(19)
(11)EP 2 719 855 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
22.07.2015 Bulletin 2015/30

(21)Application number: 12188445.6

(22)Date of filing:  12.10.2012
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
E06B 11/08(2006.01)
G07C 9/02(2006.01)
E05F 15/50(2015.01)

(54)

Control assembly for controlling the rotation of a turnstile

Steuerungsanordnung zum Steuern der Drehung eines Drehkreuzes

Ensemble de commande pour commander la rotation d'un tourniquet


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(43)Date of publication of application:
16.04.2014 Bulletin 2014/16

(73)Proprietor: Locinox
8790 Waregem (BE)

(72)Inventor:
  • Talpe, Joseph
    8551 Heestert-Zwevegem (BE)

(74)Representative: Van Reet, Joseph et al
Gevers Patents Holidaystraat 5
1831 Diegem
1831 Diegem (BE)


(56)References cited: : 
NL-C- 5 076
US-A- 5 072 543
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention relates to a control assembly for controlling the rotation of a turnstile comprising a rotary shaft with barrier arms spaced over an angle of x° from one another, which control assembly comprises:
    • a frame;
    • a hub on which the turnstile is adapted to rotate and which is rotatably mounted onto said frame;
    • a torque-restoring mechanism defining 360/x home positions of said turnstile and restoring torque, which has been exerted onto the turnstile during substantially a first half of a part-rotational movement of the turnstile from one of said home positions to a next home position, during substantially a second half of said part-rotational movement so as to assist the rotation of the turnstile to said next home position; and
    • a hydraulic damper for damping the movement of the said turnstile during the second half of said part-rotational movement, which damper comprises a cylinder-piston mechanism which contains a hydraulic fluid.


    [0002] Turnstiles are used for controlling and/or monitoring passage of people between two distinct areas as in, for example, entrance and/or exit areas into, out or within various facilities such as garden centres, factory sites, sport fields, etc. Turnstiles may either be so-called full-height turnstiles, forming a rotary gate, or waist-height turnstiles. Full-height turnstiles usually comprise a cage-like structure including a vertically disposed pivot column having a number of vertically aligned series of barrier arms extending radially outwardly from the pivot column. In practice they usually contain three series of barrier arms but a larger number is also possible. To allow people to pass the rotary gate, this gate rotates over 120° in case the rotary gate comprises three series of barrier arms. Waist-height turnstiles often contain only three barrier arms which are mounted on an inclined rotary shaft. The barrier arms are also mounted in an inclined position onto the rotary shaft so that, in the home positions, the upper barrier arm is substantially horizontal whilst the other barrier arms are directed downwards. Such turnstiles are used for example at the entry of warehouses, tube stations, etc.

    [0003] Turnstiles are provided with a control assembly for controlling the rotation of the turnstile. This control assembly usually comprises a ratchet mechanism for controlling the general direction of allowable rotation of the turnstile. Such ratchet mechanism may comprise one or two locking pawls. In the case of two locking pawls, a first one is intended to prevent rotation of the turnstile in one direction whilst the second one is intended to prevent rotation of the turnstile in the other direction. Both locking pawls can be brought either in a locking or an unlocking position. When they are both in their locking position, the turnstile is locked so that nobody can pass. When one locking pawl is in its unlocking position whilst the second locking pawl is in its locking position the turnstile can rotate in one direction, but not in the other direction, depending on which locking pawl is locked or unlocked. Locking or unlocking of these locking pawls can be done when mounting the control assembly on the turnstile but usually an access control mechanism is provided, for example a card, key or code operated access control mechanism enabling to lock or unlock the turnstile, or to enable people to pass in one particular direction.

    [0004] When the turnstile is rotated between two of its home positions, it has first to be rotated manually over the first half of this part-rotational movement. During the second half of this part-rotational movement the rotation of the turnstile is assisted, or even carried out completely, by the torque-restoring mechanism, in particular by the energy stored in the resilient element or elements of this torque-restoring mechanism. The hydraulic damper is required to damp the movement of the turnstile when it is rotated by the torque-restoring mechanism so that the turnstile will not move at an excessive speed so as to strike the persons going through the turnstile in the back and perhaps injure them.

    [0005] A problem of such turnstiles is that the torque-restoring mechanism and the hydraulic damper should co-operate in such a manner that when the torque-restoring mechanism starts to rotate the turnstile (at the beginning of the second half of the part-rotational movement between two home positions), rotation of the turnstile should initially only be minimally damped to maintain or increase the rotational speed of the turnstile whilst at the end of the part-rotational movement the hydraulic damper should provide the greatest damping force to slow down the turnstile sufficiently in order to stop in the next home position. Such turnstiles control assemblies were disclosed in NL 5076C.

    [0006] US 3 445 962 discloses a waist-height turnstile which comprises three barrier arms rotating about a horizontal axis. It comprises a torque-restoring mechanism and a hydraulic damper formed by a cylinder-piston mechanism. The torque-restoring mechanism comprises a rotating cam member with three rollers (forming a triangle) which alternately displace a cam follower against the action of a resilient element (springs). The cam follower is directly connected to the cylinder of a hydraulic cylinder-piston damper mechanism so that this cylinder reciprocates together with the cam follower. Since the bearing surface of the cam follower is a straight surface, only a relatively small torque is exerted onto the rotating cam member when the torque-restoring mechanism starts to move the turnstile. To avoid damping of the turnstile rotation during that phase, the cylinder of the hydraulic damper has at the beginning of the returning stroke of the piston a larger diameter. Also at the end of this returning stroke the hydraulic cylinder has a larger diameter so that the final phase of the rotation is not damped as during that phase the springs have nearly returned to their unstretched position.

    [0007] An important drawback of the turnstile mechanism disclosed in US 3 445 962 is that the damper cylinder is moved up and down according to a translational movement by the cam follower of the torque-restoring mechanism so that the piston rod slides in and out off the cylinder-piston mechanism. As such a sliding piston needs to be wetted constantly with hydraulic oil, the use of such a sliding piston causes a loss of hydraulic oil which reduces the lifetime of the turnstile mechanism. In practice, turnstile mechanisms should however be maintenance free and should certainly not require a filling up of hydraulic liquid.

    [0008] Another turnstile mechanism is disclosed in US 3 602 350. In the turnstile mechanism illustrated in the drawings of this US patent the hydraulic damper is a rotary damper so that losses of hydraulic oil can be prevented more easily. However, a rotary damper is more complex and less easy to produce than a cylinder-piston mechanism. The rotor and the cooperating inner part of the housing should indeed be produced with very small tolerances in order to avoid an uncontrolled flow of hydraulic fluid between the housing and the rotor. Moreover, since turnstiles are often used outdoors, compensation of the effect of temperature variations on the viscosity of the hydraulic fluid are difficult to compensate in rotary dampers so that they often do not function optimally unless they are regularly adjusted.

    [0009] A further drawback of the turnstile mechanism disclosed in US 3 602 350 is that the rotary damper is actuated by means of a roller which is urged against a three-lobed camlike formation mounted for rotation on the hub of the turnstile. The spring used for urging this roller against the cam surface has to be sufficiently strong to avoid interruptions in the damping effect. However, this spring counteracts the torque-restoring mechanism so that the spring of this mechanism has to be made heavier and so that consequently a still larger torque has to be exerted initially onto the turnstile by the person going through that turnstile.

    [0010] With respect to the rotary damper, US 3 602 350 also proposes to replace the rotary damper illustrated in the figures by a double acting ram which is actuated positively in both senses, for example by a groove cam and captive cam-follower. Such a double acting ram, which is a kind of a cylinder-piston mechanism, has however the same disadvantages as the cylinder-piston mechanism disclosed in US 3 445 962. The piston rod sliding in and out off the double acting ram cylinder-piston mechanism causes indeed also a loss of hydraulic fluid.

    [0011] The cam used to actuate the double acting ram will be of a similar size as the three-lobed camlike formation provided for actuating the rotary damper. As each lobe has to move the piston of the double acting ram over two complete successive strokes, and each lobe has to be shaped to achieve the required variation in damping force, the camlike formation is quite large. As a result thereof, this camlike formation will always be situated outside the cylinder-piston mechanism so that a sliding movement of the piston rod in and out off this cylinder-piston mechanism cannot be avoided.

    [0012] An object of the present invention is therefore to provide a new control assembly for a turnstile which contains a cylinder-piston mechanism with a translating piston for damping the movement of the turnstile and wherein the translational motion of the piston can easily be generated within the cylinder-piston mechanism, i.e. by a relatively compact motion converting mechanism, so that no piston rod sliding in and out off the cylinder-piston mechanism is required, or wherein in other words any loss of hydraulic fluid out off the hydraulic cylinder-piston mechanism can be prevented.

