(19)
(11)EP 2 698 945 A2

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
19.02.2014 Bulletin 2014/08

(21)Application number: 13178765.7

(22)Date of filing:  31.07.2013
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H04L 9/00(2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME

(30)Priority: 06.08.2012 US 201261680208 P
31.05.2013 US 201313907783

(71)Applicant: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd
Gyeonggi-do 443-742 (KR)

(72)Inventors:
  • Saldamli, Gokay
    San Jose, CA California 95131 (US)
  • Chow, Richard
    Sunnyvale, CA California 94087 (US)
  • Jin, Hongxia
    San Jose, CA California 95129 (US)
  • Knijnenburg, Bart
    Irvine, CA California 92617 (US)

(74)Representative: Jenkins, Richard Gavin 
Harrison Goddard Foote LLP Saviour House 9 St Saviourgate
York YO1 8NQ
York YO1 8NQ (GB)

  


(54)Vectorial private equality testing


(57) A system for equality testing, the system comprising a first client device including a first private data unit, a second client device including a second private data unit, and a server. The server receives a first obfuscated data unit corresponding to the first private data unit from the first client device, and a second obfuscated data unit corresponding to the second private data unit from the second client device. The server performs a vector calculation based on the first and second obfuscated data units to generate a combination of the first and second obfuscated data units. The server sends the combination to the first client device. The first client device is configured to determine whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on the combination.




Description

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS



[0001] This application claims the priority benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial Number 61/680,208, filed on August 6, 2012, incorporated herein by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0002] An embodiment of the present invention relates generally equivalence testing, and in particular to equivalence testing using vectors.

BACKGROUND



[0003] Equivalence testing has many useful applications. For example, equivalence testing is used to determine proximity in location-based services. To preserve location privacy, equality testing protocols utilize costly encryption schemes, such as public-key encryption, homomorphic encryption, or cryptographic primitives.

SUMMARY



[0004] One embodiment provides a system for equality testing, the system comprising a first client device including a first private data unit, a second client device including a second private data unit, and a server. The server receives a first obfuscated data unit corresponding to the first private data unit from the first client device, and a second obfuscated data unit corresponding to the second private data unit from the second client device. The server performs a vector calculation based on the first and second obfuscated data units to generate a combination of the first and second obfuscated data units. The server sends the combination to the first client device. The first client device is configured to determine whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on the combination.

[0005] Each obfuscated data unit may comprise a vector unit and the combination comprises a dot product of the first and second obfuscated data units.

[0006] Each client device may be further configured to generate a private vector unit corresponding to the private data unit for said client device and obfuscate said private vector unit to produce an obfuscated data unit corresponding to the private data unit for said client device.

[0007] The first client device may be further configured to determine that the second client device is within proximity of the first client device when the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit and determine that the second client device is not within proximity of the first client device when the first private data unit is not equal to the second private data unit.

[0008] The first client device and the second client device may share an encryption key.

[0009] The first client device may obfuscate a private vector unit corresponding to the first private data unit by generating a random vector unit that is perpendicular to said private vector unit and rotating the random vector unit by a random rotation angle to produce a rotated vector unit, wherein said rotated vector unit is sent to the server.

[0010] The second client device may obfuscate a private vector unit corresponding to the second private data unit by rotating said private vector unit by a random rotation angle to produce a rotated vector unit scaling said rotated vector unit by a random value to produce a scaled vector unit and incrementing said scaled vector unit by a random vector unit to produce an incremented vector unit, wherein said incremented vector unit is sent to the server.

[0011] The first client device may be further configured to perform a vector calculation based on said rotated vector unit and a random vector unit to generate a dot product of said rotated vector unit and the random vector unit and determine whether the dot product of said rotated vector unit and the random vector unit is equal to the combination received from the server.

[0012] The first private data unit may be hidden from the server and the second client device and the second private data unit may be hidden from the server and the first client device.

[0013] For each client device, the private vector unit corresponding to the private data unit for said client device may be a real-valued vector.

[0014] For each client device, the private vector unit corresponding to the private data unit for said client device may be an integer-valued vector.

