(19)
(11)EP 2 679 687 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
19.08.2020 Bulletin 2020/34

(21)Application number: 13178514.9

(22)Date of filing:  27.06.2007
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C12N 15/82(2006.01)
C11C 3/04(2006.01)
C12N 9/02(2006.01)
C10L 1/02(2006.01)
A23D 9/00(2006.01)

(54)

Fatty acid blends and uses therefor

Fettsäuremischungen und ihre Verwendung

Mélanges d'acides gras et leurs utilisations


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 28.06.2006 US 817558 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
01.01.2014 Bulletin 2014/01

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
07809993.4 / 2041047

(73)Proprietor: Cibus Europe B.V.
4811 CA Breda (NL)

(72)Inventors:
  • Knuth, Mark E.
    Poway, CA 92064 (US)
  • Beetham, Peter R.
    Carlsbad, CA 92011-5035 (US)
  • Walker, Keith A.
    San Diego, CA 92130 (US)
  • Gocal, Gregory Francis William
    San Diego, CA 92129 (US)

(74)Representative: Zimmermann & Partner Patentanwälte mbB 
Postfach 330 920
80069 München
80069 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
  
  • SULKERS E J ET AL: "COMPARISON OF TWO PRETERM FORMULAS WITH OR WITHOUT ADDITION OF MEDIUM-CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE MCTS I. EFFECTS ON NITROGEN AND FAT BALANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION CHANGES", JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION, LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS WILKINS, INC, US, vol. 15, no. 1, 1 January 1992 (1992-01-01), pages 34-41, XP009171931, ISSN: 0277-2116, DOI: 10.1097/00005176-199207000-00006
  • GELLER, D.P.; GOODRUM, J.W.; KNAPP, S.J.: "Fuel properties of oil from genetically altered Cuphea viscosissima", INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS, vol. 9, no. 2, 1 January 1999 (1999-01-01) , pages 85-91, XP002596248,
  • DITTMAR T ET AL: "ERZEUGUNG VON NORMIERTEM BIODIESEL - UNTERSUCHUNGEN ZUR KAELTESTABILITAET VON FETTSAEUREALKYLESTERN//PRODUCTION OF STANDARDIZED BIODIESEL - INVESTIGATIONS TO COLD FLOW BEHAVIOR OF FATTY ACID ALKYL ESTERS", ERDOEL ERDGAS KOHLE, URBAN VERLAG, HAMBURG, DE, vol. 119, no. 10, 1 October 2003 (2003-10-01), pages 356-362, XP001175428, ISSN: 0179-3187
  • GRABOSKI M S ET AL: "Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines", PROGRESS IN ENERGY AND COMBUSTION SCIENCE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS, AMSTERDAM, NL LNKD- DOI:10.1016/S0360-1285(97)00034-8, vol. 24, no. 2, 1 January 1998 (1998-01-01), pages 125-164, XP004116553, ISSN: 0360-1285
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] Provided are oils; blends of oils or fatty acids; uses of such blends, including uses as fuels; and methods of obtaining oils or fatty acids blends.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] The following description of the background of the invention is provided simply as an aid in understanding the invention and is not admitted to describe or constitute prior art to the invention.

[0003] Vegetable oils have been used as alternative fuels and feedstocks for the production of biodiesels. Generally the oils used are extracted from plants grown in large quantity in a particular region. Therefore, soybean oil is of interest as a source of biodiesel in the United States, whereas rapeseed oil is of interest in European countries; and countries having tropical climates utilize coconut oil or palm oil (Knothe et al., published on-line at www.biodiesel.org/resources/reportsdatabase/reports/gen/19961201_gen-162.pdf).

[0004] A composition of triglycerides simulating the oil from VS-320, a mutant Cuphea viscossima, is disclosed by Geller et al. (Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 42:859-862, 1999). The "simulated analogue of VS-320 oil" disclosed in Geller has a triglyceride composition of 4.2% C6:0; 40.20% C8:0; 36.90% C10:0; 4.80% C12:0; 6.80% C14:0; 3.33% C16:0; 0.00 % C18:0; 1.37% C18:1; 2.05% C18:2; and 0.00% C18:3 (see Table 1). Geller et al., (1999) concluded that "[t]his model suggests that an increase in the C8:0 content of vegetable oils along with a subsequent reduction in medium- and long-chain triglycerides may result in a more efficient, better performing alternative diesel fuel."

[0005] Stournas, et al., (JACOS, 1995, 72:433-437) discloses characteristics of various oils as fuels and states "[g]iven the ±3°C repeatability of pour point determinations, most of the added components did not appear to affect the -12°C pour point of the base fuel to a significant degree. The major exceptions are the saturated fatty alcohols with C12 and longer alkyl chains, which increase the pour point substantially; minor negative effects were also observed with some of the longer-chain esters. It is worth noticing that the presence of the double bond in all oleate derivatives sharply improves their cold flow behavior in comparison to the corresponding stearates" and "[w]hen both ignition quality and cold flow behavior are taken into account, the tertiary dimethylamines are the best performers; however, the tertiary amides also appear to be interesting prospects, in that their preparation from the glycerides of natural vegetable oils may be much simpler than that of the amines, as some recent studies have shown."

[0006] Mittelbach (Bioresource Technology, 1996, 56:7-11) discusses specifications and quality control of diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils and states "[o]ne parameter which has not yet been included in the Austrian standards for RME, but might be necessary when defining general standards for fatty acid methyl esters is the iodine number, which describes the content of unsaturated fatty acids and is only dependent on the origin of the vegetable oil. In Germany a value of 115 is defined, which corresponds to rapeseed oil, but would exclude different kinds of oils, like sunflower oil and soybean oil. A limitation of unsaturated fatty acids may be necessary, due to the fact that heating higher unsaturated fatty acids results in polymerization of glycerides. This can lead to the formulation of deposits or to deterioration of the lubricating oil. This effect increases with the number of double bonds in the fatty acid chain. Therefore, it seems better to limit the content of higher unsaturated fatty acids like linolenic acid, than to limit the degree of unsaturation with the iodine number."

[0007] Graboski (Prog. Energy Combustion Sci., 1998, 24:125-164) discusses "the statues of fat and oil derived diesel fuels with respect to fuel properties, engine performance, and emissions" and states "[r]educing chain length and/or increasing chain branching would improve the cold flow properties of the fuel. Chain length and degree of branching might be altered through both plant breeding or genetic engineering approaches, as well as through chemical processing of the biodiesel to cleave certain double bonds or to form branched isomers. Very little practical research has been done in the chemical processing area. The cold flow properties of biodiesel fuels are clearly an area in need of considerable research."

[0008] Goodrum et al., (Bioresource Technology, 1996, 56:55-60) discusses "physical properties of low molecular weight triglycerides for the development of bio-diesel fuel models" and states "[o]ils which contain significant fractions of low molecular weight triglycerides might be suitable for direct use as fuel extenders. In fact, feedstock from Cuphea species (Graham, 1989), contains oils predominantly composed of these triglycerides (particularly tricaprylin and tricaprin). Modern DNA transfer technologies might also afford the transfer of genes that control the synthesis of low molecular weight triglycerides from species such as Cuphea into other more well-established oilseed crops. Oil composition could then be genetically modified for the optimal desired biodiesel properties."

[0009] Knothe (Fuel Processing Technology, 2005, 86:1059-1070) states "[s]aturated fatty compounds have significantly higher melting points than unsaturated fatty compounds (Table 1) and in a mixture they crystallize at higher temperature than the unsaturates. Thus biodiesel fuels derived from fats or oils with significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds will display higher cloud points and pour points."

[0010] Kinney et al., (Fuel Processing Technology, 2005, 86:1137-1147) discusses issues regarding modification of soybean oil for enhanced performance biodiesel blends. This article references the blends disclosed in Geller et al., 1999 and states "since the melting point of biodiesel derived from these short-chain fatty acids is fairly high, additional winterization steps would be required to improve cold flow properties." Kinney et al. also states "[a]lterations in the fatty acid profile that increase the saturated fatty acid content will augment oxidative stability but worsen cold flow ... the presence of double bonds in fatty acids will lower the cetane number; hence, strategies to shift the fatty pool of a vegetable oil towards saturated moieties will improve ignition quality of the derived biodiesel, but as with oxidative stability may compromise cold flow properties."

[0011] U.S. Patent No. 4,364,743 ("the '743 patent") discloses "a synthetic fuel of fatty acid esters [that] provides a novel source of energy when burned alone or in combination with other known fuels," and that "[e]sters are preferably prepared by a transesterification reaction using various oils such as soya oil, palm oil , safflower oil, peanut oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, linseed oil, oiticica oil, tung oil, coconut oil, castor oil, perilla oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, lard, tallow, fish oils, blubber, lipids from marine and land animals and lipids from vegetable sources."

[0012] U.S. Patent No. 5,389,113 ("the '113 patent") discloses "mixtures containing a) 58 to 95% by weight of at least one ester with an iodine value of 50 to 150 derived from fatty acids containing 12 to 22 carbon atoms and lower aliphatic alcohols containing 1 to 4 carbon atoms, b) 4 to 40% by weight of at least one ester of fatty acids containing 6 to 14 carbon atoms and lower aliphatic alcohols containing 1 to 4 carbon atoms and c) 0.1 to 2% by weight of at least one polymeric ester."

[0013] US Patent Application Publication No. 2006026963 discloses "nucleic acid constructs and methods for producing altered seed oil compositions" and states "a method to enhance oleic acid content and reduce saturated fatty acid content in a plant seed comprising i) shortening the length of a first heterologous FAD2 sequence until the amount of FAD2 gene suppression from a plant transformed with the first heterologous FAD2 sequence is at least partially reduced relative to the amount of FAD2 gene suppression in a plant cell comprising a similar genetic background and a second heterologous FAD2 sequence, wherein the second heterologous FAD2 sequence consists of more endogenous FAD2 sequence than the first heterologous FAD2 sequence; ii) expressing a heterologous FATB sequence capable of at least partially reducing FATB gene expression in a plant cell relative to the suppression of FATB in a plant cell with a similar genetic background but without the heterologous FATB sequence; iii) growing a plant comprising a genome with the first heterologous FAD2 sequence and the heterologous FATB sequence; and iv) cultivating a plant that produces seed with a reduced saturated fatty acid content relative to seed from a plant having a similar genetic background but lacking the first heterologous FAD2 sequence and the heterologous FATB sequence."

