(19)
(11)EP 2 725 631 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.08.2020 Bulletin 2020/35

(21)Application number: 13190235.5

(22)Date of filing:  25.10.2013
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01L 33/52(2010.01)
H01L 33/00(2010.01)
H01L 23/00(2006.01)
H01L 25/075(2006.01)

(54)

Method of Manufacturing LED Assembly using Liquid Molding Technologies

Verfahren zur Herstellung einer LED-Anordnung mithilfe von Flüssigformtechnologien

Procédé de fabrication d'un ensemble de DEL utilisant des technologies de moulage liquide


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 25.10.2012 US 201213660893

(43)Date of publication of application:
30.04.2014 Bulletin 2014/18

(60)Divisional application:
19195705.9 / 3608978

(73)Proprietor: FLEXTRONICS AP, LLC
Broomfield, CO 80021 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • Tam, Samuel
    Daly City, CA 94015 (US)
  • Kurwa, Murad
    San Jose, CA 95135 (US)
  • Pang, Dick
    New Territories (CN)

(74)Representative: D Young & Co LLP 
120 Holborn
London EC1N 2DY
London EC1N 2DY (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A2- 2 445 021
JP-A- 2011 199 066
US-A1- 2012 097 986
CN-A- 102 130 235
US-A1- 2012 025 214
US-A1- 2012 256 219
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Field of the Invention



    [0001] The present invention relates to a method of making an LED assembly.

    Background



    [0002] A typical LED assembling process performs dam attachment or dispensing dam epoxy adhesive followed by curing and dome formation on a single silicon chip that is singulated from a whole silicon wafer. Since the process has to be repeatedly performed on every chip, such process results in a high manufacturing/assembling cost, slow throughput, a low yield, and low placement accuracy. As a result, more machines are needed in the process and more inspection and control steps are involved in the typical LED assembling process.

    [0003] A typical LED assembling process is described in the following. Figure 1 shows a process flow 100 of the typical LED assembling process. At a Step 102, a singulated silicon panel is formed from a whole silicon wafer. At a Step 104, a die is attached to the singulated silicon panel. At a Step 106, flux reflow is performed. At a Step 108, flux cleaning is performed. At a Step 110, wire bonding is performed. At a Step 112, a dam is attached to the substrate or dispensing dam epoxy. At a Step 114, the process of dam curing is performed. At a Step 116, phosphor is dispensed into the dam. At a Step 118, the phosphor that is dispensed into the dam is cured. Subsequently domes are formed to encapsulate the LED components. At a Step 120, materials for the dome formation are dispensed. At a Step 122, the step of dome curing is performed. At a Step 124, strip panels with LED units are mounted onto the substrate. At a Step 126, saw singulation to make singular chips are performed.

    [0004] EP2445021A2 is directed to an LED package and a method for fabricating and LED package.

    [0005] US2012/097986 relates to semiconductor LEDs.

    Summary of the Invention



    [0006] Methods of and devices for improving the LED assembling process are disclosed. In the embodiment of the invention, which is defined by the features of the independent claim 1, molding technologies (simultaneously forming multiple dams and domes) are used to replace the single dam attachment and single dome dispensing step in the typical LED assembling process. In the embodiments, a whole silicon wafer is used in the assembling process, instead of a small silicon panel used in the typical LED assembling process.

    [0007] In an aspect, a method of making LED assembly comprises
    1. a. forming multiple phosphor holding dam structures on a whole silicon wafer using a liquid transfer mold, wherein the liquid transfer mold comprises a top mold and a bottom mold configured to press against each other and using an inner structure of the mold complimentary to the phosphor holding dam structures to concurrently form the multiple phosphor holding dam structures;
    2. b. coupling multiple LED dies on the silicon wafer within each of the phosphor holding dam structures;
    3. c. adding phosphor to an area enclosed by the multiple phosphor holding dam structures;
    4. d. curing the phosphor; and
    5. e. encapsulating the phosphor.


    [0008] In some embodiments, the method further comprises cutting the silicon wafer into one or more strips after the forming of the multiple dam structures.

    [0009] Dependent claims are directed to further preferred embodiments of the invention.

    [0010] Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent after reviewing the detailed description of the embodiments set forth below.

    Brief Description of the Drawings



    [0011] The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and form a part of this specification, illustrate embodiments of the invention and, together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention, but not limit the invention to the disclosed examples.

    Figure 1 is a flow chart illustrating a typical LED assembling process.

    Figure 2 is a flow chart illustrating a LED assembling process according to some embodiments of the present invention.

