(19)
(11)EP 2 716 820 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
12.04.2017 Bulletin 2017/15

(21)Application number: 12789365.9

(22)Date of filing:  10.05.2012
(51)Int. Cl.: 
E02F 9/20  (2006.01)
F15B 21/14  (2006.01)
E02F 9/22  (2006.01)
E02F 3/32  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2012/061981
(87)International publication number:
WO 2012/160985 (29.11.2012 Gazette  2012/48)

(54)

ELECTRIC DRIVE UNIT FOR CONSTRUCTION MACHINE

ELEKTRISCHE ANTRIEBSEINHEIT FÜR EINE BAUMASCHINE

UNITÉ D'ENTRAÎNEMENT ÉLECTRIQUE POUR UNE MACHINE DE CONSTRUCTION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 25.05.2011 JP 2011117451

(43)Date of publication of application:
09.04.2014 Bulletin 2014/15

(73)Proprietor: Hitachi Construction Machinery Tierra Co., Ltd.
Koka-shi, Shiga 528-0061 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • TSURUGA, Yasutaka
    Tsuchiura-shi, Ibaraki 300-0013 (JP)
  • TAKAHASHI, Kiwamu
    Tsuchiura-shi, Ibaraki 300-0013 (JP)
  • TAKISHITA, Tatsuo
    Tsuchiura-shi, Ibaraki 300-0013 (JP)
  • KURIKUMA, Hajime
    Tsuchiura-shi, Ibaraki 300-0013 (JP)

(74)Representative: Beetz & Partner mbB 
Patentanwälte Steinsdorfstraße 10
80538 München
80538 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 099 856
EP-A2- 0 962 597
JP-A- 10 096 250
US-A- 5 540 049
EP-A1- 2 444 639
JP-A- H1 096 250
JP-A- 2010 121 328
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Technical Field



    [0001] The present invention relates to a construction machine such as an electric hydraulic excavator, and in particular, to an electric drive unit for a construction machine that is equipped with a motor/generator which drives a hydraulic pump supplying hydraulic fluid to a plurality of hydraulic actuators and an electricity storage device which supplies and receives electric power to/from the motor/generator.

    Background Art



    [0002] A mini-excavator (i.e., hydraulic excavator whose operating mass is less than 6 tons) as an example of the construction machine generally comprises a lower travel structure, an upper rotating structure which is mounted on the lower travel structure to be rotatable, and a multijoint work implement (having a boom, an arm and a bucket) which is mounted on the upper rotating structure to be elevatable. The mini-excavator is equipped with, for example, a hydraulic pump, a plurality of hydraulic actuators (e.g., a boom hydraulic cylinder, an arm hydraulic cylinder, a bucket hydraulic cylinder, etc.), a plurality of directional control valves for respectively controlling the flow of the hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic pump to the hydraulic actuators, and operating means for controlling the directional control valves (specifically, a plurality of operating devices each of which outputs pilot pressure corresponding to the operating position of a control lever, for example).

    [0003] In recent years, electric mini-excavators, employing an electric motor (motor/generator) instead of the engine as the driving source for the aforementioned hydraulic pump, are being proposed (see JP-2010-121328 A, for example) in consideration of their advantages of not emitting the exhaust gas and also reducing the noise and vibration significantly.

    [0004] EP 962 597 A2 discloses a hydraulic excavator wherein the boom is actuated directly by a boom actuating electric motor that is actuated mechanically without through any hydraulic means, so when there is performed a negative work of bringing down the boom at a predetermined speed against its own weight, a potential energy of the boom can be converted to an electric energy by the boom actuating electric motor, which energy can be recovered in the battery. Thus, in this case, the boom actuating electric motor functions as a generator.

    [0005] Likewise, since the rotatable superstructure is rotated directly by the rotating electric motor, when a negative work of braking the rotation of the rotatable working structure is performed, the rotation energy of the rotatable superstructure can be converted to an electric energy by the electric motor working then as a generator.

    [0006] JP H10 96250 A describes a battery-driven operation machinery equipped with a swiveling motor driven by electric power obtained from a battery.

    [0007] Inertial motion of the superstructure of the operation machinery transforms the swiveling motor into an electric generator producing a current which is supplied back to the battery.

    Summary of the Invention


    Problem to be Solved by the Invention



    [0008] The electric mini-excavators mentioned above include those employing an electricity storage device having a plurality of batteries as the electric power supply for the electric motor. The electric mini-excavators equipped with an electricity storage device do not need to be constantly connected to an external power supply by use of a power cable. Such electric mini-excavators, not connected to an external power supply by use of a power cable during the operation/work, have an advantage in that their movement and rotating operation are not restricted. However, there are certain limitations on the number of batteries that can be mounted on the mini-excavator and on the capacity (capacitance) of the electricity storage device. Specifically, a mini-excavator of the so-called "minimal tail swing radius type" or "minimal swing radius type" has a limitation on the swing radius in regard to the rear end of the upper rotating structure or the whole of the upper rotating structure. Further, the cab for the operator and various hydraulic devices such as directional control valves, the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic fluid tank are mounted on the upper rotating structure. Therefore, the number of batteries that can be mounted on the upper rotating structure is limited due to the limitation on the space on the upper rotating structure usable for mounting the batteries without impairing the visibility from the operator. Consequently, there is a limitation on the capacity (capacitance) of the electricity storage device mounted on the mini-excavator, by which the operating time of the mini-excavator is limited in the case where the mini-excavator is not connected to an external power supply by use of a power cable.

    [0009] It is therefore the primary object of the present invention to provide an electric drive unit for a construction machine capable of increasing the operating time of the construction machine (which is limited by the electricity storage device mounted on the construction machine) from the currently possible operating time by use of the power generation operation of the motor/generator.

    Means for Solving the Problem



    [0010] 

    (1) To achieve the above object, the present invention provides an electric drive unit for a construction machine equipped with an electricity storage device, a motor/generator which supplies and receives electric power to/from the electricity storage device, a hydraulic pump of the variable displacement type which is driven by the motor/generator, a plurality of hydraulic actuators, a plurality of operating means which command the operation of the hydraulic actuators, and a plurality of directional control valves which respectively control the direction and the flow rate of hydraulic fluid supplied from the hydraulic pump to the hydraulic actuators according to operating directions and operation amounts of the plurality of operating means. The electric drive unit for a construction machine comprises: pump control means which performs variable control on the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump; motor/generator control means which performs variable control on the revolution speed of the motor/generator; and command control means which calculates command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the change in a demanded flow rate determined based on operation command levels from the plurality of operating means. The motor/generator control means performs regeneration control for converting inertial force of a rotor of the motor/generator into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device when the revolution speed of the motor/generator is decreased in response to a decrease in the demanded flow rate.
    According to the invention, the operating time of the construction machine can be increased by performing the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device when the revolution speed of the motor/generator is decreased in response to a decrease in the demanded flow rate.

    (2) Preferably, the above electric drive unit (1) for a construction machine comprises: a plurality of pressure compensating valves which perform control so that differential pressure across each of the directional control valves equals load sensing differential pressure defined as differential pressure between delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump and the maximum load pressure of the hydraulic actuators; and differential pressure detecting means which detects the load sensing differential pressure. The command control means calculates the command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the difference between the load sensing differential pressure detected by the differential pressure detecting means and a preset target value so that the load sensing differential pressure equals the target value. The motor/generator control means performs the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device when the revolution speed of the motor/generator is decreased in response to an excess of the load sensing differential pressure over the target value.
    According to the invention, the operating time of the construction machine can be increased by performing the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device when the revolution speed of the motor/generator is decreased in response to an excess of the load sensing differential pressure over the target value (i.e., in response to a decrease in the demanded flow rate).

    (3) Preferably, in the above electric drive unit (2) for a construction machine, the command control means includes: subtraction means which calculates the difference between the load sensing differential pressure detected by the differential pressure detecting means and the preset target value; first lowpass filter means which performs processing for removing components changing above a preset first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means; first command calculation means which calculates the command value for the pump control means according to the difference processed by the first lowpass filter means; second lowpass filter means which performs processing for removing components changing above a second frequency preset to be lower than the first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means; and second command calculation means which calculates the command value for the motor/generator control means according to the difference processed by the second lowpass filter means.
    As a method for increasing the electric power acquired by the regeneration control by the motor/generator control means, it is possible to increase the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator by increasing the mass of the rotor, for example. In this case, however, responsiveness of the variable control of the revolution speed of the motor/generator is deteriorated. To avoid this problem, in this invention, the second lowpass filter means performs the processing for removing the components changing above the second frequency on the difference between the load sensing differential pressure and the target value before the second command calculation means performs the calculation on the difference. Since the second frequency is set relatively low, sensitivity (susceptibility) of the variable control of the revolution speed of the motor/generator to fluctuations in the load sensing differential pressure can be reduced. Consequently, the hunting can be suppressed. Further, in this embodiment, the first lowpass filter means performs the processing for removing the components changing above the first frequency on the difference between the load sensing differential pressure and the target value before the first command calculation means performs the calculation on the difference. Since the first frequency is set relatively high, sensitivity of the variable control of the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump to the fluctuations in the load sensing differential pressure can be increased. Consequently, the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump can be increased and decreased while sensitively responding to the fluctuations in the load sensing differential pressure (i.e., fluctuations in the demanded flow rate).

    (4) Preferably, the above electric drive unit (1) for a construction machine comprises: a plurality of pressure compensating valves which perform control so that differential pressure across each of the directional control valves equals load sensing differential pressure defined as differential pressure between delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump and the maximum load pressure of the hydraulic actuators; delivery pressure detecting means which detects the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump; and maximum load pressure detecting means which detects the maximum load pressure of the hydraulic actuators. The command control means sets a target value for the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump based on the maximum load pressure of the hydraulic actuators detected by the maximum load pressure detecting means and calculates the command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the difference between the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump detected by the delivery pressure detecting means and the target value so that the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump equals the target value. The motor/generator control means performs the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device when the revolution speed of the motor/generator is decreased in response to an excess of the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump over the target value.
    According to the invention, the operating time of the construction machine can be increased by performing the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device when the revolution speed of the motor/generator is decreased in response to an excess of the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump over the target value (i.e., in response to a decrease in the demanded flow rate).

    (5) Preferably, in the above electric drive unit (4) for a construction machine, the command control means includes: target value setting means which sets the target value for the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump based on the maximum load pressure of the hydraulic actuators detected by the maximum load pressure detecting means; subtraction means which calculates the difference between the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump detected by the delivery pressure detecting means and the target value set by the target value setting means; first lowpass filter means which performs processing for removing components changing above a preset first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means; first command calculation means which calculates the command value for the pump control means according to the difference processed by the first lowpass filter means; second lowpass filter means which performs processing for removing components changing above a second frequency preset to be lower than the first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means; and second command calculation means which calculates the command value for the motor/generator control means according to the difference processed by the second lowpass filter means.
    With this configuration, sensitivity (susceptibility) of the variable control of the revolution speed of the motor/generator to fluctuations in the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump (i.e., the fluctuations in the load sensing differential pressure) can be reduced. Consequently, the hunting can be suppressed. Further, sensitivity of the variable control of the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump to the fluctuations in the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump (i.e., the fluctuations in the load sensing differential pressure) can be increased. Consequently, the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump can be increased and decreased while sensitively responding to the fluctuations in the load sensing differential pressure (i.e., the fluctuations in the demanded flow rate).

    (6) Preferably, in the above electric drive unit (1) for a construction machine, the directional control valves are valves of the open center type and the electric drive unit comprises: a restrictor which is arranged in a downstream part of a center bypass line of the directional control valves; control pressure detecting means which detects pressure on the upstream side of the restrictor, changing according to the change in the control level of at least one of the directional control valves switched on the upstream side of the restrictor, as control pressure; tilting angle detecting means which detects the tilting angle of the hydraulic pump; revolution speed acquisition means which acquires the revolution speed of the motor/generator; and delivery flow rate calculation means which calculates the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump based on the tilting angle of the hydraulic pump detected by the tilting angle detecting means and the revolution speed of the motor/generator acquired by the revolution speed acquisition means. The command control means sets a target value for the control pressure based on the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation means and calculates the command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the difference between the control pressure detected by the control pressure detecting means and the target value. The motor/generator control means performs the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device when the revolution speed of the motor/generator is decreased in response to an excess of the control pressure over the target value.
    According to the invention, the operating time of the construction machine can be increased by performing the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device when the revolution speed of the motor/generator is decreased in response to an excess of the control pressure over the target value (i.e., in response to a decrease in the demanded flow rate).

    (7) Preferably, in the above electric drive unit (6) for a construction machine, the command control means includes: target value setting means which sets the target value for the control pressure based on the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation means; subtraction means which calculates the difference between the control pressure detected by the control pressure detecting means and the target value set by the target value setting means; first lowpass filter means which performs processing for removing components changing above a preset first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means; first command calculation means which calculates the command value for the pump control means according to the difference processed by the first lowpass filter means; second lowpass filter means which performs processing for removing components changing above a second frequency preset to be lower than the first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means; and second command calculation means which calculates the command value for the motor/generator control means according to the difference processed by the second lowpass filter means.
    With this configuration, the sensitivity (susceptibility) of the variable control of the revolution speed of the motor/generator can be reduced and the sensitivity of the variable control of the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump can be increased.

    (8) Preferably, the above electric drive unit (1) for a construction machine comprises: maximum operation amount detecting means which detects the maximum operation amount of the plurality of operating means; tilting angle detecting means which detects the tilting angle of the hydraulic pump; revolution speed acquisition means which detects the revolution speed of the motor/generator; and delivery flow rate calculation means which calculates the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump based on the tilting angle of the hydraulic pump detected by the tilting angle detecting means and the revolution speed of the motor/generator detected by the revolution speed acquisition means. The command control means sets the demanded flow rate based on the maximum operation amount of the plurality of operating means detected by the maximum operation amount detecting means and calculates the command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the difference between the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation means and the demanded flow rate so that the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump equals the demanded flow rate. The motor/generator control means performs the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device when the revolution speed of the motor/generator is decreased in response to an excess of the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump over the demanded flow rate.
    According to the invention, the operating time of the construction machine can be increased by performing the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device when the revolution speed of the motor/generator is decreased in response to an excess of the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump over the demanded flow rate (i.e., in response to a decrease in the demanded flow rate).

    (9) Preferably, in the above electric drive unit (8) for a construction machine, the command control means includes: demanded flow rate setting means which sets the demanded flow rate based on the maximum operation amount of the plurality of operating means detected by the maximum operation amount detecting means; subtraction means which calculates the difference between the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation means and the demanded flow rate set by the demanded flow rate setting means; first lowpass filter means which performs processing for removing components changing above a preset first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means; first command calculation means which calculates the command value for the pump control means according to the difference processed by the first lowpass filter means; second lowpass filter means which performs processing for removing components changing above a second frequency preset to be lower than the first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means; and second command calculation means which calculates the command value for the motor/generator control means according to the difference processed by the second lowpass filter means.