[0014] Sulkers et al. (Comparison of Two Preterm Formulas With or Without Addition of Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs). I: Effects on Nitrogen and Fat Balance and Body Composition Changes; Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Vol. 15, pages 34-41 (1992)) relates to preterm formulas comprising fat blend compositions. The formula in Table 1 denoted MCT comprises (per 100 ml) 8.0 g carbohydrates, 2.19 g protein and 4.51 g of a fat blend comprising a cumulative amount of saturated medium chain fatty acids and monounsaturated long chain fatty acids of 59.7%.

[0015] Geller et al. (Fuel properties of oil from genetically altered Cuphea viscosissima; Industrial Crops and Products ,Vol 9, pages 85-91 (1999)) relates to genetically altered Cuphea viscossissima plants, and oils derived therefrom, which oils contain elevated levels of medium and short chain triglycerides.

[0016] Dittmar et al. (Erzeugung von normiertem Biodiesel - Untersuchungen zur Kältestabilität von Fettsäurealkylestern; Erdöl Erdgas Kohle, Vol. 119, No. 10, pages 356-362 (2003)) investigates the cold resistence of biodiesel with regard to the fatty acid profile and the structure of the alkyl groups of the fatty acid alkyl esters.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0017] Subject matter of the present invention is a blend of two or more oils as defined in claim 1. The dependent claims relate to particular embodiments thereof.

[0018] Applicant has determined that blends of vegetable oils can be chosen so that the blend exhibits desirable properties for use as alternative fuels or as feedstocks for the production of a biodiesel. For example, such blends may be chosen so that, when used as a fuel in a cold climate, the blend is less likely to freeze. Blends may also be chosen so that the blend is stable at higher temperatures. Further, blends may be chosen to achieve desirable ignition properties when used as a fuel in a vehicle. Some particular examples of features of the blends of oils or fatty acids disclosed herein are described below. It is understood that the blends of oils or fatty acids disclosed herein may have any combination of the features described in the below examples. In particular,
certain mixtures of fatty acids have surprisingly beneficial properties for production of biofuels. For example, particular balances of medium chain fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids can have surprisingly beneficial properties, for example with respect to cold weather capabilities. In certain examples of the fatty acid mixtures having balanced amounts of medium chain fatty acids (for example C8, C10 and C12) and monounsaturated fatty acids (preferably C16:1 and C18:1),
the presence C16:0 and C18:0 can have particularly unfavorable effects on cold flow properties and therefore reduced levels of C16:0 and C18:0 in a biodiesel can be beneficial for cold weather capabilities; and that C14:0, C18:2, C18:3, C20, C22 and C24 can also adversely effect cold flow properties; thus, reducing these fatty acids in a biodiesel can also be beneficial.

[0019] The term "oil" as used herein, refers to a substance composed primarily of triglycerides of fatty acids. Vegetable oils may be extracted from various parts of the plant, including the seeds, fruit, or leaves of plants. It is generally liquid at room temperatures. In some examples, the oils are derived from canola, rapeseed, palm, palm kernel, coconut, tucum, sunflower, safflower, olive, macadamia, babassu, castor, peanut, cotton, flaxseed, linseed, cohune, and jatropha. In further examples, the oils may be derived from a genetically modified plant.

[0020] Triglycerides are the main constituents of vegetable oils and animal fats. Triglycerides may be solid or liquid at room temperature. A triglyceride, also called triacylglycerol (TAG), is a chemical compound formed from one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids. Glycerol is a trihydric alcohol (containing three hydroxyl groups) that can combine with up to three fatty acids to form monoglycerides, diglycerides, and triglycerides, when combined with one, two or three fatty acids, respectively. Monoglycerides, diglycerides, and triglycerides are classified as esters, which are compounds created by the reaction between acids and alcohols that release water as a by-product. Fatty acids may combine with any of the three hydroxyl groups to form and ester linkage and create a wide diversity of compounds. Further, fatty acids having different lengths may combine with an individual glycerol molecule. Thus the resulting diglyceride or triglyceride may comprise different fatty acids within the same triglyceride molecule.

[0021] Fatty acids are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen arranged as a carbon chain skeleton with a carboxyl group at one end. Fatty acids may be saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and have no carbon-carbon double bonds, monounsaturated (MUFAs) and have one carbon-carbon double bond, or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and have more than one carbon-carbon double bond. The number of carbons in a fatty acid chain and the number of carbon-carbon double bonds is commonly expressed as "number of carbons : number of carbon-carbon double bonds." For example, oleic acid, which has 18 carbons and one double bond, can be expressed as "C18:1" or "18:1."

[0022] "Medium chain fatty acids" as used herein refers to fatty acids containing 6 to 14 carbons, preferably 8 to 12 carbons.

[0023] "Long chain fatty acids" as used herein refers to fatty acids containing more than 14 carbons, or more that 16 carbons, or even more than 18 carbons.

[0024] In one aspect, mixtures of fatty acids are disclosed herein.

[0025] In certain preferred examples of the mixtures of fatty acids disclosed herein, lauric acid accounts for 6% to 20% of the mixture; more preferably 6% to 10% of the mixture.

[0026] In certain preferred examples of the mixtures of fatty acids disclosed herein, caprylic acid (C8:0), capric acid (C10:0), and lauric acid (C12:0) together account for between 20% and 40% of the mixture; or between 20% and 30% of the mixture; or between 30% and 40% of the mixture; or between 25% and 35% of the mixture. In other of examples of the mixtures of fatty acids disclosed herein, caprylic acid (C8:0), capric acid (C10:0), and lauric acid (C12:0) together account for between 60% and 85% of the mixture; or between 60% and 70% of the mixture; or between 70% and 85% of the mixture; or between 65% and 75% of the mixture. In yet other examples of the mixtures of fatty acids disclosed herein, caprylic acid (C8:0), capric acid (C10:0), and lauric acid (C12:0) together account for between 40% and 60% of the mixture; or between 40% and 50% of the mixture; or between 50% and 60% of the mixture; or between 45% and 55% of the mixture.

[0027] In some preferred examples of the mixtures of fatty acids disclosed herein, monounsaturated fatty acids account for between 5% to 95% of the mixture; preferably monounsaturated fatty acids account for more than 10%, or more than 15%; or more than 20%; or more than 25%; or more than 30%; or more than 35%; or more than 40%; or more than 45; or more than 50%; or more than 60%; or more than 65% ; or more than 70%; or more than 80%; or more than 85% of the mixture.

[0028] In certain preferred examples of the mixtures of fatty acids disclosed herein, oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) together account for between 20% and 85% of the mixture; or between 20% and 40% of the mixture; or between 20% and 30% of the mixture; or between 30% and 40% of the mixture; or between 25% and 35% of the mixture; or between 40% and 60% of the mixture; or between 35% and 55% of the mixture; or between 55% and 65% of the mixture; or between 60% and 85% of the mixture; or between 60% and 70% of the mixture; or between 70% and 85% of the mixture; or between 65% and 75% of the mixture.

[0029] In some preferred examples of the mixtures of fatty acids disclosed herein, caprylic acid (C8:0), capric acid (C10:0), lauric acid (C12:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) together account for more than 50% of the mixture; or more than 55% of the mixture; or more than 60% of the mixture; or more than 65% of the mixture; or more than 70% of the mixture; or more than 75% of the mixture; or more than 80% of the mixture; or more than 85% of the mixture; or more than 90% of the mixture.

[0030] In some preferred examples of the mixtures of fatty acids disclosed herein, stearic (18:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) together account for less than 25% of the mixture; more preferably less than 15% of the mixture; more preferably less than 10% of the mixture; more preferably less than 8% of the mixture; more preferably less than 6% of the mixture; more preferably less than 5% of the mixture; more preferably less than 4% of the mixture; more preferably less than 3% of the mixture; more preferably less than 2% of the mixture; or less than 1% of the mixture; or less than 0.5% of the mixture; or in some preferred examples, the mixture of fatty acids are substantially free of stearic (18:0) and palmitic acid (16:0).

[0031] In some preferred examples of the mixtures of fatty acids disclosed herein, myristic acid (14:0) accounts for less than 25% of the mixture; more preferably less than 15% of the mixture; more preferably less than 10% of the mixture; more preferably less than 8% of the mixture; more preferably less than 6% of the mixture; more preferably less than 5% of the mixture; more preferably less than 4% of the mixture; more preferably less than 3% of the mixture; more preferably less than 2% of the mixture; or less than 1% of the mixture; or less than 0.5% of the mixture; or in some preferred examples, the mixture of fatty acids are substantially free of myristic acid (14:0).

[0032] In some preferred examples of the mixtures of fatty acids disclosed herein, linoleic acid (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3) together account for less than 25% of the mixture; more preferably less than 15% of the mixture; more preferably less than 10% of the mixture; more preferably less than 8% of the mixture; more preferably less than 6% of the mixture; more preferably less than 5% of the mixture; more preferably less than 4% of the mixture; more preferably less than 3% of the mixture; more preferably less than 2% of the mixture; or less than 1% of the mixture; or less than 0.5% of the mixture; or in some preferred examples, the mixture of fatty acids are substantially free of linoleic acid (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3).

[0033] In some preferred examples of the mixtures of fatty acids disclosed herein, arachidic acid (C20:0), behenic acid (C22:0) and lignoceric acid (C24:0) together account for less than 25% of the mixture; more preferably less than 15% of the mixture; more preferably less than 10% of the mixture; more preferably less than 8% of the mixture; more preferably less than 6% of the mixture; more preferably less than 5% of the mixture; more preferably less than 4% of the mixture; more preferably less than 3% of the mixture; more preferably less than 2% of the mixture; or less than 1% of the mixture; or less than 0.5% of the mixture; or in some preferred examples, the mixture of fatty acids are substantially free of arachidic acid (C20:0), behenic acid (C22:0) and lignoceric acid (C24:0).

[0034] In certain aspects, a mixture of fatty acids is disclosed wherein saturated fatty acids having 8-12 carbons and monounsaturated fatty acids having 12-18 carbons account for between 80% and 100% of the mixture, caprylic acid (C8:0) and capric acid (C10:0) account for between 5% and 80% of the mixture, lauric acid accounts for less than 20% of the mixture, and polyunsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids having more than 12 carbons together account for less than 20% of the mixture. In certain preferred examples of the aforementioned mixture of fatty acids caprylic acid (C8:0), capric acid (C10:0), and lauric acid (C12:0) together account for 20% to 40% of the mixture; preferably lauric acid (C12:0) comprises 6% to 20% of the mixture, more preferably lauric acid (C12:0) comprises 6% to 10% of the mixture. In some preferred examples of the mixture, oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) together account for 50% to 85% of the mixture.