[0015] One embodiment provides a method for equality testing, the method comprising receiving a first obfuscated data unit from a first client device and a second obfuscated data unit from a second client device. The first obfuscated data unit corresponds to a first private data unit for the first client device. The second obfuscated data unit corresponds to a second private data unit for the second client device. The server performs a vector calculation based on the first and second obfuscated data units to generate a combination of the first and second obfuscated data units. The server sends the combination to the first client device. The first client device determines whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on the combination.

[0016] One embodiment provides a device for equality testing, the device comprising a computation unit configured to generate a first obfuscated data unit corresponding to a first private data unit for the device. The device further comprises a communication unit configured to send to a server the first obfuscated data unit, and receive from the server a combination of the first obfuscated data unit and a second obfuscated data unit corresponding to a second private data unit for a different device. The computation unit is further configured to determine whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on the combination received.

[0017] One embodiment provides a computer program product for equality testing. The computer program product comprises a computer-readable storage medium having program code embodied therewith, the program code being executable by a computer to generate a first obfuscated data unit corresponding to a first private data unit for a first client device, send to a server the first obfuscated data unit, receive from the server a combination of the first obfuscated data unit and a second obfuscated data unit corresponding to a second private data unit for a second client device, and determine whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on the combination received.

[0018] These and other aspects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description, which, when taken in conjunction with the drawings, illustrate by way of example the principles of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0019] For a fuller understanding of the nature and advantages of the invention, as well as a preferred mode of use, reference should be made to the following detailed description read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

[0020] FIG. 1 illustrates a block diagram of a system for vectorial private equality testing, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0021] FIG. 2 illustrates a block diagram of a client-side vectorial private equality testing application module, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0022] FIG. 3 illustrates a block diagram of a server-side vectorial private equality testing application module, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0023] FIG. 4 illustrates a mapping operation, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0024] FIG. 5A illustrates a real-valued vectorization operation, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0025] FIG. 5B illustrates an integer-valued vectorization operation, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0026] FIG. 6A illustrates a flow diagram representing a vectorial private equality testing protocol, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0027] FIG. 6B illustrates an example real-valued vectorization operation for a first client in FIG. 6A, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0028] FIG. 6C illustrates an example pseudo random vector and an example random rotation angle for a first and a second client in FIG. 6A, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0029] FIG. 7 illustrates an example flow chart for a first client in FIG. 6A, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0030] FIG. 8 illustrates an example flow chart for a second client in FIG. 6A, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0031] FIG. 9 illustrates an example flow chart for a server in FIG. 6A, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0032] FIG. 10 is a high-level block diagram showing an information processing system comprising a computing system implementing an embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0033] The following description is made for the purpose of illustrating the general principles of the invention and is not meant to limit the inventive concepts claimed herein. Further, particular features described herein can be used in combination with other described features in each of the various possible combinations and permutations. Unless otherwise specifically defined herein, all terms are to be given their broadest possible interpretation including meanings implied from the specification as well as meanings understood by those skilled in the art and/or as defined in dictionaries, treatises, etc.

[0034] One embodiment provides a system for equality testing, the system comprising a first client device including a first private data unit, a second client device including a second private data unit, and a server. The server receives a first obfuscated data unit corresponding to the first private data unit from the first client device, and a second obfuscated data unit corresponding to the second private data unit from the second client device. The server performs a vector calculation based on the first and second obfuscated data units to generate a combination of the first and second obfuscated data units. The server sends the combination to the first client device. The first client device is configured to determine whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on the combination.

[0035] One embodiment provides a method for equality testing, the method comprising receiving a first obfuscated data unit from a first client device and a second obfuscated data unit from a second client device. The first obfuscated data unit corresponds to a first private data unit for the first client device. The second obfuscated data unit corresponds to a second private data unit for the second client device. The server performs a vector calculation based on the first and second obfuscated data units to generate a combination of the first and second obfuscated data units. The server sends the combination to the first client device. The first client device determines whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on the combination.

[0036] One embodiment provides a device for equality testing, the device comprising a computation unit configured to generate a first obfuscated data unit corresponding to a first private data unit for the device. The device further comprises a communication unit configured to send to a server the first obfuscated data unit, and receive from the server a combination of the first obfuscated data unit and a second obfuscated data unit corresponding to a second private data unit for a different device. The computation unit is further configured to determine whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on the combination received.

