(19)
(11)EP 2 708 586 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
29.07.2020 Bulletin 2020/31

(21)Application number: 13196709.3

(22)Date of filing:  16.12.2009
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C09K 8/03(2006.01)
C09K 8/12(2006.01)
C09K 8/26(2006.01)

(54)

Friction modifier for drilling fluids

Reibungsmodifizierer für Bohrflüssigkeiten

Modificateur de frottement pour fluides de forage


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 16.12.2008 US 122877 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
19.03.2014 Bulletin 2014/12

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
09793417.8 / 2376589

(73)Proprietor: The Lubrizol Corporation
Wickliffe, Ohio 44092-2298 (US)

(72)Inventor:
  • MCDONALD, Michael, J
    Toronto, Ontario M6S 4L3 (CA)

(74)Representative: D Young & Co LLP 
120 Holborn
London EC1N 2DY
London EC1N 2DY (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 391 500
US-A1- 2007 270 509
US-A1- 2008 305 974
WO-A1-2006/054045
US-A1- 2008 182 770
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


    Field of the Invention



    [0001] The present invention relates to use of non-sulfurized lubricants in drilling fluids.

    Description of the Related Art



    [0002] During the drilling of an oil and gas well, a specialized fluid referred to as a drilling fluid or alternatively a "mud" is circulated through the drill pipe and bit. The principal functions of a drilling fluid include: stabilizing geological formations, providing hydrostatic pressure, cooling the drill bit, and carrying drill cuttings beneath the bit to transport them up to the surface for separation. The other key function of a drilling fluid is to act a lubricant between the drill pipe and the borehole and/or metal casing. The drilling fluid also acts as a lubricant for the drill bit.

    [0003] Drilling fluids can be categorized as being either water-based or oil-based. In general, water-based drilling fluids are lower cost and have much better health, safety and environmental performance than oil-based drilling fluids. However, oil-based fluids offer excellent shale stabilization and provide for lower co-efficient of friction. Certain water based drilling fluids such as sodium and potassium silicate based drilling fluids can match the shale inhibition properties but not the coefficient of friction (CoF) of oil based drilling fluids.

    [0004] The lubricity of a drilling fluid is an important property as it determines the torque (rotary friction) and drag (axial friction) in the wellbore. There are numerous economic and technical reasons for wanting to lower the coefficient of friction of the drilling fluid. Reduction in torque and drag results in:
    • faster drilling rates and, therefore, reduced cost
    • wells of greater depth and length
    • more complex well profiles
    • substitution of oil-based drilling fluids for water-based drilling fluids


    [0005] Given the numerous benefits of lower torque and drag, it is very common to add a chemical or mechanical lubricant to a drilling fluid to lower the CoF. There is extensive prior art on chemical and mechanical lubricants for lowering CoF in drilling fluids. Examples of commonly used chemical lubricants include hydrocarbons, synthetic oils, esters, fatty acids, natural oils, and surfactants as well as other compounds.

    [0006] A common problem encountered in drilling is accretion which occurs when partially hydrated drill cuttings stick to the drill string. Preferably, a lubricant will have anti-accretion properties. Anti-accretion properties are desirable in a lubricant because they can provide further reductions in friction. Anti-accretion additives are also referred to as rate of penetration enhancers.

    [0007] Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) is a commonly used additive for motor oils. ZDDP functions as an anti-wear additive by reacting with a metal surface under conditions of temperature and/or pressure. ZDDP decomposes under high temperature and/or rubbing to form a polyphosphate layer that acts as an anti-wear film. This film accommodates and redistributes applied load which reduces wear of the underlying surface. Ancillary properties of ZDDP in motor oil include anti-corrosion.

    [0008] Although primarily a motor oil additive, ZDDP has seen extremely limited use in drilling fluid lubricants. US Patent No. 3,712,393 to Sheldahl, et. al. describes the addition of ZDDP to a drilling fluid lubricant composed of sulfurized lard oil, mineral oil and halogenated paraffin. Corrosion inhibitors, wear inhibitors, oxidation stabilizers and odor stabilizers can also be added to the lubricant. ZDDP functions as a wear inhibitor in this composition. The added ZDDP does not function to improve lubricity since, as shown below, sulfurized based lubricants represent one of the few classes of lubricants that do not show a lower CoF with the addition of ZDDP.