[0035] In certain aspects, a mixture of fatty acids is disclosed, wherein saturated fatty acids having 8-12 carbons and monounsaturated fatty acids having 12-18 carbons account for between 80% and 100% of the mixture, caprylic acid (C8:0) and capric acid (C10:0) account for between 5% and 80% of the mixture, lauric acid accounts for less than 20% of the mixture, and polyunsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids having more than 12 carbons together account for less than 20% of the mixture. In certain preferred examples of the aforementioned mixture of fatty acids caprylic acid (C8:0), capric acid (C10:0), and lauric acid (C12:0) together account for 20% to 40% of the mixture; preferably lauric acid (C12:0) comprises 6% to 20% of the mixture, more preferably lauric acid (C12:0) comprises 6 to 10% of the mixture; and oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) together account for 50% to 85% of the mixture. In other preferred examples of the aforementioned mixture, caprylic acid (C8:0), capric acid (C10:0), and lauric acid (C12:0) together account for 60% to 85% of the mixture; preferably lauric acid (C12:0) comprises 6% to 20% of the mixture, more preferably lauric acid (C12:0) comprises 6 to 10% of the mixture; and oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) together account for 20% to 40% of the mixture.

[0036] Further disclosed herein are blends of two or more oils, wherein at least 50% by weight of the fatty acids are medium chain fatty acids, and wherein caprylic acid (C8:0) comprises up to 25% of the final blend and less than 20% are long chain fatty acids.

[0037] Further disclosed herein are blends of fatty acids, wherein at least 50% by weight of the fatty acids are medium chain fatty acids, and wherein caprylic acid (C8:0) comprises up to 25% of the final blend and less than 20% are long chain fatty acids.

[0038] In some examples of the blends of oils or fatty acids, the blends comprise at least 60% medium chain fatty acids, preferably at least 65% medium chain fatty acids, preferably at least 70% medium chain fatty acids, preferably at least 75% medium chain fatty acids, preferably at least 80% medium chain fatty acids, preferably at least 85% medium chain fatty acids, preferably at least 90% medium chain fatty acids, or preferably at least 95% medium chain fatty acids.

[0039] In particular examples of the blends of oils or fatty acids, the blends comprise 5-25% caprylic acid (C8:0); 10-25% caprylic acid (C8:0); 10-20% caprylic acid (C8:0); or 15-25% caprylic acid (C8:0).

[0040] In particular examples of the blends of oils or fatty acids, the blends comprise 30-60% capric acid (C10:0); 25-55% capric acid (C10:0); 30-50% capric acid (C10:0); or 40-50% capric acid (C10:0).

[0041] In particular examples of the blends of oils or fatty acids, the blends comprise 5-35% lauric acid (C12:0); 10-20% lauric acid (C12:0); 15-25% lauric acid (C12:0); 20-30% lauric acid (C12:0); or 25-35% lauric acid (C12:0).

[0042] In other examples of the blends of oils or fatty acids, the blends comprise less than 15% long chain fatty acids, preferably less than 10% long chain fatty acids, preferably less than 7% long chain fatty acids, preferably less than 5% long chain fatty acids, or preferably less than 3% long chain fatty acids.

[0043] In still other examples of the blends of oils or fatty acids, the blends comprise less than 15% monounsaturated fatty acids, preferably less than 10% monounsaturated fatty acids, preferably less than 7% monounsaturated fatty acids, preferably less than 5% monounsaturated fatty acids, or preferably less than 2% monounsaturated fatty acids.

[0044] In yet other examples of the blends of oils or fatty acids, the blends include less than 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids, preferably less than 7% polyunsaturated fatty acids, preferably less than 5% polyunsaturated fatty acids, preferably less than 3% polyunsaturated fatty acids, or preferably less than 1% polyunsaturated fatty acids.

[0045] In particular examples of the blends of oils or fatty acids, the caproic acid (6:0) may be 0 to about 5% by weight of the blend; caprylic acid (8:0) may be about 5 to about 25% by weight of the blend; capric acid (10:0) may be about 30 to about 60% by weight of the blend; lauric acid (12:0) may be about 5 to about 30% by weight of the blend; myristic acid (14:0) may be 0 to about 5% by weight of the blend; palmitic acid (16:0) may be 0 to about 5% by weight of the blend; palmitoleic acid (16:1) may be 0 to about 10% by weight of the blend; stearic acid (18:0) may be 0 to about 5% by weight of the blend; oleic acid (18:1) may be 0 to about 10% by weight of the blend; linoleic acid (18:2) may be 0 to about 5% by weight of the blend; linolenic acid (18:3) may be 0 to about 1% by weight of the blend; arachidic acid (20:0) may be 0 to about 3% by weight of the blend; behenic acid (22:0) may be 0 to about 3% by weight of the blend; erucic acid (22:1) may be 0 to about 5% by weight of the blend; and lignoceric acid (24:0) may be 0 to about 3% by weight of the blend.

[0046] In some examples of the blends of oils or fatty acids, the triglycerides of the oils or the fatty acids are converted to fatty acid alkyl esters. In particular examples, the alkyl esters are methyl esters, ethyl esters, propyl esters, isopropyl esters, or butyl esters. In preferred examples, the alkyl esters are methyl esters.

[0047] In certain examples of blends of oils, the oils are derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. In preferred examples, the oil is selected from the group consisting of canola, rapeseed, palm oil, palm kernel, coconut, tucum, sunflower, safflower, Cuphea, olive, macadamia, babassu, castor, peanut, cotton, flaxseed, linseed, cohune, and jatropha. In some examples of blends of oils, the oils are derived from a genetically modified plant. In particular examples, the oil is derived from a genetically modified plant wherein the plant has been modified to produce and increased amount of medium chain fatty acids as compared to the native plant. In further examples, one or more oils from a native plant or plants may be blended with one or more oils obtained from genetically modified plants.

[0048] In some examples of the blends of oils or fatty acids, the oil blend or fatty acid blend is useful as a fuel for powering an internal combustion engine. In other examples, the oil blend or fatty acid blend is used as a feedstock in the preparation of a fuel additive, a functional fluid, freezing point depressant, a biodiesel, an aviation fuel, a home heating oil, or a substitute for kerosene.

[0049] Further disclosed herein are blends of fatty acid alkyl esters, wherein at least 50% of the fatty acid alkyl esters are medium chain fatty acid alkyl esters and less than 20% are long chain fatty acid alkyl esters.

[0050] In particular examples, such blends include at least 60% of medium chain fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably at least 65% medium chain fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably at least 70% medium chain fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably at least 75% medium chain fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably at least 80% medium chain fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably at least 85% medium chain fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably at least 90% medium chain fatty acid alkyl esters, or preferably at least 95% medium chain fatty acid alkyl esters.

[0051] In other examples, the blends include less than 15% long chain fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably less than 10% long chain fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably less than 7% long chain fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably less than 5% long chain fatty acid alkyl esters, or preferably less than 3% long chain fatty acid alkyl esters.

[0052] In still other examples, the blends include less than 15% monounsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably less than 10% monounsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably less than 7% monounsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably less than 5% monounsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters, or preferably less than 2% monounsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters.

[0053] In still other examples, the blends include less than 10% polyunsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably less than 7% polyunsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably less than 5% polyunsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters, preferably less than 3% polyunsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters, or preferably less than 1% polyunsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters.

[0054] In particular examples, the fatty acid alkyl esters are selected from the group consisting of methyl esters, ethyl esters, propyl esters, and butyl esters. In other examples, the fatty acid alkyl esters are selected from the group consisting of iso-propyl ester, t-butyl ester, or sec-butyl ester. In preferred examples, the fatty acid alkyl esters are methyl esters. In some examples, caproic methyl ester (6:0) may be 0 to about 5% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; caprylic methyl ester (8:0) may be about 5 to about 35%, or about 10 to about 30%, or about 15 to about 25% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; capric methyl ester (10:0) may be about 20 to about 60%, or about 30 to about 50%, or about 40 to about 50% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; lauric methyl ester (12:0) may be about 5 to about 30%, or about 10 to about 30%, or about 15 to about 25% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; myristic methyl ester (14:0) may be 0 to about 5% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; palmitic methyl ester (16:0) may be 0 to about 5% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; palmitoleic methyl ester (16:1) may be 0 to about 10% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; stearic methyl ester (18:0) may be 0 to about 5% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; oleic methyl ester (18:1) may be 0 to about 10% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; linoleic methyl ester (18:2) may be 0 to about 5% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; linolenic methyl ester (18:3) may be 0 to about 1 % by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; arachidic methyl ester (20:0) may be 0 to about 3% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; behenic methyl ester (22:0) may be 0 to about 3% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; erucic methyl ester (22:1) may be 0 to about 5% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend; and lignoceric methyl ester (24:0) may be 0 to about 3% by weight of the total fatty acid methyl ester blend.

[0055] In further examples of the above aspects, the blends of oils, or fatty acids, or fatty acid alkyl esters have a melting point of less than or equal to 0°C, preferably less than or equal to -10°C, preferably less than or equal to -15°C, preferably less than or equal to -20°C, or preferably less than or equal to -25°C.

[0056] In further examples of the above aspects, the blends of oils, or fatty acids, or fatty acid alkyl esters have a cloud point of less than or equal to 0°C, preferably less than or equal to -10°C, preferably less than or equal to -15°C, preferably less than or equal to -20°C, or preferably less than or equal to -25°C.

[0057] In further examples of the above aspects, the blends of oils, or fatty acids, or fatty acid alkyl esters have a pour point of less than or equal to 0°C, preferably less than or equal to -10°C, preferably less than or equal to -15°C, preferably less than or equal to -20°C, or preferably less than or equal to -25°C.

[0058] In some examples of the above aspects, the blends of oils, or fatty acids, or fatty acid alkyl esters are suitable for use as a fuel in an internal combustion engine, as a fuel additive, a functional fluid, a freezing point depressant, a home heating oil, an aviation or jet fuel, or a substitute for kerosene.