    Figures 3A-3F show parts of a LED assembling process according to some embodiments of the present invention.

    Figure 3A illustrates a dam forming process according to some embodiments of the present invention.

    Figure 3B illustrates a die attaching process of according to some embodiments of the present invention.

    Figure 3C illustrates a wire bonding process according to some embodiments of the present invention.

    Figure 3D illustrates a phosphor dispensing process according to some embodiments of the present invention.

    Figure 3E illustrates a dome forming process according to some embodiments of the present invention.

    Figure 3F illustrates a singulating process according to some embodiments of the present invention.



    [0012] The present invention is described relative to the several views of the drawings. Where appropriate and only where identical elements are disclosed and shown in more than one drawing, the same reference numeral will be used to represent such identical elements.

    Detailed Description of the Present Invention



    [0013] Reference will now be made in detail to the embodiments of the LED assembling method of the invention and apparatus obtained by said method, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. While the invention will be described in conjunction with the embodiments below, it will be understood that they are not intended to limit the invention to these embodiments and examples. On the contrary, the invention is intended to cover alternatives, modifications and equivalents, which may be included within the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims. Furthermore, in the following detailed description of the present invention, numerous specific details are set forth in order to more fully illustrate the present invention. However, it will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the prior art having the benefit of this disclosure that the present invention can be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known methods and procedures, components and processes have not been described in detail so as not to unnecessarily obscure aspects of the present invention. It will, of course, be appreciated that in the development of any such actual implementation, numerous implementation-specific decisions must be made in order to achieve the developer's specific goals, such as compliance with application and business related constraints, and that these specific goals will vary from one implementation to another and from one developer to another. Moreover, it will be appreciated that such a development effort might be complex and time-consuming, but would nevertheless be a routine undertaking of engineering for those of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of this disclosure.

    [0014] Methods of and devices for improving the LED assembling process are disclosed. In the the embodiments, liquid molding technologies are used to replace the single dam attachment and single dome dispensing in the typical LED assembling process, such that it provides a lower assembly manufacturing cost, a higher productivity with a better yield in the LED light chips assembling process.

    [0015] In the following, Figure 2 is a flow chart illustrating a LED assembling process 200 according to some embodiments of the present invention, At a Step 202, a whole silicon wafer is prepared. The whole silicon wafer can be prepared from a typical process that makes, for example, a single crystalline silicon wafer. At a Step 204, a liquid molding is used to form dams on the whole silicon wafer. At a Step 206, one or more dies are attached inside the dam to the substrate. At a Step 208, a step of flux reflow is performed. At a Step 210, the flux is cleaned from the wafer. At a Step 212, wires are bonded to the substrate. At a Step 214, phosphor is dispensed into the dam. At a Step 216, the phosphor dispensed is cured. At a Step 218, the process of liquid molding is performed to make each of the dam structures to be encapsulated becoming a dome structure. At a Step 220, the whole silicon wafer is mounted for a saw singulation process. At a Step 222, the saw singulation process is performed to make sigulated single LED chips/units. In the following, apparatuses that can be used to implement the process 200 are illustrated below.

    [0016] Figures 3A-3F show a LED assembling process 300 according to some embodiments of the present invention. Referring to Figure 3A, a dam forming process is shown according to some embodiments of the present invention. The process 300 is able to start from preparing a substrate 302, such as a silicon substrate or a silicon wafer. The substrate 302 comprises one or more units of LED cells 304. The unit cells 304 are able to be arranged on the substrate in an array to maximize the number of cells on the substrate 304. A person of ordinary skill in the art appreciates that any other patterns and arrangements of the cells are applicable. Electrodes 308 are patterned on the substrate 302. The electrodes 308 can comprise connectors that can be used to couple with an electrical power source to provide a voltage bias making the LED (Light Emitting Diode) to emit light. One of the dam structures 316 can be formed on each of the unit cells 314 as a side wall for containing/confining phosphors that is dispensed in a subsequent stage. A person of ordinary skill in the art appreciates that the shape, the height, and the thickness of the wall of the dams are variable. In some embodiments, the inside parts of the wall of the dam structures 316 forms a bowl structure with a flat bottom side. The dam structures 316 are able to be formed on each of the unit cells 304.