    [0013] To this end, the cylinder-piston mechanism of the hydraulic damper of the control assembly according to the present invention is a double cylinder-piston mechanism which comprises a first piston reciprocating in a first cylinder and defining with the first cylinder a first cylinder cavity having a maximum size at the beginning of a first stroke of the first piston, a minimum size at the end of this first stroke and a maximum size at the end of a subsequent second stroke of the first piston, the second piston being coupled to the first piston to reciprocate simultaneously with the first piston so that said second cylinder cavity has a minimum size at the beginning of said first stroke of the first piston, a maximum size at the end of said first stroke and a minimum size at the end of said subsequent second stroke of the first piston. The first and second pistons are operatively connected to said hub via a motion converting transmission converting the part-rotational movement of the turnstile over x° between two successive home positions into a reciprocating motion of the first piston starting substantially in the middle of one of said first and said second strokes and ending substantially in the middle of the other one of said first and second strokes. The first cylinder cavity has a first inlet which is provided with a first one-way valve allowing flow of hydraulic fluid into the first cylinder cavity during said second stroke of the first piston and the second cylinder cavity has a second inlet which is provided with a second one-way valve allowing flow of hydraulic fluid into the second cylinder cavity during said first stroke of the first piston so that during said first stroke the rotational motion of the turnstile is mainly damped by the first piston whilst during said second stroke this rotational motion is mainly damped by the second piston. The first cylinder has a first damping outlet allowing a restricted flow of hydraulic fluid out off the first cylinder cavity at least during a first part of said first stroke of the first piston whilst the second cylinder has a second damping outlet allowing a restricted flow of hydraulic fluid out off the second cylinder cavity at least during a first part of said second stroke of the first piston. The first cylinder is provided with a first by-pass channel having an inlet and an outlet ending both in said first cylinder cavity at the beginning of said first stroke of the first piston, the first by-pass channel allowing flow of hydraulic fluid out off the first cylinder cavity when the first piston has passed the outlet of the first by-pass channel during a second part of said first stroke of the first piston. The second cylinder is provided with a second by-pass channel having an inlet and an outlet ending both in said second cylinder cavity at the beginning of said second stroke of the first piston, the second by-pass channel allowing flow of hydraulic fluid out off the second cylinder cavity when the second piston has passed the outlet of the second by-pass channel during a second part of said second stroke of the first piston.

    [0014] The hydraulic damper comprises two pistons defining two cylinder cavities. The two pistons are coupled to move simultaneously in such a manner that when the first cylinder cavity becomes smaller, the second cylinder cavity becomes larger and vice versa. Due to the presence of the first and second inlets in both cylinder cavities, and the one-way valves provided therein, the two pistons function successively to damp the rotational motion of the turnstile. Each piston more particularly damps this rotational motion when it moves to reduce the size of the respective cylinder cavity or in other words when it pressurizes the hydraulic fluid contained in the cylinder cavity. In a first phase, starting from the middle of the first or second stroke, hydraulic fluid can flow out off the cylinder cavity through the by-pass channel when the piston has passed the outlet opening thereof so that the rotational motion of the turnstile is not damped (or to a much smaller extent which is also to be understood in the present specification under the wording "not damped"). In a second phase, when the piston performs the first half of its next stroke, the hydraulic fluid is expelled out off the cylinder cavity through the damping outlet which only allows a restricted flow of hydraulic fluid out of the cylinder cavity so that the rotational motion of the turnstile is damped. During the part-rotational movement of the turnstile between two successive home positions, the control assembly of the present invention first doesn't damp the rotational motion of the turnstile (when the pistons move from their middlemost (home) position to their outermost positions) but subsequently damps this rotational motion (when the pistons return to their middlemost positions). The same succession of damping and not-damping effects are achieved independent of the direction wherein the pistons start to move, i.e. independent of the rotation direction of the turnstile.

    [0015] An important advantage of the double cylinder-piston mechanism providing such a succession of damping and non damping phases is that the pistons can be actuated by means of a simple motion converting mechanism, in particular with a simple rotating camshaft or crankshaft which causes the two pistons to perform two half strokes when it rotates over 180°. An advantage of the hydraulic damper of the present invention is indeed that, even when the connection between the cam or crank and the piston rod makes a simple circular movement, the damping force is initially very small and gradually increases towards the end of the damping phase. No special cam profile has thus to be provided (in contrast to the three-lobed cam profile used in US 3 602 350 or the three rollers of US 3 445 962) so that a compact cam or crank mechanism can be provided within the cylinder-piston mechanism. It is thus no longer necessary to provide a piston rod sliding in and out off the cylinder-piston mechanism. Instead, a simple rotating shaft can be used to enter the cylinder-piston mechanism, which can in particular be done through an opening in the upper side of the cylinder-piston mechanism so that no hydraulic fluid can leak out off the cylinder-piston mechanism. Moreover, the damping action is identical in both rotation directions so that the turnstile can be used in both directions. When using a cylinder-piston mechanism with only one single piston in combination with such a simple cam or crank mechanism wherein the connection between the cam or crank and the piston rod performs a circular movement, the required damping properties would on the contrary not be achieved since the damping effect would first increase to a maximum and would subsequently decrease again to a minimum. Consequently, when the turnstile needs to rotate at its maximum speed it would be maximally damped whilst when it reaches its end or home position, it would be minimally damped so that it will not be stopped efficiently.

    [0016] In an advantageous embodiment of the control assembly according to the present invention, the motion converting transmission comprises a rotating shaft entering the cylinder-piston mechanism, in particular through an opening in an upper side thereof, and a motion converting mechanism between said rotating shaft and said first and second pistons which is contained in said cylinder-piston mechanism and which converts a rotational motion of said rotating shaft into a translational motion of said first and second pistons.

    [0017] The motion converting mechanism may be a cam mechanism, said rotating shaft being a camshaft comprising at least one cam and actuating said first and second pistons through the intermediary of at least one piston rod, said cam comprising preferably a projection travelling in a transverse groove in the piston rod. The motion converting mechanism may also be a crank mechanism, said rotating shaft being a crankshaft comprising at least one crank which is connected by means of at least one piston rod to said first and second pistons.

    [0018] To actuate the rotating shaft, the motion converting transmission comprises a gearing between said rotating shaft and said hub, which gearing is a multiplying gearing so that a rotation of said turnstile over x° causes a rotation of said rotating shaft over 180°, said multiplying gearing comprising preferably a gear wheel mounted onto said rotating shaft and a further gear wheel mounted onto said hub and engaging said gear wheel, the ratio of the number of teeth on said gear wheel to the number of teeth on said further gear wheel being equal to x/180.

    [0019] Just like the cam or crank mechanism, such a gearing provides also a reliable and constant coupling between the rotating shaft and the hub so that the turnstile is always correctly and reliably damped. Moreover, no additional springs are needed to urge any cam followers against the cam, as it is the case in US 3 602 350, so that the energy stored in the resilient element(s) of the torque-restoring mechanism is efficiently used for rotating the turnstile and in particular not for tensioning the spring or springs of the hydraulic damper again.

    [0020] In a preferred embodiment of the control assembly according to the present invention, the outlets of the first and the second by-pass channel are provided in such locations in said first and second cylinders that said first piston passes the outlet of said first by-pass channel, and said second piston the outlet of said second by-pass channel, only after the turnstile has been rotated to have passed one of said home positions by at least 1°, preferably by at least 2° and more preferably by at least 3°, but preferably before the turnstile has been rotated to have passed said home position by less than 15° and preferably by less than 10°.

    [0021] An advantage of this embodiment is that the turnstile is not only maximally damped just before reaching its end (home) position but that it is also maximally damped a few degrees after this end position. When the turnstile passes its end position due to its inertia, especially when it has been forced to rotate at a too high speed, it is quickly and effectively stopped by the hydraulic damper oscillating a few times about its end position.

    [0022] The present invention also relates to a turnstile which comprises a rotary shaft with barrier arms spaced over an angle of x° from one another and which is provided with a control assembly according to the present invention.

    [0023] Other particularities and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description of some particular embodiments of the turnstile and of the control assembly for controlling the rotation thereof in accordance with the present invention. The reference numerals used in this description relate to the annexed drawings wherein:

    Figure 1 is a perspective view on the main parts of a full-height turnstile and of the control assembly thereof according to a first embodiment of the invention;

    Figure 2 is an enlarged view of the top portion of the turnstile and of the control assembly thereof shown in Figure 1;

    Figure 3 is a same view as Figure 2 but showing the control assembly having some parts removed therefrom;

    Figure 4 is a top plan view on the turnstile and control mechanism shown in Figure 1 and further on the fixed cage and wall positioned next to the turnstile;

    Figure 5 is an exploded view of the control assembly illustrated partially in the previous figures;

    Figure 6 is, on a somewhat larger scale, an exploded view of the main parts of the control assembly shown in Figure 5;

    Figure 7 is, on a still larger scale, a perspective view on the hydraulic damper of the control mechanism with the cover removed;

    Figure 8 is an exploded view on the components of this hydraulic damper;

    Figures 9 to 16 are longitudinal sectional views, in a vertical direction, through the hydraulic damper of the control assembly illustrated in the previous figures in different angular positions, illustrated schematically in these figures, of the turnstile;

    Figure 17 is a longitudinal sectional view, in a horizontal direction, through the hydraulic damper onto which two different positions of the pistons are shown schematically, for two different angular positions of the turnstile;

    Figure 18 is a side elevational view on a waist-height turnstile provided with a same control assembly as illustrated in the previous figures but adapted to the inclined orientation of the rotary shaft of the turnstile and of the control assembly itself; and

    Figure 19 is a perspective view from above on the turnstile and the control assembly shown in Figure 18.



    [0024] In the figures two different types of turnstiles are illustrated namely a full-height turnstile in Figures 1 to 4 and a waist-height turnstile in Figures 18 and 19. Both types of turnstiles comprise a rotary shaft 1 which is a vertical shaft in the full-height turnstile and which is inclined, in particular over an angle of about 45°, in the waist-height turnstile.

    [0025] In the full-height turnstile illustrated in Figures 1 to 4 the vertical rotary shaft 1 is provided with three vertical series of barrier arms 2 which are spaced over an angle of 120° from one another. This turnstile co-operates with a cylindrically curved wall 3 (only illustrated in Figure 4), extending over about 120° around the turnstile to form a passage way. Opposite the curved wall 3 is a fixed wall 4, comprising horizontal arms 5 extending radially towards the rotary shaft 1 of the turnstile and preventing passage of persons on that side of the turnstile. The barrier arms 2 are usually spaced over an angle of 120° but smaller angles are also possible when the turnstile comprises more (series of) barriers arms, for example 90° for four (series of) barrier arms.