[0037] One embodiment provides a computer program product for equality testing. The computer program product comprises a computer-readable storage medium having program code embodied therewith, the program code being executable by a computer to generate a first obfuscated data unit corresponding to a first private data unit for a first client device, send to a server the first obfuscated data unit, receive from the server a combination of the first obfuscated data unit and a second obfuscated data unit corresponding to a second private data unit for a second client device, and determine whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on the combination received.

[0038] FIG. 1 illustrates a block diagram of a system 100 for vectorial private equality testing, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0039] In one embodiment, the system 100 comprises multiple clients 120, such as a first client ("Client A") and a second client ("Client B"). A client 120 represents an electronic device of a communicating party. An electronic device may be an appliance, a personal computer (PC), a television (TV) such as a smart TV, or a mobile device (e.g., a mobile phone such as a smart phone, a laptop computer).

[0040] Each client 120 is configured to establish a connection 50 to a server 200. A connection 50 may be a wireless connection, a wired connection, or a combination of the two.

[0041] The server 200 comprises a server-side vectorial private equality testing (VPET) application module 300 configured to facilitate private equality testing between multiple clients 120. Each client 120 comprises a client-side VPET application module 250 configured to communicate with the server 200.

[0042] FIG. 2 illustrates a block diagram of a client-side vectorial private equality testing (VPET) application module 250, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. In one embodiment, the client-side VPET application module 250 of a client device 120 comprises a communication unit 251, a memory unit 252, a pseudo random generation (PRG) unit 253, a vectorization unit 254 and a computation unit 255.

[0043] The communication unit 251 is configured to receive information from, and send information to, another entity such as the server 200 or another client 120. The memory unit 252 is configured to maintain information, such as a corresponding private value (private information unit) v, for the client 120. For example, the memory unit 252 of Client A maintains a corresponding private value vA, and the memory unit 252 of Client B maintains a corresponding private value vB. A corresponding private value v for a client 120 may represent a unit of information associated with the client 120, such as a location of the client 120, the wealth of the client 120, a score for the client 120 (e.g., exam score), etc.

[0044] As described in detail later herein, the PRG unit 253 is configured to generate pseudo random numbers for private equality testing. The vectorization unit 254
is configured to represent the corresponding private value v for the client 120 as a d-dimensional vector w (i.e., a private vector unit). The vector w is a multi-dimensional vector, such as a two-dimensional vector representing the latitude and longitude of a location of the client 120. As described in detail later herein, the vectorization unit 254 of Client A represents the private value vA as vector wA, and the vectorization unit 254 of Client B represents the private value vB as vector wB.

[0045] FIG. 3 illustrates a block diagram of a server-side vectorial private equality testing (VPET) application module 300, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. In one embodiment, the server-side VPET application module 300 of the server 60 comprises a communication unit 301, a memory unit 302, and a computation unit 303.

[0046] The communication unit 301 is configured to receive information from, and send information to, another entity such as the server 200 or another client 120. The memory unit 302 is configured to maintain information, such as each message received from a client 120.

[0047] As described in detail later herein, the computation unit 303 is configured to perform a dot product operation (i.e., an inner product operation).

[0048] FIG. 4 illustrates a mapping operation, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. The system 100 generates a unique vector w for each private value v for each client 120. In one embodiment, each vector w is a real-valued vector. In another embodiment, each vector w is an integer-valued vector.

[0049] In this specification, let S represent the entire set of private values v in the system 100, and let N represent the total number of private values v in the set S. In one embodiment, if N is not a multiple of 4, additional private values v are added to the set S until N becomes a multiple of 4.

[0050] Each private value v in the system 100 is mapped to a natural number of a semi-open interval (0, N]. The semi-open interval (0, N] is represented as a line segment 400 in FIG. 4. A first end 100A of the line segment 400 represents the number 0, and a second end 400B of the line segment 400 represents the number N.

[0051] Each private value v in the system 100 is mapped to a natural number of the semi-open interval (0, N]. Specifically, the vectorization unit 254 of each client 120 assigns a corresponding private value v to a natural number of the semi-open interval (0,N]. For example, as shown in FIG. 4, the vectorization unit 254 of Client A maps the corresponding private value vA to the number 2, and the vectorization unit 254 of Client B maps the corresponding private value vB to the number 1.

