(19)
(11)EP 2 722 959 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 12188659.2

(22)Date of filing:  16.10.2012
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H02J 3/38(2006.01)

(54)

Starting of a solar power plant

Starten einer Solarkraftanlage

Démarrage d'une installation d'énergie solaire


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(43)Date of publication of application:
23.04.2014 Bulletin 2014/17

(73)Proprietor: ABB Schweiz AG
5400 Baden (CH)

(72)Inventors:
  • Uusimäki, Jari
    00380 Helsinki (FI)
  • Hyttinen, Jarkko
    00380 Helsinki (FI)
  • Hellberg, Janne
    00380 Helsinki (FI)

(74)Representative: Kolster Oy Ab 
(Salmisaarenaukio 1) P.O. Box 204
00181 Helsinki
00181 Helsinki (FI)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A1- 2005 018 454
US-B1- 7 962 249
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention relates to photovoltaic power generation, and more particularly to starting of a photovoltaic power generation system.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0002] Photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems include one or more photovoltaic panels forming a panel array. The panel array is connected to power electronic devices that are used for optimizing the energy capture from the panels and for supplying the generated power to a grid or to energy storages. The power electronic devices comprise one or more converter stages for modifying the voltage and/or current obtained from the panel array. Commonly the power electronic devices in the PV systems are referred to as solar inverters or PV inverters although the devices typically include other converter topologies than an inverter.

    [0003] Solar power plants or photovoltaic power generation systems operate in changing environmental conditions. The environmental conditions change seasonally and with the weather. This leads to the fact that the criteria used for setting parameters for the optimal starting conditions are not constant. If a PV generator is started too early in the morning, it will not produce enough power and will be shut down, to be started again later. Such unnecessary starts and shutdowns wear down the components of the power generator system. On the other hand, if the generator system is started too late, some of the energy is lost, i.e. all possible energy from the solar panels is not fed to the electrical grid.

    [0004] It is known to optimize the parameters acting as starting criteria for the converters connected to a solar panel system according to changing conditions. Typical examples of the starting criteria are the voltage from the panel array and the time delay for the start. According to these criteria, the morning start-up procedure includes monitoring the open circuit voltage from the panel array, and when the voltage exceeds a set limit, the solar inverter is started after the time period set by the time delay has expired. In the known systems these parameters are corrected manually according to prevailing conditions. The manual setting of parameters for the starting criteria requires additional work both in the commissioning and during the operation of the solar power plant.

    [0005] The manual optimization of the parameters further leads to non-optimal situations due to the changing conditions. For example, when the PV panels are covered with dust the power generating system is not able to start with the criteria initially set for clean panels. The same problem occurs when panels or their connections are faulty. Correspondingly, when old panels are replaced with new ones or when panels are serviced, the criteria set for starting are no longer optimal.

    [0006] Document US2005/0018454 A1 discloses a converter system, in which the wakeup voltage is adjusted periodically.

    [0007] It is also known to optimize the starting parameters by using external irradiation or temperature sensors. Such external sensors, however, add to the complexity and costs of the system. Further, these external sensors cannot take into account changes occurring in the PV panels. Such changes occur, for example, when the panels grow old or dirty.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0008] An object of the present invention is to provide a method and a system for implementing the method so as to solve the above problems. The object of the invention is achieved by a method and a system which are characterized by what is stated in the independent claims. Preferred embodiments of the invention are disclosed in the dependent claims.

    [0009] The invention is based on the idea of optimizing the starting parameters on the basis of the measured active power obtained from the panel array after start-up. The measured active power is compared with a known optimal power required for a successful start-up, and the starting parameters are changed based on the comparison.

    [0010] The parameters of the starting criteria are changed automatically such that the start-up is adapted to possibly changing conditions. Such changing conditions are, for example, changed topology or amount of PV panels and/or changed atmospheric conditions. With the present method and system, the operating personnel of the solar power generator system does not need to change the parameters manually during the commissioning or operation of the system.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0011] In the following, the invention will be described in greater detail by means of preferred embodiments and with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which

    Figure 1 shows a flowchart of an embodiment of the invention,

    Figure 2 shows a flowchart of an embodiment of decreasing starting criteria,

    Figure 3 shows a flowchart of an embodiment of increasing the starting criteria, and

    Figure 4 shows a simplified structure of a photovoltaic power generation system.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0012] When a solar panel array receives irradiation from the sun after the night, the open circuit voltage of the panels starts to rise. Once the open circuit voltage exceeds a limit value set for the morning start, the operation of the power generator system, i.e. the one or more converters, is started after a time delay. The length of the delay Tstart and the voltage limit Vdc are parameters that are set for the morning start-up. In the present invention, once the converters of the system are started, the actual power Pac,k obtained from the panel array is determined. Preferably, the power is determined from the measured values of current and voltage from the panel array. The power is not necessarily determined from the current and voltage directly from the panel. The power can be determined from the current and voltage measured in the converter. Instead of both current and voltage being measured values, one of the values may also be a reference value outputted by some control circuit in the converter structure. Further, the power may also be determined from the current outputted by the converter system when the output voltage has a fixed value.