    [0009] US Patent No. 4,064,056 to Walker, et al. describes a lubricant composition containing from 13 to 15% sodium salts of petroleum sulfonic acids and from 70 to about 82% petroleum oil carrier. ZDDP, among other additives, is added to the mineral oil at a concentration of from 0% to about 1.1% to improve anti wear and antioxidant properties. The presence of sulfurized compounds in the lubricant composition would not allow for ZDDP to impart improvements in lubricity. US2008305974 relates to products useful in friction-reducing extreme-pressure lubricating applications such as internal combustion engines, gear oils and applications which involve rubbing metallic moving parts and teaches additive blends and a process of using combinations of nitro compounds with non-chlorine containing additives such as sulfur-containing moieties and phosphorus-containing moieties. US2007270509 relates to products and processes for making extreme-pressure additives (water-dispersible and oil-based) using starting compounds based on nitro moieties derived from C2-C30 unsaturated fatty acids; C2-C30 unsaturated natural fatty oils or triglycerides; synthetic esters derived from the reaction of C1-C20 alcohols with unsaturated C2-C30 fatty acids; polyglycol esters of unsaturated fatty acids; C2-C20 terminal or internal olefins; C2-C20 polyolefins; C4-C20 polydiolefins; C8-C20 copolymers derived from polyolefins and vinyl aromatics; and C4-C30 alkylated phenols, using nitric acid or gaseous nitrogen dioxide as nitrating agents, followed by chemical modifications involving the synthesis of alkanolamine salts or alkanolamides of nitrated fatty acids or ethoxylated nitrated fatty esters. US2007270509 further relates to additive blends and a process of using combinations of nitro compounds derived from the above compounds with non-chlorine containing additives such as sulfurized and phosphates, and also a process of making soluble oils with nitro novel additives using emulsifier blends. These combinations of extreme-pressure additives (oil-soluble, water-dispersible) and blends are taught to be effective in the processing and lubrication of a wide variety of metals, especially steel, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based, chromium-based, aluminum, and their nonferrous or low-ferrous special alloys.

    BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0010] It has been discovered that torque and drag in a drilling fluid can be further reduced when a minor amount of ZDDP is added to the drilling fluid or used in combination with other lubricants. Because of its surface chemical properties, ZDDP preferentially films on a metal surface and prevents clay adhesion. The ZDDP film has lubricant properties but it can also act as a coupling agent for other lubricants. Results are most dramatic in drilling fluids that contain additives that compete for metal surface sites and/or disrupt the film forming properties of traditional lubricants. Further, the ZDDP film helps minimize the sticking of drill cuttings onto the drill string. Reduction in co-efficient of friction is particularly evident when the invention is applied in a silicate based drilling fluid.

    [0011] ZDDP consists of zinc bound to diphosphordithioic acid with alkyl or alkaryl ester substituent groups. The alkyl groups are saturated hydrocarbons that vary in length from C3-C12. The basic chemical structure of ZDDP is shown below. The chemical category of ZDDP can be divided into twelve products that share similar structure types. Substantially any ZDDP could be used in a drilling fluid.



    [0012] It is anticipated that improvements in lubricity could also be achieved with monothiophosphates and polythiophosphates of cadmium, tin, iron, cobalt, nickel, vanadium, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium and zirconium.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0013] Figure 1 is a photograph showing the effect of different amounts of ZDDP additive in a lubricant on preventing the adhesion of clay on a steel rod.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0014] Alkali silicate -based drilling fluids were selected as the initial drilling fluid since they are known to have a high CoF and are often used by the industry as an environmentally friendly alternate to oil based drilling fluids. The high CoF of silicate based drilling fluids is the result of silicate adhesion to metal. The efficacy of ZDDP was also tested in other families of water- based drilling fluids known for shale inhibition. These family of water-based drilling fluids include; glycol-based, amine-based and formate-based fluids. It is anticipated that the efficacy of this invention would be observed in other water based drilling fluids.

