Each grating of the blazed diffraction grating 10 has an asymmetric triangular shape composed of a short side 11 and a long side 12 in a cross-section including a blazed direction BD and a grating normal GN perpendicular thereto. The short side 11 and the long side 12 each also extend in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the page in Fig. 1.

[0011] An angle θ made by the short side 11 and the long side 12 is referred to as an apex angle 13, which is θ = 90° in the present embodiment. The apex angle 13 is approximately equal to an opening angle θ1 of a tip portion of a cutting tool described below. In the blazed diffraction grating 10 of the present embodiment, a surface 16 having the short side 11 works as a blazed plane that receives the most incident light and a surface 15 having the long side 12 works a counter plane adjacent to the blazed plane among the surfaces that constitute each grating. However, in the reflection blazed diffraction grating, the surface 15 may work as the blazed plane and the surface 16 may work as the counter plane in some cases. The present invention is also applicable to the case where each grating does not have the triangular shape in the cross-section including the blazed direction BD and the grating normal perpendicular thereto.

[0012] As illustrated in Fig. 1, the blazed diffraction grating 10 is often used in a configuration so that the incident light direction L of the light faces the short side in order to resolve the incident light frequently as possible, and the diffraction efficiency depends on the surface accuracy (profile irregularity) of the short side 11. Thus, it is required to process the surface 16 including the short side 11 with high precision.

[0013] Fig. 2 is a schematic perspective view of a processing machine 20 of the present embodiment, and X, Y and Z are set for three axis directions that are orthogonal to one another. The processing machine 20 is a manufacture apparatus that manufactures the blazed diffraction grating 10 by forming a plurality of grating grooves 17 on the workpiece W made of a GaP crystalline material or a GaAs crystalline material. The GaP crystalline material transmits the light from visible light of 0.5 to 16 µm to far-infrared light. The GaAs crystalline material transmits the light of 1 to 18 µm and infrared light. Thus, they are suitable as an optical element for the infrared light. GaP and GaAs are compounds of Ga in a group 13 with P and As, respectively, in a group 15 in the periodic table of the elements, and have the same crystal structure referred to as Zincblende (B3). Thus, both materials can be used for the present embodiment. In a polycrystalline material, the crystal orientations are not completely uniform, and thus it is difficult to stably obtain a processing property depending on a crystal axis. Thus, it is difficult to obtain a good optical surface from the polycrystalline material. Therefore, it is more desirable to use single crystal crystalline material of GaP or GaAs.

[0014] The processing machine 20 is an ultraprecision cutting processing machine that can perform numerical control (NC) of cutting to a typical accuracy of several tens of nanometers(nm). The processing machine 20 forms the grating groove 17 by using a diamond cutting tool 22 that has a sharp tip and produces a processing transcription property with high accuracy as a tool in a shaper (plane shaving) system in which the surface is cut by moving a cutting blade.

[0015] In the processing machine 20, the workpiece is mounted on an XY stage composed of an X stage 25 movable in an X direction and a Y stage 26 movable in a Y direction in a highly rigid housing 21, which is resistant to external vibration. The diamond cutting tool 22 is mounted on a Z stage movable in a Z direction. In the present embodiment, the diamond cutting tool is not rotated, but a processing machine in which the diamond cutting tool is rotated could also be used.

[0016] Fig. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the processing machine 20, the workpiece W, and the diamond cutting tool 22. A cutting tool feeding plain surface represented by M is parallel to a brazed direction, which is parallel to a cutting tool feeding direction where the diamond cutting tool 22 is moved relative to the workpiece W.

[0017] As illustrated in Fig. 3, the diamond cutting tool has at least two edge cutting blades 23 and 24, which transfer a polygonal groove cross-sectional shape that works as the grating groove 17. An angle θ1 made by tips of the edge cutting blades 23 and 24 is approximately equal to an opening angle θ of the grating groove 17, and is 90° in the present embodiment. A tip portion of the edge cutting blades 23 and 24 is scarcely rounded and a ridgeline accuracy of the edge is very high in the tip portion. Thus, a wall accuracy of the grating groove in the blazed diffraction grating 10 can be made highly precise.