    [0011] With this configuration, the sensitivity (susceptibility) of the variable control of the revolution speed of the motor/generator can be reduced and the sensitivity of the variable control of the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump can be increased.

    Effect of the Invention



    [0012] According to the present invention, the operating time of the construction machine can be increased by performing the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device when the revolution speed of the motor/generator is decreased in response to a decrease in the demanded flow rate.

    Brief Description of the Drawings



    [0013] 

    Fig. 1 is a side view showing the overall structure of an electric mini-excavator as a target of application of the present invention.

    Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of an electric drive unit in accordance with a first embodiment of the present invention.

    Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram showing a configuration related to the driving of a boom hydraulic cylinder and an arm hydraulic cylinder (as a typical example of a configuration included in the electric drive unit shown in Fig. 2) as well as the configuration of an LS differential pressure detecting device.

    Fig. 4 is a block diagram showing the functional configuration of an LS control device (shown in Fig. 2) together with related devices.

    Fig. 5A is a graph for explaining processing by lowpass filter sections shown in Fig. 4 (as a concrete example of temporal change of a difference ΔPls before the processing).

    Fig. 5B is a graph for explaining the processing by the lowpass filter sections shown in Fig. 4 (as a concrete example of temporal change of a difference ΔPls' after the processing).

    Fig. 5C is a graph for explaining the processing by the lowpass filter sections shown in Fig. 4 (as a concrete example of temporal change of a difference ΔPls" after the processing).

    Fig. 6 is a block diagram showing the functional configuration of a bidirectional converter (shown in Fig. 2) together with related devices.

    Fig. 7 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of an LS differential pressure detecting device in accordance with a first modification of the present invention.

    Fig. 8 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of an LS differential pressure detecting device in accordance with a second modification of the present invention.

    Fig. 9 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of an LS differential pressure detecting device in accordance with a third modification of the present invention.

    Fig. 10 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of an electric drive unit in accordance with a second embodiment of the present invention.

    Fig. 11 is a block diagram showing the functional configuration of an LS control device (shown in Fig. 10) together with related devices.

    Fig. 12 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of an electric drive unit in accordance with a third embodiment of the present invention.

    Fig. 13 is a block diagram showing the functional configuration of a negative control device (shown in Fig. 12) together with related devices.

    Fig. 14 is a graph for explaining a process executed by a target value setting section shown in Fig. 13.

    Fig. 15 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of an electric drive unit in accordance with a fourth embodiment of the present invention.

    Fig. 16 is a block diagram showing the functional configuration of a positive control device (shown in Fig. 15) together with related devices.

    Fig. 17 is a graph for explaining a process executed by a target value setting section shown in Fig. 16.


    Mode for Carrying out the Invention



    [0014] A first embodiment of the present invention will be described below referring to Figs. 1 to 5.

    [0015] Fig. 1 is a side view showing the overall structure of an electric mini-excavator as a target of application of the present invention. In the following explanation, directions "front" (left in Fig. 1), "rear" (right in Fig. 1), "right" (behind the sheet of Fig. 1) and "left" (in front of the sheet of Fig. 1) from the viewpoint of the operator seated on the cab seat of the electric mini-excavator in the state shown in Fig. 1 will be referred to simply as "front", "rear", "right" and "left", respectively.

    [0016] Referring to Fig. 1, the electric mini-excavator comprises a lower travel structure 1 of the crawler type, an upper rotating structure 2 mounted on the lower travel structure 1 to be rotatable, a rotation frame 3 forming the base structure of the upper rotating structure 2, a swing post 4 mounted on a front part of the rotation frame 3 to be able to rotate (swing) left and right, a multijoint work implement 5 connected to the swing post 4 to be rotatable (elevatable) in the vertical direction, a cab 6 of the canopy type formed on the rotation frame 3, and a battery storage part 8 formed on a rear part of the rotation frame 3 to store an electricity storage device 7 (see Fig. 2 which will be explained later) including a plurality of batteries (e.g., lithium batteries). In this embodiment, a power supply socket (unshown) to which a cable from an external power supply is connectable is provided on the side of the upper rotating structure 2.

    [0017] The lower travel structure 1 includes a track frame 9 in a shape like "H" when viewed from above, left and right driving wheels 10 rotatably supported in the vicinity of the rear ends of left and right side faces of the track frame 9, left and right driven wheels (idlers) 11 rotatably supported in the vicinity of the front ends of the left and right side faces of the track frame 9, and left and right crawlers 12 each stretched between the left/right driving wheel 10 and the left/right driven wheel 11. The left driving wheel 10 (the left crawler 12) is driven and rotated by a left travel hydraulic motor 13A, while the right driving wheel 10 (the right crawler 12) is driven and rotated by a right travel hydraulic motor 13B (see Fig. 2 which will be explained later).

    [0018] A blade 14 for removing earth is attached to the front of the track frame 9 to be movable up and down. The blade 14 is moved up and down by the expansion/contraction of a blade hydraulic cylinder 15 (see Fig. 2 which will be explained later).

    [0019] A rotation wheel 16 is provided at the center of the track frame 9 so that the rotation frame 3 can be rotated via the rotation wheel 16. The rotation frame 3 (the upper rotating structure 2) is driven and rotated by a rotation hydraulic motor 17 (see Fig. 2 which will be explained later).

    [0020] The swing post 4 is attached to the front of the rotation frame 3 to be able to rotate (swing) left and right. The swing post 4 is rotated (swung) left and right by the expansion/contraction of a swing hydraulic cylinder 18 (see Fig. 2 which will be explained later), by which the work implement 5 is swung left and right.

    [0021] The work implement 5 includes a boom 19 connected to the swing post 4 to be rotatable in the vertical direction, an arm 20 connected to the boom 19 to be rotatable in the vertical direction, and a bucket 21 connected to the arm 20 to be rotatable in the vertical direction. The rotations of the boom 19, the arm 20 and the bucket 21 in the vertical direction are implemented by a boom hydraulic cylinder 22, an arm hydraulic cylinder 23 and a bucket hydraulic cylinder 24, respectively.

    [0022] The cab 6 is provided with a cab seat (seat) 25 on which the operator is seated. Left and right travel control levers 26A and 26B (only the left travel control lever 26A is shown in Fig. 1) operable forward and backward with hands or feet to command the operation of the left and right travel hydraulic motors 13A and 13B are arranged in front of the cab seat 25. On the floor to the right of the right travel control lever 26B, a swing control pedal (unshown) to be operated left and right for commanding the operation of the swing hydraulic cylinder 18 is arranged.

    [0023] Arranged to the left of the cab seat 25 is an arm/rotation control lever 27A of the cross-hair four-way operation, which is operable forward and backward to command the operation of the arm hydraulic cylinder 23 and operable left and right to command the operation of the rotation hydraulic motor 17. Arranged to the right of the cab seat 25 is a boom/bucket control lever 27B (see Fig. 2 which will be explained later) of the cross-hair four-way operation, which is operable forward and backward to command the operation of the boom hydraulic cylinder 22 and operable left and right to command the operation of the bucket hydraulic cylinder 24. A blade control lever (unshown) operable forward and backward to command the operation of the blade hydraulic cylinder 15 is also arranged to the right of the cab seat 25.

    [0024] Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of an electric drive unit in accordance with this embodiment which is installed in the above-described electric mini-excavator. Fig. 3 is a hydraulic circuit diagram showing a configuration related to the driving of the boom hydraulic cylinder 22 and the arm hydraulic cylinder 23 (as a typical example of a configuration included in the electric drive unit shown in Fig. 2) as well as the configuration of an LS differential pressure detecting device.

    [0025] Referring to Figs. 2 and 3, the electric drive unit comprises the electricity storage device 7, a motor/generator 29, a hydraulic pump 30, a pilot pump (unshown), a regulator 31, a plurality of hydraulic actuators, and a valve unit 32. The electricity storage device 7 is made up of a plurality of batteries. While only two batteries are shown in Fig. 2 for the sake of convenience, the actual electricity storage device 7 includes a greater number of batteries. The motor/generator 29 supplies and receives electric power to/from the electricity storage device 7 via a bidirectional converter 28. The hydraulic pump 30 (variable displacement type) and the pilot pump (fixed displacement type) are driven by the motor/generator 29. The regulator 31 performs variable control on the displacement volume (i.e., delivery capacity per revolution) of the hydraulic pump 30. The plurality of hydraulic actuators include the left and right travel hydraulic motors 13A and 13B, the blade hydraulic cylinder 15, the rotation hydraulic motor 17, the swing hydraulic cylinder 18, the boom hydraulic cylinder 22, the arm hydraulic cylinder 23 and the bucket hydraulic cylinder 24 which have been explained above. These hydraulic actuators will hereinafter be referred to as "the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc." The valve unit 32 controls the flow of the hydraulic fluid supplied from the hydraulic pump 30 to the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc.

    [0026] The valve unit 32 includes a plurality of directional control valves of the closed center type for controlling the direction and the flow rate of the hydraulic fluid supplied from the hydraulic pump 30 to the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc. Specifically, the plurality of directional control valves include a boom directional control valve 33 and an arm directional control valve 34 which are shown in Fig. 3 and a right travel directional control valve, a left travel directional control valve, a blade directional control valve, a rotation directional control valve, a swing directional control valve and a bucket directional control valve which are not shown in Fig. 3. These directional control valves will hereinafter be referred to as "the directional control valves 33, 34, etc." The valve unit 32 further includes a plurality of pressure compensating valves arranged upstream of the directional control valves 33, 34, etc. Specifically, the plurality of pressure compensating valves include a boom pressure compensating valve 35 and an arm pressure compensating valve 36 which are shown in Fig. 3 and a right travel pressure compensating valve, a left travel pressure compensating valve, a blade pressure compensating valve, a rotation pressure compensating valve, a swing pressure compensating valve and a bucket pressure compensating valve which are not shown in Fig. 3. These pressure compensating valves will hereinafter be referred to as "the pressure compensating valves 35, 36, etc."

    [0027] The arm directional control valve 34 is remote controlled by pilot pressure supplied from an operating device 37A. Specifically, the operating device 37A includes the aforementioned arm/rotation control lever 27A, a pair of pressure reducing valves 38A and 38B for generating pilot pressure according to the operator's forward/backward operation on the control lever 27A by use of the delivery pressure of the pilot pump as the source pressure, and a pair of pressure reducing valves (unshown) for generating pilot pressure according to the operator's left and right operation on the control lever 27A by use of the delivery pressure of the pilot pump as the source pressure. When the control lever 27A is operated forward from its neutral position, for example, the pilot pressure generated by the pressure reducing valve 38A according to the operation amount of the control lever 27A is outputted to a pressure receiving part (upper part in Fig. 3) of the arm directional control valve 34, by which the arm directional control valve 34 is switched to an upper switch position in Fig. 3. Consequently, the hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic pump 30 is supplied to the rod side of the arm hydraulic cylinder 23, contracts the arm hydraulic cylinder 23, and thereby rotates the arm 20 downward. In contrast, when the control lever 27A is operated backward from the neutral position, the pilot pressure generated by the pressure reducing valve 38B according to the operation amount of the control lever 27A is outputted to a pressure receiving part (lower part in Fig. 3) of the arm directional control valve 34, by which the arm directional control valve 34 is switched to a lower switch position in Fig. 3. Consequently, the hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic pump 30 is supplied to the bottom side of the arm hydraulic cylinder 23, expands the arm hydraulic cylinder 23, and thereby rotates the arm 20 upward.

    [0028] The boom directional control valve 33 is remote controlled by pilot pressure supplied from an operating device 37B. Specifically, the operating device 37B includes the aforementioned boom/bucket control lever 27B, a pair of pressure reducing valves 38C and 38D for generating pilot pressure according to the operator's forward/backward operation on the control lever 27B by use of the delivery pressure of the pilot pump as the source pressure, and a pair of pressure reducing valves (unshown) for generating pilot pressure according to the operator's left and right operation on the control lever 27B by use of the delivery pressure of the pilot pump as the source pressure. When the control lever 27B is operated forward from its neutral position, for example, the pilot pressure generated by the pressure reducing valve 38C according to the operation amount of the control lever 27B is outputted to a pressure receiving part (upper part in Fig. 3) of the boom directional control valve 33, by which the boom directional control valve 33 is switched to an upper switch position in Fig. 3. Consequently, the hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic pump 30 is supplied to the rod side of the boom hydraulic cylinder 22, contracts the boom hydraulic cylinder 22, and thereby rotates the boom 19 downward. In contrast, when the control lever 27B is operated backward from the neutral position, the pilot pressure generated by the pressure reducing valve 38D according to the operation amount of the control lever 27B is outputted to a pressure receiving part (lower part in Fig. 3) of the boom directional control valve 33, by which the boom directional control valve 33 is switched to a lower switch position in Fig. 3. Consequently, the hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic pump 30 is supplied to the bottom side of the boom hydraulic cylinder 22, expands the boom hydraulic cylinder 22, and thereby rotates the boom 19 upward.

    [0029] In this embodiment, the configuration related to the left and right travel hydraulic motors 13A and 13B, the blade hydraulic cylinder 15, the rotation hydraulic motor 17, the swing hydraulic cylinder 18 and the bucket hydraulic cylinder 24 is substantially equivalent to the above-described configuration related to the driving of the boom hydraulic cylinder 22 and the arm hydraulic cylinder 23. In short, each of the right travel directional control valve, the left travel directional control valve, the blade directional control valve, the rotation directional control valve, the swing directional control valve and the bucket directional control valve is remote controlled by pilot pressure supplied from a corresponding operating device (unshown).

    [0030] The directional control valves 33, 34, etc. have load ports 33a, 34a, etc. each of which is used for extracting load pressure of the corresponding hydraulic actuator when the valve is switched (which equals the tank pressure when the valve is at its neutral position). A plurality of (seven in this embodiment, only two are shown in Fig. 3) load pressure shuttle valves 39 are provided for selecting and extracting the highest load pressure Plmax from the load pressures outputted from the load ports 33a, 34a, etc. (hereinafter referred to as "the maximum load pressure Plmax of the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc."). Further, an LS differential pressure detecting device 40 is provided for detecting load sensing differential pressure Pls (hereinafter referred to as "the LS differential pressure Pls") as the differential pressure between the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 and the maximum load pressure Plmax of the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc.