    [0017] In the In the embodiments, the dam structures 316 are able to be formed using a liquid transferring mold 310. The liquid transferring mold can comprise a top mold 312 and a bottom mold 314. The top mold 312 and the bottom mold 314 are able to be pressed against each other using the inner structure of the mold complimentary to the dam structures to concurrently form the multiple dam structures 316. The bottom mold 314 is able to have a cavity or hole for snug fitting the substrate wafer 302, The top mold 312 is able to contain a mold structure capable of shaping and forming the multiple mold structures 316. A surface 318 (the bottom side of the top plate 312) comprises a pattern 322 that is able to concurrently form multiple dam structures 316. A liquid molding material (such as a polymer) is able to be injected/spread/ applied on the multiple cavity 320 on the pattern 322, such that the multiple dam structures 316 are able to be formed. In some embodiments, each of the cell unit 304 comprises a dam structure 316 formed on the substrate 302.

    [0018] Referring to Figure 3B, a die attaching process 400 is described according to some embodiments of the present invention. A LED bin 401 is attached to the cell unit 304 on a selected location on the substrate wafer 302. In some embodiments, the die attachment is able to be performed by using an adhesive die attaching process. In some other embodiments, the die attachment is able to be performed by using an eutectic attachment process.

    [0019] Referring to Figure 3C, a wire bonding process 500 is described in accordance with some embodiments of the present invention. In some embodiments, a gold wire 502 is used to bond the LED die to the substrate wafer 302 on each of the unit cell 304. In some embodiments, the wire bonding can be performed using a typical wire bonding process known by a person of ordinary skill in the art.

    [0020] Referring to Figure 3D, a phosphor dispensing process 600 is described in accordance with the with the embodiments of the present invention. Phosphor 604 is dispensed through a phosphor dispensing device 602. The phosphor 604 that is dispensed in the dam structure 316 is able to be confined within the dam structure 316.

    [0021] Referring to Figure 3E, a dome formation process 700 is described in accordance with some embodiments of the present invention. After the phosphor is dispensed, a dome 704 is formed to encapsulate the structure 702 containing the phosphor that is dispensed in the dam structure. The dome 704 formation process 700 is able to be performed using a liquid transfer molding 706.

    [0022] Referring to Figure 3F, a singulation process 800 is described in accordance with some embodiments of the present invention. The substrate wafer 302 with LEDs assembled is mounted on a table 802 to be cut by a cutting device 804, such as a saw, After the singulation process 800, single units of LED 806 are formed.

    [0023] The LED assembling processes and devices disclosed herein have many advantageous aspects over the typical LED assembling process. For example, the assembling process that is performed on the whole silicon wafer, disclosed herein, is a more efficient process than the typical process that is performed in a small panel form. Further, the liquid transfer molding process disclosed herein can enhance the accuracy of dam and dome placement, such that the components of the LED assembling using the method disclosed herein have better adhesion to the silicon substrate. The rate of production (unit per hour, UPH) is increased four times in some testings when comparing with the typical process that uses a single dam attaching and single dispensing process.

    [0024] The liquid transferring molding used in the presently disclosed process also provides many advantageous aspects. For example, the liquid transferring molding process disclosed herein is capable of concurrently making multiple/arrays of dams and domes on the silicon wafer, which can have high dimension accuracy and precision, In some embodiments, the placement and dimension accuracy using the process disclosed herein can be within the range of ±10 micrometers. In contrast, the accuracy and precision can only be in the ±250 micrometer range in a typical LED assembling process. Additionally, with the use of the liquid molding process, many unneeded assembling process steps are able to be eliminated. The fully utilization of the wafer and machine has many advantageous aspects. For example, a lower assembling cost is attainable.

    [0025] The process and devices described herein can be utilized in making LED and semiconductor devices. In operation, the process is able to make the manufacturing/assembling process in a batch mode, such that the repetition of the manufacturing process on each single LED can be eliminated.

    [0026] The present invention has been described in terms of specific embodiments incorporating details to facilitate the understanding of the principles of construction and operation of the invention. The specific configurations shown in relation to the various modules and the interconnections therebetween are for exemplary purposes only. Such reference herein to specific embodiments and details thereof is not intended to limit the scope of the claims appended hereto. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that modifications may be made in the embodiment chosen for illustration without departing from the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.


    Claims

    1. A method of making an LED assembly (300) comprising:

    a. forming multiple phosphor holding dam structures (316) on a whole silicon wafer (302) using a liquid transfer mold (310), wherein the liquid transfer mold (310) comprises a top mold (312) and a bottom mold (314) configured to press against each other and using an inner structure of the mold complimentary to the phosphor holding dam structures (316) to concurrently form the multiple phosphor holding dam structures (316);

    b. coupling multiple LED dies (400) on the silicon wafer (302) within each of the phosphor holding dam structures (316);

    c. adding phosphor (604) to an area enclosed by the multiple phosphor holding dam structures (316);

    d. curing the phosphor (604); and

    e. encapsulating the phosphor (604).