    [0015] ZDDP could be added to any commonly used class of drilling fluid lubricants, the notable exception being sulfurized based lubricants. Table la, lists the different lubricants tested in combination with ZDDP.
    Table la: Drilling Fluid Lubricants
    ManufactureBrandChemistry
    Shrieve BioAdd 751 Modified vegetable ester
    Croda Estadril L100 Phosphate ester
    Cognis Dehylube 1000 Fatty acid ester
    Oleon Radiagreen SL Mixture of fatty esters and specialties
    Houghton DHM 07-24 Esters, sulphonated additive, phosphate additive
    Halliburton NXS Sulferized olefin
    Chemax HPH-1 di-ester
    Stepan drewmulse gylcerol monoleate
    Western Biodiesel - Biodiesel
    Sun Coastal Lube polyalphaolefin (PAO)
      Graphite Graphite
    BriChem EZDrill XL Vegetable oil additives
    CIBA Alcomer 120 L High molecular weight, liquid anionic polymer
    Gumpro Gel Sil EPL Treated vegetable oil and paraffin oil


    [0016] In the search for oil and gas, the industry trend is towards wells of greater length and depth. Oil-based drilling fluids are being challenged to provide lower CoF. ZDDP was tested as an extreme pressure lubricant in oil-based drilling fluids.

    [0017] The lubricity of the drilling fluid and lubricant was measured using Extreme Pressure Lubricity Tester (i.e. surface to surface drag test). This is a common lubricity test that measures co-efficient of friction between a steel block and a rotating steel ring immersed in a drilling fluid. The standard test involves the application of 150 in-pounds of torque applied to the test block. The ring rotates at 60 rpm. The lubricity tester is allowed to run for at least 5 minutes at which point a friction coefficient reading is taken. The drilling fluid samples are sheared at high speed for 5 minutes prior to testing.

    [0018] Given the wide range of drilling fluid types as well as lubricants, it was not possible to illustrate the efficacy of ZDDP under every combination. Other aspects, object and advantages of the present disclosure will become apparent to those skilled in the art from this disclosure and claims.

    Example 1: Synergistic effect of ZDDP with other lubricants



    [0019] ZDDP was added to a broad cross-section of drilling fluid lubricants. The ZDDP-enhanced lubricant was prepared by adding 5.0 g of ZDDP into 95 g of lubricant and stirring. The ZDDP readily mixed into the lubricant at room temperature. In the case of graphite, 20 g of ZDDP was mixed into 80 g of graphite.

    [0020] Reduction in CoF was measured on a potassium silicate based drilling fluid prepared in the lab according to Table 1b. Lubricants were tested in the drilling fluid at a concentration of 2% wt/wt (i.e. 10 g lubricant into 500 g drilling fluid). A 2% lubricant loading was chosen as a reasonable concentration for initial testing. Lubricant and drilling fluid were shear mixed and then hot rolled for 16hrs @ 48.89°C (120 F). Table lc indicates the friction readings and% reduction in coefficient of friction. Notably, no reduction in the CoF was achieved by adding ZDDP to NXS, a sulfurized lubricant.
    Table lb: Base Drilling Fluid
    Water 920 ml
    Potassium Silicate (PQ Corp. EcoDrill® 317) 80 ml
    Xanthan gum 2g
    Starch 2g
    PAC 2g
    Rev Dust 30 g
    -chemical components were added under agitation at room temperature. The drilling fluid was then aged by hot rolling for 24hrs at 48.89°C (120 F).
    Table 1c: Reduction in Coefficient of Friction
    Coefficient of Friction
     LubricantLubricant:ZDDP
    Drilling Fluid (no lubricant) 0.48
    2%ZDDP 0.32
    2% Dehylube 1000 0.37 0.24
    2% Biodiesel 0.37 0.26
    2% Dremulse 0.39 0.29
    2% BioAdd 751 0.33 0.26
    2 % Radiagreen SL 0.36 0.23
    2% Estadrill L100 0.38 0.16
    2% HPH-1 0.18 0.15
    2% Graphite* 0.38 0.32
    NXS 0.24 0.24
    DHM 07-24 0.17 0.16
    *ratio of graphite to ZDDP was 8:2

    Example 2: Reduction in friction in a sodium silicate-based drilling fluid



    [0021] Reduction in CoF was measured on a sodium silicate-based drilling fluid. The drilling fluid was formulated in a similar manner as Table 1b, except potassium silicate was substituted for sodium silicate (PQ Corporation, N® grade). Lubricants were mixed with ZDDP at a ratio of 9:1. Lubricants were added to the drilling fluid at a concentration of 2% wt/wt (i.e. 10 g of lubricant was added 500 g of drilling fluid). Lubricant and drilling fluid were shear mixed and then hot rolled for 16hrs @ 48.89°C (120 F). Table 2 shows that the addition of ZDDP to the lubricant resulted in a reduction in the CoF of the lubricant.
    Table 2: Coefficient of Friction in Sodium Silicate Drilling Fluid
    Coefficient of Friction
     NoZDDPLubricant:ZDDP (9:1)
    No Lubricant 0.48 0.48
    2 % Radiagreen SL 0.33 0.18
    2% Estadrill L100 0.43 0.23
    2% HPH-1 0.46 0.27
    2% Gumpro 0.34 0.25
    2% Coastal Lube 0.48 0.34
    2% EZ Drill XL 0.43 0.36
    0.5% Alcomer 120 0.44 0.33