[0018] The diamond cutting tool 22 is slid down on a side of the workpiece so that a cutting depth in the Z direction at a position where the diamond cutting tool 22 is located opposite the workpiece W is, for example, 0.2 µm, and the XY stage is moved in the X or Y direction in a linear or curved manner. A cutting rate is obtained by relative movement of the diamond cutting tool 22 and the workpiece W, and the workpiece W is cut and processed with the edge cutting blades 23 and 24.

[0019] Of course, a movement target may be a side of the cutting tool or a side of the workpiece in the machining. Also in order to avoid an overload to the cutting tool, the cutting depth required in the Z direction is divided and a step of forming a divided cutting depth may be repeated multiple times. Upon processing, oil mist is sprayed from a backside of a cutting tool rake face to flush cutting chips from the rake face while processing heat is removed.

[0020] Hereinafter, the method of manufacturing the diffraction grating using the processing machine 20 will now be described. Fig. 4 is a flowchart illustrating the method of manufacturing (machining) the diffraction grating using the processing machine 20. Figs. 5A, 5B, 5C, and 5D are schematic cross-sectional views of the workpiece W in respective steps in Fig. 4.

[0021] First, in step S110, a workpiece (work) W made of a crystalline material of GaP or GaAs having an appropriate shape such as a cylindrical shape, a cubic shape or a rectangular shape is obtained as illustrated in Fig. 5A. For example, the workpiece W having a cubic shape can be obtained by utilizing a crystal growing apparatus. In the present embodiment, the workpiece W having a rectangular shape in which both an upper surface (upper side end face) and a left side end face are crystal orientation (110) planes is obtained.

[0022] Subsequently, in step S120, the workpiece W obtained in step S110 is cut as illustrated by a dot line D in Fig. 5B. In the present embodiment, a slope angle of this dot line D against the upper surface is 20° as an example. In the present embodiment, a cutting processing machine used in step S120 is not the processing machine 20, and a processing machine with lower accuracy is used.

[0023] Subsequently, in step S130, the cut surface C of the workpiece W in step S120 is ground using a grinding apparatus P as illustrated in Fig. 5C. In this case, the workpiece W may be placed in the grinding apparatus using a jig 30 to be used in step S140.

[0024] Subsequently, in step S140, the ground workpiece W is placed on the aforementioned XY stage in the processing machine 20 through the jig 30 as illustrated in Fig. 5D. The jig 30 has the slope angle of 20°, and thus the machined surface becomes parallel to the surface of the Y stage 26.

[0025] The workpiece W is placed on the jig 30 with a slant to be mounted in the processing machine 20 so that the workpiece has the slope angle of 20 degrees against the cutting tool feeding plain surface M of the processing machine 20. The workpiece is disposed so that the crystal orientation of the cutting tool feeding plain surface M where the cutting tool 22 processes the groove is (Tanθ, 1, 0) (θA = 20°). As described above, the shaper system in which the diamond cutting tool 22, which is a tool, is moved in parallel with a distributed orthogonal direction of a diffraction grating groove surface (groove direction) and its shape is transferred is employed in the present embodiment.

[0026] Subsequently, in step S150, the machining where the grating groove is formed on a cut surface C of the workpiece W is carried out to obtain a state illustrated in Fig. 3. Step S150 is a step of forming a plurality of grating grooves on the cut surface, which is a surface to be processed. In the present embodiment, when the blazed diffraction grating is manufactured using a crystal of GaP or GaAs, the crystal orientation is selected so that a surface including the short side 11 is a (110) plane and the crystal is processed into a thickness equal to or smaller than a critical cutting thickness. This can produce a diffraction element with high quality by very good process where brittle fracture is minimized compared with the case where the surface including the short side 11 is a plane other than the (110) plane. When the apex angle is 90 degrees, both the surface including the short side 11 and the surface including the long side 12 can be composed of the (110) planes. By minimizing the surface roughness of the surface that forms the grating groove, it is possible to obtain the diffraction element that is advantageous in terms of enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of the diffraction element and reduction of stray light. Put another way, the grating grooves are formed so that the surface that receives the most incident light among surfaces that constitute each grating is a (110) plane, which is a crystal orientation of the crystalline material.

[0027] Fig 3. shows an embodiment where the short side 11 and the long side 12 having a slant plane of 20 degrees are processed so that the surface 16 having the short side 11 and the surface 15 having the long side 12 of the blazed diffraction grating 10 of 90 degrees become the (110) planes. By making the cutting thickness 0.2 µm or less upon finish, a good optical surface having the surface roughness of 10 nm or less can be obtained.