    [0013] Once the power Pac,k of the system after the starting instant is determined, it is compared with a limit value Pac,opt. The limit value represents the optimal starting power level needed for keeping the converter system reliably in operation. The converter system of a PV power generation system requires power for the operation of the system. This means that some of the power obtained from the panel array is used by the converter system and some of the power is dissipated in the system as power losses. These losses are somewhat known so that a limit value Pac,opt may be estimated for the system prior to the operation of the system. The power output from the panel array must exceed the limit value so that the operation of the converter system and the outputting of power are possible. The limit value may contain a safety margin so that values somewhat lower than the limit are sufficient for operating the converter system.

    [0014] If the actual power Pac,k of the system is near the limit value Pac,opt, it is determined that the starting parameters for the morning start-up does not need changing. If, however, the actual power Pac,k is by a certain amount higher or lower than the limit value, changes are made to the starting parameters. In an embodiment of the method, certain hysteresis change limits are determined, and once the actual power is outside the range of these limits, the starting is not optimal. In the embodiment, it is thus checked whether

    in which Ph is the defined hysteresis limit. As mentioned above, if Pac,k satisfies the condition of (1), the starting parameters are not changed.

    [0015] If the actual power Pac,k is higher than the limit value to which the hysteresis limit is added (i.e. Pac,k > Pac,opt + Ph), the power output at the start-up exceeds the required minimum power, and the power plant can be started earlier. The earlier start-up is carried out by changing one or more of the starting parameters.

    [0016] As mentioned above, the starting criteria comprise the starting voltage Vdc and time delay Tstart. In an embodiment of the invention, once the actual power Pac,k is higher than the limit value to which the hysteresis limit is added, it is determined whether the starting voltage is higher than the minimum starting voltage Vdc,min. The minimum starting voltage is a value of voltage obtained from the panels at which the start-up can be successful. If the determined starting voltage is above the minimum starting voltage, the value of the starting voltage is lowered. The lowering of the starting voltage Vdc is preferably carried out by subtracting a fixed voltage value Vstep from the previous starting voltage. In an embodiment of the method, the voltage value Vstep may also be a variable calculated by a function. This function may relate to, for example, historic data, i.e. selecting a larger step size if consecutive start-ups result in lowering the starting voltage. The function may also relate to the current value of the starting voltage, i.e. smaller step sizes if the starting voltage is near the minimum starting voltage.

    [0017] If the starting voltage is not higher than the minimum starting voltage, the starting voltage is not changed. The starting voltage is thus given the value of the minimum starting voltage.

    [0018] In another embodiment of the invention, the one or more of the starting parameters to be changed is the value of the time delay Tstart. Once the determined actual power Pac,k is higher than the sum of the limit value and the hysteresis limit, the start of the PV power generation system is made earlier by decreasing the time delay Tstart, unless the value of the time delay is at the minimum level. Thus in the method, if it is determined that the value of the time delay Tstart is higher than the minimum allowable value Tstart,min, the value of the parameter Tstart is decreased. As in connection with the starting voltage, the starting time delay is preferably decreased stepwise by subtracting a constant Tstep from the value of Tstart used. If Tstart is not higher than the value of Tstart,min, the value of Tstart,min is given to the parameter Tstart. According to another embodiment, the starting time delay is changed according to a function which may be related to historic data, i.e. previous morning start-ups, or to the difference between the current value of Tstart and the minimum allowable value Tstart,min.

    [0019] According to an embodiment, once the starting power is above the range of optimum values of power, i.e. higher than the sum of the limit value and the hysteresis limit, both the starting time and the starting voltage are changed according to the above procedure.

    [0020] If the actual power Pac,k is lower than the limit value from which the hysteresis limit is subtracted (i.e. Pac,k < Pac,opt - Ph), the power output at the start-up is not sufficient and the starting parameter should be changed. The hysteresis limit is preferably set in such a manner that starting the converter system is still possible even when the actual power is somewhat below the range. When the start-up power is below the range, it should be ensured that one or more of the parameters set for starting are increased.