    [0026] The turnstile is provided with a control assembly 6 for controlling the rotation thereof. This control assembly 6 comprises a plate-like frame 7 and a hub 8 which is rotatably mounted onto this frame 7, more particularly through the intermediary of two ball bearings 9. As can be seen in Figure 5 the hub 8 is caught between the base plate of the frame 8 and a top plate 10 fixed by means of substantially cylindrical distance holders 11 and bolts 12 to the base plate of the frame 7. The hub 8 is arranged to be secured fast to the rotary shaft 1 of the turnstile so that the turnstile can rotate on this hub 8.

    [0027] The control assembly 6 further comprises a torque-restoring mechanism 13 defining three home positions of the turnstile (in general the number of home positions is equal to the number of (series of) barrier arms 2). The torque-restoring mechanism 13 comprises a rotating cam member 14 which is operatively secured to the hub 8 and a cam follower 15 which cooperates with the cam member to define the home positions of the turnstile. The rotating cam member 14 consists of a plate-like element 16 fixed to the hub 8 and provided on its upper surface with three rollers 17, forming the corners of a triangle and having rotation axes which are parallel to the rotation axis of the hub 8. The cam follower 15 comprises a straight contact surface 18 which is arranged to cooperate with the three rollers 17 and which is pivoted on a pivot 19 that extends at right angles to the rotation axis of the hub 8. Resilient means, more particularly two compression springs 20, urge the straight contact surface 18 of the cam follower 15 against the rollers 17 of the cam member 14. Due to the fact that these rollers 17 form a triangle and that the cam follower 15 is arranged to be urged against two adjacent rollers 17 of the cam member 14, this cam member 14 and the cam follower define the home positions of the turnstile, the number of rollers on the cam member being indeed equal to the number of (series of) barrier arms 2 on the turnstile. Moreover, the springs 20 generally bias the turnstile to one of its home positions so that during a first half of each part-rotational movement of the turnstile from one of its home positions to a next one of its home positions the torque exerted by the person passing through the turnstile onto the arms thereof compresses the compression springs 20 so that an amount of potential energy is stored in the torque-restoring mechanism 13. During the second half of the part-rotational moment of the turnstile, the compression springs 20 are extended again and exert a pushing force onto the roller 17 rolling over the contact surface 18 of the cam follower 15 thereby exerting a torque onto the cam member 14 and the turnstile connected thereto. In this way, the potential energy stored in the springs is at least partially converted into kinetic energy of the turnstile. The torque which has been exerted onto the turnstile during the first half of the part-rotational movement is thus at least partially restored to the turnstile to assist the rotation of the turnstile to its next home position.

    [0028] The control assembly of a turnstile in general comprises a ratchet mechanism for controlling the general direction of allowable rotation of the turnstile. In the control assembly illustrated in the drawings the ratchet mechanism comprises a rotating notched circular member, in this case the plate-like element 16 of the torque-restoring mechanism 13, which is operatively connected to the hub 8 and two locking pawls 21, 22 which are each movable between a locking and an unlocking position. When it is in its locking position, the first locking pawl 21 enables rotation of the turnstile in a first direction (clockwise direction in Figure 5) but locks the turnstile for rotation in the other direction. When it is in its locking position, the second locking pawl 22 enables rotation of the turnstile in a second direction (counter-clockwise direction in Figure 5), which is opposite to the first direction, but locks the turnstile for rotation in this first direction (clockwise direction).

    [0029] The control assembly may comprise only one locking pawl to enable a free passage in one direction but to prevent a passage in the other direction. The control assembly however preferably comprises an access control mechanism 23. In the case of only one locking pawl, this could be a key operated mechanism enabling to unlock the locking pawl to enable to pass the turnstile in both directions.

    [0030] In the control assembly illustrated in Figure 5 the access control mechanism 23 comprises a first electromagnet 24 for moving the first locking pawl 21 from its locking to its unlocking position and a second electromagnet 25 for moving the second locking pawl 21 from its locking to its unlocking position. When none of the electromagnets 24 and 25 are actuated, both locking pawls 21 and 22 are locking the turnstile so that, as shown in Figure 5, the turnstile is completely locked. The electromagnets 24 and 25 can preferably be actuated by means of a key, card or code mechanisms on the two sides of the turnstile, the first electromagnet 24 being operable from one side of the turnstile whilst the second electromagnet 25 can be operated from the other side of the turnstile. In an alternative fail-safe arrangement, the locking pawls can be brought in their locking position by means of the electromagnets against the action of a spring so that the turnstile is unlocked in case of a power failure.

    [0031] An essential feature of the control assembly of the present invention is the hydraulic damper 26 which is used to damp the movement of the turnstile when it is moved by the torque-restoring mechanism 13 during the second half of the part-rotational movement between two successive home positions.

    [0032] Turning to Figures 7 and 8, the hydraulic damper 26 comprises a double cylinder-piston mechanism formed by a first piston 27 reciprocating in a first cylinder 28 and a second piston 29 reciprocating in a second cylinder 30. The first piston 27 is directly connected by means of a piston rod 31 to the second piston 29 so that both pistons reciprocate simultaneously. The two cylinders 28 and 30 are separate parts having a cylindrical hole which is closed off, on the outside, by means of a cover plate 32 but which is open, on the inside, so that the piston 27 or 29 can be slid in the cylinder. Within the first cylinder 28 the first piston 27 defines with the first cylinder 28 a first cylinder cavity 32 whilst within the second cylinder 30 the second piston 29 defines together with the second cylinder 30 a second cylinder cavity 33.

    [0033] The two cylinders slid on the two pistons are applied as a whole in an elongated box 35 which is filled with hydraulic fluid (oil). The box 35 doesn't show openings so that no fluid can seep out off this box. At the top, the box 35 is closed off by means of a lid 36 screwed onto the box 35 by means of screws 37. The two cylinders 28 and 30 are fixed into the box 35 by being screwed, by means of screws 38, with their upper faces against the bottom side of the lid 36.

    [0034] In the upper face of the first cylinder 28 a first by-pass channel 39 having at its extremities respectively an inlet 40 and an outlet 41 giving both access to the first cylinder cavity 32 is made near the closed off extremity of the first cylinder 28. In the same way, a second by-pass channel 42, having at its extremities respectively an inlet 43 and an outlet 44 giving both access to the second cylinder cavity 33 is made in the upper face of the second cylinder 30 near the closed off extremity thereof. Moreover, a first damping channel 45, connected via a first inlet 46 to the first cylinder cavity 32 is additionally made in the upper face of the first cylinder 28 whilst a second damping channel 47, connected via a second inlet 48 to the second cylinder cavity 33 is additionally made in the upper face of the second cylinder 30. In contrast to the first and second by-pass channels 39 and 42, the first and second damping channels 45 and 47 both end in the box 35 itself instead of in the cylinder cavities. Consequently, when the hydraulic fluid is pressurized by means of the pistons in the cylinder cavities, it can always be expelled out of the cylinder cavities through the inlets 46 and 48 of the damping channels 45 and 47, which are provided near the side of the cylinder cavities which are closed off by the cover plates 34.

    [0035] The damping channels 45 and 47 form damping outlets which only allow a restricted flow of hydraulic fluid out of the cylinder cavities. In order to be able to control this restricted flow of hydraulic fluid, the damping channels 45 and 47 are respectively provided with a first adjustable flow control valve 49a and with a second adjustable flow control valve 49b, which are in particular needle valves. As can be seen in Figure 6, these needle valves 49a and b extend through the lid 36 so that they are accessible from the outside of the hydraulic damper 26.

    [0036] To enable the pistons 27 and 29 to damp the movement of the turnstile, they are operatively connected to the hub 8 via a motion converting mechanism. This mechanism converts the part-rotational movement of the turnstile over 120° between two successive home positions into a reciprocating motion of the two pistons. The motion converting mechanism comprises a rotating shaft 50 entering the cylinder-piston mechanism, more particularly the box 35 filled with hydraulic fluid, through an opening 51 in the lid 36 (i.e in the upper side) thereof. In this way, no hydraulic fluid can escape out of the hydraulic damper, in particular not along this rotating shaft 50.

    [0037] In the embodiment illustrated in the drawings, the motion converting mechanism is a cam mechanism wherein a cam 52 is provided on the rotating shaft 50 so that this rotating shaft 50 forms a cam shaft. The cam 52 is formed by a radial arm 53 on the lower extremity of the rotating shaft 50 which carries at its distal extremity a downward projection 54 reciprocating in a transverse groove 55 in the piston rod 31. Upon rotation of the cam 52 over 360°, the first piston 27 performs two successive strokes.

    [0038] In the present specification, the first stroke of the first piston 27 is defined as the stroke, at the beginning of which the first cylinder cavity 32 has its maximum size and at the end of which this first cylinder cavity 32 has its minimum size. The second stroke of the first piston 27 is defined as the subsequent stroke, at the beginning of which the first cylinder cavity 32 has its minimum size and at the end of which this first cylinder cavity 32 has its maximum size. The second piston 29 reciprocates simultaneously with the first piston 27 and is coupled in such a manner thereto that the second cylinder cavity 33 has a minimum size at the beginning of the first stroke of the first piston 27, a maximum size at the end of this first stroke and a minimum size at the end of the subsequent second stroke of the first piston 27. In the embodiment illustrated in the drawings, this coupling of the two pistons 27 and 29 is realized by means of the common piston rod 31 so that both pistons move simultaneously in the same direction, the two cylinder cavities 32, 33 being provided on opposite sides of the pistons.