[0059] The phrase "suitable for use in an internal combustion engine" refers to the properties of a fuel that enable it to be used to power an internal combustion engine. In some examples, a suitable fuel has a cetane number of 40-100; 40-80; or preferably 40-70; or preferably 40-60; or preferably 40-55; or preferably 40-50. In other examples, a suitable fuel has an iodine number of 20-130; preferably 40-100; preferably 20-50, or preferably 10-20. In further examples, a suitable fuel has a melting point of less than or equal to 0°C, preferably less than or equal to -10°C, preferably less than or equal to -15°C, preferably less than or equal to -20°C, or preferably less than or equal to -25°C. In still further examples, a suitable fuel has a cloud point of less than or equal to 0°C, preferably less than or equal to - 10°C, preferably less than or equal to -15°C, preferably less than or equal to -20°C, or preferably less than or equal to -25°C. In yet other examples, a suitable fuel has a pour point of less than or equal to 0°C, preferably less than or equal to -10°C, preferably less than or equal to -15°C, preferably less than or equal to -20°C, or preferably less than or equal to - 25°C.

[0060] In other examples of the above aspect, the blends of fatty acids or fatty acid alkyl esters are used as a biodiesel and are blended with petroleum-based diesel to form a biodiesel blend for use as a fuel. In particular examples, the biodiesel comprises 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 40%, 50%, or even 75% of the biodiesel blend, with petroleum-based diesel making up the remainder. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) classifies two grades of diesel fuel, #1 diesel fuel and No. 2 diesel fuel. In particular examples, the biodiesel is blended with #1 diesel fuel, #2 diesel fuel, or is blended with a mixture of #1 and #2 diesel.

[0061] Subject matter of the present invention is a blend of two or more oils, wherein said blend comprises 60% to 85% by weight saturated medium chain fatty acids, 15% to 40% by weight monounsaturated long chain fatty acids, and less than 10% by weight myristic acid (C14:0) and saturated long chain fatty acids, wherein said medium chain fatty acids comprise caprylic acid (C8:0) in an amount of up to 25 % by weight of the blend.

[0062] In some embodiments of the blend of two or more oils according to the present invention, said medium chain fatty acids comprise capric acid (C10:0), and wherein said capric acid comprises 30 to 60% by weight of the blend.

[0063] In some embodiments of the blend of two or more oils according to the present invention, said medium chain fatty acids comprise lauric acid (C12:0), and wherein said lauric acid comprises 5 to 20 % by weight of the blend.

[0064] In some embodiments of the blend of two or more oils according to the present invention, said blend comprises less than 8% myristic acid and saturated long chain fatty acids, such as less than 6% myristic acid and saturated long chain fatty acids.

[0065] In some embodiments of the blend of two or more oils according to the present invention, said monounsaturated long chain fatty acids comprise palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (C18:1), or a combination thereof.

[0066] In some embodiments of the blend of two or more oils according to the present invention, said blend is suitable for use as a fuel in an internal combustion engine.

[0067] In some embodiments of the blend of two or more oils according to the present invention, said oils are selected from the group consisting of canola, rapeseed, palm oil, palm kernel, coconut, tucum, sunflower, safflower, Cuphea, olive, macadamia, babassu, castor, peanut, cotton, flaxseed, linseed, cohune, and jatropha.

[0068] In some embodiments of the blend of two or more oils according to the present invention, one or more of said oils are derived from a genetically modified plant, wherein said plant is modified such that it produces saturated medium chain fatty acids.

[0069] In some embodiments of the blend of two or more oils according to the present invention, said blend has a melting point of less than or equal to -10 °C, such as a melting point of less than or equal to -20 °C.

[0070] In some embodiments of the blend of two or more oils according to the present invention, said fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters of said fatty acids. For example, said fatty acids are converted to fatty acid alkyl esters are selected from the group consisting of methyl esters, ethyl esters, propyl esters, isopropyl esters, and butyl esters. According to particular embodiments of the blend of two or more oils according to the present invention, said fatty acids are converted to fatty acid methyl esters.

[0071] Further disclosed herein is a method for predicting a theoretical melting point of a blend of fatty acid methyl esters. This method computes the sum of the product of: the percent (w/w) of an individual fatty acid methyl ester (X), the melting point for that ester (MPx), and a factor (Fx), for each fatty acid ME contained in the blend. Thus, there is a term for each methyl ester corresponding to, for example, (XMPxFx). The numerical definitions of the melting points and factors used in the method can be varied and still produce a valid intermediate value. The term "factor" as used herein refers to a constant value corresponding to a fatty acid methyl ester. The factor is multiplied with the percent content for that fatty acid ME and the melting point for that fatty acid ME to produce a term for that fatty acid ME that is used in the method. For example, individual melting points can vary by plus or minus 2 °C, or 5°C, or even 10°C and the individual factors may vary by 5% or 10% or even 20% and still produce a valid predicted melting temperature for the blend.

[0072] In certain examples, there is disclosed a method of predicting the melting point of a blend wherein the predicted melting point, PTm, is computed as follows:

wherein,

A is the percent (w/w) caproic ME (6:0) in the blend;

B is the percent (w/w) caprylic ME (8:0) in the blend;

C is the percent (w/w) capric ME (10:0) in the blend;

D is the percent (w/w) lauric ME (12:0) in the blend;

E is the percent (w/w) myristic ME (14:0) in the blend;

F is the percent (w/w) palmitic ME (16:0) in the blend;

G is the percent (w/w) stearic ME (18:0) in the blend;

H is the percent (w/w) oleic ME (18:1) in the blend;

I is the percent (w/w) linoleic ME (18:2) in the blend;

J is the percent (w/w) linolenic ME (18:3) in the blend;

K is the percent (w/w) arachidic ME (20:0) in the blend;

L is the percent (w/w) behenic ME (22:0) in the blend;

M is the percent (w/w) lignoceric ME (24:0) in the blend;

MPA is -81°C to -61°C inclusive;

MPB is -50°C to -30°C inclusive;

MPC is -28°C to -8°C inclusive;

MPD is -5°C to 15°C inclusive;

MPE is 9°C to 29°C inclusive;

MPF is 21°C to 41°C inclusive;

MPG is 28°C to 48°C inclusive;

MPH is -30°C to -10°C inclusive;

MPI is -45°C to -25°C inclusive;

MPJ is -67°C to -47°C inclusive;

MPK is 45°C to 65°C inclusive;

MPL is 43°C to 63°C inclusive;

MPM is 48°C to 68°C inclusive;

FA is 8 to 12 inclusive;

FB is 3.5 to 5.5 inclusive;

FC is 1.0 to 1.4 inclusive;

FD is 0.8 to 1.2 inclusive;

FE is 0.5 to 0.7 inclusive;

FF is 1.1 to 1.6 inclusive;

FG is 1.8 to 2.6 inclusive;

FH is 0.9 to 1.3 inclusive;

FI is 0.5 to 0.8 inclusive;

FJ is 0.15 to 0.25 inclusive;

FK is 8 to 12 inclusive;

FL is 1.6 to 2.4 inclusive; and

FM is 1.6 to 2.4 inclusive.



[0073] In a particular example of the above aspect, the predicted melting point is computed as follows:

and A through M are defined as above.

[0074] In a related example of the above aspect, the algorithm is used to identify blends of fatty acid methyl esters that are suitable for use as a biodiesel wherein the predicted melting point of the blend is computed and compared to a cut-off value. The "cut-off value" as used herein refers to a desired melting point, wherein blends having a PTm less than or equal to that desired melting point are suitable for use as a biodiesel. In particular examples, the cut-off value is 0°C, preferably -5°C, preferably -10°C, preferably -15°C, preferably -20°C, preferably 0°C, or preferably -20°C.

[0075] The term "percent by weight" as used herein refers to the amount of a component in a blend or mixture. In general this refers to grams of a component per 100 grams of a mixture. For example a mixture having "10% compound X by weight" refers to 10 grams of compound X in 100 grams of the mixture.

[0076] The term "biodiesel" as used herein, refers to a fuel derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. In general, a biodiesel is composed of primarily fatty acid alkyl esters. Preferably, a biodiesel is suitable for use in an internal combustion engine.

[0077] The term "biodiesel blend" refers to a fuel that is a blend of a biodiesel and another fuel. In general, biodiesels are blended with a petroleum-based fuel (i.e., petrodiesel). Biodiesel blends are referred to as BXX. The "XX" indicates the amount of biodiesel in the blend. B100 is 100% biodiesel or "neat" biodiesel. A B20 blend, for example, is a 20% volumetric blend of biodiesel with 80% petrodiesel.

[0078] The term "fuel" refers to a substance that is burned to give heat or power. Examples include liquids such as gasoline, home heating oil, aviation fuel, kerosene, diesel, biodiesel, vegetable oil, and biodiesel blends. Some fuels, for example, gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, vegetable oil, or biodiesel blends can be used to power an internal combustion engine.

[0079] The phrase "genetically modified plant" refers to a transgenic plant or a genetically altered plant.

[0080] The term "native plant" as used herein refers to a plant that is not genetically modified (i.e., transgenic or genetically altered). Native plants include wild type plants as well as plants that have been selectively bred to attain particular characteristics.

[0081] The phrase "transgenic plant" refers to a plant having a gene from another plant species or non-plant species. Such a gene may be referred to as a "transgene."

[0082] The phrase "genetically altered plant" refers to a plant having one or more genetic modifications, such as transgenes and/or modified enzymes which contain one or more designed mutation(s). Such designed mutations may result in a modified enzyme having an activity that is different from the native enzyme. Such differences can include differences in substrate specificity or level of activity. As used herein, a "transgenic plant" is one type of a "genetically altered plant".

[0083] The phrase "fuel additive" refers to a liquid substance that is added to a fuel, comprising less than 5% weight of the final fuel.

[0084] The phrase "mixture of fatty acids" or "blend of fatty acids" or "fatty acid blend" may be used interchangeably and refer to a composition that includes various fatty acids. In certain examples, a mixture of fatty acids may be an oil or blend of oils, in other examples, a mixture of fatty acids may be a mixture of free fatty acids or a mixture of free fatty acids and an oil or blend of oils. In certain examples, some or all of the fatty acids in a mixture of fatty acids may be modified to form fatty acid alkyl esters, for example fatty acid methyl esters, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty acid propyl esters and the like. In certain preferred examples, the fatty acid alkyl esters include methyl esters. Accordingly, unless otherwise indicated the phrase "mixture of fatty acids" as used herein encompasses mixtures of fatty acid alkyl esters of the fatty acids specified in the mixture. Likewise, unless otherwise indicated, the term "fatty acid" as used herein includes alkyl esters of the fatty acid.