    [0021] The procedure for increasing the starting parameters is the opposite to the above-described procedure of decreasing the parameters. According to an embodiment, once the actual power Pac,k is below the allowable range, it is examined whether the starting voltage Vdc is below a set maximum value for the starting voltage Vdc,max. If the starting voltage is lower than the maximum value, the starting voltage is increased. The starting voltage is preferably increased by adding a constant value Vstep to the prevailing starting voltage. The value added to the starting voltage may also be calculated based on historic data or the difference between the current value of the starting voltage and the maximum value of the starting voltage, as in the case of decreasing the parameters.

    [0022] If the starting voltage is not lower than the maximum value Vdc,max, the starting voltage Vdc obtains the value of the maximum voltage Vdc,max.

    [0023] According to another embodiment, one or more of the starting parameters are increased by increasing the time delay Tstart. Thus according to the embodiment, it is determined if the time delay Tstart is lower than a maximum starting time delay Tstart,max. If this is the case, the value of time delay is increased by a time step Tstep. If the time delay Tstart is not lower than the maximum starting time delay, the value of the maximum starting time delay is given to the time delay Tstart. As above, the value of the time step Tstep for changing the time delay is preferably constant or it can be a variable calculated with a function that takes into account historic data or the margin between the current value of Tstart and the maximum value of the starting delay.

    [0024] According to an embodiment of the invention, both the time delay and the starting voltage are changed according to the above procedure when the starting power is below the optimal power.

    [0025] The above-determined parameters for start-up, i.e. the time delay Tstart and the starting voltage Vdc, are stored in the system so that in the next start-up in the morning these parameters are put to use. Further, according to an embodiment, the values of the time delay and/or the starting voltage are stored so that historic data is gathered. This data is used for determining whether the system is slowly becoming defective. If, for example, the time delay Tstart and the starting voltage Vdc grow to maximum limits within a short time or change rapidly, it is possible that the system suffers from a fault. It is thus possible to use the changed parameters for producing an alarm to the maintenance personnel so that the system can be checked and possibly repaired before a total failure of the system. Similarly, the method of the invention can give an indication of panels covered with snow.

    [0026] When a solar power plant is equipped with a system comprising the method of the invention, the end user of the power plant does not have to set the starting parameters. Further, the properties of the PV panels need not to be known since the method adapts itself. If some PV panels are added to the system or old ones are replaced, the starting parameters adapt automatically without any effort from the personnel. Similarly, when the panels of the system grow old and the power output from the panels is slowly decreasing, the method adapts the parameters to the changed output level. Further, the method and system will observe if a string of the panel array or a DC fuse is faulty and change the starting parameters.

    [0027] The method and system also observe automatically changing atmospheric conditions in the starting parameters. These changing conditions include yearly temperature variations and the changing rising angle of the sun. The temperature of the panel array affects the open circuit voltage that is compared with the starting voltage limit while the rising angle of the sun relates to the length of the time delay. Both of these factors are taken into account separately and automatically in the present invention. The open circuit voltage of a panel array is higher in connection with a lower temperature. However, when the panels are loaded, i.e. connected to the converter, the voltage drops if the irradiation to the panels is not sufficient. Therefore, the varying temperature should be taken into account in the starting parameters. In the present invention, the temperature is taken into account automatically. Similarly, during the course of its yearly rotation the sun rises more quickly at certain times of the year. The rising speed or the rising angle is taken into account in the time delay used in starting the converter system. In an embodiment of the invention, the time delay adapts automatically so that the rising time of the sun is taken into account in the parameters.

    [0028] For example, when the days grow shorter, the morning temperatures tend to decrease. The decrease in the temperature increases the open circuit voltage of the panels. The increase of voltage due to the lower temperature makes the converter system start with too low an amount of produced power if the starting parameters are not changed. By increasing the starting voltage, the increased open circuit voltage due to the lower temperature is taken into account.

    [0029] Similarly, when the rising time of the sun grows longer, the time delay used in starting the converter system should be prolonged so that the irradiation to the panels of the system is sufficient for starting up the converter system.

    [0030] In the following, the operation of the invention is described in connection with Figures 1, 2, and 3 showing a flowchart of an embodiment. In Figure 1, a PV power generation system is started 1 when voltage from panels exceeds or reaches a set limit Vdc and a time Tstart expires after a voltage limit is crossed. Thus when the voltage from the panels reaches the set limit Vdc, a timer is started for calculating the delay Tstart. After the time delay the converter system is started, and the obtained power Pac,k from the panel array is determined 2.