    [0039] Instead of a cam mechanism 52, 55, the motion converting mechanism could also be formed by a crank mechanism, which is however not shown in the figures. In such a mechanism, the rotating shaft 50 is a crank shaft which comprises at least one crank connected by means of at least one piston rod to the two pistons 27 and 29. In case of a crank mechanism, each of the pistons 27, 29 is preferably connected by means of a separate piston rod to the crank. It is also possible to provide two cranks on the crank shaft, more particularly so that the two pistons move simultaneously but in opposite directions. In that case, the two cylinders 28 and 30 can also be positioned along each other instead of opposite one another.

    [0040] The motion converting transmission between the hub 8 (or the turnstile) and the two pistons 27 and 29 comprises moreover a gearing, formed by two toothed gear wheels 56, 57, arranged between the hub 8 and the rotating shaft 50 entering the hydraulic damper 26. This gearing is a multiplying gearing so that a rotation of the turnstile over an angle of x° between two of its home positions, i.e. a rotation of the turnstile over 120°, is converted in a rotation of the rotating shaft 50 over 180°. To achieve this, the ratio between the number of teeth on the first gearwheel 56, mounted on the rotating shaft 50, and the number of teeth on the second gearwheel, mounted on the hub 8, is equal to x/180, or in case of a turnstile with three (series of) barrier arms 2, this ratio is equal to 2/3 (= 120/180).

    [0041] When assembling the control assembly, the two gearwheels 56 and 57 are coupled in such a manner to one another that in the home positions of the turnstile (defined by the torque-restoring mechanism 13), the first piston 27 is substantially in the middle of its first or second stroke (depending on the direction the turnstile will be rotated). When the turnstile is rotated from one of its home positions to its next one, the first piston 27 thus reciprocates over one stroke length from the middle of its above described first stroke to the middle of its above described second stroke, or, when the turnstile is rotated in the opposite direction, from the middle of its second stroke to the middle of its first stroke. To achieve in the two rotation directions of the turnstile a same damping effect, damping of the movement of the turnstile is mainly provided by the first piston 27 when the turnstile is rotated in one direction and mainly by the second piston 29 when the turnstile is rotated in the other direction.

    [0042] In order to switch between the two pistons 27 and 29, the first cylinder cavity 32 has a first inlet 58, provided in the first piston 27 itself, which is provided with a first one-way valve 59 allowing flow of hydraulic fluid into the first cylinder cavity 32 during the second stroke of the first piston 27 (i.e. when the first piston 27 moves to increase the size of the first cylinder cavity 32) and the second cylinder cavity 33 has a second inlet 60, provided in the second piston 29, which is provided with a second one-way valve 61 allowing flow of hydraulic fluid into the second cylinder cavity during the first stroke of the first piston 27 (i.e. when the second piston 29 moves to increase the size of the second cylinder cavity 33). During the first stroke of the first piston 27 the damping effect is thus mainly provided by the first piston 27 whilst during said second stroke of the first piston 27 this damping effect is mainly provided by the second piston 29. The term "mainly" is used here to indicate that either all of the damping effect is provided by the respective piston or at least the largest part thereof, in particular more than 50%, preferably more than 70% or even more than 90% of the total amount of energy absorbed by the hydraulic damper is absorbed by the cylinder piston mechanism comprising the first piston 27 during the first stroke thereof and by the cylinder piston mechanism comprising the second piston 29 during the second stroke of the first piston 27. The other cylinder piston mechanism will always provide for some damping as the piston thereof always has to move through the hydraulic fluid, even when the one-way valve is open.

    [0043] The first and the second one-way valves 59 and 61 each comprises a valve body 62 which is urged by a spiral spring 63 against a valve seat formed by the first and the second inlets 58, 60. When the piston moves to increase the size of the cylinder cavity, the pressure is reduced in this cylinder cavity and the respective one-way valve 59 or 61 is opened by the pressure exerted thereon by the hydraulic fluid. Each of the one-way valves 59 and 61 show a central duct in their valve body 62, which central duct is provided with a relief valve 64 allowing flow of hydraulic fluid in the other direction through the valve, but only in case a too high pressure is exerted by the piston on the hydraulic fluid in the cylinder cavity. This relief valve 64 is thus a safety valve avoiding too high forces on the control assembly, for example when a vandal pushes with a large force against the turnstile to rotate it with a high speed whilst being damped by the hydraulic damper.

    [0044] Figure 9 shows the hydraulic damper 26 with the first piston 27 in the middle of its first stroke (the pistons are moving to the right in this figure), i.e. when the turnstile is in one of its home positions (rotation angle 0°) and starts to rotate, as indicated in Figure 9, in a clockwise direction. During this clockwise rotation, the first piston 27 (on the right hand side) and the second piston 29 (on the left hand side) move to the right. The hydraulic fluid opens the one-way valve 59 in the second piston 29 so that the pressure in the second cylinder cavity 33 is only slightly reduced and the second piston 29 nearly doesn't damp the rotation of the turnstile. The one-way valve 59 in the first piston 27 is however closed so that the hydraulic fluid is pressurized in the first cylinder cavity 32. The outlets 41 and 44 of the by-pass channels 39 and 42 are provided in such a location in the cylinders 28 and 30 that at the beginning of a rotational movement of the turnstile (starting from one of its home positions), the piston which provides the damping effect only passes the respective outlet when the turnstile has rotated over a small angle, in particular over an angle of at least 1°, preferably at least 2° and more preferably at least 3°, but in particular over an angle of less than 15°, preferably less than 10°.

    [0045] In Figure 9 the outlet 41 of the first by-pass channel 39 cannot be seen since the first piston 27 has not yet passed this outlet 41. In this position, the rotation of the turnstile is damped since the hydraulic fluid is pressurized by the first piston 27 in the first cylinder cavity 32 and can only flow out off this cylinder cavity 32 through the inlet 46 of the first damping channel 45 allowing only a restricted flow of hydraulic fluid.

    [0046] After the turnstile has rotated over 5°, as illustrated in Figure 10, the first piston 27 starts to pass the outlet 41 of the first by-pass channel 39 so that hydraulic fluid can leave the first cylinder cavity 32 also through the first by-pass channel 39, via the inlet 40 and the outlet 41 thereof. When the first piston 27 has passed the outlet 41 completely (as can be seen in Figure 11), the rotation of the turnstile is not damped so that the person passing the turnstile can rotate it easily whilst tensioning the springs 20 of the torque-restoring mechanism 13, i.e. whilst storing potential energy in this torque-restoring mechanism 13. The term "not damped" is used in the present specification to indicate that the turnstile is damped considerably less than in a phase of the hydraulic damper wherein it actually damps the rotation of the turnstile, i.e. in a phase wherein no hydraulic fluid flows through the by-pass channel of the cylinder cavity wherein the hydraulic fluid is pressurized.

    [0047] Turning to Figures 11 to 13, wherein the turnstile rotates over the first half of its part-rotational movement between two of its successive home positions, i.e. wherein it rotates over 60°, it can be seen that this movement is not damped since the inlet 40 of the first by-pass channel 39 end in the first cylinder cavity 32 is in front of the first piston 27 whilst the outlet 41 of this first by-pass channel 39 end is behind the first piston 27 in the hydraulic damper 26 so that the hydraulic fluid in the first cylinder cavity 32 is not or almost not pressured.

    [0048] In a next phase, at the end of the first stroke of the first piston 27, the pistons 27 and 29 start moving in the opposite direction, more particularly to the left in Figures 13 to 16. The first one-way valve 59 in the first piston 27 is thereby opened whilst the second one-way valve 61 in the second piston 29 is closed. The damping action is thus taken over by the second piston 29. As in the position illustrated in Figure 13, i.e. at the beginning of the second stroke of the first piston 27, the in- and outlets 43 and 44 of the second by-pass channel 42 are both in the second cylinder cavity 33, no hydraulic fluid can leave this cylinder cavity 33 so that the rotation of the turnstile is damped by the second piston 29. As illustrated in Figure 13 to 16, damping of the rotation of the turnstile continues until the turnstile reaches its next home position.

    [0049] In that position, the second piston 29 has not yet passed the outlet 44 of the second by-pass channel 42 (see Figure 17) so that when, due to its inertia, the turnstile would pass its home position, its movement is still damped so that it will quickly come to a rest. In this way swinging of the turnstile around its rest position is avoided or considerably limited since when the pistons swing to the left, they are damped by the second piston 29 whilst when they swing to the right, they are damped by the first piston 27. Movement of the turnstile starting from its home positions is indeed damped in one direction by the first piston 27 over 5° and in the other direction by the second piston 29 also over 5°.

    [0050] An important advantage of the cam (or crank) mechanism converting the rotation of the rotating shaft 50 into the reciprocating motion of the pistons 27 and 29 is that at the beginning of the second half of the part-rotational movement of the turnstile between two of its home positions, i.e. in the situation illustrated in Figure 13, the rotational movement of the turnstile is much less damped than at the end of this part-rotational movement, i.e. when the turnstile reaches its next home position. The rotation speed of the turnstile is thus slowed down gradually. The increased damping effect is due to the fact that by the cam or crank mechanism, at the transition between the first and the second stroke of the first piston 27, the pistons are displaced over a much shorter distance than when the pistons are in the middle of their strokes. This can be seen clearly when comparing the displacement of the pistons between Figures 13 and 14 (wherein the turnstile rotates from 60 to 80°) with the displacement of the pistons between Figures 15 and 16 (wherein the turnstile rotates from 100 to 120°), which is over this angular rotation of the turnstile on average about 3.7 times larger (and thus even larger closer to the home position of the turnstile). Due to the small damping effects at the beginning of the first and the second strokes of the first piston 27, it is not necessary that the inlets 40 and 43 of the by-pass channels 39 and 42 are provided entirely at the distal extremity of the cylinder cavities 32 and 33 but they might be provided at a small distance thereof so that the damping effect starts already at the end of the first or the second stroke of the first piston 27. Similarly, additional by-pass channels could be provided at the opposite sides of the cylinder cavities enabling the hydraulic fluid to leave the first cylinder cavity 32 at the beginning of the first stroke of the first piston 27 or the second cylinder cavity 33 at the beginning of the second stroke of the first piston 27 so that at the beginning of the second half of the part-rotational movement of the turnstile, i.e. when the torque-restoring mechanism starts to rotate the turnstile, the movement of the turnstile is even less damped. This may be advantageous since, due to the angular position of the cam member 14, the torque-restoring mechanism initially only exerts a very small torque onto the turnstile.