[0085] The phrase "functional fluid" refers to a liquid substance added to a fuel, comprising more than 5% weight of the final fuel.

[0086] The phrase "freezing point depressant" refers to a liquid substance added to a fuel to lower the freezing point of that fuel.

[0087] The "cetane number" or CN is a measure of fuel ignition characteristics and correlates to the ignition delay period. For example, a fuel with a high cetane number starts to burn shortly after it is injected into the cylinder (i.e., it has a short ignition delay period). Conversely, a fuel with a low cetane number has a longer ignition delay period. Further, a higher cetane number correlates with improved combustion, improved cold starting, reduced noise, reduced white smoke, and reduced emissions of HC, CO and particulate, particularly during early warm-up phase. Commercially available petroleum-derived diesel is generally found in two CN ranges: 40-46 for regular diesel, and 45-50 for premium.

[0088] The "iodine number" is determined through a standard natural oil assay to measure the degree of unsaturation in vegetable oils and fats.

[0089] The "cloud point" refers to the temperature at which the first wax crystals appear and a standardized test protocol from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is used to determine this temperature.

[0090] The "pour point" refers to the temperature at which the fuel will no longer pour. The pour point is generally lower than the cloud point. Some engines will fail to run at the cloud point, but generally all engines will fail at the pour point.

[0091] The "melting point" of a crystalline solid refers to the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change (i.e., from liquid to solid), it is referred to as the "freezing point." For most substances, the melting and freezing points are equal. The melting point or freezing point is lower than the pour point.

[0092] "Feedstock" as used herein refers to a substance composed of fats, fatty acids, or triglycerides that may be used as a starting material for the preparation of a biodiesel. Examples of feedstocks which may be used in the production of biodiesels include vegetable oil, waste vegetable oil, and animal fats. Other feedstocks include mixtures of fatty acids or fatty acid alkyl esters.

[0093] The term "about" as used herein means in quantitative terms plus or minus 10%. For example, "about 3%" would encompass 2.7-3.3% and "about 10%" would encompass 9-11%.

[0094] Unless otherwise indicated, any percentages stated herein are percent by weight.

[0095] Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description of the preferred embodiments and from the claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



[0096] 

Figure 1 shows two pathways by which a biodiesel can be produced from an oil or fat.

Figure 2 shows the fatty acid content of some exemplary oils.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION


Blending Oils



[0097] Oils containing various compositions of medium chain fatty acids may be blended in order to achieve a desired blend of medium chain fatty acids. Oils are blended on a by weight basis. For example, the volume of rapeseed oil to be used in 100 grams of a blend composed of 25 % rapeseed oil is determined by dividing the grams of rapeseed oil in the final blend by the specific gravity of rapeseed oil (i.e., 25 gm/0.915gm/mL=27.3mL).

[0098] Figure 2 is a table containing some exemplary oils and the fatty acid content contained therein. These oils are commercially available from a variety of sources. It is noted that the fatty acid content values are expressed as ranges, because, as it is known in the art, the amounts of particular fatty acids present in a particular plant, can vary significantly. Thus, oils extracted from those plants may exhibit differing quantities of any or all fatty acids from batch to batch. Therefore, it is normally necessary to determine the fatty acid content of the oils actually used to make blends or a biodiesel.

Preparation of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters



[0099] Fatty acid alkyl esters can be produced from fatty acids or from triglycerides. Generally, fatty acid alkyl esters are produced by transesterification of the triglycerides in fats and oils or esterification of free fatty acids (Figure 1). Alternatively, fatty acids may be split from triglycerides through hydrolysis and subsequently subjected to esterification to produce the fatty acid ester.

[0100] Fatty acid alkyl esters may be prepared by a transesterification reaction of the triglycerides found in various plant-derived oils such as soybean oil, palm oil, safflower oil, peanut oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, linseed oil, coconut oil, castor oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and various oils derived from animal fats. These oils are reacted with an alcohol (e.g., methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol) in the presence of a base catalyst such as a sodium alkoxide, sodium or potassium hydroxide, or titanium tetraisopropoxide. Reaction conditions such as temperature and pressure can be selected based on the specific alcohol used. The amount of catalyst is generally in the range of from about 0.1 to about 0.5% by weight based on the fatty acid. This process produces a fatty acid alkyl ester, wherein the alkyl group is derived from the alcohol. Thus, a reaction in which methanol was used as the alcohol would yield a fatty acid methyl ester. Other by-products include glycerin. The transesterification products are isolated by reduced pressure fractionation by distillation through a fractionation column.

[0101] Fatty acid alkyl esters may be prepared from free fatty acids through esterification. Free fatty acids are commercially available from a number of sources or may be derived from, for example, the aforementioned oils, can be reacted with an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst such as sulfuric acid, aryl sulfonic acids, or alkyl sulfonic acids. Reaction conditions such as temperature and pressure can be selected based on the specific alcohol used. The fatty acid esters can be recovered by neutralizing the sulfuric acid, and subsequent purification to remove aqueous constituents of the reaction.

Blending Fatty Acid Esters



[0102] Fatty acid esters are commercially available or can be obtained by esterification of the fatty acid as described above. Fatty acids are blended in order to achieve a mixture having suitable properties for use as a biodiesel, fuel additive, functional fluid, aviation or jet fuel, home heating oil, or kerosene. The properties to consider in evaluating blends can include melting point, cloud point, pour point, iodine number, cetane number, viscosity, oxidative stability, and frictional wear characteristics..

[0103] Blends are made on a weight percent basis. For a blend of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), the desired weight percent of each component FAME is divided by the specific gravity of that FAME. This yields the volume of the FAME per 100 grams of final blend. For example, to achieve a blend containing 14% (wt%) of capric acid methyl ester (having a specific gravity of 0.877g/mL), the volume of capric acid methyl ester to be used in making 100 grams of the final blend is determined as follows.
Volume of capric acid methyl ester = (14g/0.877g/mL) = 15.96 ml
Thus, 15.96 ml of capric acid methyl ester would be required for each 100 gm of final blend.

[0104] Determination of the weight percent of a blend of FAMEs or the FAME mixture resulting from the conversion of the fatty acids contained in an oil blend to fatty acid esters is performed using a capillary gas chromatograph (Agilent Model 6890) (column-Supelco SPB-225, 30 M x 0.32mm, 0.25 µm film thickness) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). Sample peak areas are compared with peak areas of a known weight of calibrated standard FAME for each peak to determine the weight of each FAME in the sample. All weights are summed and the ratio of the individual FAME weight to the total (after conversion to percent) is the weight percent.

[0105] Melting point. A low melting point of a blend of fatty acid esters is desirable to avoid freezing when such a blend is used in colder climates. Means of achieving a low melting point of a blend of fatty acid methyl esters have generally involved blending with conventional diesel fuel, inclusion of additives having branched-chain esters, and/or bulky substituents in the alkyl chain, and/or winterization of the blend. Blends disclosed herein achieve a low melting point through the inclusion of medium chain fatty acid methyl esters, particularly C8 and C10 methyl esters. Thus, fatty acid esters may be blended to achieve a particular melting point and the melting point of the resulting blend can be determined.

[0106] The melting point can be determined by methods well-known in the art. In one method, the melting point of a blend of fatty acid methyl esters is determined by placing an aliquot of the blend in a closed end glass capillary tube and equilibrating the tube in a water bath or ethylene glycol bath held at a temperature that is below the expected melting point of the blend. After a period of time sufficient to allow the tube and its contents to equilibrate, the temperature of the water bath is raised slowly. The tube is observed by eye or using a light scattering instrument (spectrophotometer). The temperature at which the transition from solid to liquid is observed or at which light scattering diminishes is recorded as the melting point of the sample.

[0107] An alternative to a simple melting point, as explained above, is a "slip melting point". In this method, a small amount of sample is placed in a closed end capillary such that the sample is suspended in the center of the tube lengthwise. After equilibration in a water bath, the temperature is slowly raised and the temperature at which the suspended sample just begins to fall or "slip" in the capillary is recorded as the slip melting point.

[0108] Determination of melting point of a solid fat is also detailed in methods proscribed by the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) method number 58-40 "Melting Point-Capillary Method, and method number 58-53 Slip Melting point. In addition, methods are also available from the American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS) Official Method Cc 1-25 "Melting Point Capillary Tube Method" and AOCS Official Method Cc 3-25 "Slip Melting Point AOCS Standard Open Tube Melting Point".

[0109] Alternatively, a predicted melting point can be computed using the algorithm contained herein.

[0110] Cloud point and pour point. Cloud point and pour point may be determined in the same experiment using a single apparatus. Briefly, the sample is cooled in a cloud and pour point apparatus and is examined periodically during cooling. The highest temperature at which haziness is observed is the cloud point. The lowest temperature at which movement of the oil is observed is the pour point. This method should conform to ASTM D97, D2500 and related specifications. Such an apparatus (K46100 Cloud Point & Pour Point Apparatus Cloud and Pour Point Chamber) is available from Koehler Instrument Company, Inc., 1595 Sycamore Avenue, Bohemia, New York 11716, USA.

[0111] Cetane number. The ignition quality of diesel fuel (DF) is commonly measured by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test method ASTM D613 and reported as the cetane number (CN). Ignition quality is defined by the ignition delay time of the fuel in the engine. The shorter the ignition delay time, the higher the CN. Compounds are ranked according to the cetane scale. Cetane (C16H34 or hexadecane) has a very short ignition delay and has been assigned a CN of 100. At the other end of the scale is 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN; also C16H34), which has poor ignition qualities and has been assigned a CN of 15. In general, long-chain, unbranched, saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) have high CNs and good ignition quality while branched hydrocarbons (and other materials such as aromatics) have low CNs and poor ignition quality. Further, the presence of double bonds or degrees of unsaturation in a fatty acid will lower cetane value.