    [0031] After start-up of the converter and determination of power, it is also determined whether the start-up is a morning start-up 3. This can be carried out by using a real time clock, for example. If the start-up is not determined to be a morning start-up, no changes are made to the starting parameters, and the values of Vdc and Tstart are kept as they are 4.

    [0032] If the start-up is a morning start-up, it is determined whether the actual determined power is in the optimal range 5. As described above, the optimal range for the starting power can be determined as a power limit within hysteresis limits. Once the actual power in the start-up is within the range, it is determined that the starting parameters need not to be changed 6. If the starting power is not within the range, it is checked 7 whether the power is above the optimal range. If the determined actual power is higher than the defined range, the starting parameters are decreased 8, and if the power is not higher, the starting parameters are increased 9 since it is already determined that the power is outside the optimal range. Decreasing and increasing the starting parameters (blocks 8 and 9) are shown in a more detailed manner in Figures 2 and 3.

    [0033] Figure 2 shows an embodiment of decreasing the starting parameters, i.e. block 8 of Figure 1. Once it is determined that the power is above the optimal range, the starting parameters are decreased. In the process of decreasing the parameters, it is checked 81 whether the starting voltage Vdc is higher than the minimum value set for the starting voltage Vdc,min. If the starting voltage is higher than the lower limit, the value starting voltage is lowered 82. In the embodiment of Figure 2, the the starting voltage is lowered by subtracting a constant value Vstep from the starting voltage used in the start-up. Thereby in the next morning start-up the converter system is started with a lower actual voltage of the panel array.

    [0034] If the starting voltage Vdc is not higher than the minimum starting voltage Vdc,min, the starting voltage receives the value of the minimum starting voltage 83. In other words, the starting voltage is at the lower practical limit already and cannot be further reduced.

    [0035] The decrease of starting parameters of Figure 2 also discloses that the starting delay Tstart is compared 84 with the minimum starting delay Tstart,min. If the starting delay used is greater than the minimum value, the starting delay is decreased 83. In the embodiment of Figure 2, the starting delay is decreased by subtracting a constant Tstep from the current value of Tstart. If the starting delay Tstart is not greater than the minimum value of the delay, the Tstart obtains the value of the minimum delay.

    [0036] Figure 3 shows an embodiment of increasing 9 the starting parameters due to the starting power being below the optimal range. In Figure 3, it is checked 91 whether the starting voltage Vdc used is below the upper limit set for the starting voltage Vdc,max. If the starting voltage is lower than the upper limit, the voltage is increased 92 by adding an increment Vstep to the present starting voltage Vdc for obtaining a starting voltage that is used in the next morning start-up and should always be less than an open loop voltage. If the starting voltage is not lower than the upper limit, the value of the upper limit Vdc,max is given as a value for the starting voltage Vdc.

    [0037] Further in Figure 3 the starting parameters are increased by comparing 94 the starting delay Tstart with a maximum value of the starting time Tstart,max, and increasing 95 the starting delay when the value of the starting delay used is lower than the maximum value. The increase is carried out by adding a constant Tstep to the current value of time delay. If the used starting delay is not lower than the maximum value, the maximum value is set for the time delay Tstart.

    [0038] In the embodiments of Figures 2 and 3, the increase and decrease of both the starting voltage and time delay are carried out with constants Vstep and Tstep. As mentioned above, these values may also be variables. Further, the values used for increasing and decreasing may differ from each other. This is to say that Vstep and Tstep may have different values for increasing the parameters and for decreasing the parameters.

    [0039] The method of the invention is preferably implemented in a converter system that is connectable to a solar panel array. The converter system also comprises connectors for feeding the power from the converter system to an alternating grid or to a DC system. The DC system may comprise DC storage means or a DC network.

    [0040] It is known that many types of converters exist that operate in connection with solar power. The system of the invention is not limited to the topology of the system, and thus the system may comprise multiple phase outputs and multiple converter stages. Figure 4 shows a simplified structure of a system of the invention, in which a solar panel array 41 is connected to a converter structure 42. The converter structure 42 is further connected to an AC grid 43.

    [0041] For implementing the method, the system comprises an arithmetic unit and storage means for storing the various parameters used in the operation. Further, the system comprises means for carrying out the various comparisons of the method.

    [0042] It will be obvious to a person skilled in the art that, as technology advances, the inventive concept can be implemented in various ways. The invention and its embodiments are not limited to the examples described above but may vary within the scope of the claims.