    [0051] The damping effect of the control assembly illustrated in the drawings can be adjusted by means of the two flow control valves 49a and b provided in the first and second damping channels 45 and 47. A problem with hydraulic dampers is that their damping effect varies with the temperature due to the varying viscosity of the hydraulic fluid. To solve this problem, the damping outlets, which allow a restricted flow of hydraulic fluid out off the cylinder cavities 32 and 33 when it is pressurized therein, are not only formed by the first and second damping channels 45 and 47 but also by a first gap formed by a clearance between the first piston 27 and the first cylinder 28 and by a second gap formed by a clearance between the second piston 29 and the second cylinder 30. The first and second cylinders 28, 30 are made of a first material and the first and second pistons 27, 29 of a second material which has a larger thermal expansion coefficient than the material of the cylinders 28, 30 so that the gaps between the piston and the cylinder decrease when the temperature of the damper is raised and increase when the temperature of the damper is lowered. The first material may for example be aluminium, having a theoretical linear thermal expansion coefficient of 2.3x10-5 K-1, whilst the second material may for example be polyoxymethylene (POM) sold under the brand Hostaform® C9021 and having a theoretical linear thermal expansion coefficient of 9x10-5 K-1. For further details about these temperature compensating measures are described in WO 2011/023793, which is incorporated herein by way of reference.

    [0052] When such temperature dependent gaps are provided between the pistons and the cylinders in the control assembly illustrated in the figures, it is clear that in the phases wherein the movement of the turnstile is damped, in particular in the phases illustrated in Figures 9 and 13 to 16, the pressurized hydraulic fluid cannot only flow via the damping channel 45 or 47 out of the cylinder cavity 32 or 33 but also via the gap between the piston 27 or 29 and the respective cylinder 28 or 30.

    [0053] In Figures 18 to 19 an alternative embodiment of the control assembly is shown, more particularly a control assembly adapted to a waist-height turnstile, the rotating shaft 1 of which is inclined (over 45° with respect to a vertical line). In this embodiment the control assembly is also inclined so that its hub 8 fits again onto the rotating shaft 1 (the rotation axis of the hub 8 being thus also inclined over 45° with respect to a vertical line). To avoid loss of hydraulic fluid out off the hydraulic damper 26, this hydraulic damper is inclined (over 45°) with respect to the frame 7 so that its lid 36 is again in a substantially horizontal position and the rotation axis of its rotating shaft 50 is again parallel to the rotation axis of the rotary shaft 1 of the turnstile. The first gearwheel 56 on the hydraulic damper 26 and the second gearwheel 57 on the hub 8 are conical to enable them to engage one another in the inclined position of the hydraulic damper 26 with respect to the hub 8.


    Claims

    1. A control assembly for controlling the rotation of a turnstile comprising a rotary shaft (1) with barrier arms (2) spaced over an angle of x° from one another, which control assembly comprises:

    - a frame (7);

    - a hub (8) on which the turnstile is adapted to rotate and which is rotatably mounted onto said frame (7);

    - a torque-restoring mechanism (13) defining 360/x home positions of said turnstile and restoring torque, which has been exerted onto the turnstile during substantially a first half of a part-rotational movement of the turnstile from one of said home positions to a next home position, during substantially a second half of said part-rotational movement so as to assist the rotation of the turnstile to said next home position; and

    - a hydraulic damper (26) for damping the movement of the said turnstile during the second half of said rotational movement, which damper (26) comprises a cylinder-piston mechanism which contains a hydraulic fluid,
    characterised in that
    the cylinder-piston mechanism of the hydraulic damper (26) is a double cylinder-piston mechanism which comprises:

    - a first piston (27) reciprocating in a first cylinder (28) and defining with the first cylinder (28) a first cylinder cavity (32) having a maximum size at the beginning of a first stroke of the first piston (27), a minimum size at the end of this first stroke and a maximum size at the end of a subsequent second stroke of the first piston (27); and

    - a second piston (29) reciprocating in a second cylinder (30) and defining with the second cylinder (29) a second cylinder cavity (33), the second piston (29) being coupled to the first piston (27) to reciprocate simultaneously with the first piston (27) so that said second cylinder cavity (33) has a minimum size at the beginning of said first stroke of the first piston (27), a maximum size at the end of said first stroke and a minimum size at the end of said subsequent second stroke of the first piston (27),
    in that the first and second pistons (27, 29) are operatively connected to said hub (8) via a motion converting transmission (50-57) converting said part-rotational movement of the turnstile over x° between two successive home positions into a reciprocating motion of the first piston (27) starting substantially in the middle of one of said first and said second strokes and ending substantially in the middle of the other one of said first and second strokes;
    in that the first cylinder cavity (32) has a first inlet (58) which is provided with a first one-way valve (59) allowing flow of hydraulic fluid into the first cylinder cavity (32) during said second stroke of the first piston (27) and the second cylinder cavity (33) has a second inlet (60) which is provided with a second one-way valve (61) allowing flow of hydraulic fluid into the second cylinder cavity (33) during said first stroke of the first piston (27); in that the first cylinder (28) has a first damping outlet (45) allowing a restricted flow of hydraulic fluid out off the first cylinder cavity (32) at least during a first part of said first stroke of the first piston (27);
    in that the second cylinder (30) has a second damping outlet (47) allowing a restricted flow of hydraulic fluid out off the second cylinder cavity (33) at least during a first part of said second stroke of the first piston (27);
    in that the first cylinder (28) is provided with a first by-pass channel (39) having an inlet (40) and an outlet (41) ending both in said first cylinder cavity (32) at the beginning of said first stroke of the first piston (27), the first by-pass channel (39) allowing flow of hydraulic fluid out off the first cylinder cavity (32) when the first piston (27) has passed the outlet (41) of the first by-pass channel (39) during a second part of said first stroke of the first piston (27); and
    in that the second cylinder (30) is provided with a second by-pass channel (42) having an inlet (43) and an outlet (44) ending both in said second cylinder cavity (33) at the beginning of said second stroke of the first piston (27), the second by-pass channel (42) allowing flow of hydraulic fluid out off the second cylinder cavity (33) when the second piston (29) has passed the outlet (44) of the second by-pass channel (42) during a second part of said second stroke of the first piston (27).


     
    2. A control assembly according to claim 1, characterised in that said motion converting transmission (50-57) comprises a rotating shaft (50) entering said cylinder-piston mechanism, in particular through an opening (51) in an upper side thereof, and a motion converting mechanism (52-55) between said rotating shaft (50) and said first and second pistons (27, 29) which is contained in said cylinder-piston mechanism and which converts a rotational motion of said rotating shaft (50) into said reciprocating motion of said first and second pistons (27, 29).
     
    3. A control assembly according to claim 2, characterised in that said motion converting mechanism (50-57) is a cam mechanism, said rotating shaft being a camshaft (50) comprising at least one cam (52) and actuating said first and second pistons (27, 29) through the intermediary of at least one piston rod (31), said cam (52) comprising preferably a projection (54) reciprocating in a transverse groove (55) in the piston rod (31).
     
    4. A control assembly according to claim 2, characterised in that said motion converting mechanism (50-57) is a crank mechanism, said rotating shaft being a crankshaft comprising at least one crank which is connected by means of at least one piston rod to said first and second pistons.
     
    5. A control assembly according to any one of the claims 2 to 4, characterised in that said double cylinder-piston mechanism is filled with said hydraulic fluid.
     
    6. A control assembly according to any one of the claims 2 to 5, characterised in that said motion converting transmission (50-57) comprises a gearing (56-57) between said rotating shaft (50) and said hub (8), which gearing (56-57) is a multiplying gearing so that a rotation of said turnstile over x° causes a rotation of said rotating shaft (50) over 180°, said multiplying gearing comprising preferably a gear wheel (56) mounted onto said rotating shaft (50) and a further gear wheel (57) mounted onto said hub (8) and engaging said gear wheel (56), the ratio of the number of teeth on said gear wheel (56) to the number of teeth on said further gear wheel (57) being equal to x/180.
     
    7. A control assembly according to any one of the claims 1 to 6, characterised in that said first and second pistons (27, 29) are each mounted on one of two opposite extremities of a common piston rod (31).
     
    8. A control assembly according to any one of the claims 1 to 7, characterised in that the outlets (41, 44) of the first and the second by-pass channels (39, 42) are provided in such locations in said first and second cylinders (28, 30) that said first piston (27) passes the outlet (41) of said first by-pass channel (39), and said second piston (29) the outlet (44) of said second by-pass channel (42), only after the turnstile has been rotated to have passed one of said home positions by at least 1°, preferably by at least 2° and more preferably by at least 3°, but preferably before the turnstile has been rotated to have passed said home position by less than 15° and preferably by less than 10°.
     
    9. A control assembly according to any one of the claims 1 to 8, characterised in that said torque-restoring mechanism (13) comprising a rotating cam member (14) operatively secured to said hub (8) and at least one cam follower (15) which cooperates with the rotating cam member (14), the cam member (14) and the cam follower (15) defining the 360/x home positions of said turnstile, with the cam follower (15) being normally urged by resilient means (20) into engagement with said cam member (14) for generally biasing said turnstile to one of said home positions so that during substantially said first half of said part-rotational movement of the turnstile from one of said home positions to said next home position potential energy is stored in said resilient means (20) and said potential energy is converted into kinetic energy of said turnstile during substantially the second half of said part-rotational movement so as to assist the rotation of the turnstile to said next home position.
     