    [0031] In this embodiment, the LS differential pressure detecting device 40 is made up of a differential pressure detecting valve 41 for generating pressure corresponding to the LS differential pressure Pls by use of the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 as the source pressure and a pressure sensor 42 for measuring the output pressure of the differential pressure detecting valve 41 (i.e., the LS differential pressure Pls). The differential pressure detecting valve 41 has a pressure receiving part for introducing the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 and having the delivery pressure Ps act on the pressure boosting side, a pressure receiving part for introducing the maximum load pressure Plmax of the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc. from the shuttle valves 39 and having the maximum load pressure Plmax act on the pressure reducing side, and a pressure receiving part for introducing the output pressure of the differential pressure detecting valve 41 itself and having the output pressure act on the pressure reducing side. With such a configuration, the differential pressure detecting valve 41 generates and outputs the pressure corresponding to the LS differential pressure Pls. The pressure sensor 42 measures the output pressure of the differential pressure detecting valve 41 and outputs an electric signal representing the measured output pressure.

    [0032]  Each of the pressure compensating valves 35, 36, etc. has a pressure receiving part for introducing upstream-side pressure of the corresponding directional control valve and having the upstream-side pressure act on the valve closing side, a pressure receiving part for introducing downstream-side pressure of the corresponding directional control valve (specifically, output pressure of the load port) and having the downstream-side pressure act on the valve opening side, and a pressure receiving part for introducing the LS differential pressure Pls from the differential pressure detecting valve 41 and having the LS differential pressure Pls act on the valve opening side. With this configuration, differential pressure across every one of the directional control valves 33, 34, etc. is controlled to be equal to the LS differential pressure Pls. Consequently, in the combined operation in which two or more hydraulic actuators are simultaneously driven, for example, the hydraulic fluid is distributed according to a ratio corresponding to the opening areas of the directional control valves irrespective of the magnitudes of the load pressures of the hydraulic actuators.

    [0033] The regulator 31 includes a tilting actuator 43 which controls the tilting angle of the swash plate of the hydraulic pump 30 (i.e., the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30) and a solenoid proportional valve 44 which generates control pressure for the tilting actuator 43 by use of the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump 30 as the source pressure.

    [0034] Further, a load sensing control device 45 (hereinafter referred to as "the LS control device 45") for controlling the solenoid proportional valve 44 of the regulator 31 and the bidirectional converter 28 is provided. The LS control device 45 performs the variable control on the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 via the regulator 31 and the variable control on the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 via the bidirectional converter 28 so that the LS differential pressure Pls detected by the LS differential pressure detecting device 40 equals a preset target value Pgr. In this embodiment, an input device 46 allowing for modification of the target value Pgr of the LS differential pressure is provided. The operating speeds of the hydraulic actuators can be changed by the modification of the target value Pgr of the LS differential pressure.

    [0035] The details of the LS control device 45 will be explained below referring to Fig. 4. Fig. 4 is a block diagram showing the functional configuration of the LS control device 45 together with related devices.

    [0036] The LS control device 45 includes a target value setting section 47, a subtraction section 48, a first lowpass filter section 49, a pump command calculation section 50, a second lowpass filter section 51 and a motor/generator command calculation section 52. The target value setting section 47 sets the target value Pgr of the LS differential pressure which is inputted from the input device 46. The subtraction section 48 calculates the difference ΔPls between the LS differential pressure Pls inputted from the pressure sensor 42 of the LS differential pressure detecting device 40 and the target value Pgr set by the target value setting section 47. The first lowpass filter section 49 performs lowpass filter processing (with a cutoff frequency f1) on the difference ΔPls calculated by the subtraction section 48. The pump command calculation section 50 performs a prescribed calculation process on the difference ΔPls after undergoing the processing by the first lowpass filter section 49 (difference ΔPls'), thereby generates a control signal, and outputs the control signal to the solenoid proportional valve 44 of the regulator 31. The second lowpass filter section 51 performs lowpass filter processing (with a cutoff frequency f2 (f2 < f1)) on the difference ΔPls calculated by the subtraction section 48. The motor/generator command calculation section 52 performs a prescribed calculation process on the difference ΔPls after undergoing the processing by the second lowpass filter section 51 (difference ΔPls"), thereby generates a control signal, and outputs the control signal to the bidirectional converter 28.

    [0037] The processing by the lowpass filter sections 49 and 51 will be explained concretely referring to Figs. 5A to 5C. The difference ΔPls calculated by the subtraction section 48 is assumed here to change with time like the composite waveform shown in Fig. 5A dominated by two frequencies fa and fb (f1 > fa > f2 > fb). The first lowpass filter section 49 performs the processing on the difference ΔPls calculated by the subtraction section 48 so as to remove components changing above the frequency f1, and thus the difference ΔPls' after the processing changes with time like the composite waveform shown in Fig. 5B dominated by the two frequencies fa and fb. In contrast, the second lowpass filter section 51 performs the processing on the difference ΔPls calculated by the subtraction section 48 so as to remove components changing above the frequency f2, and thus the difference ΔPls" after the processing changes with time like the waveform shown in Fig. 5C dominated by the frequency fb.

    [0038] The pump command calculation section 50 has prestored a calculation table which has been set so that a displacement volume difference Δq of the hydraulic pump 30 decreases from 0 with the increase in the LS differential pressure difference ΔPls' from 0 and the displacement volume difference Δq of the hydraulic pump 30 increases from 0 with the decrease in the LS differential pressure difference ΔPls' from 0 as shown in Fig. 4, for example. Based on the calculation table, the displacement volume difference Δq of the hydraulic pump 30 is calculated from the LS differential pressure difference ΔPls' after the processing by the first lowpass filter section 49. A displacement volume command value of this time is calculated by adding the difference Δq to the displacement volume command value of the previous time (or an actual value of the displacement volume calculated based on the tilting angle of the swash plate of the hydraulic pump 30 detected by a tilting angle sensor, for example). A control signal corresponding to the calculated displacement volume command value is generated and outputted to the solenoid proportional valve 44 of the regulator 31.

    [0039] The solenoid proportional valve 44 is driven by the control signal from the pump command calculation section 50 and generates and outputs the control pressure for the tilting actuator 43. Thus, when the LS differential pressure difference ΔPls' is positive (ΔPls' > 0), for example, the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 is decreased, by which the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump 30 is decreased. In contrast, when the LS differential pressure difference ΔPls' is negative (ΔPls' < 0), the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 is increased, by which the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump 30 is increased.

    [0040] The motor/generator command calculation section 52 has prestored a calculation table which has been set so that a revolution speed difference ΔN of the motor/generator 29 decreases from 0 with the increase in the LS differential pressure difference ΔPls" from 0 and the revolution speed difference Δq of the motor/generator 29 increases from 0 with the decrease in the LS differential pressure difference ΔPls" from 0 as shown in Fig. 4, for example. Based on the calculation table, the revolution speed difference ΔN of the motor/generator 29 is calculated from the LS differential pressure difference ΔPls" after the processing by the second lowpass filter section 51. A revolution speed command value of this time is calculated by adding the difference ΔN to the revolution speed command value of the previous time (or an actual value of the revolution speed calculated by the bidirectional converter 28 from the magnitude and the phase of the drive current of the motor/generator 29, for example). A control signal corresponding to the calculated revolution speed command value is generated and outputted to the bidirectional converter 28.

    [0041] In this embodiment, the motor/generator command calculation section 52 has prestored the lower limit and the upper limit of the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 and limits the aforementioned revolution speed command value with the lower limit and the upper limit. By the limitation, the delivery pressure of the pilot pump (i.e., the source pressure of the pilot pressure in each of the operating devices 37A, 37B, etc.) is secured.

    [0042] The details of the bidirectional converter 28 will be explained below referring to Fig. 6. Fig. 6 is a block diagram showing the functional configuration of the bidirectional converter 28 together with related devices.

    [0043] The bidirectional converter 28 includes a step-up/down chopper 53, an AC-DC converter 54 and a controller 55. Although details are not illustrated, the step-up/down chopper 53 includes a step-up circuit, a step-down circuit, a rectification circuit, and switches arranged between the circuits. The controller 55 receives the control signal from the LS control device 45 (i.e., the revolution speed command value), etc. and controls the step-up/down chopper 53 and the AC-DC converter 54 according to the revolution speed command value. Specifically, when the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 should be increased or maintained (i.e., when the LS differential pressure difference ΔPls" ≤ 0), the controller 55 outputs drive commands for making the motor/generator 29 operate as the motor to the step-up/down chopper 53 and the AC-DC converter 54. Accordingly, the step-up/down chopper 53 boosts the voltage of the DC power from the electricity storage device 7 and supplies the DC power with the boosted voltage to the AC-DC converter 54. The AC-DC converter 54 generates AC power based on the DC power supplied from the step-up/down chopper 53, applies the AC power to the motor/generator 29 and thereby drives the motor/generator 29. In contrast, when the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 should be decreased (i.e., when the LS differential pressure difference ΔPls" > 0), the controller 55 outputs regeneration commands for making the motor/generator 29 operate as the generator (regeneration brake) to the step-up/down chopper 53 and the AC-DC converter 54. Accordingly, the AC-DC converter 54 converts the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator 29 into AC power and converts the AC power into DC power. The step-up/down chopper 53 boosts the voltage of the DC power from the AC-DC converter 54, supplies the DC power with the boosted voltage to the electricity storage device 7, and thereby charges the electricity storage device 7.

    [0044] The bidirectional converter 28 is designed to interface between the electricity storage device 7 and a commercial power supply 56 when a cable from the commercial power supply 56 (external power supply) is connected to the power supply socket. Further, a charging switch (unshown) is provided to allow for commanding the starting/ending of the charging from the external power supply while the motor/generator 29 is halted. The controller 55 outputs a charging command to the step-up/down chopper 53 in response to a charging start command signal from the charging switch. Accordingly, the step-up/down chopper 53 converts the AC power from the commercial power supply 56 into DC power while lowering its voltage, supplies the DC power to the electricity storage device 7, and thereby charges the electricity storage device 7.

    [0045] In the configuration described above, the operating devices 37A, 37B, etc. constitute a plurality of operating means (described in CLAIMS) which command the operation of a plurality of hydraulic actuators. The regulator 31 constitutes pump control means which performs the variable control on the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump. The bidirectional converter 28 constitutes motor/generator control means which performs the variable control on the revolution speed of the motor/generator. The LS differential pressure detecting device 40 constitutes differential pressure detecting means which detects the load sensing differential pressure. The LS control device 45 constitutes command control means which calculates command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the change in a demanded flow rate determined based on operation command levels from the plurality of operating means, while also constituting command control means which calculates command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the difference between the load sensing differential pressure detected by the differential pressure detecting means and a preset target value so that the load sensing differential pressure equals the target value.

    [0046] Next, the operation and effect of this embodiment will be explained below.

    [0047] When the operator returns a control lever being operated alone to the neutral position, the corresponding directional control valve is returned to its neutral position and the demanded flow rate decreases. Accordingly, the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 increases and the maximum load pressure Plmax of the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc. decreases, and consequently, the LS differential pressure Pls exceeds the target value Pgr. Then, the LS control device 45 decreases the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 via the regulator 31 and decreasing the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 via the bidirectional converter 28 so that the LS differential pressure Pls equals the target value Pgr (i.e., so that the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump 30 matches with the demanded flow rate). In this case, the bidirectional converter 28 performs regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator 29 into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device 7. Therefore, the operating time of the mini-excavator can be increased through the charging of the electricity storage device 7.

    [0048] As a method for increasing the electric power acquired by the regeneration control by the bidirectional converter 28, it is possible to increase the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator 29 by increasing the mass of the rotor, for example. In this case, however, responsiveness of the variable control of the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 is deteriorated. To avoid this problem, in the LS control device 45 in this embodiment, the second lowpass filter section 51 performs the processing for removing the components changing above the frequency f2 on the difference ΔPls between the LS differential pressure Pls and the target value Pgr before the motor/generator command calculation section 52 performs the calculation on the difference ΔPls. Since the frequency f2 is set relatively low, sensitivity (susceptibility) of the variable control of the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 to fluctuations in the LS differential pressure Pls can be reduced. Consequently, the hunting can be suppressed. Further, in the LS control device 45 in this embodiment, the first lowpass filter section 49 performs the processing for removing the components changing above the frequency f1 on the difference ΔPls between the LS differential pressure Pls and the target value Pgr before the pump command calculation section 50 performs the calculation on the difference ΔPls. Since the frequency f1 is set relatively high, sensitivity of the variable control of the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 to fluctuations in the LS differential pressure Pls can be increased. Consequently, the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump 30 can be increased and decreased while sensitively responding to the fluctuations in the LS differential pressure Pls (i.e., fluctuations in the demanded flow rate).

    [0049] Incidentally, while the LS differential pressure detecting device 40 implemented by the differential pressure detecting valve 41 and the pressure sensor 42 is employed in the above explanation of the first embodiment, the configuration of the LS differential pressure detecting device is not restricted to this example. For example, an LS differential pressure detecting device 40A implemented by a differential pressure sensor 57 may also be employed as in a first modification shown in Fig. 7. The differential pressure sensor 57 receives the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 while also receiving the maximum load pressure Plmax of the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc. from the shuttle valves 39, measures the LS differential pressure APls as differential pressure between the delivery pressure Ps and the maximum load pressure Plmax, and outputs an electric signal representing the LS differential pressure Pls to the LS control device 40. Also in this modification, effects equivalent to those of the above-described first embodiment can be achieved.

    [0050] Further, an LS differential pressure detecting device 40B implemented by a delivery pressure sensor 58, a maximum load pressure sensor 59 and a subtractor 60 may also be employed as in a second modification shown in Fig. 8. The delivery pressure sensor 58 receives and measures the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 and outputs an electric signal representing the delivery pressure Ps. The maximum load pressure sensor 59 measures the maximum load pressure Plmax of the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc. received from the shuttle valves 39 and outputs an electric signal representing the maximum load pressure Plmax. The subtractor 56 calculates the LS differential pressure Pls as the differential pressure between the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 inputted from the delivery pressure sensor 58 and the maximum load pressure Plmax inputted from the maximum load pressure sensor 59 and outputs an electric signal representing the LS differential pressure Pls to the LS control device 40. Incidentally, it is also possible to provide the subtractor 56 not as a component of the LS differential pressure detecting device but as a component of the LS control device. Also in this modification, effects equivalent to those of the above-described first embodiment can be achieved.

    [0051] It is also possible, as in a third modification shown in Fig. 9, to provide restrictors 61 on the hydraulic pressure introducing side of the delivery pressure sensor 58 and the maximum load pressure sensor 59 while employing an LS differential pressure detecting device 40C configured similarly to the LS differential pressure detecting device 40B. In other words, fluctuations in the values detected by the sensors may be suppressed by providing the sensors with the restrictors 61. Also in this modification, effects equivalent to those of the above-described first embodiment can be achieved.