[0112] Since both too high and too low CN can cause operational problems (in case of too high CN, combustion can occur before the fuel and air are properly mixed, resulting in incomplete combustion and smoke; in case of too low CN, engine roughness, misfiring, higher air temperatures, slower engine warm-up and also incomplete combustion occur), most engine manufacturers designate a range of required CN for their engines. In most cases, this range is around CN 40-50. For example, the ASTM specification for conventional diesel fuel (ASTM D975) requires a minimum CN of 40.

[0113] Iodine number. The iodine number is a commonly used measure of saturation and therefore, an indicator of oxidative stability. As mentioned earlier, unsaturated molecules are more susceptible to oxidation than saturated molecules. This test uses iodine to measure the number of double bonds in an oil or fuel. Thus, oils with high iodine numbers, such as soybean oil (IN = 130-135) are very susceptible to oxidation while animal fats with low iodine numbers, such as tallow (IN = 30-48) are much less susceptible. The primary drawback of the iodine number is that it does not recognize that some double bonds oxidize more readily than others. Methyl linoleate, with two double bonds, will oxidize approximately 50 times faster than methyl oleate, with only one double bond. Methyl linolenate, with three double bonds, will oxidize even faster, although not by the same level of increase. Thus, blends of primarily saturated, medium chain fatty acids would be expected to have low iodine numbers, and therefore exhibit good oxidative stability.

Calculation of predicted melting point offatty acid methyl esters.



[0114] The predicted melting point, PTm, of a blend of fatty acid methyl esters may be computed using the amount of each fatty acid methyl ester, expressed as weight/100 g blend, and the following equation.

  1. A is the percent (w/w) caproic ME (6:0) in the blend;
  2. B is the percent (w/w) caprylic ME (8:0) in the blend;
  3. C is the percent (w/w) capric ME (10:0) in the blend;
  4. D is the percent (w/w) lauric ME (12:0) in the blend;
  5. E is the percent (w/w) myristic ME (14:0) in the blend;
  6. F is the percent (w/w) palmitic ME (16:0) in the blend;
  7. G is the percent (w/w) stearic ME (18:0) in the blend;
  8. H is the percent (w/w) oleic ME (18:1) in the blend;
  9. I is the percent (w/w) linoleic ME (18:2) in the blend;
  10. J is the percent (w/w) linolenic ME (18:3) in the blend;
  11. K is the percent (w/w) arachidic ME (20:0) in the blend;
  12. L is the percent (w/w) behenic ME (22:0) in the blend; and
  13. M is the percent (w/w) lignoceric ME (24:0) in the blend.


[0115] In some examples, the predicted melting point may be used to identify blends that are suitable for use as a biodiesel. In these examples, the predicted melting point is compared to a cut-off value (i.e., a desired melting point for a biodiesel). Those blends having a predicted melting point less than or equal to the cut-off value are suitable for use as a biodiesel.

[0116] The following reference examples serve to illustrate the present invention. The blends used or prepared in the following reference examples are no blends of oils according to the present invention.

REFERENCE EXAMPLE 1


Fatty acid methyl ester Blend 1



[0117] A blend of fatty acid methyl esters ("Blend 1") having the composition of fatty acid methyl esters as set forth in the table below, is prepared by mixing together the fatty acid methyl esters using the volumes presented in the below table to make 100g of Blend 1.
ComponentBlend 1mL/100g
caproic ME (6:0) 1% 1.1
caprylic ME (8:0) 20 22.8
capric ME (10:0) 30 34.4
lauric ME (12:0) 20 23.0
myristic ME (14:0) 4 4.7
palmitic ME (16:0) 2 2.3
stearic ME (18:0) 2 2.1
oleic ME (18:1) 15 17.1
linoleic ME (18:2) 1 1.1
linolenic ME (18:3) 1 1.1
arachidic ME (20:0) 1 1.2
behenic ME (22:0) 1 1.2
lignoceric ME (24:0) 1 1.2


[0118] The predicted melting point of Blend 1, PTm, as computed by methods disclosed herein, is -41.6°C.

REFERENCE EXAMPLE 2


Fatty acid methyl ester Blend 2



[0119] A blend of fatty acid methyl esters ("Blend 2") having the composition of fatty acid methyl esters as set forth in the table below, is prepared by mixing together the fatty acid methyl esters using the volumes presented in the above table to make 100g of Blend 2.
ComponentBlend 2mL/100g
caproic ME (6:0) 1% 1.1
caprylic ME (8:0) 10 11.4
capric ME (10:0) 35 40.1
lauric ME (12:0) 25 28.7
myristic ME (14:0) 5 5.8
palmitic ME (16:0) 2 2.3
stearic ME (18:0) 2 2.1
oleic ME (18:1) 15 17.1
linoleic ME (18:2) 1 1.1
linolenic ME (18:3) 1 1.1
arachidic ME (20:0) 1 1.2
behenic ME (22:0) 1 1.2
lignoceric ME (24:0) 1 1.2


[0120] The predicted melting point of Blend 2, PTm, as computed by methods disclosed herein, is -24.3°C.

REFERENCE EXAMPLE 3


Fatty acid methyl ester Blend 3



[0121] A blend of fatty acid methyl esters ("Blend 3") having the composition of fatty acid methyl esters as set forth in the table below, is prepared by mixing together the fatty acid methyl esters using the volumes presented in the above table to make 100g of Blend 3.
ComponentBlend 3ml/100g
caproic ME (6:0) 1 1.1
caprylic ME (8:0) 5 5.7
capric ME (10:0) 35 40.1
lauric ME (12:0) 30 34.5
myristic ME (14:0) 5 5.8
palmitic ME (16:0) 2 2.3
stearic ME (18:0) 2 2.1
oleic ME (18:1) 15 17.1
linoleic ME (18:2) 1 1.1
linolenic ME (18:3) 1 1.1
arachidic ME (20:0) 1 1.2
behenic ME (22:0) 1 1.2
lignoceric ME (24:0) 1 1.2


[0122] The predicted melting point of Blend 3, PTm, as computed by methods disclosed herein, is -15.0°C.

REFERENCE EXAMPLE 4


Fatty acid methyl ester Blend 4



[0123] A blend of fatty acid methyl esters ("Blend 4") having the composition of fatty acid methyl esters as set forth in the table below, is prepared by mixing together the fatty acid methyl esters using the volumes presented in the above table to make 100g of Blend 4.
ComponentBlend 4mL/100g
caproic ME (6:0) 1% 1.1
caprylic ME (8:0) 5 5.7
capric ME (10:0) 30 34.4
lauric ME (12:0) 30 34.5
myristic ME (14:0) 5 5.8
palmitic ME (16:0) 7 8.2
stearic ME (18:0) 2 2.1
oleic ME (18:1) 15 17.1
linoleic ME (18:2) 1 1.1
linolenic ME (18:3) 1 1.1
arachidic ME (20:0) 1 1.2
behenic ME (22:0) 1 1.2
lignoceric ME (24:0) 1 1.2


[0124] The predicted melting point of Blend 4, PTm, as computed by methods disclosed herein, is -11.9°C.

REFERENCE EXAMPLE 5


Oil Blend A



[0125] A blend of two oils ("Blend 4") having the fatty acid composition set forth below is prepared by mixing together coconut oil and Cuphea lanceolata oil having the fatty acid composition set forth below.
ComponentBlend ACuphea lancelolata oilCoconut oil
caproic acid (6:0) 0.4% 0 0.5
caprylic acid (8:0) 5.5 0.6 7.1
capric acid (10:0) 25 83.2 6
lauric acid (12:0) 36 2.1 47.1
myristic acid (14:0) 14 2 18.5
palmitic acid (16:0) 7.7 3.4 9.1
stearic acid (18:0) 2.1 0 2.8
oleic acid (18:1) 6.0 3.4 6.8
linoleic acid (18:2) 2.6 4.6 1.9
linolenic acid (18:3) 0.1   0.1
arachidic acid (20:0) 0.1   0.1
behenic acid (22:0) 0 0 0
lignoceric ME (24:0) 0 0 0


[0126] Blend A can be prepared by mixing 75% by weight of the above coconut oil with 25% by weight of the above Cuphea lanceolata oil. 25 gms of Cuphea lanceolata oil (25 gm/ 0.92gm/ml = 27.2 mL) is combined with 75 gms of soybean oil (75gm/0.924gm/mL = 81.2mL) to make 100gm Blend A.

REFERENCE EXAMPLE 6


Conversion of Oils to FAMES



[0127] Various types of commercial vegetable oil (including soy, canola, corn, macadamia, olive, safflower, sunflower, peanut, walnut, palm, coconut, and castor oil) were obtained from retail sources. 200 gm of each oil was weighed into a glass screw cap bottle and combined with 2 volumes (w/v) of sodium methoxide reagent (5% w/v sodium methoxide/methanol). After mixing for 2 hours at room temperature, 50 ml hexane was added, mixed vigorously and the phases were allowed to separate. The lower glycerol-containing layer was removed and discarded. The upper layer was treated under vacuum in a rotary evaporator to remove hexane and any remaining volatiles. The final solution of FAME was stored under nitrogen gas at room temperature in a tightly capped glass bottle.

REFERENCE EXAMPLE 7


Conversion of Fatty Acids to FAMES



[0128] 100 grams of various fatty acids, or mixtures of fatty acids, were weighed into a glass bottle and combined with 200 ml of anhydrous methanol/1% sulfuric acid. Each mixture was covered with nitrogen gas and the container tightly capped. The reaction bottle was placed in an incubator oven for 4 hr. at 50°C. During the incubation, the mixture was shaken occasionally to mix the reactants. The mixture was transferred to a glass separatory funnel, and combined with 100 ml of 5% (w/v) sodium chloride aqueous solution. The mixture was shaken vigorously and the phases allowed to separate by standing. The lower aqueous layer was removed and discarded. The upper layer was transferred to a clean, dry bottle and combined with 5 gm of anhydrous sodium sulfate. This mixture was vigorously shaken until all visible water droplets were removed. The mixture was then filtered thru Whatman 1 filter paper. The sodium sulfate and filter apparatus was rinsed in hexane to recover additional FAME and the wash added to the non-aqueous fraction. The combined filtrate and washes were placed into a rotary evaporator under vacuum to remove hexane and remaining volatiles. The final solution of FAME was transferred to a brown glass bottle, covered with nitrogen gas, tightly capped with a Teflon lined cap, and stored at 4°C. Other esters were synthesized using this protocol substituting ethanol, n-propanol, iso-propanol, n-butanol, sec-butanol, or t-butanol in place of the methanol used above.