[0028] Meanwhile, when the crystal orientation is not selected in this way and, for example, the surface 16 having the short side 11 is a (111) plane, even if the cutting thickness upon finish is 0.2 µm or less, the surface roughness is more than 100 nm and a surface accuracy is reduced. Conventionally, the crystal orientation of the cut surface in step S130 was set to be a (111) plane.

[0029] It is difficult due to impurities to obtain a perfect crystal, but the crystal orientation in the present embodiment means crystal dominance, and is not limited to a state where all of the orientations are perfectly uniform in the crystal orientations to be evaluated.

[0030] When the blazed diffraction grating 10 is used as a reflection diffraction grating, the light enters the grating from a direction that is inclined by a predetermined angle from a grating perpendicular to the blazed direction in Fig. 1. Thus, the incident direction of the light is influenced by the short side 11 and the long side 12. Therefore, in this case, it is desirable to perform machining so that at least one of the short side 11 and the long side 12 is a (110) plane. Of course, when the apex angle 13 is 90°, both the short side 11 and the long side (12) can be set as the (110) plane. In the present embodiment, the diamond cutting tool 22 is used for the machining, but even if a grind stone is used for the cutting process, the surface roughness of the (110) plane can be reduced to be lower than that in other processes of cutting the crystal orientation plane. By incorporating such a diffraction grating into an optical apparatus such as a spectroscope and a laser apparatus, it is possible to manufacture an optical apparatus with high accuracy.

[0031] While the present invention has been described with reference to embodiments, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the disclosed embodiments.


Claims

1. A method for manufacturing a blazed diffraction grating made of single crystalline gallium phosphide (GaP) or single crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs), the method comprising
forming the blazed diffraction grating by forming a plurality of grating grooves on a machined surface of a workpiece by machining,
wherein each of the grating grooves are formed so that the grating groove consists of two surfaces, and one of the two surfaces is the (110) plane, where (110) describes a crystal orientation of said single crystalline gallium phosphide (GaP) or single crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs).
 
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the surface which is a (100) plane is a surface having a short side of a triangular cross-section of each grating groove.
 
3. The method according to any preceding claim, wherein the grating grooves are formed to have an opening angle of 90 degrees.
 
4. The method according to any preceding claim, wherein the grating groove is formed using a shaper system having a diamond cutting tool.
 
5. The method according to any preceding claim, wherein the blazed diffraction grating is an immersion diffraction grating.
 
6. The method according to any preceding claim, wherein the grating groove is formed by mounting the workpiece on a processing machine so that the workpiece is processed to form a surface of each grating groove.
 
7. A method according to any preceding claim, wherein the grating groove is formed so that a surface having a short side of a triangular cross-sectional shape of each grating groove is the (110) plane.
 
8. The method according to any preceding claim, wherein the grating groove is formed so that a surface having a long side of the triangular cross-sectional shape is the (110) plane.
 
9. A blazed diffraction grating made of single crystalline gallium phosphide (GaP) or single crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs), on which a plurality of grating grooves are formed,
wherein each of the grating grooves consists of two surfaces, characterized in that one of the two surfaces is a (110) plane, where (110) describes a crystal orientation of said single crystalline gallium phosphide (GaP) or single crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs).
 
10. The blazed diffraction grating according to claim 9, wherein the grating groove includes a blazed plane and a counter plane, and the blazed plane is the (110) plane.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Blaze-Gitters aus einkristallinem Galliumphosphid (GaP) oder einkristallinem Galliumarsenid (GaAs), wobei das Verfahren umfasst:

Bilden des Blaze-Gitters durch Bilden mehrerer Gitterfurchen auf einer bearbeiteten Oberfläche eines Werkstücks durch maschinelles Bearbeiten,

wobei eine jeweilige der Gitterfurchen so gebildet wird, dass die Gitterfurche aus zwei Oberflächen besteht, und eine der zwei Oberflächen die (110)-Ebene ist, wobei (110) eine Kristallorientierung des einkristallinen Galliumphosphids (GaP) oder einkristallinen Galliumarsenids (GaAs) beschreibt.