    [0052] In the first through third modifications described above, the differential pressure detecting valve 41 for outputting the pressure corresponding to the LS differential pressure Pls is not employed. Therefore, each of the pressure compensating valves 35A, 36A, etc. has a pressure receiving part for introducing upstream-side pressure of the corresponding directional control valve and having the upstream-side pressure act on the valve closing side, a pressure receiving part for introducing downstream-side pressure of the corresponding directional control valve (specifically, the output pressure of the load port) and having the downstream-side pressure act on the valve opening side, a pressure receiving part for introducing the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 and having the delivery pressure Ps act on the valve opening side, and a pressure receiving part for introducing the maximum load pressure Plmax of the hydraulic actuators from the shuttle valves 39 and having the maximum load pressure Plmax act on the valve closing side.

    [0053] A second embodiment of the present invention will be described below referring to Figs. 10 and 11. This embodiment is an embodiment of performing load sensing control according to a control procedure different from that in the first embodiment. In this embodiment, components equivalent to those in the first embodiment or the modifications are assigned the already used reference characters and repeated explanation thereof is omitted properly.

    [0054]  Fig. 10 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of an electric drive unit in accordance with this embodiment.

    [0055] The electric drive unit of this embodiment is equipped with the delivery pressure sensor 58 and the maximum load pressure sensor 59 similarly to the second or third modification described above. An LS control device 45A adds the preset target value Pgr of the LS differential pressure to the maximum load pressure Plmax of the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc. detected by the maximum load pressure sensor 59 and sets the sum as a target value Ps0 of the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump 30. Further, the LS control device 45A performs variable control on the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 via the regulator 31 and variable control on the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 via the bidirectional converter 28 so that the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 detected by the delivery pressure sensor 58 equals the target value Ps0.

    [0056] The details of the LS control device 45A will be explained below referring to Fig. 11. Fig. 11 is a block diagram showing the functional configuration of the LS control device 45A together with related devices.

    [0057] The LS control device 45A includes a target value setting section 47A, a subtraction section 48A, a first lowpass filter section 49A, a pump command calculation section 50A, a second lowpass filter section 51A and a motor/generator command calculation section 52A. The target value setting section 47A sets the target value Ps0 of the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump 30. The subtraction section 48A calculates the difference ΔPs between the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 inputted from the delivery pressure sensor 58 and the target value Ps0 set by the target value setting section 47A. The first lowpass filter section 49A performs lowpass filter processing (with a cutoff frequency f1) on the difference ΔPs calculated by the subtraction section 48A. The pump command calculation section 50A performs a prescribed calculation process on the difference ΔPs after undergoing the processing by the first lowpass filter section 49A (difference ΔPs'), thereby generates a control signal, and outputs the control signal to the solenoid proportional valve 44 of the regulator 31. The second lowpass filter section 51A performs lowpass filter processing (with a cutoff frequency f2 (f2 < f1)) on the difference ΔPs calculated by the subtraction section 48A. The motor/generator command calculation section 52A performs a prescribed calculation process on the difference ΔPs after undergoing the processing by the second lowpass filter section 51A (difference ΔPs"), thereby generates a control signal, and outputs the control signal to the bidirectional converter 28.

    [0058] The target value setting section 47A first sets the target value Pgr of the LS differential pressure which is inputted from the input device 46. Then, the target value setting section 47A adds the target value Pgr of the LS differential pressure to the maximum load pressure Plmax of the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc. inputted from the maximum load pressure sensor 59 and sets the sum as the target value Ps0 of the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump 30.

    [0059] The pump command calculation section 50A has prestored a calculation table which has been set so that the displacement volume difference Δq of the hydraulic pump 30 decreases from 0 with the increase in the delivery pressure difference ΔPs' of the hydraulic pump 30 from 0 and the displacement volume difference Δq of the hydraulic pump 30 increases from 0 with the decrease in the delivery pressure difference ΔPs' of the hydraulic pump 30 from 0 as shown in Fig. 11, for example. Based on the calculation table, the displacement volume difference Δq is calculated from the delivery pressure difference ΔPs' of the hydraulic pump 30 after the processing by the first lowpass filter section 49A. A displacement volume command value of this time is calculated by adding the difference Δq to the displacement volume command value of the previous time (or an actual value of the displacement volume calculated based on the tilting angle of the swash plate of the hydraulic pump 30 detected by a tilting angle sensor, for example). A control signal corresponding to the calculated displacement volume command value is generated and outputted to the solenoid proportional valve 44 of the regulator 31.

    [0060] The solenoid proportional valve 44 is driven by the control signal from the pump command calculation section 50A and generates and outputs the control pressure for the tilting actuator 43. Thus, when the delivery pressure difference ΔPs' of the hydraulic pump 30 is positive (ΔPs' > 0), for example, the displacement volume is decreased, by which the delivery flow rate is decreased. In contrast, when the delivery pressure difference ΔPs' of the hydraulic pump 30 is negative (ΔPs' < 0), the displacement volume is increased, by which the delivery flow rate is increased.

    [0061] The motor/generator command calculation section 52A has prestored a calculation table which has been set so that the revolution speed difference ΔN of the motor/generator 29 decreases from 0 with the increase in the delivery pressure difference ΔPs" of the hydraulic pump 30 from 0 and the revolution speed difference Δq of the motor/generator 29 increases from 0 with the decrease in the delivery pressure difference ΔPs" of the hydraulic pump 30 from 0 as shown in Fig. 11, for example. Based on the calculation table, the revolution speed difference ΔN of the motor/generator 29 is calculated from the delivery pressure difference ΔPs" of the hydraulic pump 30 after the processing by the second lowpass filter section 51A. A revolution speed command value of this time is calculated by adding the difference ΔN to the revolution speed command value of the previous time (or an actual value of the revolution speed calculated by the bidirectional converter 28 from the magnitude and the phase of the drive current of the motor/generator 29, for example). A control signal corresponding to the calculated revolution speed command value is generated and outputted to the bidirectional converter 28.

    [0062] Similarly to the motor/generator command calculation section 52 in the first embodiment, the motor/generator command calculation section 52A has prestored the lower limit and the upper limit of the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 and limits the aforementioned revolution speed command value with the lower limit and the upper limit. By the limitation, the delivery pressure of the pilot pump (i.e., the source pressure of the pilot pressure in each of the operating devices 37A, 37B, etc.) is secured.

    [0063] Similarly to the first embodiment, the bidirectional converter 28 makes the motor/generator 29 operate as the motor when the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 should be increased or maintained (specifically, when the delivery pressure difference ΔPs" of the hydraulic pump 30 ≤ 0). In contrast, when the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 should be decreased (specifically, when the delivery pressure difference ΔPs" of the hydraulic pump 30 > 0), the bidirectional converter 28 makes the motor/generator 29 operate as the generator (regeneration brake).

    [0064] In the configuration described above, the delivery pressure sensor 58 constitutes delivery pressure detecting means (described in CLAIMS) which detects the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump. The maximum load pressure sensor 59 constitutes maximum load pressure detecting means which detects the maximum load pressure of the hydraulic actuators. The LS control device 45A constitutes command control means which calculates command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the change in a demanded flow rate determined based on operation command levels from the plurality of operating means, while also constituting command control means which sets a target value for the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump based on the maximum load pressure of the hydraulic actuators detected by the maximum load pressure detecting means and calculates command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the difference between the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump detected by the delivery pressure detecting means and the target value so that the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump equals the target value.

    [0065] Next, the operation and effect of this embodiment will be explained below.

    [0066] When the operator returns a control lever being operated alone to the neutral position, the corresponding directional control valve is returned to its neutral position and the demanded flow rate decreases. Accordingly, the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 increases, the maximum load pressure Plmax of the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc. decreases, the target value Ps0 of the delivery pressure also decreases, and consequently, the delivery pressure Ps exceeds the target value Ps0. Then, the LS control device 45A decreases the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 via the regulator 31 and decreases the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 via the bidirectional converter 28 so that the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 equals the target value Ps0 (i.e., so that the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump 30 matches with the demanded flow rate). In this case, the bidirectional converter 28 performs regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator 29 into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device 7. Therefore, the operating time of the mini-excavator can be increased through the charging of the electricity storage device 7.

    [0067] Further, in the LS control device 45A in this embodiment, the second lowpass filter section 51A performs the processing for removing the components changing above the frequency f2 on the difference ΔPs between the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 and the target value Ps0 before the motor/generator command calculation section 52A performs the calculation on the difference ΔPs. Since the frequency f2 is set relatively low, sensitivity (susceptibility) of the variable control of the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 to fluctuations in the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 (i.e., fluctuations in the LS differential pressure Pls) can be reduced. Consequently, the hunting can be suppressed. Furthermore, in the LS control device 45A in this embodiment, the first lowpass filter section 49A performs the processing for removing the components changing above the frequency f1 on the difference ΔPs between the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 and the target value Ps0 before the pump command calculation section 50A performs the calculation on the difference ΔPs. Since the frequency f1 is set relatively high, sensitivity of the variable control of the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 to fluctuations in the delivery pressure Ps of the hydraulic pump 30 (i.e., fluctuations in the LS differential pressure Pls) can be increased. Consequently, the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump 30 can be increased and decreased while sensitively responding to the fluctuations in the LS differential pressure Pls (i.e., fluctuations in the demanded flow rate).

    [0068] Although not explained particularly in the above second embodiment, the LS control device 45A may further include a third lowpass filter section which performs processing for removing components changing above the frequency f1, for example, on the maximum load pressure Plmax of the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc. inputted from the maximum load pressure sensor 59. The target value setting section 47A adds the LS differential pressure target value Pgr to the maximum load pressure Plmax of the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc. after undergoing the processing by the third lowpass filter section and sets the sum as the target value Ps0 of the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump 30. Also in such cases, effects equivalent to the aforementioned effects can be achieved.

    [0069] While the target value Pgr of the LS differential pressure is variable by the input device 46 in the above first and second embodiments, the setting of the target value Pgr may be made differently. For example, the target value Pgr of the LS differential pressure may be stored in the LS control device 45 as a preset fixed value. Also in this case, effects equivalent to the aforementioned effects can be achieved.

    [0070] A third embodiment of the present invention will be described below referring to Figs. 12 to 14. This embodiment is an embodiment of performing negative control. In this embodiment, components equivalent to those in the above embodiments are assigned the already used reference characters and repeated explanation thereof is omitted properly.

    [0071]  Fig. 12 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of an electric drive unit in accordance with this embodiment.

    [0072] In this embodiment, a plurality of directional control valves of the open center type are employed for controlling the direction and the flow rate of the hydraulic fluid supplied from the hydraulic pump 30 to the hydraulic actuators 22, 23, etc. Specifically, the plurality of directional control valves include a boom directional control valve 33A and an arm directional control valve 34A which are shown in Fig. 12 and a right travel directional control valve, a left travel directional control valve, a blade directional control valve, a rotation directional control valve, a swing directional control valve and a bucket directional control valve which are not shown in Fig. 12. These directional control valves will hereinafter be referred to as "the directional control valves 33A, 34A, etc." The directional control valves 33A, 34A, etc. are connected in series via a center bypass line 62.

    [0073] Arranged in a downstream part of the center bypass line 62 are a restrictor 63 for generating control pressure and a control pressure sensor 64 for detecting the pressure on the upstream side of the restrictor 63 as the control pressure Pn. When all the control levers 27A, 27B, etc. are at their neutral positions (i.e., when all the directional control valves 33A, 34A, etc. are at their neutral positions), for example, the flow rate through the center bypass line 62 becomes relatively high and thus the control pressure Pn also becomes relatively high. In contrast, when any one of the control levers 27A, 27B, etc. is at its maximum operation position (i.e., when any one of the directional control valves 33A, 34A, etc. is at its switched position), the flow rate through the center bypass line 62 becomes relatively low and thus the control pressure Pn also becomes relatively low.

    [0074] Further, a tilting angle sensor 65 for detecting the tilting angle θ of the swash plate of the hydraulic pump 30 is provided. The controller 55 of the bidirectional converter 28 calculates the revolution speed (actual value) N of the motor/generator 29 from the magnitude and the phase of the drive current of the motor/generator 29.

    [0075] Furthermore, a negative control device 66 for controlling the solenoid proportional valve 44 of the regulator 31 and the bidirectional converter 28 is provided. The negative control device 66 calculates the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30 based on the tilting angle θ of the swash plate of the hydraulic pump 30 detected by the tilting angle sensor 65 and the revolution speed N of the motor/generator 29 acquired by the bidirectional converter 28 and sets a target value Pn0 of the control pressure corresponding to the delivery flow rate Q. Then, the negative control device 66 performs variable control on the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 via the regulator 31 and variable control on the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 via the bidirectional converter 28 according to the difference ΔPn between the control pressure Pn detected by the control pressure sensor 64 and the target value Pn0.

    [0076] The details of the negative control device 66 will be explained below referring to Fig. 13. Fig. 13 is a block diagram showing the functional configuration of the negative control device 66 together with related devices.

    [0077] The negative control device 66 includes a delivery flow rate calculation section 67, a target value setting section 47B, a subtraction section 48B, a first lowpass filter section 49B, a pump command calculation section 50B, a second lowpass filter section 51B and a motor/generator command calculation section 52B. The delivery flow rate calculation section 67 calculates the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30. The target value setting section 47B sets the target value Pn0 of the control pressure corresponding to the delivery flow rate Q calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation section 67. The subtraction section 48B calculates the difference ΔPn between the control pressure Pn inputted from the control pressure sensor 64 and the target value Pn0 set by the target value setting section 47B. The first lowpass filter section 49B performs lowpass filter processing (with a cutoff frequency f1) on the difference ΔPn calculated by the subtraction section 48B. The pump command calculation section 50B performs a prescribed calculation process on the difference ΔPn after undergoing the processing by the first lowpass filter section 49B (difference ΔPn'), thereby generates a control signal, and outputs the control signal to the solenoid proportional valve 44 of the regulator 31. The second lowpass filter section 51B performs lowpass filter processing (with a cutoff frequency f2 (f2 < f1)) on the difference ΔPn calculated by the subtraction section 48B. The motor/generator command calculation section 52B performs a prescribed calculation process on the difference ΔPn after undergoing the processing by the second lowpass filter section 51B (difference ΔPn"), thereby generates a control signal, and outputs the control signal to the bidirectional converter 28.

    [0078] The delivery flow rate calculation section 67 calculates the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 from the tilting angle θ of the swash plate of the hydraulic pump 30 detected by the tilting angle sensor 65 and then calculates the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30 by multiplying the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 by the revolution speed N of the motor/generator 29 acquired by the bidirectional converter 28.

    [0079] The target value setting section 47B sets the target value Pn0 of the control pressure corresponding to the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30 calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation section 67 by use of a calculation table represented by the solid line in Fig. 14, for example. This target value Pn0 of the control pressure (for each delivery flow rate Q) in the calculation table has been set to be lower than the control pressure Pn in the case where all the control levers 27A, 27B, etc. are at their neutral positions (i.e., all the directional control valves 33A, 34A, etc. are at their neutral positions) (chain line in Fig. 14) by a prescribed value "a" (specifically, a prescribed value that has previously been set in consideration of the responsiveness of the control, etc.), and to be higher than the control pressure Pn in the case where any one of the control levers 27A, 27B, etc. is at its maximum operation position (i.e., any one of the directional control valves 33A, 34A, etc. is at its switched position) (two-dot chain line in Fig. 14).