    Example 3: Lubricant concentration vs. Coefficient of Friction



    [0022] A sample of potassium silicate based drilling fluid was obtained from a well site in Western Canada. The drilling fluid contained 6.5% potassium silicate by volume and remainder being water, polymers and drill solids. Estadril was blended 19:1 with ZDDP on a wt/wt basis.

    [0023] Lubricant was added to the drilling fluid on a 2% wt/wt basis. Table 3 shows that a 0.5% loading of ZDDP enhanced lubricant had a similar CoF as a 2% loading of lubricant.
    Table 3: Concentration vs. CoF
    Coefficient of Friction
     NoZDDPLubricant:ZDDP (19:1)
    No Lubricant 0.45 0.45
    0.5% Estadrill 0.35 0.29
    1% Estadrill 0.34 0.24
    2% Estadrill 0.29 0.21
    4% Estadrill 0.25 0.19

    Example 4: Order of Addition



    [0024] ZDDP does not have to be pre-mixed into a base lubricant prior to adding to the drilling fluid. A comparison was made between ZDDP that was blended into a lubricant vs. ZDDP and lubricant added separately into a drilling fluid. Blended lubricants have a ratio 9 parts lubricant to 1 part ZDDP. Lubricants were tested in a potassium silicate-based drilling fluid containing 8% potassium silicate by volume and a sodium silicate-based drilling fluid containing 8% sodium silicate.
    Table 4: Co-efficient of Friction at 150 in/lbs
     CoF
    Potassium Silicate Drilling fluid (no lubricant) 0.45
    2% Estadrill 0.29
    1.8% Estadrill, 0.2% ZDDP (added separately to drilling fluid) 0.22
    2% Estadrill:ZDDP (blended 9:1 lubricant:ZDDP) 0.21
    2% Radiagreen 0.34
    1.8% Radiagreen, 0.2% ZDDP (added separately) 0.25
    2% Radiagreen:ZDDP (blended) 0.26
    Sodium Silicate Drilling fluid (no lubricant) 0.48
    2% HPH-1 0.46
    1.8% HPH-1, 0.2% ZDDP (added separately) 0.29
    2% HPH-1:ZDDP (blended) 0.27
    0.5% 120 L 0.44
    0.45% 120L:0.05% ZDDP (added separately) 0.35
    0.5% 120L:ZDDP (blended) 0.33

    Example 5: Glycol based drilling fluids



    [0025] Glycol-based drilling fluids represent a class of water based drilling fluids that provide shale inhibition. A glycol based drilling fluid was formulated with 8% v/v polyethylene glycol (PEG 300), polymers, water and simulated drill solids. Lubricity testing was done on ZDDP by itself as well as lubricant blended with ZDDP (9:1). Table 5 shows a reduction in the CoF when ZDDP is added to the lubricant.
    Table 5: CoF for a Glycol Based Drilling Fluid
    CoF in a glycol based drilling fluid
     26,269 N/m (150 lb/in)52,538 N/m (300 lb/in)70,051 N/m (400 lb/in)
    water 0.37 - -
    glycol mud - no lubricant 0.12 >0.50 >0.50
    +0.2%ZDDP 0.06 0.28 0.34
    +2% ZDDP 0.02 0.05 0.15
    + 2% EZ Drill 0.04 0.10 0.14
    +2% EZ Drill:ZDDP 0.02 0.05 0.15
    +2% Coastalube 0.07 0.18 0.24
    +2% Coastalube:ZDDP 0.07 0.14 0.17
    +2% Estadrill 0.05 0.18 0.20
    +2% Estadrill:ZDDP 0.03 0.06 0.15
    +2% Radiagreen 0.07 0.18 0.25
    +2% Radiagreen:ZDDP 0.03 0.09 0.16