    10. A control assembly according to any one of the claims 1 to 9, characterised in that said first damping outlet comprises a first damping channel (45) provided with a first adjustable flow control valve (49a) and said second damping outlet comprises a second damping channel (47) provided with a second adjustable flow control valve (49b).
     
    11. A control assembly according to any one of the claims 1 to 10, characterised in that said first damping outlet comprises a first gap formed by a clearance between the first piston (27) and the first cylinder (28) and said second damping outlet comprises a second gap formed by a clearance between the second piston (29) and the second cylinder (30), the first and second cylinders (28, 30) being preferably made of a first material and the first and second pistons (27, 29) of a second material which has a larger thermal expansion coefficient than said first material.
     
    12. A control assembly according to any one of the claims 1 to 11, characterised in that it comprises a ratchet mechanism for controlling the general direction of allowable rotation of the turnstile, which ratchet mechanism comprises at least one rotating notched circular member (16) operatively connected to said hub (8) and at least two locking pawls (21, 22) each movable between a locking and an unlocking position, said locking pawls including a first locking pawl (21) enabling, in its locking position, rotation of the turnstile in a first direction but locking the turnstile for rotation in a second direction, which is opposite to said first direction, and a second locking pawl (22) enabling, in its locking position, rotation of the turnstile in said second direction but locking the turnstile for rotation in said first direction.
     
    13. A control assembly according to claim 12, characterised in that it comprises an access control mechanism enabling to move said first locking pawl between its locking and unlocking positions and to move said second locking pawl between its locking and unlocking positions, said access control mechanism comprising preferably a first electromagnet (24) for moving said first locking pawl (21) from its locking position to its unlocking position or vice versa against the action of a first resilient member and a second electromagnet (25) for moving said second locking pawl (22) from its locking position to its unlocking position or vice versa against the action of a second resilient member.
     
    14. A control assembly according to any one of the claims 1 to 13, characterised in that said hydraulic fluid comprises hydraulic oil.
     
    15. A turnstile comprising a rotary shaft (1) with barrier arms (2) spaced over an angle of x° from one another, characterised in that the turnstile is provided with a control assembly as claimed in any one of the claims 1 to 14.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Eine Steuerungsanordnung zum Steuern der Drehung eines Drehkreuzes, das eine Drehstange (1) mit Sperrarmen (2) angeordnet in einem Winkel von X° voneinander umfasst, wobei die Steuerungsanordnung Folgendes umfasst:

    - einen Rahmen (7);

    - eine Nabe (8), auf der sich das Drehkreuz dreht und die drehbar auf dem erwähnten Rahmen (7) montiert ist;

    - einen das Drehmoment wiederherstellenden Mechanismus (13), welcher 360/x Ruhestellungen des erwähnten Drehkreuzes definiert und das Drehmoment wiederherstellt, welches ausgeübt wurde auf das Drehkreuz während im Wesentlichen einer ersten Hälfte einer teildrehenden Bewegung des Drehkreuzes aus einer der erwähnten Ruhestellungen in eine folgende Ruhestellung, während im Wesentlichen einer zweiten Hälfte einer teildrehenden Bewegung, um die Drehung des Drehkreuzes in die erwähnte folgende Ruhestellung zu unterstützen; und

    - einen hydraulischen Dämpfer (26) zur Dämpfung der Bewegung des erwähnten Drehkreuzes während der zweiten Hälfte der erwähnten Drehbewegung; wobei der Dämpfer (26) einen Zylinderkolbenmechanismus umfasst, welcher eine Hydraulikflüssigkeit enthält,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass
    der Zylinderkolbenmechanismus des hydraulischen Dämpfers (26) ein Doppelzylinderkolbenmechanismus ist, der Folgendes umfasst:

    - einen ersten Kolben (27), der sich in einem ersten Zylinder (28) hin- und herbewegt und mit dem ersten Zylinder (28) einen ersten Zylinderraum (32) formt, welcher zu Beginn eines ersten Hubs des ersten Kolbens (27) eine maximale Größe hat, am Ende dieses ersten Hubs eine minimale Größe hat und am Ende eines nachfolgenden zweiten Hubs des ersten Kolbens (27) eine maximale Größe hat; und

    - einen zweiten Kolben (29), der sich in einem zweiten Zylinder (30) hin- und herbewegt und mit dem zweiten Zylinder (29) einen zweiten Zylinderraum (33) formt, wobei der zweite Kolben (29) mit dem ersten Kolben (27) verbunden ist, um sich gleichzeitig mit dem ersten Kolben (27) hin- und herzubewegen, sodass der erwähnte zweite Zylinderraum (33) zu Beginn des erwähnten ersten Hubs des ersten Kolbens (27) eine minimale Größe hat, am Ende des erwähnten ersten Hubs eine maximale Größe hat und am Ende des erwähnten nachfolgenden zweiten Hubs des ersten Kolbens (27) eine minimale Größe hat,
    dadurch, dass der erste und der zweite Kolben (27, 29) mit der erwähnten Nabe (8) über ein bewegungsumsetzendes Getriebe (50-57) wirksam verbunden sind, welches die erwähnte teildrehende Bewegung des Drehkreuzes über X° zwischen zwei aufeinander folgenden Ruhestellungen in eine Hin- und Herbewegung des ersten Kolbens (27) umsetzt, beginnend im Wesentlichen in der Mitte eines des erwähnten ersten und erwähnten zweiten Hubs und endend im Wesentlichen in der Mitte des jeweils anderen des erwähnten ersten und zweiten Hubs;
    dadurch, dass der erste Zylinderraum (32) einen ersten Einlass (58) hat, welcher mit einem ersten Einwegventil (59) ausgestattet ist, welches während des erwähnten zweiten Hubs des ersten Kolbens (27) den Fluss von Hydraulikflüssigkeit in den ersten Zylinderraum (32) zulässt, und dass der zweite Zylinderraum (33) einen zweiten Einlass (60) hat, welcher mit einem zweiten Einwegventil (61) ausgestattet ist, welches während des erwähnten ersten Hubs des ersten Kolbens (27) den Fluss von Hydraulikflüssigkeit in den zweiten Zylinderraum (33) zulässt;
    dadurch, dass der erste Zylinder (28) einen ersten Dämpfungsauslass (45) hat, der zumindest während eines ersten Teils des erwähnten ersten Hubs des ersten Kolbens (27) einen beschränkten Fluss von Hydraulikflüssigkeit aus dem ersten Zylinderraum (32) heraus zulässt;
    dadurch, dass der zweite Zylinder (30) einen zweiten Dämpfungsauslass (47) hat, der zumindest während eines ersten Teils des erwähnten zweiten Hubs des ersten Kolbens (27) einen beschränkten Fluss von Hydraulikflüssigkeit aus dem zweiten Zylinderraum (33) heraus zulässt;
    dadurch, dass der erste Zylinder (28) mit einem ersten Seitenkanal (39) mit einem Einlass (40) und einem Auslass (41) ausgestattet ist, welche zu Beginn des erwähnten ersten Hubs des ersten Kolbens (27) beide im erwähnten ersten Zylinderraum (32) enden, wobei der erste Seitenkanal (39) Fluss von Hydraulikflüssigkeit aus dem ersten Zylinderraum (32) heraus zulässt, wenn der erste Kolben (27) den Auslass (41) des ersten Seitenkanals (39) während eines zweiten Teils des erwähnten ersten Hubs des ersten Kolbens (27) passiert hat;
    und
    dadurch, dass der zweite Zylinder (30) mit einem zweiten Seitenkanal (42) mit einem Einlass (43) und einem Auslass (44) ausgestattet ist, welche zu Beginn des erwähnten zweiten Hubs des ersten Kolbens (27) beide im erwähnten zweiten Zylinderraum (33) enden, wobei der zweite Seitenkanal (42) Fluss von Hydraulikflüssigkeit aus dem zweiten Zylinderraum (33) heraus zulässt, wenn der zweite Kolben (29) den Auslass (44) des zweiten Seitenkanals (42) während eines zweiten Teils des erwähnten zweiten Hubs des ersten Kolbens (27) passiert hat.


     
    2. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das erwähnte bewegungsumsetzende Getriebe (50-57) eine Drehwelle (50) umfasst, welche in den erwähnten Zylinderkolbenmechanismus eingreift, insbesondere durch eine Öffnung (51) in einer oberen Seite davon, und einen bewegungsumsetzenden Mechanismus (52-55) zwischen der erwähnten Drehwelle (50) und dem erwähnten ersten und zweiten Kolben (27, 29), welcher im erwähnten Zylinderkolbenmechanismus eingeschlossen ist und welcher eine drehende Bewegung der erwähnten Drehwelle (50) in die erwähnte Hin- und Herbewegung des erwähnten ersten und zweiten Kolbens (27, 29) umsetzt.
     
    3. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der erwähnte bewegungsumsetzende Mechanismus (50-57) ein Nockenmechanismus ist, wobei die erwähnte Drehwelle eine Nockenwelle (50) ist, die zumindest eine Nocke (52) umfasst und den erwähnten ersten und zweiten Kolben (27, 29) mittels zumindest einer Kolbenstange (31) betätigt, wobei die erwähnte Nocke (52) vorzugsweise einen Vorsprung (54) umfasst, der sich in einer Querrille (55) in der Kolbenstange (31) hin- und herbewegt.
     