    [0080] Therefore, when all the control levers 27A, 27B, etc. are at their neutral positions, for example, the relationship "control pressure Pn > target value Pn0" (i.e., ΔPn > 0) is satisfied irrespective of the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30, by which the variable control of the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 and the variable control of the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 (explained later) proceed in directions in which the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30 is decreased. Thus, the control pressure Pn and the target value Pn0 decrease while maintaining the relationship "control pressure Pn > target value Pn0", and eventually, the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30 drops to its minimum value (specifically, the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 drops to its minimum value and the revolution speed N of the motor/generator 29 drops to its minimum value). In contrast, when any one of the control levers 27A, 27B, etc. is at its maximum operation position, for example, the relationship "control pressure Pn < target value Pn0" (i.e., ΔPn < 0) is satisfied irrespective of the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30, by which the variable control of the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 and the variable control of the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 (explained later) proceed in directions in which the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30 is increased. Thus, the target value Pn0 of the control pressure increases while maintaining the relationship "control pressure Pn < target value Pn0", and eventually, the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump 30 reaches its maximum value Q_max (specifically, the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 reaches its maximum value q_max and the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 reaches its maximum value N_max).

    [0081] The pump command calculation section 50B has prestored a calculation table which has been set so that the displacement volume difference Δq of the hydraulic pump 30 decreases from 0 with the increase in the control pressure difference ΔPn' from 0 and the displacement volume difference Δq of the hydraulic pump 30 increases from 0 with the decrease in the control pressure difference ΔPn' from 0 as shown in Fig. 13, for example. Based on the calculation table, the displacement volume difference Δq of the hydraulic pump 30 is calculated from the control pressure difference ΔPn' after the processing by the first lowpass filter section 49B. A displacement volume command value of this time is calculated by adding the difference Δq to the displacement volume command value of the previous time (or the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation section 67). A control signal corresponding to the calculated displacement volume command value is generated and outputted to the solenoid proportional valve 44 of the regulator 31.

    [0082] The solenoid proportional valve 44 is driven by the control signal from the pump command calculation section 50B and generates and outputs the control pressure for the tilting actuator 43. Thus, when the control pressure difference ΔPn' is positive (ΔPn' > 0), for example, the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 is decreased, by which the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump 30 is decreased. In contrast, when the control pressure difference ΔPn' is negative (ΔPn' < 0), the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 is increased, by which the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump 30 is increased.

    [0083]  The motor/generator command calculation section 52B has prestored a calculation table which has been set so that the revolution speed difference ΔN of the motor/generator 29 decreases from 0 with the increase in the control pressure difference ΔPn" from 0 and the revolution speed difference Δq of the motor/generator 29 increases from 0 with the decrease in the control pressure difference ΔPn" from 0 as shown in Fig. 13. Based on the calculation table, the revolution speed difference ΔN of the motor/generator 29 is calculated from the control pressure difference ΔPn" after the processing by the second lowpass filter section 51B. A revolution speed command value of this time is calculated by adding the difference ΔN to the revolution speed command value of the previous time (or the actual value of the revolution speed acquired by the bidirectional converter 28). A control signal corresponding to the calculated revolution speed command value is generated and outputted to the bidirectional converter 28.

    [0084] Similarly to the motor/generator command calculation sections 52 and 52A in the above embodiments, the motor/generator command calculation section 52B has prestored the lower limit and the upper limit of the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 and limits the aforementioned revolution speed command value with the lower limit and the upper limit. By the limitation, the delivery pressure of the pilot pump (i.e., the source pressure of the pilot pressure in each of the operating devices 37A, 37B, etc.) is secured.

    [0085] Similarly to the above embodiments, the bidirectional converter 28 makes the motor/generator 29 operate as the motor when the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 should be increased or maintained (specifically, when the control pressure difference ΔPn" ≤ 0). In contrast, when the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 should be decreased (specifically, when the control pressure difference ΔPn" > 0), the bidirectional converter 28 makes the motor/generator 29 operate as the generator (regeneration brake).

    [0086] In the configuration described above, the control pressure sensor 64 constitutes control pressure detecting means (described in CLAIMS) which detects the pressure on the upstream side of the restrictor (changing according to the change in the control level (switching level) of at least one of the directional control valves switched on the upstream side of the restrictor) as the control pressure. The tilting angle sensor 65 constitutes tilting angle detecting means which detects the tilting angle of the hydraulic pump. The bidirectional converter 28 constitutes revolution speed acquisition means which acquires the revolution speed of the motor/generator.

    [0087] The negative control device 66 constitutes command control means which calculates command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the change in a demanded flow rate determined based on operation command levels from the plurality of operating means. The negative control device 66 also constitutes delivery flow rate calculation means which calculates the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump based on the tilting angle of the hydraulic pump detected by the tilting angle detecting means and the revolution speed of the motor/generator acquired by the revolution speed acquisition means. The negative control device 66 further constitutes command control means which sets a target value for the control pressure based on the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation means and calculates command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the difference between the control pressure detected by the control pressure detecting means and the target value.

    [0088] Next, the operation and effect of this embodiment will be explained below.

    [0089] When the operator returns a control lever being operated alone to the neutral position, the corresponding directional control valve is returned from the switched position to the neutral position and the demanded flow rate decreases. Accordingly, the control pressure Pn increases and exceeds the target value Pn0 corresponding to the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump. Then, the negative control device 66 decreases the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 via the regulator 31 eventually to the minimum value q_min while also decreasing the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 via the bidirectional converter 28 eventually to the minimum value N_min (i.e., decreasing the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump 30 to match with the demanded flow rate) according to the difference between the control pressure Pn and the target value Pn0. In this case, the bidirectional converter 28 performs regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator 29 into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device 7. Therefore, the operating time of the mini-excavator can be increased through the charging of the electricity storage device 7.

    [0090] Further, in the negative control device 66 in this embodiment, the second lowpass filter section 51B performs the processing for removing the components changing above the frequency f2 on the difference ΔPn between the control pressure Pn and the target value Pn0 before the motor/generator command calculation section 52B performs the calculation on the difference ΔPn. Since the frequency f2 is set relatively low, sensitivity (susceptibility) of the variable control of the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 to fluctuations in the control pressure Pn can be reduced. Furthermore, in the negative control device 66 in this embodiment, the first lowpass filter section 49B performs the processing for removing the components changing above the frequency f1 on the difference ΔPn between the control pressure Pn and the target value Pn0 before the pump command calculation section 50B performs the calculation on the difference ΔPn. Since the frequency f1 is set relatively high, sensitivity of the variable control of the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 to fluctuations in the control pressure Pn can be increased.

    [0091] A fourth embodiment of the present invention will be described below referring to Figs. 15 to 17. In this embodiment, positive control is performed. In this embodiment, components equivalent to those in the above embodiments are assigned the already used reference characters and repeated explanation thereof is omitted properly.

    [0092] Fig. 15 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of an electric drive unit in accordance with this embodiment.

    [0093] In this embodiment, the tilting angle sensor 65 for detecting the tilting angle θ of the swash plate of the hydraulic pump 30 is provided similarly to the above third embodiment. The controller 55 of the bidirectional converter 28 calculates the revolution speed (actual value) N of the motor/generator 29 from the magnitude and the phase of the drive current of the motor/generator 29.

    [0094] Further, a plurality of (seven in this embodiment, only four are shown in Fig. 15) pilot pressure shuttle valves 68 are provided for selecting and extracting the highest pilot pressure Pp from the pilot pressures outputted from the operating devices 37A, 37B, etc. (hereinafter referred to as "the maximum pilot pressure Pp") and a pilot pressure sensor 69 is provided for detecting the output pressure of the final one of the shuttle valves 68 (i.e., the maximum pilot pressure Pp).

    [0095] Furthermore, a positive control device 70 for controlling the solenoid proportional valve 44 of the regulator 31 and the bidirectional converter 28 is provided. The positive control device 70 calculates the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30 based on the tilting angle θ of the swash plate of the hydraulic pump 30 detected by the tilting angle sensor 65 and the revolution speed N of the motor/generator 29 acquired by the bidirectional converter 28, sets a demanded flow rate Qref based on the maximum pilot pressure Pp detected by the pilot pressure sensor 69, and performs variable control on the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 via the regulator 31 and variable control on the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 via the bidirectional converter 28 so that the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30 equals the demanded flow rate Qref.

    [0096] The details of the positive control device 70 will be explained below referring to Fig. 16. Fig. 16 is a block diagram showing the functional configuration of the positive control device 70 together with related devices.

    [0097] The positive control device 70 includes a target value setting section 47C, a delivery flow rate calculation section 67, a subtraction section 48C, a first lowpass filter section 49C, a pump command calculation section 50C, a second lowpass filter section 51C and a motor/generator command calculation section 52C. The target value setting section 47C sets the demanded flow rate Qref (i.e., the target value of the delivery flow rate) based on the maximum pilot pressure Pp detected by the pilot pressure sensor 69. The delivery flow rate calculation section 67 calculates the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30. The subtraction section 48C calculates the difference ΔQ between the delivery flow rate Q calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation section 67 and the demanded flow rate Qref set by the target value setting section 47C. The first lowpass filter section 49C performs lowpass filter processing (with a cutoff frequency f1) on the difference ΔQ calculated by the subtraction section 48C. The pump command calculation section 50C performs a prescribed calculation process on the difference ΔQ after undergoing the processing by the first lowpass filter section 49C (difference ΔQ'), thereby generates a control signal, and outputs the control signal to the solenoid proportional valve 44 of the regulator 31. The second lowpass filter section 51C performs lowpass filter processing (with a cutoff frequency f2 (f2 < f1)) on the difference ΔQ calculated by the subtraction section 48C. The motor/generator command calculation section 52C performs a prescribed calculation process on the difference ΔQ after undergoing the processing by the second lowpass filter section 51C (difference ΔQ"), thereby generates a control signal, and outputs the control signal to the bidirectional converter 28.

    [0098] The target value setting section 47C sets the demanded flow rate Qref corresponding to the maximum pilot pressure Pp based on a calculation table like the one shown in Fig. 17. This demanded flow rate Qref, assuming a case where all the control levers are at their maximum operation positions (i.e., a case where the maximum pilot pressure detected by the pilot pressure sensor 69 is outputted to all the directional control valves 33, 34, etc.), corresponds to the sum of products each of which is calculated by multiplying the opening area of each directional control valve 33A, 34A, etc. by the differential pressure across the directional control valve.

    [0099] The pump command calculation section 50C has prestored a calculation table which has been set so that the displacement volume difference Δq of the hydraulic pump 30 decreases from 0 with the increase in the delivery flow rate difference ΔQ' of the hydraulic pump 30 from 0 and the displacement volume difference Δq of the hydraulic pump 30 increases from 0 with the decrease in the delivery flow rate difference ΔQ' of the hydraulic pump 30 from 0 as shown in Fig. 16, for example. Based on the calculation table, the displacement volume difference Δq is calculated from the delivery flow rate difference ΔQ' of the hydraulic pump 30 after the processing by the first lowpass filter section 49C. A displacement volume command value of this time is calculated by adding the difference Δq to the displacement volume command value of the previous time (or the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation section 67). A control signal corresponding to the calculated displacement volume command value is generated and outputted to the solenoid proportional valve 44 of the regulator 31.

    [0100] The solenoid proportional valve 44 is driven by the control signal from the pump command calculation section 50C and generates and outputs the control pressure for the tilting actuator 43. Thus, when the delivery flow rate difference ΔQ' of the hydraulic pump 30 is positive (ΔQ' > 0), for example, the displacement volume is decreased, by which the delivery flow rate is decreased. In contrast, when the delivery flow rate difference ΔQ' of the hydraulic pump 30 is negative (ΔQ' < 0), the displacement volume is increased, by which the delivery flow rate is increased.

    [0101]  The motor/generator command calculation section 52C has prestored a calculation table which has been set so that the revolution speed difference ΔN of the motor/generator 29 decreases from 0 with the increase in the delivery flow rate difference ΔQ" of the hydraulic pump 30 from 0 and the revolution speed difference Δq of the motor/generator 29 increases from 0 with the decrease in the delivery flow rate difference ΔQ" of the hydraulic pump 30 from 0 as shown in Fig. 16, for example. Based on the calculation table, the revolution speed difference ΔN of the motor/generator 29 is calculated from the delivery flow rate difference ΔQ" of the hydraulic pump 30 after the processing by the second lowpass filter section 51C. A revolution speed command value of this time is calculated by adding the difference ΔN to the revolution speed command value of the previous time (or the actual value of the revolution speed acquired by the bidirectional converter 28). A control signal corresponding to the calculated revolution speed command value is generated and outputted to the bidirectional converter 28.

    [0102] Similarly to the motor/generator command calculation sections 52 to 52B in the above embodiments, the motor/generator command calculation section 52C has prestored the lower limit and the upper limit of the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 and limits the aforementioned revolution speed command value with the lower limit and the upper limit. By the limitation, the delivery pressure of the pilot pump (i.e., the source pressure of the pilot pressure in each of the operating devices 37A, 37B, etc.) is secured.

    [0103] Similarly to the above embodiments, the bidirectional converter 28 makes the motor/generator 29 operate as the motor when the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 should be increased or maintained (specifically, when the delivery flow rate difference ΔQ" of the hydraulic pump 30 ≤ 0). In contrast, when the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 should be decreased (specifically, when the delivery flow rate difference ΔQ" of the hydraulic pump 30 > 0), the bidirectional converter 28 makes the motor/generator 29 operate as the generator (regeneration brake).

    [0104] In the configuration described above, the pilot pressure sensor 69 constitutes maximum operation amount detecting means (described in CLAIMS) which detects the maximum operation amount of the plurality of operating means. The positive control device 70 constitutes command control means which calculates command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the change in a demanded flow rate determined based on operation command levels from the plurality of operating means. The positive control device 70 also constitutes delivery flow rate calculation means which calculates the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump based on the tilting angle of the hydraulic pump detected by the tilting angle detecting means and the revolution speed of the motor/generator acquired by the revolution speed acquisition means. The positive control device 70 further constitutes command control means which sets the demanded flow rate based on the maximum operation amount of the plurality of operating means detected by the maximum operation amount detecting means and calculates command values for the pump control means and the motor/generator control means according to the difference between the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation means and the demanded flow rate so that the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump equals the demanded flow rate.

    [0105] Next, the operation and effect of this embodiment will be explained below.