    Example 6: Improved Lubricity in Amine-Based Drilling Fluids



    [0026] Amine-based drilling fluids represent another class of inhibitive water based drilling fluids. An amine based drilling fluid was formulated with 0.5% hexadiamine v/v, polymers, water and simulated drill solids. pH of the drilling fluid was adjusted to 9.6. Lubricity testing was done on ZDDP by itself as well as lubricant blended with ZDDP (9:1). Table 6 shows a reduction in the CoF of the drilling fluid with the addition of ZDDP.
    Table 6: CoF for an Amine Based Drilling Fluid
    CoF Amine Based Drilling Fluid
     26,269 N/m (150 lb/in)52,538 N/m (300 lb/in)
    water 0.36 >0.50
    Amine System (no lubricant) 0.18 >0.50
    2%ZDDP 0.11 0.30
    EZ Drill 0.19 0.30
    EZ Drill:ZDDP 0.09 0.19

    Example 7: Improved Lubricity in Formate -Based Drilling Fluids



    [0027] Formate-based drilling fluids represent another class of inhibitive water based drilling fluids. A formate-based drilling fluid was formulated with 5% potassium formate v/v, polymers, water and simulated drill solids. Lubricity testing was done on ZDDP. The results show that the addition of ZDDP lowers the CoF of the formate-based drilling fluid.
    Table 7: CoF for a Formate Based Drilling Fluid
    CoF Formate Based Drilling Fluid
     26,269 N/m (150 lb/in)52,538 N/m (300 lb/in)
    water 0.36 >0.50
    K Formate (no lubricant) 0.35 >0.50
    0.2% ZDDP 0.11 0.35
    2.0% ZDDP 0.04 0.20
    Estadrill 0.11 0.50
    Estadrill:ZDDP 0.10 0.20
    Radiagreen 0.07 0.27
    Radiagreen:ZDDP 0.05 0.15

    Example 8: Improved Lubricity in Oil-Based Drilling Fluids



    [0028] Oil-based drilling fluids have naturally low CoF but deeper and extended drilling is creating the need for further reductions in torque and drag. An oil based drilling fluid was formulated according to the drilling fluids
    Invert System:
    Oil/ Brine: 90/10
    Brine: 30% CaCl2
    Primary Emulsifier: 11.5 l/m3
    Secondary Emulsifier: 5.7 l/m3
    Lime: 35 kg/m3
    Bentone 150: 10 kg/m3

    Hot-Rolling Procedure:



    [0029] 
    • 350 ml Invert Sample
    • 16 hour @ 65 °C


    [0030] ZDDP was tested as a standalone lubricant. Table 8 shows that ZDDP lowered the CoF of the drilling fluid.
    Table 8: CoF for an Oil Based Drilling Fluid
    CoF in a mineral oil based invert
     26,269 N/m (150 lb/in)52,538 N/m (300 lb/in)70,051 N/m (400 lb/in)87,563 N/m (500 lb/in)105,076 N/m (600 lb/in)
    water 0.37        
    control (no lubricant) 0.03 0.08 0.14 0.24 0.32
    +0.2%ZDDP 0.03 0.06 0.11 0.18 0.25
    +2% ZDDP 0.03 0.06 0.11 0.18 0.25

    Example 9: Improved Lubricity in Completion Fluids



    [0031] A completion fluid is a solids-free liquid placed that is sometimes used at the final stages of well completion. Completion fluids are typically brines (chlorides, bromides and formates). The fluid is meant to be chemically compatible with the reservoir formation and fluids, and is typically filtered to a high degree to avoid introducing solids to the near-wellbore area. ZDDP was tested in a saturated solution of potassium formate (75% active) and potassium formate diluted 1:1 with water. Table 9 shows that the CoF of the completion fluid was reduced with the addition of ZDDP.
    Table 9: CoF for a Formate Completion Fluid
    CoF Formate Completion Fluid
     26,269 N/m (150 lb/in)52,538 N/m (300 lb/in)70,051 N/m (400 lb/in)
    water 0.36 - -
    k formate (75%) 0.055 0.13 0.24
    k formate+ 0.2% ZDDP 0.034 0.10 0.21
    k formate+ 2% ZDDP 0.013 0.07 0.15
    k formate (37.5%) 0.20 0.45 >0.50
    k formate+ 0.2%ZDDP 0.12 0.32 >0.50
    k formate+ 2% ZDDP 0.065 0.29 0.42
    k formate+ 5% ZDDP 0.013 0.13 0.28