    Claims

    1. A method of optimizing one or more starting parameters of a solar power generator system, wherein the solar power generator system comprises a solar panel array (41) and a converter (42) for converting power obtained from the panel array (41), comprising
    measuring an output voltage of the panel array,
    comparing the output voltage with a starting voltage (Vdc),
    starting the solar power generator system when the output voltage of the panel array exceeds the starting voltage (Vdc) and after a predetermined adjustable time delay (Tstart) expires after crossing the starting voltage (Vdc), measuring the obtained power from the solar panel array after a morning start,
    comparing the obtained power with known upper and lower limits, and changing the one or more starting parameters on the basis of the comparison of power, wherein
    one of the starting parameters is the starting voltage (Vdc) level, and the step of changing the one or more starting parameters comprises the steps of decreasing the starting voltage (Vdc) when the obtained power is higher than the upper limit, and
    increasing the starting voltage (Vdc) when the obtained power is lower than the lower limit,
    one of the starting parameters is the time delay (Tstart) used in the starting of the generating system after the output voltage of the panel array exceeds the starting voltage (Vdc), and changing the one or more starting parameters comprises the steps of decreasing the time delay (Tstart) when the obtained power is higher than the upper limit, and
    increasing the time delay (Tstart) when the obtained power is lower than the lower limit.
     
    2. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the step of comparing the obtained power with a known limit value comprises the steps of
    comparing the obtained power with a lower limit and an upper limit, and
    changing the one or more starting parameters when the obtained power is higher than the upper limit or lower than the lower limit.
     
    3. A method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the decreasing or increasing of the starting voltage (Vdc) is carried out by adding a voltage step (Vstep) to the starting voltage (Vdc) used in the present starting or by subtracting a voltage step (Vstep) from the starting voltage (Vdc) used in the present starting.
     
    4. A method as claimed in claim 3, wherein the starting voltage (Vdc) has an upper and lower limit value (Vdc,max, Vdc,min), which values limit the increasing and decreasing of the starting voltage (Vdc).
     
    5. A method as claimed in claim 3 or 4, wherein the voltage step (Vstep) is a constant or a variable whose value depends on the difference between the current starting voltage (Vdc) and the upper or lower limit value (Vdc,max, Vdc,min).
     
    6. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the decreasing or increasing of the time delay (Tstart) is carried out by adding a time step (Tstep) to the time delay (Tstart) used in the present starting or by subtracting a time step (Tstep) from the time delay (Tstart) used in the present starting.
     
    7. A method as claimed in claim 1 or 6, wherein the time delay (Tstart) has an upper and lower limit value (Tstart,max, Tstart,min), which values limit the increasing and decreasing of the time delay (Tstart).
     
    8. A method as claimed in claim 6 or 7, wherein the time step (Vstep) is a constant or a variable whose value depends on the difference between the current time and the upper or lower limit value (Tstart,max, Tstart,min).
     
    9. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims 1 to 8, wherein the method further comprises
    generating an alarm when one or more of the parameters are at its limit value.
     
    10. A method as claimed in any of the preceding claims 1 to 9, wherein the method further comprises
    generating an alarm when one or more of the parameters increase rapidly.
     
    11. A solar power generator system for optimizing one or more starting parameters of the system, wherein the solar power generator system comprises a solar panel array and a converter for converting power obtained from the panel array, the system comprises
    means configured to measure an output voltage of the panel array,
    means configured to compare the output voltage with a starting voltage (Vdc),
    means configured to start the solar power generator system when the output voltage of the panel array exceeds the starting voltage (Vdc) and after a predetermined adjustable time delay (Tstart) expires after crossing the starting voltage (Vdc),
    means configured to measure the obtained power from the solar panel array after the start,
    means configured to compare
    the obtained power with known upper and lower limits, and
    means configured to change the one or more starting parameters on the basis of the comparison of power, wherein
    one of the starting parameters is the starting voltage (Vdc) level, and the means configured to change the one or more starting parameters comprises
    means configured to decrease the starting voltage (Vdc) when the obtained power is higher than the upper limit, and
    means configured to increase the starting voltage (Vdc) when the obtained power is lower than the lower limit,
    one of the starting parameters is the time delay (Tstart) used in the starting of the generating system after the output voltage of the panel array exceeds the starting voltage (Vdc), and the means configured to change the one or more starting parameters comprises
    means configured to decrease the time delay (Tstart) when the obtained power is higher than the upper limit, and
    means configured to increase the time delay (Tstart) when the obtained power is lower than the lower limit.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zum Optimieren eines oder mehrerer Startparameter eines Solarstrom-Erzeugungssystems, wobei das Solarstrom-Erzeugungssystem ein Solarpanelarray (41) und einen Wandler (42) zum Umwandeln der vom Panelarray (41) erlangten Energie umfasst, wobei das Verfahren umfasst:

    Messen einer Ausgangsspannung des Panelarrays,

    Vergleichen der Ausgangsspannung mit einer Startspannung (Vdc),

    Starten des Solarstrom-Erzeugungssystems, wenn die Ausgangsspannung des Panelarrays die Startspannung (Vdc) überschreitet, und nachdem eine im Voraus bestimmte einstellbare Zeitverzögerung (Tstart) nach Überschreiten der Startspannung (Vdc) abläuft,

    Messen der vom Solarpanelarray erlangten Energie nach einem morgendlichen Start,

    Vergleichen der erlangten Energie mit bekannten oberen und unteren Grenzwerten, und

    Ändern des einen oder der mehreren Startparameter auf Basis des Vergleichs von Energie, wobei

    einer der Startparameter der Pegel der Startspannung (Vdc) ist, und der Schritt des Änderns des einen oder der mehreren Startparameter die folgenden Schritte umfasst:

    Verringern der Startspannung (Vdc), wenn die erlangte Energie höher als der obere Grenzwert ist, und

    Erhöhen der Startspannung (Vdc), wenn die erlangte Energie niedriger als der untere Grenzwert ist,

    einer der Startparameter die Zeitverzögerung (Tstart) ist, die beim Starten des Erzeugungssystems benutzt wird, nachdem die Ausgangsspannung des Panelarrays die Startspannung (Vdc) überschreitet, und Ändern des einen oder der mehreren Startparameter die folgenden Schritte umfasst:

    Verringern der Zeitverzögerung (Tstart), wenn die erlangte Energie höher als der obere Grenzwert ist; und

    Erhöhen der Zeitverzögerung (Tstart), wenn die erlangte Energie niedriger als der untere Grenzwert ist.


     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Schritt des Vergleichens der erlangten Energie mit einem bekannten Grenzwert die folgenden Schritte umfasst:

    Vergleichen der erlangten Energie mit einem unteren Grenzwert und einem oberen Grenzwert; und

    Ändern des einen oder der mehreren Startparameter, wenn die erlangte Energie höher als der obere Grenzwert oder niedriger als der untere Grenzwert ist.


     
    3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei das Verringern oder Erhöhen der Startspannung (Vdc) durch Hinzufügen eines Spannungsschrittes (Vstep) zur beim gegenwärtigen Start verwendeten Startspannung (Vdc) oder durch Subtrahieren eines Spannungsschrittes (Vstep) von der beim gegenwärtigen Start verwendeten Startspannung (Vdc) durchgeführt wird.
     
    4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, wobei die Startspannung (Vdc) einen oberen und einen unteren Grenzwert (Vdc,max, Vdc,min) aufweist, wobei diese Werte das Erhöhen und Verringern der Startspannung (Vdc) begrenzen.
     
    5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3 oder 4, wobei der Spannungsschritt (Vstep) eine Konstante oder eine Variable ist, deren Wert von der Differenz zwischen der aktuellen Startspannung (Vdc) und dem oberen oder unteren Grenzwert (Vdc,max, Vdc,min) abhängig ist.
     
    6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Verringern oder Erhöhen der Zeitverzögerung (Tstart) durch Hinzufügen eines Zeitschritts (Tstep) zu der beim gegenwärtigen Start verwendeten Zeitverzögerung (Tstart) oder durch Subtrahieren eines Zeitschritts (Tstep) von der beim gegenwärtigen Start verwendeten Zeitverzögerung durchgeführt wird.
     
    7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 6, wobei die Zeitverzögerung (Tstart) einen oberen und einen unteren Grenzwert (Tstart,max, Tstart,min) aufweist, wobei diese Werte das Erhöhen und Verringern der Zeitverzögerung (Tstart) begrenzen.
     
    8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 6 oder 7, wobei der Zeitschritt (Vstep) eine Konstante oder eine Variable ist, deren Wert von der Differenz zwischen der aktuellen Zeit und dem oberen oder unteren Grenzwert (Tstart,max, Tstart,min) abhängig ist.
     
    9. Verfahren nach einem der vorgehenden Ansprüche 1 bis 8, wobei das Verfahren ferner umfasst:
    Erzeugen eines Alarms, wenn einer oder mehrere der Parameter sich an ihrem Grenzwert befinden.
     