 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Oberfläche, die eine (100)-Ebene ist, eine Oberfläche mit einer kurzen Seite eines dreieckigen Querschnitts einer jeweiligen Gitterfurche ist.
 
3. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Gitterfurchen so ausgebildet sind, dass sie einen Öffnungswinkel von 90 Grad aufweisen.
 
4. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Gitterfurche unter Verwendung eines Formgebungsmaschinensystems mit einem Diamantschneidwerkzeug ausgebildet wird.
 
5. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Blaze-Gitter ein Immersionsbeugungsgitter ist.
 
6. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Gitterfurche gebildet wird durch Anbringen des Werkstücks auf einer Bearbeitungsmaschine, so dass das Werkstück bearbeitet wird, um eine Oberfläche einer jeweiligen Gitterfurche zu bilden.
 
7. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Gitterfurche so gebildet ist, dass eine Oberfläche mit einer kurzen Seite einer dreieckigen Querschnittsform einer jeweiligen Gitterfurche die (110)-Ebene ist.
 
8. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Gitterfurche so gebildet ist, dass eine Oberfläche mit einer langen Seite der dreieckigen Querschnittsform die (110)-Ebene ist.
 
9. Blaze-Gitter aus einkristallinem Galliumphosphid (GaP) oder einkristallinem Galliumarsenid (GaAs), auf dem mehrere Gitterfurchen ausgebildet sind,

wobei eine jeweilige der Gitterfurchen aus zwei Oberflächen besteht,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass eine der beiden Oberflächen eine (110)-Ebene ist, wobei (110) eine Kristallorientierung des einkristallinen Galliumphosphids (GaP) oder einkristallinen Galliumarsenids (GaAs) beschreibt.


 
10. Blaze-Gitter nach Anspruch 9, wobei die Gitterfurche eine Blaze-Ebene und eine Zähler-Ebene enthält und die Blaze-Ebene die (110)-Ebene ist.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé de fabrication d'un réseau de diffraction blazé constitué de phosphure de gallium monocristallin (GaP) ou d'arséniure de gallium monocristallin (GaAs), le procédé comprenant les étapes consistant à :

former le réseau de diffraction blazé par une formation, par usinage, d'une pluralité de rainures de réseau sur une surface usinée d'une pièce à travailler,

dans lequel toutes les rainures de réseau sont individuellement formées pour que la rainure de réseau soit constituée de deux surfaces, et qu'une des deux surfaces constitue le plan (110), (110) décrivant une orientation cristalline dudit phosphure de gallium monocristallin (GaP) ou dudit arséniure de gallium monocristallin (GaAs).


 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la surface qui constitue un plan (100) est une surface comportant un côté court d'une section transversale triangulaire de chaque rainure de réseau.
 
3. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel les rainures de réseau sont formées de façon à avoir un angle d'ouverture de 90 degrés.
 
4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la rainure de réseau est formée au moyen d'un système de mise en forme comportant un outil de coupe diamanté.
 
5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le réseau de diffraction blazé est un réseau de diffraction à immersion.
 
6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la rainure de réseau est formée par un montage de la pièce à travailler sur une machine de traitement de sorte que la pièce à travailler soit traitée pour former une surface de chaque rainure de réseau.
 
7. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la rainure de réseau est formée de sorte qu'une surface comportant un côté court d'une forme de section transversale triangulaire de chaque rainure de réseau constitue le plan (110).
 
8. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le réseau de diffraction est formé de sorte qu'une surface ayant un côté long de la forme de section transversale triangulaire constitue le plan (110).
 
9. Réseau de diffraction blazé constitué de phosphure de gallium monocristallin (GaP) ou d'arséniure de gallium monocristallin (GaAs), sur lequel sont formées une pluralité de rainures de réseau,
dans lequel chacune des rainures de réseau est constituée de deux surfaces, caractérisé en ce qu'une des deux surfaces constitue un plan (110), (110) décrivant une orientation cristalline dudit phosphure de gallium monocristallin (GaP) ou dudit arséniure de gallium monocristallin (GaAs).
 
10. Réseau de diffraction blazé selon la revendication 9, dans lequel la rainure de réseau comprend un plan blazé et un contre-plan, et le plan blazé constitue le plan (110) .
 




Drawing





















REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description