    Example 10: Anti-accretion properties of ZDDP



    [0032] Shale accretion was measured by observing the adhesion of clay onto a metal pipe. Oxford shale was sized through 6-8 mesh screen. Oxford shale is noted for its "stickiness" and is a standard shale for measuring accretion. 20 g of sized shale was placed in a 500 ml steel aging cell. A ¾" x 6" steel rod was cleaned and placed in the aging cell. 350 ml of water, water and 0.2% ZDDP and water and 2.0% ZDDP were added to the aging cells. Samples were hot rolled for 16 hrs at 48.89°C (120 F). Steel rods were observed for clay particles sticking to the steel. The rod that was rolled in water was covered in a fine film of clay. Figure 1 shows the effect of the addition of ZDDP to water in reducing the extent of clay adhesion to the steel rod. Increasing amounts of ZDDP showed a stark reduction in the extent of clay adhesion on the rod.


    Claims

    1. Use of a non-sulfurized lubricant and a metal thiophosphate composition for reducing torque and drag in a drilling fluid, wherein the drilling fluid comprises at least one of a silicate based fluid, an amine based drilling fluid, a formate based drilling fluid, an oil based drilling fluid.
     
    2. The use of claim 1 wherein said thiophosphate is selected from the group consisting of monothiophosphates, dithiophosphates and polythiophosphates.
     
    3. The use of claim 2 wherein said metal is selected from the group consisting of zinc, cadmium, tin, iron, cobalt, nickel, vanadium, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium and zirconium.
     
    4. The use of claim 1 wherein said metal thiophosphate is zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.
     
    5. The use of any one of claims 1 to 4 wherein said drilling fluid is a potassium silicate based drilling fluid.
     
    6. The use of any of claims 1 to 4 wherein said drilling fluid is a sodium silicate based drilling fluid.
     
    7. The use of any of claims 1 to 4 wherein said drilling fluid is a hexadiamine based drilling fluid or is a potassium formate based drilling fluid.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verwendung eines nicht schwefelhaltigen Schmiermittels und einer Metallthiophosphatzusammensetzung zum Reduzieren eines Drehmoments und eines Luftwiderstands in einer Bohrspülung, wobei die Bohrspülung eine Spülung auf Silikatbasis, eine Bohrspülung auf Aminbasis, eine Bohrspülung auf Formiatbasis und/oder eine Bohrspülung auf Ölbasis umfasst.
     
    2. Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Thiophosphat aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Monothiophosphaten, Dithiophosphaten und Polythiophosphaten besteht.
     
    3. Verwendung nach Anspruch 2, wobei das Metall ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Zink, Cadmium, Zinn, Eisen, Cobalt, Nickel, Vanadium, Chrom, Mangan, Molybdän, Wolfram, Titan und Zirkonium.
     
    4. Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Metallthiophosphat Zinkdialkyldithiophosphat ist.
     
    5. Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei die Bohrspülung eine Bohrspülung auf Kaliumsilikatbasis ist.
     
    6. Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei die Bohrspülung eine Bohrspülung auf Natriumsilikatbasis ist.
     
    7. Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei die Bohrspülung eine Bohrspülung auf Hexadiaminbasis oder eine Bohrspülung auf Kaliumformiatbasis ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Utilisation d'un lubrifiant non sulfuré et d'une composition de thiophosphate métallique destinée à la réduction du couple et de la traînée dans un fluide de forage, le fluide de forage comprenant un fluide à base de silicate et/ou un fluide de forage à base d'amine et/ou un fluide de forage à base de formiate et/ou un fluide de forage à base d'huile.
     
    2. Utilisation selon la revendication 1, ledit thiophosphate étant choisi dans le groupe constitué de monothiophosphates, dithiophosphates et polythiophosphates.
     
    3. Utilisation selon la revendication 2, ledit métal étant choisi dans le groupe constitué de zinc, cadmium, étain, fer, cobalt, nickel, vanadium, chrome, manganèse, molybdène, tungstène, titane et zirconium.
     
    4. Utilisation selon la revendication 1, ledit thiophosphate métallique étant le dialkyldithiophosphate de zinc.
     
    5. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, ledit fluide de forage étant un fluide de forage à base de silicate de potassium.
     
    6. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, ledit fluide de forage étant un fluide de forage à base de silicate de sodium.
     
    7. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, ledit fluide de forage étant un fluide de forage à base d'hexadiamine ou étant un fluide de forage à base de formiate de potassium.
     




    Drawing








    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description