    4. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der erwähnte bewegungsumsetzende Mechanismus (50-57) ein Kurbelmechanismus ist, wobei die erwähnte Drehwelle eine Kurbelwelle ist, welche zumindest eine Kurbel umfasst, die mittels zumindest einer Kolbenstange mit dem erwähnten ersten und zweiten Kolben verbunden ist.
     
    5. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach irgendeinem der Ansprüche 2 bis 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der erwähnte Doppelzylinderkolbenmechanismus mit der erwähnten Hydraulikflüssigkeit gefüllt ist.
     
    6. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach irgendeinem der Ansprüche 2 bis 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das erwähnte bewegungsumsetzende Getriebe (50-57) ein Räderwerk (56-57) zwischen der erwähnten Drehwelle (50) und der erwähnten Nabe (8) umfasst, wobei das Räderwerk (56-57) ein mehrfaches Räderwerk ist, sodass eine Drehung des erwähnten Drehkreuzes über X° eine Drehung der erwähnten Drehwelle (50) um 180° verursacht, wobei das mehrfache Räderwerk vorzugsweise ein Zahnrad (56) umfasst, montiert auf die erwähnte Drehwelle (50), und ein weiteres Zahnrad (57), montiert auf die erwähnte Nabe (8) und in das erwähnte Zahnrad (56) eingreifend, wobei das Verhältnis der Anzahl der Zähne auf dem erwähnten Zahnrad (56) zur Anzahl der Zähne auf dem erwähnten weiteren Zahnrad (57) gleich x/180 ist.
     
    7. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach irgendeinem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der erste und der zweite Kolben (27, 29) jeweils auf einem von zwei gegenüberliegenden Enden einer gemeinsamen Kolbenstange (31) montiert sind.
     
    8. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach irgendeinem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Auslässe (41, 44) des ersten und des zweiten Seitenkanals (39, 42) an solchen Stellen im erwähnten ersten und zweiten Zylinder (28, 30) angeordnet sind, dass der erwähnte erste Kolben (27) den Auslass (41) des erwähnten ersten Seitenkanals (39), und der erwähnte zweite Kolben (29) den Auslass (44) des erwähnten zweiten Seitenkanals (42) erst dann passieren, wenn das Drehkreuz gedreht wurde, um eine der erwähnten Ruhestellungen um mindestens 1 °, vorzugsweise um mindestens 2° und noch besser um mindestens 3° passiert zu haben, bevorzugt jedoch, bevor das Drehkreuz gedreht wurde, um die erwähnte Ruhestellung um weniger als 15° und bevorzugt um weniger als 10° passiert zu haben.
     
    9. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach irgendeinem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der erwähnte das Drehmoment wiederherstellenden Mechanismus (13) ein drehendes Nockenglied (14), das wirksam an der erwähnten Nabe (8) befestigt ist, und zumindest einen Nockenstößel (15) umfasst, der mit dem drehenden Nockenglied (14) zusammenwirkt, wobei das Nockenglied (15) und der Nockenstößel (15) die 360/x-Ruhestellungen des erwähnten Drehkreuzes definieren, wobei der Nockenstößel (15) normalerweise durch elastische Mittel (20) in ein Eingreifen mit dem erwähnten Nockenglied (14) gezwungen wird, um das erwähnte Drehkreuz im Allgemeinen in eine der erwähnten Ruhestellungen vorzuspannen, sodass während im Wesentlichen der erwähnten ersten Hälfte der erwähnten teildrehenden Bewegung des Drehkreuzes aus einer der erwähnten Ruhestellungen in die erwähnte folgende Ruhestellung potenzielle Energie in den erwähnten elastischen Mitteln (20) gespeichert wird und die erwähnte potenzielle Energie während im Wesentlichen der zweiten Hälfte der erwähnten teildrehenden Bewegung in kinetische Energie des erwähnten Drehkreuzes umgewandelt wird, um die Drehung des Drehkreuzes in die erwähnte folgende Ruhestellung zu unterstützen.
     
    10. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach irgendeinem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der erwähnte erste Dämpfungsauslass einen ersten Dämpfungskanal (45) mit einem ersten verstellbaren Flusssteuerventil (49a) umfasst und der erwähnte zweite Dämpfungsauslass einen zweiten Dämpfungskanal (47) mit einem zweiten verstellbaren Flusssteuerventil (49b) umfasst.
     
    11. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach irgendeinem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der erwähnte erste Dämpfungsauslass einen ersten Spalt umfasst, gebildet durch eine Aussparung zwischen dem ersten Kolben (27) und dem ersten Zylinder (28), und der erwähnte zweite Dämpfungsauslass einen zweiten Spalt umfasst, gebildet durch eine Aussparung zwischen dem zweiten Kolben (29) und dem zweiten Zylinder (30), wobei der erste und der zweite Zylinder (28, 30) vorzugsweise aus einem ersten Material und der erste und der zweite Kolben (27, 29) aus einem zweiten Material hergestellt sind, wobei das erwähnte zweite Material einen höheren thermischen Ausdehnungskoeffizienten als das erwähnte erste Material hat.
     
    12. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach irgendeinem der Ansprüche 1 bis 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie einen Klinkenmechanismus zur Kontrolle der allgemeinen Richtung zulässiger Drehung des Drehkreuzes umfasst, wobei der Klinkenmechanismus zumindest ein drehendes, eingekerbtes, rundes Glied (16) umfasst, welches wirksam mit der erwähnten Nabe (8) und zumindest zwei Sperrklinken (21, 22) verbunden ist, die jeweils beweglich zwischen einer Verriegelungs- und einer Entriegelungsposition beweglich sind, wobei die erwähnten Sperrklinken eine erste Sperrklinke (21) umfassen, welche, in ihrer Verriegelungsposition, die Drehung des Drehkreuzes in eine erste Richtung zulässt, aber das Drehkreuz zur Drehung in eine zweite Richtung, der erwähnten ersten Richtung entgegengesetzt, verriegelt, und eine zweite Sperrklinke (22), welche, in ihrer Verriegelungsposition, die Drehung des Drehkreuzes in die erwähnte zweite Richtung zulässt, aber das Drehkreuz zur Drehung in die erwähnte erste Richtung verriegelt.
     
    13. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach Anspruch 12, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie einen Zugangskontrollmechanismus umfasst, der die Bewegung der erwähnten ersten Sperrklinke zwischen ihrer Verriegelungs- und ihrer Entriegelungsposition und die Bewegung der erwähnten zweiten Sperrklinke zwischen ihrer Verriegelungs- und ihrer Entriegelungsposition zulässt, wobei der erwähnte Zugangskontrollmechanismus vorzugsweise einen ersten Elektromagneten (24) zur Bewegung der ersten Sperrklinke (21) aus ihrer Verriegelungsposition in ihre Entriegelungsposition oder umgekehrt gegen die Wirkung eines ersten elastischen Elements, und einen zweiten Elektromagneten (25) zur Bewegung der zweiten Sperrklinke (22) aus ihrer Verriegelungsposition in ihre Entriegelungsposition oder umgekehrt gegen die Wirkung eines zweiten elastischen Elements umfasst.
     
    14. Eine Steuerungsanordnung nach irgendeinem der Ansprüche 1 bis 13, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die erwähnte Hydraulikflüssigkeit Hydrauliköl umfasst.
     
    15. Ein Drehkreuz, das eine Drehstange (1) mit Sperrarmen (2) angeordnet in einem Winkel von X° voneinander umfasst, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Drehkreuz mit einer Steuerungsanordnung wie beansprucht in irgendeinem der Ansprüche 1 bis 14 ausgestattet ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Ensemble de commande pour commander la rotation d'un tourniquet comprenant un arbre rotatif (1) avec des bras faisant barrière (2) espacés sur un angle de x° les uns des autres, lequel ensemble de commande comprend:

    - un cadre (7);

    - un moyeu (8) sur lequel le tourniquet est adapté pour tourner et qui est monté à rotation sur ledit cadre (7);

    - un mécanisme de rétablissement de couple (13) définissant 360/x positions de repos dudit tourniquet et rétablissant le couple, qui a été exercé sur le tourniquet pendant pratiquement une première moitié d'un mouvement de rotation partiel du tourniquet d'une desdites positions de repos à la position de repos suivante, pendant pratiquement une deuxième moitié dudit mouvement de rotation partiel de manière à assister la rotation du tourniquet vers ladite position de repos suivante;
    et

    - un amortisseur hydraulique (26) pour amortir le mouvement dudit tourniquet pendant la deuxième moitié dudit mouvement de rotation, lequel amortisseur (26) comprend un mécanisme à cylindre et piston qui contient un fluide hydraulique,
    caractérisé en ce que
    le mécanisme à cylindre et piston de l'amortisseur hydraulique (26) est un double mécanisme à cylindre et piston qui comprend:

    - un premier piston (27) effectuant un mouvement alternatif dans un premier cylindre (28) et définissant avec le premier cylindre (28) une première cavité (32) de cylindre ayant une taille maximale au début d'une première course du premier piston (27), une taille minimale à la fin de la première course et une taille maximale à la fin d'une deuxième course subséquente du premier piston (27); et