    [0106] When the operator returns a control lever being operated alone to the neutral position, the maximum pilot pressure Pp decreases, the corresponding directional control valve is returned from the switched position to the neutral position, and the demanded flow rate Qref decreases. Then, the positive control device 70 decreases the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 via the regulator 31 and decreases the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 via the bidirectional converter 28 so that the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30 equals the demanded flow rate Qref. In this case, the bidirectional converter 28 performs regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator 29 into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device 7. Therefore, the operating time of the mini-excavator can be increased through the charging of the electricity storage device 7.

    [0107] Further, in the positive control device 70 in this embodiment, the second lowpass filter section 51C performs the processing for removing the components changing above the frequency f2 on the difference ΔQ between the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30 and the demanded flow rate Qref before the motor/generator command calculation section 52C performs the calculation on the difference ΔQ. Since the frequency f2 is set relatively low, sensitivity (susceptibility) of the variable control of the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 to fluctuations in the demanded flow rate Qref can be reduced. Consequently, the hunting can be suppressed. Furthermore, in the positive control device 70 in this embodiment, the first lowpass filter section 49C performs the processing for removing the components changing above the frequency f1 on the difference ΔQ between the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30 and the demanded flow rate Qref before the pump command calculation section 50C performs the calculation on the difference ΔQ. Since the frequency f1 is set relatively high, sensitivity of the variable control of the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump 30 to fluctuations in the demanded flow rate Qref can be increased. Consequently, the delivery flow rate Q of the hydraulic pump 30 can be increased and decreased while sensitively responding to the fluctuations in the demanded flow rate Qref.

    [0108] Although not explained in the above fourth embodiment, it is also possible to provide an input device (unshown) allowing for inputting a proportionality factor for changing the operating speeds of the hydraulic actuators and to make the target value setting section of the positive control device correct the demanded flow rate Qref by multiplying it by the proportionality factor inputted from the input device. Also in such cases, effects equivalent to the aforementioned effects can be achieved.

    [0109] While the operating devices 37A, 37B, etc. of the hydraulic pilot type (each outputting pilot pressure corresponding to the operating position of the control lever) are employed as an example of the plurality of operating means in the explanation of the above first through fourth embodiments, the plurality of operating means are not restricted to the hydraulic pilot type. For example, operating devices of the electric lever type (each outputting an electric operation signal corresponding to the operating position of the control lever) may also be employed. When operating devices of the electric lever type are employed in the above fourth embodiment, a calculation section which selects and extracts a signal of the greatest operation amount from the electric operation signals outputted from the operating devices may be provided as the maximum operation amount detecting means. Also in such cases, effects equivalent to the aforementioned effects can be achieved.

    [0110] The bidirectional converter 28 is configured to be selectively operable in a first control mode for supplying the electric power from the electricity storage device 7 to the motor/generator 29 to drive the motor/generator 29 and in a second control mode for supplying the electric power from the external power supply to the electricity storage device 7 to charge the electricity storage device 7 and the regeneration control is performed when the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 is decreased in the first control mode in the explanation of the above first through fourth embodiments. However, the bidirectional converter 28 may be operated differently. Specifically, the bidirectional converter 28 may also be configured to be selectively operable in the aforementioned first control modes, in the aforementioned second control mode, in a third control mode for supplying the electric power from the external power supply to the motor/generator 29 to drive the motor/generator 29, and in a fourth control mode for supplying the electric power from the external power supply to the motor/generator 29 and the electricity storage device 7 to drive the motor/generator 29 while charging the electricity storage device 7, depending on the operation on a mode selection switch (unshown). When the revolution speed of the motor/generator 29 is decreased in the third or fourth control mode, the regeneration control may be performed while temporarily interrupting the supply of the electric power from the external power supply. Also in such cases, effects equivalent to the aforementioned effects can be achieved.

    [0111] While the above description has been given by taking a mini-excavator as an example of the target of application of the present invention, the present invention is applicable also to middle-size or large-size hydraulic excavators (operating mass ≥ 6 tons). Further, the present invention is applicable not only to hydraulic excavators but also to other types of construction machines such as hydraulic cranes.

    Description of Reference Characters



    [0112] 

    7 Electricity storage device

    13A Travel hydraulic motor

    13B Travel hydraulic motor

    15 Blade hydraulic cylinder

    17 Rotation hydraulic motor

    18 Swing hydraulic cylinder

    22 Boom hydraulic cylinder

    23 Arm hydraulic cylinder

    24 Bucket hydraulic cylinder

    28 Bidirectional converter (motor/generator control means, revolution speed acquisition means)

    29 Motor/generator

    30 Hydraulic pump

    31 Regulator (pump control means)

    33, 33A Boom directional control valve

    34, 34A Arm directional control valve

    35, 35A Boom pressure compensating valve

    36, 36A Arm pressure compensating valve

    37A Operating device (operating means)

    37B Operating device (operating means)

    40, 40A, 40B, 40C LS differential pressure detecting device (differential pressure detecting means)

    45, 45A Load sensing control device (command control means)

    48, 48A, 48B, 48C Subtraction section (subtraction means)

    49, 49A, 49B, 49C First lowpass filter section (first lowpass filter means)

    50, 50A, 50B, 50C Pump command calculation section (first command calculation means)

    51, 51A, 51B, 51C Second lowpass filter section (second lowpass filter means)

    52, 52A, 52B, 52C Motor/generator command calculation section (second command calculation means)

    58 Delivery pressure sensor (delivery pressure detecting means)

    59 Maximum load pressure sensor (maximum load pressure detecting means)

    62 Center bypass line

    63 Restrictor

    64 Control pressure sensor (control pressure detecting means)

    65 Tilting angle sensor (tilting angle detecting means)

    66 Negative control device (command control means)

    67 Delivery flow rate calculation section (delivery flow rate calculation means)

    69 Pilot pressure sensor (maximum operation amount detecting means)

    70 Positive control device (command control means)




    Claims

    1. An electric drive unit for a construction machine equipped with an electricity storage device (7), a motor/generator (29) which supplies and receives electric power to/from the electricity storage device (7), a hydraulic pump (30) of the variable displacement type which is driven by the motor/generator (29), a plurality of hydraulic actuators (22, 23), a plurality of operating means (37A, 37B) which command the operation of the hydraulic actuators (22, 23), and a plurality of directional control valves (33, 34; 33A, 34A) which respectively control the direction and the flow rate of hydraulic fluid supplied from the hydraulic pump (30) to the hydraulic actuators (22, 23) according to operating directions and operation amounts of the plurality of operating means (37A, 37B), comprising:

    pump control means (31) which performs variable control on the displacement volume of the hydraulic pump (30) ;

    motor/generator control means (28) which performs variable control on the revolution speed of the motor/generator (29); and

    command control means (45; 45A; 66; 70) which calculates command values for the pump control means (31) and the motor/generator control means (28) according to the change in a demanded flow rate determined based on operation command levels from the plurality of operating means (37A, 37B),

    wherein the motor/generator control means (28) performs regeneration control for converting inertial force of a rotor of the motor/generator (29) into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device (7) when the revolution speed of the motor/generator (29) is decreased in response to a decrease in the demanded flow rate.


     
    2. The electric drive unit for a construction machine according to claim 1, comprising:

    a plurality of pressure compensating valves (35, 36; 35A, 36A) which perform control so that differential pressure across each of the directional control valves (33, 34) equals load sensing differential pressure defined as differential pressure between delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump (30) and the maximum load pressure of the hydraulic actuators (22, 23); and

    differential pressure detecting means (40; 40A; 40B; 40C) which detects the load sensing differential pressure, wherein:

    the command control means (45) calculates the command values for the pump control means (31) and the motor/generator control means (28) according to the difference between the load sensing differential pressure detected by the differential pressure detecting means (40; 40A; 40B; 40C) and a preset target value so that the load sensing differential pressure equals the target value, and

    the motor/generator control means (28) performs the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator (29) into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device (7) when the revolution speed of the motor/generator (29) is decreased in response to an excess of the load sensing differential pressure over the target value.


     
    3. The electric drive unit for a construction machine according to claim 2, wherein the command control means (45) includes:

    subtraction means (48) which calculates the difference between the load sensing differential pressure detected by the differential pressure detecting means (40; 40A; 40B; 40C) and the preset target value;

    first lowpass filter means (49) which performs processing for removing components changing above a preset first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means (48);

    first command calculation means (50) which calculates the command value for the pump control means (31) according to the difference processed by the first lowpass filter means (49);

    second lowpass filter means (51) which performs processing for removing components changing above a second frequency preset to be lower than the first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means (48); and

    second command calculation means (52) which calculates the command value for the motor/generator control means (28) according to the difference processed by the second lowpass filter means (51).


     
    4. The electric drive unit for a construction machine according to claim 1, comprising:

    a plurality of pressure compensating valves (35A, 36A) which perform control so that differential pressure across each of the directional control valves (33, 34) equals load sensing differential pressure defined as differential pressure between delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump (30) and the maximum load pressure of the hydraulic actuators (22, 23);

    delivery pressure detecting means (58) which detects the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump (30); and

    maximum load pressure detecting means (59) which detects the maximum load pressure of the hydraulic actuators (22, 23), wherein:

    the command control means (45A) sets a target value for the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump (30) based on the maximum load pressure of the hydraulic actuators (22, 23) detected by the maximum load pressure detecting means (59) and calculates the command values for the pump control means (31) and the motor/generator control means (28) according to the difference between the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump (30) detected by the delivery pressure detecting means (58) and the target value so that the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump (30) equals the target value, and

    the motor/generator control means (28) performs the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator (29) into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device (7) when the revolution speed of the motor/generator (29) is decreased in response to an excess of the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump (30) over the target value.


     
    5. The electric drive unit for a construction machine according to claim 4, wherein the command control means (45A) includes:

    target value setting means (47A) which sets the target value for the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump (30) based on the maximum load pressure of the hydraulic actuators (22, 23) detected by the maximum load pressure detecting means (59);

    subtraction means (48A) which calculates the difference between the delivery pressure of the hydraulic pump (30) detected by the delivery pressure detecting means (58) and the target value set by the target value setting means (47A);

    first lowpass filter means (49A) which performs processing for removing components changing above a preset first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means (48A);

    first command calculation means (50A) which calculates the command value for the pump control means (31) according to the difference processed by the first lowpass filter means (49A);

    second lowpass filter means (51A) which performs processing for removing components changing above a second frequency preset to be lower than the first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means (48A); and

    second command calculation means (52A) which calculates the command value for the motor/generator control means (28) according to the difference processed by the second lowpass filter means (51A).


     
    6. The electric drive unit for a construction machine according to claim 1, wherein the directional control valves (33A, 34A) are valves of the open center type and the electric drive unit comprises:

    a restrictor (63) which is arranged in a downstream part of a center bypass line of the directional control valves (33A, 34A);

    control pressure detecting means (64) which detects pressure on the upstream side of the restrictor (63), changing according to the change in the control level of at least one of the directional control valves (33A, 34A) switched on the upstream side of the restrictor (63), as control pressure;

    tilting angle detecting means (65) which detects the tilting angle of the hydraulic pump (30);

    revolution speed acquisition means (28) which acquires the revolution speed of the motor/generator (29); and

    delivery flow rate calculation means (67) which calculates the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump (30) based on the tilting angle of the hydraulic pump (30) detected by the tilting angle detecting means (65) and the revolution speed of the motor/generator (29) acquired by the revolution speed acquisition means (28), wherein:

    the command control means (66) sets a target value for the control pressure based on the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump (30) calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation means (67) and calculates the command values for the pump control means (31) and the motor/generator control means (28) according to the difference between the control pressure detected by the control pressure detecting means (64) and the target value, and

    the motor/generator control means (28) performs the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator (29) into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device (7) when the revolution speed of the motor/generator (29) is decreased in response to an excess of the control pressure over the target value.


     
    7. The electric drive unit for a construction machine according to claim 6, wherein the command control means (66) includes:

    target value setting means (47B) which sets the target value for the control pressure based on the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump (30) calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation means (67);

    subtraction means (48B) which calculates the difference between the control pressure detected by the control pressure detecting means (64) and the target value set by the target value setting means (47B);

    first lowpass filter means (49B) which performs processing for removing components changing above a preset first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means (48B);

    first command calculation means (50B) which calculates the command value for the pump control means (31) according to the difference processed by the first lowpass filter means (49B);

    second lowpass filter means (51B) which performs processing for removing components changing above a second frequency preset to be lower than the first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means (48B); and

    second command calculation means (52B) which calculates the command value for the motor/generator control means (28) according to the difference processed by the second lowpass filter means (51B).


     
    8. The electric drive unit for a construction machine according to claim 1, comprising:

    maximum operation amount detecting means (69) which detects the maximum operation amount of the plurality of operating means (37A, 37B);

    tilting angle detecting means (65) which detects the tilting angle of the hydraulic pump (30);

    revolution speed acquisition means (28) which detects the revolution speed of the motor/generator (29); and

    delivery flow rate calculation means (67) which calculates the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump (30) based on the tilting angle of the hydraulic pump (30) detected by the tilting angle detecting means (65) and the revolution speed of the motor/generator (29) detected by the revolution speed acquisition means (28), wherein:

    the command control means (70) sets the demanded flow rate based on the maximum operation amount of the plurality of operating means (37A, 37B) detected by the maximum operation amount detecting means (69) and calculates the command values for the pump control means (31) and the motor/generator control means (28) according to the difference between the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump (30) calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation means (67) and the demanded flow rate so that the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump (30) equals the demanded flow rate, and

    the motor/generator control means (28) performs the regeneration control for converting the inertial force of the rotor of the motor/generator (29) into electric power and thereby charging the electricity storage device (7) when the revolution speed of the motor/generator (29) is decreased in response to an excess of the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump (30) over the demanded flow rate.


     
    9. The electric drive unit for a construction machine according to claim 8, wherein the command control means (70) includes:

    demanded flow rate setting means (47C) which sets the demanded flow rate based on the maximum operation amount of the plurality of operating means (37A, 37B) detected by the maximum operation amount detecting means (69);

    subtraction means (48C) which calculates the difference between the delivery flow rate of the hydraulic pump (30) calculated by the delivery flow rate calculation means (67) and the demanded flow rate set by the demanded flow rate setting means (47C);

    first lowpass filter means (49C) which performs processing for removing components changing above a preset first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means (48C);

    first command calculation means (50C) which calculates the command value for the pump control means (31) according to the difference processed by the first lowpass filter means (49C);

    second lowpass filter means (51C) which performs processing for removing components changing above a second frequency preset to be lower than the first frequency on the difference calculated by the subtraction means (48C); and

    second command calculation means (52C) which calculates the command value for the motor/generator control means (28) according to the difference processed by the second lowpass filter means (51C).