REFERENCE EXAMPLE 8


Cold Temperature Testing of Alkyl Ester Mixtures



[0129] Cold temperature properties of alkyl esters and ester mixtures were tested by pipetting aliquots of pure alkyl esters or ester mixtures obtained from oils or fatty acids as described above, into 10 mm x 100 mm glass test tubes, to a final volume of 1.0 ml. The tubes were capped with polypropylene snap caps and placed in plastic racks. The racked tubes were then immersed to a depth of 1-2 cm above the top of the sample, in a chilled solution of 50% ethylene glycol/water. A series of water baths were used to sequentially test samples at 0, -10, -15, -20, and -25°C. Samples were held at the test temperature for 1 hr and each tube was withdrawn and examined for the presence of cloudiness, solidification, and pour/flow characteristics. In addition, select samples were sent to an independent testing laboratory (Intertek-Caleb-Brett Laboratories) and evaluated for pour point, cloud point, and cold filter plugging using the appropriate ASTM standard methods for diesel fuel (ASTM D-97-06, ASTM D-2500-05, and ASTM D6371). Cloud points of esters and ester mixtures were also determined using a portable diesel fuel cloud point analyzer, model CPA-T30 (Phase Technology Corp.). A 10 ml plastic syringe was filled with ester or ester mixture and injected into the instrument. After 10 minutes the instrument provided a precise cloud point temperature readout.

REFERENCE EXAMPLE 9


Melting Points of B100 Seed Oils and #2 Diesel



[0130] A series of B100 biodiesel fluids (fatty acid alkyl esters) were made from vegetable oils including soy, canola, corn, macadamia, olive, safflower, sunflower, peanut, walnut, palm, coconut, and castor oils in accordance with the procedures described in Example 6. These fuels were compared with a commercially obtained petroleum-based diesel #2 (Shell Oil Co., San Diego, CA) for cold flow properties in accordance with the procedures described in Example 8. The effects of incubating each fluid at various temperatures between +20 and -20°C are shown in the table below, which shows whether the fluid was liquid or solid after incubating at a given temperature for 1 hr (pour point). Diesel fuel remained liquid to -15°C but was solid after 1 hr. at -20°C. In contrast, the vegetable oil based fatty acid methyl esters solidified at much lower temperatures. Palm oil methyl ester was solid at +5°C. The best performing vegetable oil based esters were canola and castor which were both solid at -15°C. Thus, none of the vegetable oil methyl esters had cold temperature properties that equal diesel fuel or the target of a cloud point of less than -20°C.
Base Oil%RT0°C-10°C-15°C-20°C
SOY 100 L L S S S
CANOLA 100 L L L CL S
CORN 100 L L S S S
MACADAMIA 100 L S S S S
OLIVE 100 L L S S S
SAFFLOWER 100 L L S S S
SUNFLOWER 100 L CL S S S
PEANUT 100 L S S S S
WALNUT 100 L L S S S
PALM 100 L S S S S
COCONUT 100 L L S S S
CASTOR 100 L L L S S
DIESEL #2 100 L L L L L
Key: L = liquid
S = solid
CL = cloudy liquid
RT = Room Temperature

REFERENCE EXAMPLE 10


C8 and C10 FAMES Lower the Melting Point of Soy and Canola B100



[0131] The cold temperature properties of vegetable oil derived methyl esters were improved by the addition of short chain fatty acid methyl esters. Soy oil methyl ester was solid at-10°C. When 30% (v/v) C8 methyl ester (methyl octanoate) was added to soy oil methyl ester, the mixture remained liquid at -10°C. When the C8 methyl ester was increased to 60% (v/v) the mixture remained liquid to -20°C. Addition of C10 methyl ester (methyl decanoate) had an identical effect on the pour point of soy derived methyl ester. Cold temperature performance of canola oil derived methyl ester was also improved by the addition of short chain methyl esters. Addition of 40% C8 methyl ester to canola methyl ester lowered the observed pour point to -20°C. Addition of C10 methyl ester to canola had a similar effect on observed pour points. Addition of a mixture of C8/C10 esters to canola or soy methyl esters also depressed the pour point of the mixture.
Base Oil%C8MEC10MERT0°C-10°C-15°C-20°C
Soy 100   0 L L S S S
Soy 90   10 L L S S S
Soy 80   20 L L S S S
Soy 70   30 L L S S S
Soy 60   40 L L L S S
Soy 50   50 L L L S S
Soy 100 0   L L S S S
Soy 90 10   L L S S S
Soy 80 20   L L S S S
Soy 70 30   L L L S S
Soy 60 40   L L L S S
Soy 50 50   L L L S S
Soy 40 60   L L L L L
Soy 30 70   L L L L L
Soy 20 80   L L L L L
Soy 10 90   L L L L L
Canola 100 0   L L CL S S
Canola 90 10   L L CL S S
Canola 80 20   L L CL CL S
Canola 70 30   L L L CL S
Canola 60 40   L L L CL CL
Canola 50 50   L L L CL CL
Canola 40 60   L L L L CL
Canola 30 70   L L L L L
Canola 20 80   L L L L L
Canola 10 90   L L L L L
Canola 0 100   L L L L L
Canola 100   0 L L CL S S
Canola 90   10 L L CL S S
Canola 80   20 L L CL CL/S S
Canola 70   30 L L L CL CL
Canola 60   40 L L L CL CL
Canola 50   50 L L L CL CL
Key: L = liquid
S = solid
CL = cloudy liquid
RT = Room Temperature
C8ME = methyl octanoate
C10ME = methyl decanoate

REFERENCE EXAMPLE 11


Melting Properties of Various Whole Oil B2-B100 Biodiesel Blends



[0132] Mixtures of diesel fuel with vegetable oil-derived methyl esters were also tested for cold temperature properties. Diesel fuel was tested with 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 20% (B20) (v/v) vegetable oil derived methyl ester, along with pure vegetable oil derived methyl ester (B100). Addition of vegetable oil-derived methyl ester to diesel fuel had no observable effect on pour points of the mixtures except with the B20 blends. Canola, castor and soy had no effect on the B20 pour point, while corn, olive, safflower, sunflower, peanut, palm, and coconut all raised the observed pour points of the B20 blends compared to pure diesel fuel.
Base OilRT0°C-10°C-15°C-20°C
Soy B2 L L L L S
B5 L L L L S
B20 L L L S S
B100 L L S S S
CANOLA B2 L L L L S
B5 L L L L S
B20 L L L L S
B100 L L S S S
CORN B2 L L L L S
B5 L L L L S
B20 L L L S S
B100 L L S S S
OLIVE B2 L L L L S
B5 L L L L S
B20 L L L S S
B100 L L S S S
SAFFLOWER B2 L L L L S
B5 L L L L S
B20 L L L L S
B100 L L S S S
SUNFLOWER B2 L L L L S
B5 L L L L S
B20 L L L S S
B100 L L S S S
PEANUT B2 L L L L S
B5 L L L L S
B20 L L L S S
B100 L S S S S
PALM B2 L L L L S
B5 L L L L S
B20 L L L S S
B100 L S S S S
COCONUT B2 L L L L S
B5 L L L L S
B20 L L L L S
B100 L L S S S
CASTER B2 L L L L S
B5 L L L L S
B20 L L L L S
B100 L L L S S
Key: B2 = 2% methyl ester + 98% Diesel #2
B5 = 5% methyl ester + 95% Diesel #2
B20 = 20% methyl ester + 80% Diesel #2
B100 = 100% methyl ester
L = liquid
S = solid

REFERENCE EXAMPLE 12


Effects of Long Chain Saturates on Melting Point



[0133] Fatty acid methyl esters were tested for cold temperature performance as detailed above. The chart below shows the effect of adding long chain saturated fatty acids to C18:1 methyl ester (methyl octadecenoate). Pure C18:1 methyl ester is liquid at -20°C but addition of C18:0 methyl octadecanoate) raises the observed pour point to as high as +5°C with as little as 2% C18:0 present in the mixture; at 1% C18:0 the pour point of the mixture is 0°C. Similarly, C16 mixtures with C18:1 dramatically raises the pour point. A mixture of 9% (v/v) C16 methyl ester (methyl hexadecanoate) with 91% C18:1 was solid at -5°C. As little as 3% C16:0 resulted in a solid at -15°C. C14:0 methyl ester (methyl tetradecanoate) at concentrations as low as 1% resulted in a solid at -20°C, and 30% C14:0 was solid at -10°C. Mixtures with C12:0 (methyl dodecanoate) presented an interesting and unexpected result. At levels of C12 between 1% and 5% the mixtures were solid at -20°C, but between 6% and 20% C12 mixtures with C18:1 remained liquid at -20°C. Accordingly, the presence of C12:0 in a biodiesel at 6-20%; or more preferably at 6-10%, has surprising beneficial effects on cold flow properties. Thus, while the longer chain saturated FAMEs significantly raised the pour point of mixtures with C18:1, C14 had a much smaller effect and C12 had almost no effect at concentrations up to 20% (v/v).
C12MEC14MEC16MEC18MEC18:1MERT0°C-10°C-15°C-20°C
1       99 L L L L S
2       98 L L L L S
3       97 L L L L S
4       96 L L L L S
5       95 L L L L S
6       94 L L L L CL
C12ME 7C14MEC16MEC18MEC18:1MERT0°C-10°C-15°C-20°C
8       93 L L L L CL
        92 L L L L CL
9       91 L L L L CL
10       90 L L L L CL
  1     99 L L L L S
  2     98 L L L L S
  3     97 L L L L S
  4     96 L L L L S
  5     95 L L L L S
  6     94 L L L L S
  7     93 L L L L S
  8     92 L L L L S
  9     91 L L L L S
  10     90 L L L L S
    1   99 L L L L S
    2   98 L L L L S
    3   97 L L L S S
    4   96 L L L S S
    5   95 L L L S S
    6   94 L L L S S
    7   93 L L L S S
    8   92 L L CL S S
    9   91 L L S S S
    10   90 L L S S S
      1 99 L L CL S S
      2 98 L CL S S S
      3 97 L CL S S S
      4 96 L CL S S S
      5 95 L S S S S
      6 94 L S S S S
      7 93 L S S S S
      8 92 L S S S S
      9 91 L S S S S
      10 90 L S S S S
Key: L = liquid
S = solid
CL = cloudy liquid
RT = Room Temperature
C12ME = methyl dodecanoate
C14ME = methyl tetradecanoate
C16ME = methyl hexadecanoate
C18ME = methyl octadecanoate
C18:1ME = methyl octadecenoate


[0134] Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs.