[0052] FIG. 5A illustrates a real-valued vectorization operation, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. In one embodiment, for a finite set S of private values v, each natural number of the semi-open interval (0, N] is mapped to a point on a semi-circle 410. For example, the first end 400A (i.e., the number 0) and the second end 400B (i.e., the number N) of the line segment 400 are bent into a semi-circle 410 centered at origin O.

[0053] Each natural number mapped to a point on the semi-circle 410 may be represented as a vector 420 starting from the origin O and ending on the point on the semi-circle 410. FIG. 5A illustrates the vectors wA and wB representing the private values vA and vB, respectively.

[0054] In one embodiment, an angle α between two consecutive vectors 420 (e.g., vectors wA and wB) is equal to Π/N radians.

[0055] FIG. 5B illustrates an integer-valued vectorization operation, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. In one embodiment, for a finite set S of private values v, each natural number of the semi-open interval (0, N] is mapped to a point on a rectangle box 415 in

2. Each natural number mapped to a point on the rectangle box 415 may be represented as a vector 420 starting from the origin O and ending on the point on the rectangle box 415. FIG. 5B illustrates the vectors wA and wB representing the private values vA and vB, respectively.

[0056] In one embodiment, the system 100 utilizes an angle-preserving mapping function R configured to rotate a vector 420 by a random rotation angle θ. The mapping function R is defined only on the vectors 420 and their symmetries with respect to the x-axis. The total number of vectors 420 is 2N, and a random rotation angle θ is an integer value in the semi-open interval (0, 2N].

[0057] FIG. 6A illustrates a flow diagram 450 representing the VPET protocol, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. As stated above, the vectorization unit 254 of Client A represents the private value vA for Client A as the vector wA, and the vectorization unit 254 of Client B represents the private value vB as the vector wB.

[0058] In one embodiment, Client A and Client B use a counter ctr for synchronization. In one example implementation, the counter ctr is initialized to zero. Client A increments the counter ctr by one each time the private value vA changes (e.g., the location of Client A changes). Similarly, Client B increments the counter ctr by one each time the private value vB changes (e.g., the location of Client B changes).

[0059] As stated above, the server-side VPET application module 300 of the server 200 facilitates private equality testing between Client A and Client B. In one embodiment, the memory unit 302 of the server 200 maintains the most recent value of the counter ctr. The communication unit 251 of each Client A, Client B queries the server 200 for the most recent value of the counter ctr.

[0060] In one embodiment, Client A and Client B share an encryption key k, wherein the encryption key k is known only to Client A and Client B. The PRG unit 253 of each Client A, Client B implements a pseudorandom function E (e.g., Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)) that is configured to generate pseudorandom values based on the encryption key k and the counter ctr. In one embodiment, the memory unit 252 of each Client A, Client B maintains the encryption key k.

[0061] In one embodiment, Client B increments the counter ctr by one before communicating with the server 200. Client A queries the server 200 for the most recent value
of the counter ctr before communicating with the server 200. The communication unit 301 of the server 200 communicates the most recent value of the counter ctr when queried.

[0062] Each Client A, Client B is configured to generate a pseudo random vector s and a random rotation angle θ using the pseudorandom function E, the encryption key k, and the counter ctr. In one embodiment, the PRG
unit 253 of each Client A, Client B generates the pseudo random vector s and the random rotation angle θ using relation (1) below:


wherein Ek(ctr) is a pseudorandom value resulting from evaluating the pseudorandom function E at a point equal to the counter ctr using the encryption key k. In one embodiment, the client-side VPET application module 250 of each Client A, Client B parses the pseudorandom value Ek(ctr) to obtain/extract the pseudo random vector s and the random rotation angle θ.

[0063] In one embodiment, the client-side VPET application module 250 of each Client A, Client B sends a message including an obfuscated/blind vector (i.e., obfuscated data unit) to the server 200. Sending an obfuscated/blind vector to the server 200 removes the need to encrypt the message sent to the server 200 (i.e., the server 200 does not need to share an encryption key with either Client A or Client B). Further, sending an obfuscated/blind vector in lieu of an encrypted message ensures that the server 200 is oblivious to the vectors wA and wB for Client A and Client B, respectively.