    10. Verfahren nach einem der vorgehenden Ansprüche 1 bis 9, wobei das Verfahren ferner umfasst:
    Erzeugen eines Alarms, wenn einer oder mehrere der Parameter schnell erhöhen.
     
    11. Solarstrom-Erzeugungssystem zum Optimieren eines oder mehrerer Startparameter des Systems, wobei das Solarstrom-Erzeugungssystem ein Solarpanelarray und einen Wandler zum Umwandeln der vom Panelarray erlangten Energie umfasst, wobei das Verfahren umfasst:

    Mittel, die konfiguriert sind zum Messen einer Ausgangsspannung des Panelarrays,

    Mittel, die konfiguriert sind zum Vergleichen der Ausgangsspannung mit einer Startspannung (Vdc),

    Mittel, die konfiguriert sind zum Starten des Solarstrom-Erzeugungssystems, wenn die Ausgangsspannung des Panelarrays die Startspannung (Vdc) überschreitet, und nachdem eine im Voraus bestimmte einstellbare Zeitverzögerung (Tstart) nach Überschreiten der Startspannung (Vdc) abläuft,

    Mittel, die konfiguriert sind zum Messen der vom Solarpanelarray erlangten Energie nach dem Start,

    Mittel, die konfiguriert sind zum Vergleichen der erlangten Energie mit bekannten oberen und unteren Grenzwerten, und

    Mittel, die konfiguriert sind zum Ändern des einen oder der mehreren Startparameter auf Basis des Vergleichs von Energie, wobei

    einer der Startparameter der Pegel der Startspannung (Vdc) ist, und die Mittel konfiguriert sind zum Ändern des einen oder der mehreren Startparameter Folgendes umfassen:

    Mittel, die konfiguriert sind zum Verringern der Startspannung (Vdc), wenn die erlangte Energie höher als der obere Grenzwert ist, und

    Mittel, die konfiguriert sind zum Erhöhen der Startspannung (Vdc), wenn die erlangte Energie niedriger als der untere Grenzwert ist,

    einer der Startparameter die Zeitverzögerung (Tstart) ist, die beim Starten des Erzeugungssystems benutzt wird, nachdem die Ausgangsspannung des Panelarrays die Startspannung (Vdc) überschreitet, und die Mittel, die konfiguriert sind zum Ändern des einen oder der mehreren Startparameter, die die folgenden Schritte umfassen:

    Mittel, die konfiguriert sind zum Verringern der Zeitverzögerung (Tstart), wenn die erlangte Energie höher als der obere Grenzwert ist; und

    Mittel, die konfiguriert sind zum Erhöhen der Zeitverzögerung (Tstart), wenn die erlangte Energie niedriger als der untere Grenzwert ist.


     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé d'optimisation d'un ou de plusieurs paramètres de démarrage d'un système de génération d'énergie solaire, dans lequel le système de génération d'énergie solaire comprend un réseau de panneaux solaires (41) et un convertisseur (42) pour convertir la puissance obtenue à partir du réseau de panneaux (41), qui comprend :

    la mesure d'une tension de sortie du réseau de panneaux,

    la comparaison de la tension de sortie avec une tension de démarrage (Vdc),

    le démarrage du système de génération d'énergie solaire lorsque la tension de sortie du réseau de panneaux dépasse la tension de démarrage (Vdc) et après qu'un retard ajustable (Tstart) prédéterminé a expiré après le croisement de la tension de démarrage (Vdc),

    la mesure de la puissance obtenue à partir du réseau de panneaux solaires après un démarrage matinal,

    la comparaison de la puissance obtenue avec des limites supérieure et inférieure connues, et

    le changement desdits un ou plusieurs paramètres de démarrage sur la base de la comparaison de la puissance, dans lequel

    l'un des paramètres de démarrage est le niveau de la tension de démarrage (Vdc), et l'étape de changement desdits un ou plusieurs paramètres de démarrage comprend les étapes suivantes :

    diminution de la tension de démarrage (Vdc) lorsque la puissance obtenue est supérieure à la limite supérieure, et

    augmentation de la tension de démarrage (Vdc) lorsque la puissance obtenue est inférieure à la limite inférieure,

    l'un des paramètres de démarrage est le retard (Tstart) utilisé lors du démarrage du système de génération après que la tension de sortie du réseau de panneaux a dépassé la tension de démarrage (Vdc), et le changement desdits un ou plusieurs paramètres de démarrage comprend les étapes suivantes :

    diminution du retard (Tstart) lorsque la puissance obtenue est supérieure à la limite supérieure, et

    augmentation du retard (Tstart) lorsque la puissance obtenue est inférieure à la limite inférieure.