[0135] The inventions illustratively described herein may suitably be practiced in the absence of any element or elements, limitation or limitations, not specifically disclosed herein. Thus, for example, the terms "comprising," "including," "containing," etc. shall be read expansively and without limitation. Additionally, the terms and expressions employed herein have been used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding any equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof, but it is recognized that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention claimed.

[0136] Thus, it should be understood that although the invention has been specifically disclosed by preferred embodiments and optional features, modification, improvement and variation of the inventions embodied therein herein disclosed may be resorted to by those skilled in the art, and that such modifications, improvements and variations are considered to be within the scope of this invention. The materials, methods, and examples provided here are representative of preferred embodiments, are exemplary, and are not intended as limitations on the scope of the invention.

[0137] The invention has been described broadly and generically herein. Each of the narrower species and subgeneric groupings falling within the generic disclosure also form part of the invention. This includes the generic description of the invention with a proviso or negative limitation removing any subject matter from the genus, regardless of whether or not the excised material is specifically recited herein.

[0138] In addition, where features or aspects of the invention are described in terms of Markush groups, those skilled in the art will recognize that the invention is also thereby described in terms of any individual member or subgroup of members of the Markush group.

SEQUENCE LISTING



[0139] 

<110> CIBUS, LLC

<120> Fatty Acid Blends and Uses Therefor

<130> P40225

<140> 07 809 993.4
<141> 2007-06-27

<150> 60/817,558
<151> 2006-06-28

<160> 4

<170> PatentIn version 3.3

<210> 1
<211> 356
<212> PRT
<213> Brassica napus

<220>
<221> misc_feature
<222> (53)..(53)
<223> Xaa can be any naturally occurring amino acid

<220>
<221> misc_feature
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<223> Xaa can be any naturally occurring amino acid

<220>
<221> misc_feature
<222> (129)..(129)
<223> Xaa can be any naturally occurring amino acid

<220>
<221> misc_feature
<222> (136)..(136)
<223> Xaa can be any naturally occurring amino acid

<220>
<221> misc_feature
<222> (185)..(185)
<223> Xaa can be any naturally occurring amino acid

<400> 1





<210> 2
<211> 412
<212> PRT
<213> Arabidopsis thaliana

<400> 2



<210> 3
<211> 541
<212> PRT
<213> Arabidopsis thaliana

<400> 3





<210> 4
<211> 2252
<212> DNA
<213> Arabidopsis thaliana

<400> 4






Claims

1. A blend of two or more oils, wherein said blend comprises 60% to 85% by weight saturated medium chain fatty acids, 15% to 40% by weight monounsaturated long chain fatty acids, and less than 10% by weight myristic acid (C14:0) and saturated long chain fatty acids, wherein said medium chain fatty acids comprise caprylic acid (C8:0) in an amount of up to 25 % by weight of the blend.
 
2. A blend according to claim 1, wherein said medium chain fatty acids comprise capric acid (C10:0), and wherein said capric acid comprises 30 to 60% by weight of the blend.
 
3. A blend according to claim 1, wherein said medium chain fatty acids comprise lauric acid (C12:0), and wherein said lauric acid comprises 5 to 20 % by weight of the blend.
 
4. A blend according to claim 1, wherein said blend comprises less than 8% myristic acid and saturated long chain fatty acids.
 
5. A blend according to claim 1, wherein said blend comprises less than 6% myristic acid and saturated long chain fatty acids.
 
6. A blend according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said monounsaturated long chain fatty acids comprise palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (C18:1), or a combination thereof.
 
7. A blend according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said blend is suitable for use as a fuel in an internal combustion engine.
 
8. A blend according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said oils are selected from the group consisting of canola, rapeseed, palm oil, palm kernel, coconut, tucum, sunflower, safflower, Cuphea, olive, macadamia, babassu, castor, peanut, cotton, flaxseed, linseed, cohune, and jatropha.
 
9. A blend according to any of the preceding claims, wherein one or more of said oils are derived from a genetically modified plant, wherein said plant is modified such that it produces saturated medium chain fatty acids.
 
10. A blend according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said blend has a melting point of less than or equal to -10 °C.
 
11. A blend according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said blend has a melting point of less than or equal to -20 °C.
 
12. A blend according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters of said fatty acids.
 
13. A blend according to claim 12, wherein said fatty acid alkyl esters are selected from the group consisting of methyl esters, ethyl esters, propyl esters, isopropyl esters, and butyl esters.
 
14. A blend according to claim 13, wherein said fatty acid alkyl esters are methyl esters.
 


Ansprüche

1. Gemisch aus zwei oder mehr Ölen, wobei das Gemisch 60 bis 85 Gew .-% gesättigte Fettsäuren mittlerer Kettenlänge, 15 bis 40 Gew .-% einfach ungesättigte langkettige Fettsäuren und weniger als 10 Gew .-% Myristinsäure (C14: 0) und gesättigte langkettige Fettsäuren umfasst, wobei die Fettsäuren mittlerer Kettenlänge Caprylsäure (C8: 0) in einer Menge von bis zu 25 Gew .-% des Gemisches umfassen.
 
2. Gemisch nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Fettsäuren mittlerer Kettenlänge Caprinsäure (C10: 0) umfassen, und wobei die Caprinsäure 30 bis 60 Gew .-% des Gemisches ausmacht.
 
3. Gemisch nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Fettsäuren mittlerer Kettenlänge Laurinsäure (C12: 0) umfassen, und wobei die Laurinsäure 5 bis 20 Gew .-% des Gemisches ausmacht.
 
4. Gemisch nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Gemisch weniger als 8 Gew .-% Myristinsäure und gesättigte langkettige Fettsäuren umfasst.
 
5. Gemisch nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Gemisch weniger als 6 Gew .-% Myristinsäure und gesättigte langkettige Fettsäuren umfasst
 
6. Gemisch nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die einfach ungesättigten langkettigen Fettsäuren Palmitoleinsäure (C16: 1), Ölsäure (C18: 1) oder eine Kombination davon umfassen.
 
7. Gemisch nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Gemisch geeignet ist zur Verwendung als Kraftstoff in einem Verbrennungsmotor.
 
8. Gemisch nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Öle ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Canolaöl, Rapsöl, Palmöl, Palmkernöl, Kokosnussöl, Tucumaöl, Sonnenblumenöl, Distelöl, Cupheaöl, Olivenöl, Macadamiaöl, Babassuöl, Rizinusöl, Erdnussöl, Baumwollöl, Flachssaatöl, Leinsamenöl, Cohuneöl und Jatrophaöl.
 
9. Gemisch nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei eines oder mehrere der Öle von einer genetisch veränderten Pflanze stammen, wobei die Pflanze derart modifiziert ist, so dass sie gesättigte Fettsäuren mittlerer Kettenlänge produziert.
 
10. Gemisch nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Gemisch einen Schmelzpunkt von weniger als oder gleich -10°C aufweist.
 
11. Gemisch nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Gemisch einen Schmelzpunkt von weniger als oder gleich -20°C aufweist.
 
12. Gemisch nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Fettsäuren zu Alkylestern der Fettsäuren umgesetzt sind.
 
13. Gemisch nach Anspruch 12, wobei die Fettsäurealkylester ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe, bestehend aus Methylestern, Ethylestern, Propylestern, Isopropylestern und Butylestern.
 
14. Gemisch nach Anspruch 13, wobei die Fettsäurealkylester Methylester sind.
 


Revendications

1. Mélange de deux ou plusieurs huiles, dans lequel ledit mélange comprend de 60% à 85% en poids d'acides gras saturés à chaîne moyenne, de 15% à 40% en poids d'acides gras mono-insaturés à longue chaîne et moins de 10% en poids d'acide myristique (C14:0) et d'acides gras saturés à longue chaîne, dans lequel lesdits acides gras à chaîne moyenne comprennent de l'acide caprylique (C8:0) en une quantité de jusqu'à 25% en poids du mélange.
 
2. Mélange selon la revendication 1, dans lequel lesdits acides gras à chaîne moyenne comprennent de l'acide caprique (C10:0), et dans lequel ledit acide caprique comprend de 30 à 60% en poids du mélange.
 
3. Mélange selon la revendication 1, dans lequel lesdits acides gras à chaîne moyenne comprennent de l'acide laurique (C12:0), et dans lequel ledit acide laurique comprend de 5 à 20% en poids du mélange.
 
4. Mélange selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ledit mélange comprend moins de 8% d'acide myristique et d'acides gras saturés à longue chaîne.
 
5. Mélange selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ledit mélange comprend moins de 6% d'acide myristique et des acides gras saturés à longue chaîne.
 
6. Mélange selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel lesdits acides gras mono-insaturés à longue chaîne comprennent l'acide palmitoléique (C16:1), l'acide oléique (C18:1) ou une combinaison de ces derniers.
 
7. Mélange selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel ledit mélange convient pour être utilisé comme carburant dans un moteur à combustion interne.
 
8. Mélange selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel lesdites huiles sont sélectionnées dans le groupe constitué de canola, de colza, d'huile de palme, de palmiste, de noix de coco, de tucum, de tournesol, de carthame, de cuphéa, d'olive, de macadamia, de babassu, de ricin, d'arachide, de coton, de lin, de cohune et de jatropha.
 
9. Mélange selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel une ou plusieurs desdites huiles sont dérivées d'une plante génétiquement modifiée, dans lequel ladite plante est modifiée de sorte qu'elle produise des acides gras saturés à chaîne moyenne.
 
10. Mélange selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel ledit mélange présente un point de fusion inférieur ou égal à -10°C.
 
11. Mélange selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel ledit mélange présente un point de fusion inférieur ou égal à -20°C.
 
12. Mélange selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel lesdits acides gras sont convertis en esters alkyliques desdits acides gras.
 
13. Mélange selon la revendication 12, dans lequel lesdits esters alkyliques d'acide gras sont choisis dans le groupe constitué d'esters méthyliques, d'esters éthyliques, d'esters propyliques, d'esters isopropyliques et d'esters butyliques.
 
14. Mélange selon la revendication 13, dans lequel lesdits esters alkyliques d'acide gras sont des esters méthyliques.
 




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