[0064] Specifically, the computation unit 255 of Client B generates an obfuscated/blind vector b for the vector wB using relation (2) below:


wherein R(wB,θ) is a vector representing the rotation of the vector wB by the random rotation angle θ, and wherein r represents a random value for scaling the vector R(wB,θ). In one embodiment, the PRG unit 253 of Client B generates the random value r. The computation unit 255 of Client B implements the mapping function R and rotates the vector wB by the random rotation angle θ to generate the vector R(wB,θ). The computation unit 255 of Client B then scales the vector R(wB,θ) by the random value r to generate vector rR(wB,θ), and adds the pseudo random vector s to the vector rR(wB,θ) to produce the obfuscated/blind vector b. In one embodiment, the communication unit 251 of Client B communicates a message including the obfuscated/blind vector b and the counter ctr to the server 200.

[0065] In one embodiment, the PRG unit 253 of Client A is further configured to generate a random basis vector u having pseudo random entries u1, u2, ... , ud-1. The random basis vector u is perpendicular to the vector wA. As the random basis vector u is perpendicular to the vector wA, the dot product (i.e., inner product) between the vector wA and the random basis vector u (i.e., <wA, u>) is equal to zero.

[0066] The computation unit 255 of Client A generates an obfuscated/blind vector for the random basis vector u using relation (3) below:


wherein R(u,θ) is a vector representing the rotation of the random basis vector u by the random rotation angle θ. The computation unit 255 of Client A implements the mapping function R and rotates the random basis vector u by the random rotation angle θ to generate the obfuscated/blind vector a. In one embodiment, the communication unit 251 of Client A communicates a message including the obfuscated/blind vector a and the counter ctr to the server 200.

[0067] The server 200 determines whether the value of the counter ctr included in messages from Client A matches the value of the counter ctr included in messages from Client B. If the value of the counter ctr in the messages from Client A and Client B is the same, the computation unit 302 of the server 200 computes a dot product (i.e., an inner product) of the obfuscated/blind vectors a and b. In this specification, let m represent the dot product (i.e., the inner product) of the obfuscated/blind vectors a and b (i.e., <a, b>). The communication unit 301 of the server 200 communicates the dot product (i.e., the inner product) m to Client A.

[0068] The computation unit 251 of Client A further computes a dot product <a,s> (i.e., an inner product) representing the dot product of the obfuscated/blind vector a and the pseudo random vector s. Upon receiving the dot product m from the server 200, the computation unit 251 determines whether the dot product <a,s> is equal to the dot product m. If the dot product <a, s> is equal to the dot product m, Client A concludes that the vectors wA and wB are the same (i.e., the private values vA and vB are the same). If the dot product <a, s> is not equal to the dot product m, Client A concludes that the vectors wA and wB are the different (i.e., the private values vA and vB are different). Therefore, Client A will only deduce the value of the private value vB when the private value vB is equal to the private value vA. Neither Client A nor the server 200 will be able to deduce the value of the private value vB when the private value vB is different from the private value vA.

[0069] An expanded form of the dot product m is provided using relation (4) below:



[0070] If the vectors wA and wB are the same (i.e., the private values vA and vB are the same), the vector R(wB,θ) is perpendicular to the vector R(u,θ). When the vector R(wB,θ) is perpendicular to the vector R(u,θ), the dot product <R(u,θ), R(wB,θ)> is equal to zero. When the dot product <R(u,θ), R(wB,θ)> is equal to zero, the dot product m is equal to the vector <R(u,θ), s>. As stated above, the vector R(u,θ) represents the obfuscated/blind vector a. Therefore, the server 200 communicates the dot product <a, s> to Client A when the vectors wA and wB are the same.

[0071] FIG. 6B illustrates an example real-valued vectorization operation for the first client (e.g., Client A) in FIG. 6A, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. In one example, the private value vA for Client A is 70, wherein each private value v represents an exam score for a math exam. Client A wants to determine whether Client B has the same exam score as Client A for the math exam. Let S represent the finite set of exam scores for the math exam, wherein S = [37, 100]. Let N represent the total number of discrete exam scores, wherein N = 64.