    - un deuxième piston (29) effectuant un mouvement alternatif dans un deuxième cylindre (30) et définissant avec le deuxième cylindre (29) une deuxième cavité (33) de cylindre, le deuxième piston (29) étant accouplé au premier piston (27) pour effectuer un mouvement alternatif en même temps que le premier piston (27) de sorte que ladite deuxième cavité (33) de cylindre a une taille minimale au début de ladite première course du premier piston (27), une taille maximale à la fin de ladite première course et une taille minimale à la fin de ladite deuxième course subséquente du premier piston (27),
    et en ce que les premier et deuxième pistons (27, 29) sont reliés opérationnellement audit moyeu (8) via une transmission de conversion de mouvement (50, 57) convertissant le mouvement de rotation partiel du tourniquet sur x° entre deux positions de repos successives en un mouvement alternatif du premier piston (27) commençant pratiquement au milieu d'une de ladite première et de ladite deuxième course et finissant pratiquement au milieu de l'autre desdites première et deuxième courses;
    en ce que la première cavité (32) de cylindre a une première entrée (58) qui est pourvue d'une première soupape de non-retour (59) permettant l'écoulement de fluide hydraulique dans la première cavité (32) de cylindre pendant ladite deuxième course du premier piston (27) et la deuxième cavité (33) de cylindre a une deuxième entrée (60) qui est pourvue d'une deuxième soupape de non-retour (61) permettant l'écoulement de fluide hydraulique dans la deuxième cavité (33) de cylindre pendant ladite première course du premier piston (27); en ce que le premier cylindre (28) a une première sortie d'amortissement (45) permettant un écoulement restreint de fluide hydraulique hors de la première cavité (32) de cylindre au moins pendant une première partie de ladite première course du premier piston (27);
    en ce que le deuxième cylindre (30) a une deuxième sortie d'amortissement (47) permettant un écoulement restreint de fluide hydraulique hors de la deuxième cavité (33) de cylindre au moins pendant une première partie de ladite deuxième course du premier piston (27);
    en ce que le premier cylindre (28) est pourvu d'un premier canal de dérivation (39) ayant une entrée (40) et une sortie (41) finissant toutes deux dans ladite première cavité (32) de cylindre au début de ladite première course du premier piston (27), le premier canal de dérivation (39) permettant l'écoulement de fluide hydraulique hors de la première cavité (32) de cylindre quand le premier piston (27) a passé la sortie (41) du premier canal de dérivation (39) pendant une deuxième partie de ladite première course du premier piston (27); et
    en ce que le deuxième cylindre (30) est pourvu d'un deuxième canal de dérivation (42) ayant une entrée (43) et une sortie (44) finissant toutes deux dans ladite deuxième cavité (33) de cylindre au début de ladite deuxième course du premier piston (27), le deuxième canal de dérivation (42) permettant l'écoulement de fluide hydraulique hors de la deuxième cavité (33) de cylindre quand le deuxième piston (29) a passé la sortie (44) du deuxième canal de dérivation (42) pendant une deuxième partie de ladite deuxième course du premier piston (27).


     
    2. Ensemble de commande selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que ladite transmission de conversion de mouvement (50-57) comprend un arbre rotatif (50) entrant dans ledit mécanisme à cylindre et piston, en particulier par une ouverture (51) dans le côté supérieur de celui-ci, et un mécanisme de conversion de mouvement (52-55) entre ledit arbre rotatif (50) et lesdits premier et deuxième pistons (27, 29) qui est contenu dans ledit mécanisme à piston et cylindre et qui convertit un mouvement de rotation dudit arbre rotatif (50) en ledit mouvement alternatif desdits premier et deuxième pistons (27, 29).
     
    3. Ensemble de commande selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que ledit mécanisme de conversion de mouvement (50-57) est un mécanisme à came, ledit arbre rotatif étant un arbre à cames (50) comprenant au moins une came (52) et actionnant lesdits premier et deuxième pistons (27, 29) par l'intermédiaire d'au moins une tige (31) de piston, ladite came (52) comprenant de préférence une protubérance (54) effectuant un mouvement alternatif dans une rainure transversale (55) dans la tige (31) de piston.
     
    4. Ensemble de commande selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que ledit mécanisme de conversion de mouvement (50-57) est un mécanisme à manivelles, ledit arbre rotatif étant un arbre à manivelles comprenant au moins une manivelle qui est reliée au moyen d'au moins une tige de piston auxdits premier et deuxième pistons.
     
    5. Ensemble de commande selon une quelconque des revendications 2 à 4, caractérisé en ce que ledit double mécanisme à cylindre et piston est rempli avec ledit fluide hydraulique.
     
    6. Ensemble de commande selon une quelconque des revendications 2 à 5, caractérisé en ce que ladite transmission de conversion de mouvement (50-57) comprend un engrenage (56-57) entre ledit arbre rotatif (50) et ledit moyeu (8), lequel engrenage (56-57) est un engrenage multiplicateur de sorte qu'une rotation dudit tourniquet sur x° provoque une rotation dudit arbre rotatif (50) sur 180°, ledit engrenage multiplicateur comprenant de préférence une roue dentée (56) montée sur ledit arbre rotatif (50) et une autre roue dentée (57) montée sur ledit moyeu (8) et entrant en prise avec ladite roue dentée (56), le rapport du nombre de dents sur ladite roue dentée (56) au nombre de dents sur ladite autre roue dentée (57) étant égal à x/180.
     
    7. Ensemble de commande selon une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, caractérisé en ce que lesdits premier et deuxième pistons (27, 29) sont montés chacun sur une des deux extrémités opposées d'une tige (31) de piston commune.
     
    8. Ensemble de commande selon une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, caractérisé en ce que les sorties (41, 44) du premier et du deuxième canal de dérivation (39, 42) sont prévues à des endroits tels dans lesdits premier et deuxième cylindres (28, 30) que ledit premier piston (27) passe la sortie (41) dudit premier canal de dérivation (39), et que ledit deuxième piston (29) la sortie (44) dudit deuxième canal de dérivation (42), uniquement après que l'on a fait tourner le tourniquet pour passer une desdites positions de repos d'au moins 1 °, de préférence d'au moins 2°, et mieux encore d'au moins 3°, mais de préférence avant que l'on ait fait tourner le tourniquet pour passer ladite position de repos de moins de 15° et de préférence de moins de 10°.
     
    9. Ensemble de commande selon une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, caractérisé en ce que ledit mécanisme de rétablissement de couple (13) comprend un élément de came rotatif (14) fixé opérationnellement audit moyeu (8) et au moins un suiveur de came (15) qui coopère avec l'élément de came rotatif (14), l'élément de came (14) et le suiveur de came (15) définissant les 360/x positions de repos dudit tourniquet, le suiveur de came (15) étant normalement amené par des moyens élastiques (20) à entrer en prise avec ledit élément de came (14) pour pousser de manière générale ledit tourniquet dans l'une desdits positions de repos de sorte que pendant pratiquement ladite première moitié dudit mouvement de rotation partiel du tourniquet de l'une desdites positions de repos vers la position de repos suivante, de l'énergie potentielle est stockée dans lesdits moyens élastique (20) et ladite énergie potentielle est convertie en énergie cinétique dudit tourniquet pendant pratiquement la deuxième moitié dudit mouvement de rotation partielle afin d'assister la rotation du tourniquet vers la position de repos suivante.
     
    10. Ensemble de commande selon une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, caractérisé en ce que la première sortie d'amortissement comprend un premier canal d'amortissement (45) pourvu d'une première soupape de limitation de débit (49a) ajustable et ladite deuxième sortie d'amortissement comprend un deuxième canal d'amortissement (47) pourvu d'une deuxième soupape de limitation de débit (49b) ajustable.
     
    11. Ensemble de commande selon une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10, caractérisé en ce que ladite première sortie d'amortissement comprend un espace formé par un jeu entre le premier piston (27) et le premier cylindre (28) et ladite deuxième sortie d'amortissement comprend un deuxième espace formé par un jeu entre le deuxième piston (29) et le deuxième cylindre (30), les premier et deuxième cylindres (28, 30) étant de préférence réalisés dans un premier matériau et les premier et deuxième pistons (27, 29) dans un deuxième matériau qui a un coefficient de dilatation thermique supérieur à celui dudit premier matériau.
     
    12. Ensemble de commande selon une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11, caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend un mécanisme à cliquet pour commander la direction générale de rotation admissible du tourniquet, lequel mécanisme à cliquet comprend au moins un élément circulaire cranté rotatif (16) relié opérationnellement audit moyeu (8) et au moins deux cliquets de verrouillage (21, 22) mobile chacun entre une position de verrouillage et une position de déverrouillage, lesdits cliquets de verrouillage comprend un premier cliquet de verrouillage (21) permettant, dans sa position de verrouillage, la rotation du tourniquet dans un premier sens mais verrouillant le tourniquet pour ce qui est de la rotation dans un deuxième sens qui est opposé audit premier sens, et un deuxième cliquet de verrouillage (22) permettant, dans sa position de verrouillage, la rotation du tourniquet dans ledit deuxième sens mais verrouillant le tourniquet pour ce qui est de la rotation dans ledit premier sens.
     
    13. Ensemble de commande selon la revendication 12, caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend un mécanisme de commande d'accès permettant de déplacer ledit premier cliquet de verrouillage entre ses positions de verrouillage et de déverrouillage et de déplacer ledit deuxième cliquet de verrouillage entre ses positions de verrouillage et de déverrouillage, ledit mécanisme de commande d'accès comprenant de préférence un premier électroaimant (24) pour déplacer ledit premier cliquet de verrouillage (21) de sa position de verrouillage dans sa position de déverrouillage ou vice-versa contre l'action d'un premier élément élastique et un deuxième électroaimant (25) pour déplacer ledit deuxième cliquet de verrouillage (22) de sa position de verrouillage dans sa position de déverrouillage ou vice-versa contre l'action d'un deuxième élément élastique.
     
    14. Ensemble de commande selon une quelconque des revendications 1 à 13, caractérisé en ce que ledit fluide hydraulique comprend de l'huile hydraulique.
     
    15. Tourniquet comprenant un arbre rotatif (1) avec des bras formant barrière (2) espacés sur un angle de x° les uns des autres, caractérisé en ce que le tourniquet est pourvu d'un ensemble de commande tel que revendiqué dans une quelconque des revendications 1 à 14.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description