     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'étape de comparaison de la puissance obtenue avec une valeur limite connue comprend les étapes suivantes :

    comparaison de la puissance obtenue avec une limite inférieure et une limite supérieure, et

    changement desdits un ou plusieurs paramètres de démarrage lorsque la puissance obtenue est supérieure à la limite supérieure ou inférieure à la limite inférieure.


     
    3. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel la diminution ou l'augmentation de la tension de démarrage (Vdc) est effectuée en ajoutant un échelon de tension (Vstep) à la tension de démarrage (Vdc) utilisée lors du démarrage actuel ou en soustrayant un échelon de tension (Vstep) de la tension de démarrage (Vdc) utilisée lors du démarrage actuel.
     
    4. Procédé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel la tension de démarrage (Vdc) a des valeurs limites supérieure et inférieure (Vdc,max, Vdc,min), lesquelles valeurs limitent l'augmentation et la diminution de la tension de démarrage (Vdc).
     
    5. Procédé selon la revendication 3 ou 4, dans lequel l'échelon de tension (Vstep) est une constante ou une variable dont la valeur dépend de la différence entre la tension de démarrage (Vdc) actuelle et la valeur limite supérieure ou inférieure (Vdc,max, Vdc,min).
     
    6. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la diminution ou l'augmentation du retard (Tstart) est effectuée en ajoutant un échelon temporel (Tstep) au retard (Tstart) utilisé lors du démarrage actuel ou en soustrayant un échelon temporel (Tstep) du retard (Tstart) utilisé lors du démarrage actuel.
     
    7. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 6, dans lequel le retard (Tstart) a des valeurs limites supérieure et inférieure (Tstart,max, Tstart,min), lesquelles valeurs limitent l'augmentation et la diminution du retard (Tstart).
     
    8. Procédé selon la revendication 6 ou 7, dans lequel l'échelon temporel (Vstep) est une constante ou une variable dont la valeur dépend de la différence entre l'instant actuel et la valeur limite supérieure ou inférieure (Tstart,max, Tstart,min).
     
    9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8 précédentes, dans lequel le procédé comprend en outre
    la génération d'une alarme lorsqu'un ou plusieurs des paramètres sont à leur valeur limite.
     
    10. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9 précédentes, dans lequel le procédé comprend en outre
    la génération d'une alarme lorsqu'un ou plusieurs des paramètres augmentent rapidement.
     
    11. Système de génération d'énergie solaire pour optimiser un ou plusieurs paramètres de démarrage du système, dans lequel le système de génération d'énergie solaire comprend un réseau de panneaux solaires et un convertisseur pour convertir la puissance obtenue à partir du réseau de panneaux, dans lequel le système comprend :

    des moyens configurés pour mesurer une tension de sortie du réseau de panneaux,

    des moyens configurés pour comparer la tension de sortie avec une tension de démarrage (Vdc),

    des moyens configurés pour démarrer le système de génération d'énergie solaire lorsque la tension de sortie du réseau de panneaux dépasse la tension de démarrage (Vdc) et après qu'un retard ajustable (Tstart) prédéterminé a expiré après le croisement de la tension de démarrage (Vdc),

    des moyens configurés pour mesurer la puissance obtenue à partir du réseau de panneaux solaires après le démarrage,

    des moyens configurés pour comparer la puissance obtenue avec des limites supérieure et inférieure connues, et

    des moyens configurés pour changer lesdits un ou plusieurs paramètres de démarrage sur la base de la comparaison de la puissance, dans lequel

    l'un des paramètres de démarrage est le niveau de la tension de démarrage (Vdc), et les moyens configurés pour changer lesdits un ou plusieurs paramètres de démarrage comprennent :

    des moyens configurés pour diminuer la tension de démarrage (Vdc) lorsque la puissance obtenue est supérieure à la limite supérieure, et

    des moyens configurés pour augmenter la tension de démarrage (Vdc) lorsque la puissance obtenue est inférieure à la limite inférieure,

    l'un des paramètres de démarrage est le retard (Tstart) utilisé lors du démarrage du système de génération après que la tension de sortie du réseau de panneaux a dépassé la tension de démarrage (Vdc), et les moyens configurés pour changer lesdits un ou plusieurs paramètres de démarrage comprennent :

    des moyens configurés pour diminuer le retard (Tstart) lorsque la puissance obtenue est supérieure à la limite supérieure, et

    des moyens configurés pour augmenter le retard (Tstart) lorsque la puissance obtenue est inférieure à la limite inférieure.


     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description