[0072] In one embodiment, mapping the set S of exam scores to a semi-circle 410 results in grade increments equal to Π/64 radians (i.e., the angle α between two consecutive vectors 420 is equal to Π/64 radians). As shown in FIG. 6B, the vector wA representing the private value vA for Client A is (cos(34Π/64), sin(34Π/64)).

[0073] FIG. 6C illustrates an example pseudo random vector s and an example random rotation angle θ for the first and second clients (e.g., Client A and Client B) in FIG. 6A, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. In one embodiment, Client A and Client B both implement the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) as the pseudorandom function E. Client A and Client B share an encryption key k and a counter ctr. Each Client A, Client B generates a pseudo random vector s and a random rotation angle θ using relation (5) below:


wherein k = D301E0908128C3B254BDEA4F2C504844, and wherein ctr = 3.

[0074] In one embodiment, the least significant 19 bits of AESk(ctr) is used to set the random vector s and the random rotation angle θ. As shown in FIG. 6C, the least significant 19 bits of AESk(ctr) is the hexadecimal sequence 6A1B1 which represents the binary sequence 1101010000110110001. The random rotation angle θ is set to a portion of the binary sequence, and an x component and a y component of the random vector s are set to the remaining portions of the binary sequence. For example, the random rotation angle θ = 49, and the random vector s = (x,y) = (-21,3), wherein x and y are each represented by a 6-bit sign-magnitude.

[0075] If the private value vB for Client B is also equal to 70, the vector wB representing the private value vB for Client B is (cos(34Π/64), sin(34Π/64)). Client B computes R(wB,θ) using relation (6) below:





[0076] If a random value r for scaling the vector R(wB,θ) is set to 7, Client B generates an obfuscated/blind vector b for the vector wB using relation (7) below:



[0077] Client A computes a random basis vector u that is perpendicular to the vector wA by adding Π/2 to wA. Specifically, Client A computes the random basis vector u using relation (8) below:



[0078] Client A generates an obfuscated/blind vector a for the vector wa using relation (9) below:



[0079] The server 200 computes the dot product m using relation (10) below:



[0080] Client computes the dot product <a, s> using relation (11) below:



[0081] As the dot product <a, s> is equal to the dot product m, Client A determines that the private value vB is equal to the private value vA.

[0082] FIG. 7 illustrates an example flow chart 600 for the first client (i.e., Client A) in FIG. 6A, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. In process block 601, the first private value is represented as a first vector. In process block 602, a random basis vector perpendicular to the first vector is generated. In process block 603, a pseudo random vector and a random rotation angle are generated using a pseudorandom function, a shared encryption key, and a shared counter. In process block 604, a blind vector for the random basis vector is generated using a rotation mapping function and the random rotation angle. In process block 605, the blind vector and the shared counter are sent to a server facilitating private equality testing between the first client and the second client. In process block 606, an inner product (i.e., a dot product) is received from the server. In process block 607, determine whether an inner product (i.e., a dot product) of the blind vector and the pseudo random vector is equal to the inner product received.

[0083] FIG. 8 illustrates an example flow chart 650 for the second client (i.e., Client B) in FIG. 6A, wherein the second client generates a blind vector for a second private value for the second client, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. In process block 651, the second private value is represented as a second vector. In process block 652, a pseudo random vector and a random rotation angle are generated using a pseudorandom function, a shared encryption key, and a shared counter. In process block 603, a blind vector for the second vector is generated using a rotation mapping function, the random rotation angle, a random value, and the pseudo random vector. In process block 604, the blind vector and the shared counter are sent to a server facilitating private equality testing between a first client and the second client.

[0084] FIG. 9 illustrates an example flow chart 700 for the server in FIG. 6A, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. In process block 701, receive a first blind vector and a shared counter from the second client. In process block 702, send the shared counter to the first client. In process block 703, receive a second blind vector and the shared counter from the first client. In process block 704, compute an inner product (i.e., a dot product) of the first blind vector and the second blind vector. In process block 705, send the inner product to the first client.