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Elektrische Antriebseinheit für eine Baumaschine mit einer elektrischen Speichervorrichtung (7), einem Motor/Generator (29), der elektrischen Strom an die elektrische Speichervorrichtung (7) liefert bzw. von dieser empfängt, einer hydraulischen Pumpe (30) vom Verstellpumpentyp, die durch den Motor/Generator (29) angetrieben wird, einer Mehrzahl hydraulischer Stellglieder (22, 23), einer Mehrzahl kraftbetriebener Betriebsmittel (37A, 37B), die den Betrieb der hydraulischen Stellglieder (22, 23) steuern, und einer Mehrzahl von Wegeventilen (33, 34; 33A, 34A), die jeweils die Richtung und die Durchflussrate von Hydraulikfluid steuern, das von der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) an die hydraulischen Stellglieder (22, 23) gemäß Betriebsanweisungen und dem Betriebsumfang der Mehrzahl von kraftbetriebenen Betriebsmitteln (37A, 37B) geliefert wird, wobei die elektrische Antriebseinheit aufweist:

    ein Pumpensteuerungsmittel (31), das eine Steuerung des Fördervolumens der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) steuert,

    ein Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28), das eine Steuerung der Drehzahl des Motors/Generators (29) ausführt, und

    ein Befehlssteuerungsmittel (45; 45A; 66, 70), welches Befehlswerte für das Pumpensteuerungsmittel (31) und für das Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) entsprechend der Änderung in einer geforderten Durchflussrate berechnet, die auf der Grundlage von Betriebssteuerungsebenen der Mehrzahl kraftbetriebener Betriebsmittel (37A, 37B) bestimmt wird,

    wobei das Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) eine Regenerationssteuerung betreibt, um die Trägheitskraft eines Rotors des Motors/Generators (29) in elektrischen Strom umzuwandeln und dadurch die elektrische Speichervorrichtung (7) zu laden, wenn die Drehzahl des Motors/Generators (29) in Reaktion auf ein Absinken der geforderten Strömungsrate gesunken ist.


     
    2. Elektrische Antriebseinheit für eine Baumaschine nach Anspruch 1 mit:

    einer Mehrzahl von Druckausgleichsventilen (35, 36; 35A, 36A), die eine Steuerung ausführen, derart, dass der Differenzdruck über jedem der Wegeventile (33, 34) gleich einem Lasterfassungsdifferenzdruck ist, der definiert ist als der Differenzdruck zwischen dem Förderdruck der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) und dem maximalen Lastdruck der hydraulischen Stellglieder (22, 23), und

    Differenzdruckerfassungsmitteln (40; 40A; 40B; 40C), die den Lasterfassungsdifferenzdruck erfassen, wobei:

    das Befehlssteuerungsmittel (45) die Befehlswerte für das Pumpensteuerungsmittel (31) und das Motor/ Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) gemäß der Differenz zwischen dem Lasterfassungsdifferenzdruck, der durch das Differenzdruckerfassungsmittel (40; 40A; 40B; 40C) erfasst wird, und einem vorfestgelegten Sollwert, derart berechnet, dass der Lasterfassungsdifferenzdruck gleich dem Sollwert ist, und

    das Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) die Regenerationssteuerung durchführt, um die Trägheitskraft des Rotors des Motors/Generators (29) in elektrischen Strom umzuwandeln und dadurch die elektrische Speichervorrichtung (7) zu laden, wenn die Drehzahl des Motors/Generators (29) in Reaktion auf einen Überschuss an Lasterfassungsdifferentialdruck über den Sollwert abgesenkt ist.


     
    3. Elektrische Antriebseinheit für eine Baumaschine nach Anspruch 2, wobei das Befehlssteuerungsmittel (45) aufweist:

    ein Subtraktionsmittel (48), welches die Differenz zwischen dem Lasterfassungsdifferenzdruck, der durch das Differenzdruckerfassungsmittel (40; 40A; 40B; 40C) erfasst wird, und dem vorfestgelegten Sollwert berechnet,

    einen ersten Tiefpassfilter (49), der eine Verarbeitung bei der durch das Subtraktionsmittel (48) berechneten Differenz ausführt zur Entfernung von Komponenten, die sich über einer vorfestgelegten ersten Frequenz ändern,

    ein erstes Befehlsberechnungsmittel (50), welches den Befehlswert für das Pumpensteuerungsmittel (31) gemäß der Differenz, die durch den ersten Tiefpassfilter (39) verarbeitet wurde, berechnet,

    einen zweiten Tiefpassfilter (51), der eine Verarbeitung bei der durch das Subtraktionsmittel (48) berechneten Differenz ausführt zur Entfernung von Komponenten, die sich über einer zweiten Frequenz, die kleiner als die erste Frequenz vorfestgelegt sein soll, ändern, und

    ein zweites Befehlsberechnungsmittel (52), welches den Befehlswert für das Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) gemäß der Differenz berechnet, die durch den zweiten Tiefpassfilter (51) verarbeitet wurde.


     
    4. Elektrische Antriebseinheit für eine Baumaschine nach Anspruch 1 mit:

    einer Mehrzahl von Druckausgleichsventilen (35A, 36A), die eine Steuerung ausführen, derart, dass der Differenzdruck über jedem der Wegeventile (33, 34) gleich einem Lasterfassungsdifferenzdruck ist, der definiert ist als der Differenzdruck zwischen dem Förderdruck der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) und dem maximalen Lastdruck der hydraulischen Stellglieder (22, 23),

    einem Förderdruckerfassungsmittel (58), das den Förderdruck der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) erfasst, und

    einem Mittel (59) zur Erfassung des maximalen Lastdrucks, welches den maximalen Lastdruck der hydraulischen Stellglieder (22, 23) erfasst, wobei:

    das Befehlssteuerungsmittel (45A) einen Sollwert für den Förderdruck der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) auf der Grundlage des maximalen Lastdrucks der hydraulischen Stellglieder (22, 23) festlegt, der durch das Mittel (59) zur Erfassung des maximalen Lastdrucks erfasst wird, und die Befehlswerte für die Pumpensteuerungsmittel (31) und das Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) gemäß der Differenz zwischen dem Förderdruck der hydraulischen Pumpe (30), der durch das Förderdruckerfassungsmittel (58) erfasst wird, und dem Sollwert berechnet, sodass der Förderdruck der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) gleich dem Sollwert ist, und

    das Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) die Regenerationssteuerung ausführt, um die Trägheitskraft des Rotors des Motors/Generators (29) in elektrischen Strom umzuwandeln und dadurch die elektrische Speichervorrichtung (7) zu laden, wenn die Drehzahl des Motors/Generators (29) in Reaktion auf einen Überschuss des Förderdrucks der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) über dem Sollwert abgesenkt ist.


     
    5. Elektrische Antriebseinheit für eine Baumaschine nach Anspruch 4, wobei das Befehlssteuerungsmittel (45A) umfasst:

    ein Sollwert-Festlegungsmittel (47A), welches den Sollwert für den Förderdruck der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) auf der Grundlage des maximalen Lastdrucks der hydraulischen Stellglieder (22, 23), der durch das Mittel (59) zur Erfassung des maximalen Lastdrucks erfasst wird, festlegt,

    ein Subtraktionsmittel (48A), welches die Differenz zwischen dem Förderdruck der hydraulischen Pumpe (30), der durch das Förderdruckerfassungsmittel (58) erfasst wird, und dem Sollwert, der durch das Sollwert-Festlegungsmittel (47A) festgelegt wird, berechnet,

    einen ersten Tiefpassfilter (49A), der eine Verarbeitung bei der durch das Subtraktionsmittel (48A) berechneten Differenz ausführt zur Entfernung von Komponenten, die sich über einer vorfestgelegten ersten Frequenz ändern,

    ein erstes Befehlsberechnungsmittel (50A), welches den Befehlswert für das Pumpensteuerungsmittel (31) gemäß der Differenz, die von dem ersten Tiefpassfilter (49A) verarbeitet wird, berechnet,

    einen zweiten Tiefpassfilter (51A), der eine Verarbeitung bei der durch das Subtraktionsmittel (48A) berechneten Differenz ausführt zur Entfernung von Komponenten, die sich über einer zweiten Frequenz, die kleiner als die erste Frequenz vorfestgelegt sein soll, ändern, und

    ein zweites Befehlsberechnungsmittel (52A), welches den Befehlswert für das Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) gemäß der Differenz, die von dem zweiten Tiefpassfilter (51A) verarbeitet wird, berechnet.


     
    6. Elektrische Antriebseinheit für eine Baumaschine nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Wegeventile (33A, 34A) Ventile mit offenem Zentrum sind, und die elektrische Antriebseinheit aufweist:

    eine Drossel (63), die in einem stromab gelegenen Teil einer Zentrumsumgehungsleitung der Wegeventile (33A, 34A) angeordnet ist,

    ein Steuerungsdruckerfassungsmittel (64), welches den Druck auf der stromauf gelegenen Seite der Drossel (63) als Steuerungsdruck erfasst, der sich gemäß der Änderung des Steuerungsniveaus mindestens eines der Wegeventile (33A, 34A), das auf der stromauf gelegenen Seite der Drossel (63) geschaltet wurde, ändert,

    ein Kippwinkelerfassungsmittel (65), welches den Kippwinkel der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) erfasst,

    ein Drehzahlerfassungsmittel (28), welches die Drehzahl des Motors/Generators (29) erfasst, und

    ein Förderströmungsratenberechnungsmittel (67), welches die Förderströmungsrate der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) auf der Grundlage des Kippwinkels der hydraulischen Pumpe (30), der durch das Kippwinkelerfassungsmittel (65) erfasst wurde, und der Drehzahl des Motors/Generators (29), die durch das Drehzahlerfassungsmittel (28) erfasst wurde, berechnet, wobei

    das Befehlssteuerungsmittel (66) einen Sollwert für den Steuerungsdruck festlegt auf der Grundlage der Förderströmungsrate der hydraulischen Pumpe (30), die durch das Förderströmungsratenberechnungsmittel (67) berechnet wurde, und die Befehlswerte für das Pumpensteuerungsmittel (31) und das Motor/ Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) gemäß der Differenz zwischen dem Steuerungsdruck, der von dem Steuerungsdruckerfassungsmittel (64) erfasst wurde, und dem Sollwert berechnet, und

    das Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) die Regenerationssteuerung ausführt, um die Trägheitskraft des Rotors des Motors/Generators (29) in elektrischen Strom umzuwandeln und dadurch die elektrische Steuerungsvorrichtung (7) zu laden, wenn die Drehzahl des Motors / Generators (29) in Reaktion auf einen Überschuss des Steuerungsdrucks über dem Sollwert abgesenkt ist.


     
    7. Elektrische Antriebseinheit für eine Baumaschine nach Anspruch 6, wobei das Befehlssteuerungsmittel (66) aufweist:

    ein Sollwert-Festlegungsmittel (47B), welches den Sollwert für den Steuerungsdruck auf der Grundlage der Förderströmungsrate der hydraulischen Pumpe (30), die durch das Förderströmungsratenberechnungsmittel (67) berechnet wird, festlegt,

    ein Subtraktionsmittel (48B), welches die Differenz zwischen dem Steuerungsdruck, der durch das Steuerungsdruckerfassungsmittel (64) erfasst wird, und dem Sollwert, der durch das Sollwert-Festlegungsmittel (47B) festgelegt wird, berechnet,

    einen ersten Tiefpassfilter (49B), der eine Verarbeitung bei der durch das Subtraktionsmittel (48B) berechneten Differenz ausführt zur Entfernung von Komponenten, die sich über einer vorfestgelegten ersten Frequenz ändern,

    ein erstes Befehlsberechnungsmittel (50B), welches den Befehlswert für das Pumpensteuerungsmittel (31) gemäß der Differenz, die von dem ersten Tiefpassfilter (49B) verarbeitet wurde, berechnet,

    einen zweiten Tiefpassfilter (51B), der eine Verarbeitung bei der durch das Subtraktionsmittel (48B) berechneten Differenz ausführt zur Entfernung von Komponenten, die sich über einer zweiten Frequenz, die kleiner als die erste Frequenz vorfestgelegt sein soll, ändern, und

    ein zweites Befehlsberechnungsmittel (52B), das den Befehlswert für das Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) gemäß der von dem zweiten Tiefpassfilter (51 B) verarbeiteten Differenz berechnet.


     
    8. Elektrische Antriebseinheit für eine Baumaschine nach Anspruch 1 mit:

    einem Mittel (69) zur Erfassung des maximalen Betriebsumfangs, welches den maximalen Betriebsumfang der Mehrzahl von kraftbetriebenen Betriebsmitteln (37A, 37B) umfasst,

    einem Kippwinkelerfassungsmittel (65), welches den Kippwinkel der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) erfasst,

    einem Drehzahlerfassungsmittel (28), welches die Drehzahl des Motors/Generators (29) erfasst, und

    einem Förderflussratenberechnungsmittel (67), welches die Förderflussrate der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) auf der Grundlage des Kippwinkels der hydraulischen Pumpe (30), der durch das Kippwinkelerfassungsmittel (65) erfasst wird, und der Drehzahl des Motors/Generators (29), die durch das Drehzahlerfassungsmittel (28) erfasst wird, berechnet, wobei:

    das Befehlssteuerungsmittel (70) die geforderte Strömungsrate auf der Grundlage des maximalen Betriebsumfangs der Mehrzahl von kraftbetriebenen Betriebsmitteln (37A, 37B), der durch das Mittel (69) zur Erfassung des maximalen Betriebsumfangs erfasst wird, festlegt und die Befehlswerte für das Pumpensteuerungsmittel (31) und das Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) gemäß der Differenz zwischen der Förderströmungsrate der hydraulischen Pumpe (30), die durch das Förderströmungsratenberechnungsmittel (67) berechnet wird, und der geförderten Strömungsrate berechnet, derart, dass die Förderströmungsrate der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) gleich der geforderten Strömungsrate ist, und

    das Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) die Regenerationssteuerung ausführt, um die Trägheitskraft des Rotors des Motor/Generators (29) in elektrischen Strom umzuwandeln und damit die elektrische Speichervorrichtung (7) zu laden, wenn die Drehzahl des Motors/Generators (29) in Reaktion auf einen Überschuss der Förderströmungsrate der hydraulischen Pumpe (30) über die geforderte Strömungsrate abgesenkt ist.