[0085] FIG. 10 is a high-level block diagram showing an information processing system comprising a computing system 500 implementing an embodiment of the present invention. The system 500 includes one or more processors 511 (e.g., ASIC, CPU, etc.), and can further include an electronic display device 512 (for displaying graphics, text, and other data), a main memory 513 (e.g., random access memory (RAM)), storage device 514 (e.g., hard disk drive), removable storage device 515 (e.g., removable storage drive, removable memory module, a magnetic tape drive, optical disk drive, computer-readable medium having stored therein computer software and/or data), user interface device 516 (e.g., keyboard, touch screen, keypad, pointing device), and a communication interface 517 (e.g., modem, wireless transceiver (such as WiFi, Cellular), a network interface (such as an Ethernet card), a communications port, or a PCMCIA slot and card). The communication interface 517 allows software and data to be transferred between the computer system and external devices and/or networks, such as the Internet 550, a mobile electronic device 551, a server 552, and a network 553.
The system 500 further includes a communications infrastructure 518 (e.g., a communications bus, cross-over bar, or network) to which the aforementioned devices/modules 511 through 517 are connected.

[0086] The information transferred via communications interface 517 may be in the form of signals such as electronic, electromagnetic, optical, or other signals capable of being received by communications interface 517, via a communication link that carries signals and may be implemented using wire or cable, fiber optics, a phone line, a cellular phone link, an radio frequency (RF) link, and/or other communication channels.

[0087] The system 500 may further include application modules as MMS module 521, SMS module 522, email module 523, social network interface (SNI) module 524, audio/video (AV) player 525, web browser 526, image capture module 527, etc.

[0088] The system 500 further includes a private equality testing module 530 for private equality testing as described herein, according to an embodiment of the invention. In one embodiment, the private equality testing module 530 along with an operating system 529 may be implemented as executable code residing in a memory of the system 500. In another embodiment, the private equality testing module 530 along with the operating system 529 may be implemented in firmware.

[0089] As is known to those skilled in the art, the aforementioned example architectures described above, according to said architectures, can be implemented in many ways, such as program instructions for execution by a processor, as software modules, microcode, as computer program product on computer readable media, as analog/logic circuits, as application specific integrated circuits, as firmware, as consumer electronic devices, AV devices, wireless/wired transmitters, wireless/wired receivers, networks, multi-media devices, etc. Further, embodiments of said architecture can take the form of an entirely hardware embodiment, an entirely software embodiment or an embodiment containing both hardware and software elements.

[0090] Embodiments of the present invention have been described with reference to flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams of methods, apparatus (systems) and computer program products according to embodiments of the invention. Each block of such illustrations/diagrams, or combinations thereof, can be implemented by computer program instructions. The computer program instructions when provided to a processor produce a machine, such that the instructions, which execute via the processor create means for implementing the functions/operations specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram. Each block in the flowchart/block diagrams may represent a hardware and/or software module or logic, implementing embodiments of the present invention. In alternative implementations, the functions noted in the blocks may occur out of the order noted in the figures, concurrently, etc.

[0091] The terms "computer program medium," "computer usable medium," "computer readable medium", and "computer program product," are used to generally refer to media such as main memory, secondary memory, removable storage drive, a hard disk installed in hard disk drive. These computer program products are means for providing software to the computer system. The computer readable medium allows the computer system to read data, instructions, messages or message packets, and other computer readable information from the computer readable medium. The computer readable medium, for example, may include non-volatile memory, such as a floppy disk, ROM, flash memory, disk drive memory, a CD-ROM, and other permanent storage. It is useful, for example, for transporting information, such as data and computer instructions, between computer systems. Computer program instructions may be stored in a computer readable medium that can direct a computer, other programmable data processing apparatus, or other devices to function in a particular manner, such that the instructions stored in the computer readable medium produce an article of manufacture including instructions which implement the function/act specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.

[0092] Computer program instructions representing the block diagram and/or flowcharts herein may be loaded onto a computer, programmable data processing apparatus, or processing devices to cause a series of operations performed thereon to produce a computer implemented process. Computer programs (i.e., computer control logic) are stored in main memory and/or secondary memory. Computer programs may also be received via a communications interface. Such computer programs, when executed, enable the computer system to perform the features of the present invention as discussed herein. In particular, the computer programs,
when executed, enable the processor and/or multi-core processor to perform the features of the computer system. Such computer programs represent controllers of the
computer system. A computer program product comprises a tangible storage medium readable by a computer system and storing instructions for execution by the computer system for performing a method of the invention.