     
    9. Elektrische Antriebseinheit für eine Baumaschine nach Anspruch 8, wobei das Befehlssteuerungsmittel (70) umfasst:

    ein Mittel (47C) zur Festlegung der geforderten Strömungsrate, welches die geforderte Strömungsrate festlegt auf der Grundlage des maximalen Betriebsumfangs der Mehrzahl von kraftbetriebenen Betriebsmitteln (37A, 37B), der durch das Mittel (69) zur Erfassung des maximalen Betriebsumfangs erfasst wird,

    ein Subtraktionsmittel (48C), welches die Differenz zwischen der Förderströmungsrate der hydraulischen Pumpe (30), die durch das Förderströmungsratenberechnungsmittel (67) berechnet wird, und der geforderten Strömungsrate, die durch das Mittel (47C) zur Festlegung der geforderten Strömungsrate festgelegt wird, berechnet,

    einen ersten Tiefpassfilter (49C), der eine Verarbeitung bei der durch das Subtraktionsmittel (48C) berechneten Differenz ausführt zur Entfernung von Komponenten, die sich über einer vorfestgelegten ersten Frequenz ändern,

    ein erstes Befehlsberechnungsmittel (50C), welches den Befehlswert für das Pumpensteuerungsmittel (31) gemäß der Differenz, die von dem ersten Tiefpassfilter (49C) verarbeitet wurde, berechnet,

    einen zweiten Tiefpassfilter (51C), der eine Verarbeitung bei der durch das Subtraktionsmittel (48C) berechneten Differenz ausführt zur Entfernung von Komponenten, die sich über einer zweiten Frequenz, die kleiner als die erste Frequenz vorfestgelegt sein soll, ändern, und

    ein zweites Befehlsberechnungsmittel (52C), das den Befehlswert für das Motor/Generator-Steuerungsmittel (28) gemäß der Differenz, die von dem zweiten Tiefpassfilter (51 C) verarbeitet wird, berechnet.


     


    Revendications

    1. Unité d'entraînement électrique pour une machine de construction munie d'un dispositif de stockage d'électricité (7), d'un moteur/générateur (29) qui délivre et reçoit de l'énergie électrique vers/depuis le dispositif de stockage d'électricité (7), d'une pompe hydraulique (30) du type à déplacement variable qui est entraînée par le moteur/générateur (29), d'une pluralité d'actionneurs hydrauliques (22, 23), d'une pluralité de moyens d'actionnement (37A, 37B) qui commandent l'actionnement des actionneurs hydrauliques (22, 23), et d'une pluralité de soupapes de commande directionnelle (33, 34 ; 33A, 34A) qui commandent respectivement la direction et le débit du fluide hydraulique délivré depuis la pompe hydraulique (30) vers les actionneurs hydrauliques (22, 23) conformément aux directions d'actionnement et aux quantités d'actionnement de la pluralité de moyens d'actionnement (37A, 37B), comprenant :

    un moyen (31) de commande de pompe qui réalise une commande variable sur le volume de déplacement de la pompe hydraulique (30) ;

    un moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur qui réalise une commande variable sur la vitesse de rotation du moteur/générateur (29) ; et

    un moyen (45 ; 45A ; 66 ; 70) de commande d'instruction qui calcule des valeurs d'instruction pour le moyen (31) de commande de pompe et le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur conformément au changement de débit demandé déterminé sur la base des niveaux d'instruction d'actionnement provenant de la pluralité de moyens d'actionnement (37A, 37B),

    dans laquelle le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur réalise une commande de régénération destinée à convertir une force d'inertie d'un rotor du moteur/générateur (29) en énergie électrique et charger de ce fait le dispositif de stockage d'électricité (7) lorsque la vitesse de rotation du moteur/générateur (29) est diminuée en réponse à une diminution du débit demandé.


     
    2. Unité d'entraînement électrique pour une machine de construction selon la revendication 1, comprenant :

    une pluralité de soupapes de compensation de pression (35, 36 ; 35A, 36A) qui réalisent une commande de sorte qu'une pression différentielle à travers chacune des soupapes de commande directionnelle (33, 34) égale une pression différentielle de détection de charge définie comme pression différentielle entre la pression d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) et la pression de charge maximale des actionneurs hydrauliques (22, 23) ; et

    un moyen (40 ; 40A ; 40B ; 40C) de détection de pression différentielle qui détecte la pression différentielle de détection de charge, dans laquelle :

    le moyen (45) de commande d'instruction calcule les valeurs d'instruction pour le moyen (31) de commande de pompe et le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur conformément à la différence entre la pression différentielle de détection de charge détectée par le moyen (40 ; 40A ; 40B ; 40C) de détection de pression différentielle et une valeur cible préétablie de sorte que la pression différentielle de détection de charge égale la valeur cible, et

    le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur réalise la commande de régénération destinée à convertir la force d'inertie du rotor du moteur/générateur (29) en énergie électrique et charger de ce fait le dispositif de stockage d'électricité (7) lorsque la vitesse de rotation du moteur/générateur (29) est diminuée en réponse à un dépassement de la pression différentielle de détection de charge par rapport à la valeur cible.


     
    3. Unité d'entraînement électrique pour une machine de construction selon la revendication 2, dans laquelle le moyen (45) de commande d'instruction comprend :

    un moyen (48) de soustraction qui calcule la différence entre la pression différentielle de détection de charge détectée par le moyen (40 ; 40A ; 40B ; 40C) de détection de pression différentielle et la valeur cible préétablie ;

    un premier moyen (49) de filtre passe-bas qui réalise un traitement destiné à supprimer des composantes changeant au-dessus d'une première fréquence préétablie sur la différence calculée par le moyen (48) de soustraction ;

    un premier moyen (50) de calcul d'instruction qui calcule la valeur d'instruction pour le moyen (31) de commande de pompe conformément à la différence traitée par le premier moyen (49) de filtre passe-bas ;

    un deuxième moyen (51) de filtre passe-bas qui réalise un traitement destiné à supprimer des composantes changeant au-dessus d'une deuxième fréquence préétablie devant être inférieure à la première fréquence sur la différence calculée par le moyen (48) de soustraction ; et

    un deuxième moyen (52) de calcul d'instruction qui calcule la valeur d'instruction pour le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur conformément à la différence traitée par le deuxième moyen (51) de filtre passe-bas.


     
    4. Unité d'entraînement électrique pour une machine de construction selon la revendication 1, comprenant :

    une pluralité de soupapes de compensation de pression (35A, 36A) qui réalisent une commande de sorte qu'une pression différentielle à travers chacune des soupapes de commande directionnelle (33, 34) égale une pression différentielle de détection de charge définie comme pression différentielle entre la pression d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) et la pression de charge maximale des actionneurs hydrauliques (22, 23) ;

    un moyen (58) de détection de pression d'alimentation qui détecte la pression d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) ; et

    un moyen (59) de détection de pression de charge maximale qui détecte la pression de charge maximale des actionneurs hydrauliques (22, 23), dans laquelle :

    le moyen (45A) de commande d'instruction établit une valeur cible pour la pression d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) sur la base de la pression de charge maximale des actionneurs hydrauliques (22, 23) détectée par le moyen (59) de détection de pression de charge maximale et calcule les valeurs d'instruction pour le moyen (31) de commande de pompe et le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur conformément à la différence entre la pression d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) détectée par le moyen (58) de détection de pression d'alimentation et la valeur cible de sorte que la pression d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) égale la valeur cible, et

    le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur réalise la commande de régénération destinée à convertir la force d'inertie du rotor du moteur/générateur (29) en énergie électrique et charger de ce fait le dispositif de stockage d'électricité (7) lorsque la vitesse de rotation du moteur/générateur (29) est diminuée en réponse à un dépassement de la pression d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) par rapport à la valeur cible.


     
    5. Unité d'entraînement électrique pour une machine de construction selon la revendication 4, dans laquelle le moyen (45A) de commande d'instruction comprend :

    un moyen (47A) d'établissement de valeur cible qui établit la valeur cible pour la pression d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) sur la base de la pression de charge maximale des actionneurs hydrauliques (22, 23) détectée par le moyen (59) de détection de pression de charge maximale ;

    un moyen (48A) de soustraction qui calcule la différence entre la pression d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) détectée par le moyen (58) de détection de pression d'alimentation et la valeur cible établie par le moyen (47A) d'établissement de valeur cible ;

    un premier moyen (49A) de filtre passe-bas qui réalise un traitement destiné à supprimer les composantes changeant au-dessus d'une première fréquence préétablie sur la différence calculée par le moyen (48A) de soustraction ;

    un premier moyen (50A) de calcul d'instruction qui calcule la valeur d'instruction pour le moyen (31) de commande de pompe conformément à la différence traitée par le premier moyen (49A) de filtre passe-bas ;

    un deuxième moyen (51A) de filtre passe-bas qui réalise un traitement destiné à supprimer les composantes changeant au-dessus d'une deuxième fréquence préétablie devant être inférieure à la première fréquence sur la différence calculée par le moyen (48A) de soustraction ; et

    un deuxième moyen (52A) de calcul d'instruction qui calcule la valeur d'instruction pour le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur conformément à la différence traitée par le deuxième moyen (51A) de filtre passe-bas.


     
    6. Unité d'entraînement électrique pour une machine de construction selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle les soupapes de commande directionnelle (33A, 34A) sont des soupapes de type à centre ouvert et l'unité d'entraînement électrique comprend :

    un restricteur (63) qui est agencé dans une partie en aval d'une conduite de dérivation centrale des soupapes de commande directionnelle (33A, 34A) ;

    un moyen (64) de détection de pression de commande qui détecte la pression sur le côté amont du restricteur (63), changeant conformément au changement du niveau de commande d'au moins l'une des soupapes de commande directionnelle (33A, 34A) commuté sur le côté amont du réflecteur (63), en tant que pression de commande ;

    un moyen (65) de détection d'angle d'inclinaison qui détecte l'angle d'inclinaison de la pompe hydraulique (30) ;

    un moyen (28) d'acquisition de vitesse de rotation qui acquiert la vitesse de rotation du moteur/générateur (29) ; et

    un moyen (67) de calcul de débit d'alimentation qui calcule le débit d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) sur la base de l'angle d'inclinaison de la pompe hydraulique (30) détecté par le moyen (65) de détection d'angle d'inclinaison et de la vitesse de rotation du moteur/générateur (29) acquise par le moyen (28) d'acquisition de vitesse de rotation, dans lequel :

    le moyen (66) de commande d'instruction établit une valeur cible pour la pression de commande sur la base du débit d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) calculé par le moyen (67) de calcul de débit d'alimentation et calcule les valeurs d'instruction pour le moyen (31) de commande de pompe et le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur conformément à la différence entre la pression de commande détectée par le moyen (64) de détection de pression de commande et la valeur cible, et

    le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur réalise la commande de régénération destinée à convertir la force d'inertie du rotor du moteur/générateur (29) en énergie électrique et charger de ce fait le dispositif de stockage d'électricité (7) lorsque la vitesse de rotation du moteur/générateur (29) est diminuée en réponse à un dépassement de la pression de commande par rapport à la valeur cible.


     
    7. Unité d'entraînement électrique pour une machine de construction selon la revendication 6, dans laquelle le moyen (66) de commande d'instruction comprend :

    un moyen (47B) d'établissement de valeur cible qui établit la valeur cible pour la pression de commande sur la base du débit d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) calculé par le moyen (67) de calcul de débit d'alimentation ;

    un moyen (48B) de soustraction qui calcule la différence entre la pression de commande détectée par le moyen (64) de détection de pression de commande et la valeur cible établie par le moyen (47B) d'établissement de valeur cible ;

    un premier moyen (49B) de filtre passe-bas qui réalise un traitement destiné à supprimer les composantes changeant au-dessus d'une première fréquence préétablie sur la différence calculée par le moyen (48B) de soustraction ;

    un premier moyen (50B) de calcul d'instruction qui calcule la valeur d'instruction pour le moyen (31) de commande de pompe conformément à la différence traitée par le premier moyen (49B) de filtre passe-bas ;

    un deuxième moyen (51B) de filtre passe-bas qui réalise un traitement destiné à supprimer les composantes changeant au-dessus d'une deuxième fréquence préétablie devant être inférieure à la première fréquence sur la différence calculée par le moyen (48B) de soustraction ; et

    un deuxième moyen (52B) de calcul d'instruction qui calcule la valeur d'instruction pour le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur conformément à la différence traitée par le deuxième moyen (51B) de filtre passe-bas.


     
    8. Unité d'entraînement électrique pour une machine de construction selon la revendication 1, comprenant :

    un moyen (69) de détection de quantité d'actionnement maximale qui détecte la quantité d'actionnement maximale de la pluralité de moyens d'actionnement (37A, 37B) ;

    un moyen (65) de détection d'angle d'inclinaison qui détecte l'angle d'inclinaison de la pompe hydraulique (30) ;

    un moyen (28) d'acquisition de vitesse de rotation qui détecte la vitesse de rotation du moteur/générateur (29) ; et

    un moyen (67) de calcul de débit d'alimentation qui calcule le débit d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) sur la base de l'angle d'inclinaison de la pompe hydraulique (30) détecté par le moyen (65) de détection d'angle d'inclinaison et de la vitesse de rotation du moteur/générateur (29) détectée par le moyen (28) d'acquisition de vitesse de rotation, dans lequel :

    le moyen (70) de commande d'instruction établit le débit demandé sur la base de la quantité d'actionnement maximale de la pluralité de moyens d'actionnement (37A, 37B) détectée par le moyen (69) de détection de quantité d'actionnement maximale et calcule les valeurs d'instruction pour le moyen (31) de commande de pompe et le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur conformément à la différence entre le débit d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) calculé par le moyen (67) de calcul de débit d'alimentation et le débit demandé de sorte que le débit d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) égale le débit demandé, et

    le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur réalise la commande de régénération destinée à convertir la force d'inertie du rotor du moteur/générateur (29) en énergie électrique et charger de ce fait un dispositif de stockage d'électricité (7) lorsque la vitesse de rotation du moteur/générateur (29) est diminuée en réponse à un dépassement du débit d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) par rapport au débit demandé.


     
    9. Unité d'entraînement électrique pour une machine de construction selon la revendication 8, dans laquelle le moyen (70) de commande d'instruction comprend :

    un moyen (47C) d'établissement de débit demandé qui établit le débit demandé sur la base de la quantité d'actionnement maximale de la pluralité de moyens d'actionnement (37A, 37B) détectée par le moyen (69) de détection de quantité d'actionnement maximale ;

    un moyen (48C) de soustraction qui calcule la différence entre le débit d'alimentation de la pompe hydraulique (30) calculé par le moyen (67) de calcul de débit d'alimentation et le débit demandé établi par le moyen (47C) d'établissement de débit demandé ;

    un premier moyen (49C) de filtre passe-bas qui réalise un traitement destiné à supprimer les composantes changeant au-dessus d'une première fréquence préétablie sur la différence calculée par le moyen (48C) de soustraction ;

    un premier moyen (50C) de calcul d'instruction qui calcule la valeur d'instruction pour le moyen (31) de commande de pompe conformément à la différence traitée par le premier moyen (49C) de filtre passe-bas ;

    un deuxième moyen (51C) de filtre passe-bas qui réalise un traitement destiné à supprimer les composantes changeant au-dessus d'une deuxième fréquence préétablie devant être inférieure à la première fréquence sur la différence calculée par le moyen (48C) de soustraction ; et

    un deuxième moyen (52C) de calcul d'instruction qui calcule la valeur d'instruction pour le moyen (28) de commande de moteur/générateur conformément à la différence traitée par le deuxième moyen (51C) de filtre passe-bas.


     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description