[0093] Though the present invention has been described with reference to certain versions thereof; however, other versions are possible. Therefore, the spirit and scope of the appended claims should not be limited to the description of the preferred versions contained herein.


Claims

1. A system for equality testing, the system comprising:

a first client device including a first private data unit;

a second client device including a second private data unit; and

a server configured to:

receive a first obfuscated data unit corresponding to the first private data unit from the first client device;

receive a second obfuscated data unit corresponding to the second private data unit from the second client device;

perform a vector calculation based on the first and second obfuscated data units to generate a combination of the first and second obfuscated data units; and

send said combination to the first client device, wherein the first client device is configured to determine whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on said combination.


 
2. The system of claim 1, wherein:

each obfuscated data unit comprises a vector unit;
and

said combination comprises a dot product of the
first and second
obfuscated data units.


 
3. The system of claim 1, wherein:

the first client device is further configured to:

determine that the second client device is within proximity of the first client device when the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit; and

determine that the second client device is not within proximity of the first client device when the first private data unit is not equal to the second private data unit.


 
4. The system of claim 1, wherein:

the first client device and the second client
device share an encryption
key.


 
5. The system of claim 1, wherein:

the first private data unit is hidden from the

server and the second client
device; and

the second private data unit is hidden from the

server and the first client
device.


 
6. A method for equality testing, the method comprising:

receiving a first obfuscated data unit from a first client device, wherein the first obfuscated data unit corresponds to a first private data unit for the first client device;

receiving a second obfuscated data unit from a second client device, wherein the second obfuscated data unit corresponds to a second private data unit for the second client device;

performing a vector calculation based on the first and second obfuscated data units to generate a combination of the first and second obfuscated data units; and

sending said combination to the first client device, wherein the first client device determines whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on said combination.


 
7. The method of claim 6, wherein:

each obfuscated data unit comprises a vector unit;
and

said combination comprises a dot product of the first and second obfuscated data units.


 
8. The method of claim 6, further comprising:

sharing an encryption key between the first client device and the second client device.


 
9. The method of claim 6, wherein:

the first private data unit is hidden from the server and the second client device; and

the second private data unit is hidden from the server and the first client device.


 
10. A device for equality testing, the device comprising:

a computation unit configured to generate a first obfuscated data unit corresponding to a first private data unit for the device; and

a communication unit configured to:

send to a server the first obfuscated data unit; and

receive from the server a combination of the first obfuscated data unit and a second obfuscated data unit corresponding to a second private data unit for a different device;

wherein the computation unit is further configured to determine whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on the combination received.


 
11. The device of claim 10, the device further comprises:

a vectorization unit configured to generate a private vector unit corresponding to the first private data unit;
wherein the computation unit obfuscates said private vector unit to generate the first obfuscated data unit; and
wherein said combination comprises a dot product of the first and second obfuscated data units.


 
12. The device of claim 10, further comprising:

a pseudorandom generation unit configured to:

generate a random vector unit; and

generate a random rotation angle;

wherein the computation unit obfuscates said private vector unit based at least in part on the random vector unit and the random rotation angle.


 
13. The device of claim 10, further comprising:

said private vector unit is an integer-valued vector.


 
14. A computer program product for equality testing, the computer program product comprising a computer-readable storage medium having program code embodied therewith, the program code being executable by a computer to:

generate a first obfuscated data unit corresponding to a first private data unit for a first client device;

send to a server the first obfuscated data unit;
receive from the server a combination of the first obfuscated data unit and a second obfuscated data unit corresponding to a second private data unit for a second client device; and

determine whether the first private data unit is equal to the second private data unit based on the combination received.


 
15. The program code of claim 14, further executable by the computer to:

generate a private vector unit corresponding to the first private data unit;

generate a random vector unit;

generate a random rotation angle; and

obfuscating said private vector unit based at least in part on the random vector unit and the random rotation angle to generate the first obfuscated data unit;

wherein said combination comprises a dot product of the first and second obfuscated data units.


 




Drawing



































Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description