     
    2. The method of Claim 1, wherein the encapsulating the phosphor (604) comprises using a liquid molding mold (310).
     
    3. The method of Claim 1, wherein the encapsulating the phosphor (604) comprises forming one or more dome (704) structures on the multiple phosphor holding dam structures (316).
     
    4. The method of Claim 1, further comprising singulating (800) after the encapsulating the phosphor (604).
     
    5. The method of Claim 1, further comprising concurrently forming multiple dome (704) structures on the silicon wafer (302).
     
    6. The method of Claim 1, further comprising cutting the silicon wafer (302) into one or more strips after the forming multiple phosphor holding dam structures (316).
     
    7. The method of Claim 1 further comprising
    forming (700) a dome structure (704) on each of the phosphor holding dam structures (316) using a liquid transfer mold (310).
     
    8. The method of Claim 7, further comprising singulating (800).
     
    9. The method of Claim 8, wherein the singulating (800) is performed by a saw (804).
     
    10. The method of Claim 7, further comprising forming an array of multiple LED light units (304) on the silicon wafer (302).
     
    11. The method of Claim 1 further comprising
    concurrently forming (700) a dome structure (704) on each of the multiple phosphor holding dam structures (316) using a second liquid molding.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer LED-Baugruppe (300), umfassend:

    a. Ausbilden von mehreren leuchtstoffhaltigen Dammstrukturen (316) auf einem ganzen Siliziumwafer (302) unter Verwendung eines Flüssigtransferwerkzeugs (310), wobei das Flüssigtransferwerkzeug (310) ein oberes Werkzeug (312) und ein unteres Werkzeug (314) umfasst, die dafür ausgebildet sind, gegeneinander zu drücken und unter Verwendung einer inneren Struktur des Werkzeugs komplementär zu den leuchtstoffhaltigen Dammstrukturen (316) gleichzeitig die mehreren leuchtstoffhaltigen Dammstrukturen (316) auszubilden;

    b. Koppeln von mehreren LED-Dies (400) auf dem Siliziumwafer (302) innerhalb jeder der leuchtstoffhaltigen Dammstrukturen (316);

    c. Hinzufügen von Leuchtstoff (604) zu einem durch die mehreren leuchtstoffhaltigen Dammstrukturen (316) eingeschlossenen Bereich;

    d. Härten des Leuchtstoffs (604); und

    e. Kapseln des Leuchtstoffs (604).


     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Kapseln des Leuchtstoffs (604) das Verwenden eines Flüssigformwerkzeugs (310) umfasst.
     
    3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Kapseln des Leuchtstoffs (604) das Formen eines oder mehrerer Dom(704)-Strukturen auf den mehreren leuchtstoffhaltigen Dammstrukturen (316) umfasst.
     
    4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, weiterhin umfassend das Vereinzeln (800) nach dem Kapseln des Leuchtstoffs (604) .
     
    5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, weiterhin umfassend das gleichzeitige Ausbilden von mehreren Dom(704)-Strukturen auf dem Siliziumwafer (302).
     
    6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, weiterhin umfassend das Schneiden des Siliziumwafers (302) in eine oder mehrere Streifen nach dem Ausbilden von mehreren leuchtstoffhaltigen Dammstrukturen (316).
     
    7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, weiterhin umfassend
    Ausbilden (700) einer Domstruktur (204) auf jeder der leuchtstoffhaltigen Dammstrukturen (316) unter Verwendung eines Flüssigtransferwerkzeugs (310).
     
    8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, weiterhin umfassend das Vereinzeln (800).
     
    9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, wobei das Vereinzeln (800) durch eine Säge (804) durchgeführt wird.
     
    10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, weiterhin umfassend das Ausbilden eines Arrays von mehreren LED-Lichteinheiten (304) auf dem Siliziumwafer (302).
     
    11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, weiterhin umfassend
    das gleichzeitige Ausbilden (700) einer Domstruktur (704) auf jeder der mehreren leuchtstoffhaltigen Dammstrukturen (316) unter Verwendung eines zweiten Flüssigformens.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé de fabrication d'un ensemble de DEL (300) comprenant :

    a. la formation de multiples structures de barrage de retenue de luminophore (316) sur une tranche de silicium entière (302) au moyen d'un moule de transfert de liquide (310), le moule de transfert de liquide (310) comprenant un moule supérieur (312) et un moule inférieur (314) configurés pour appuyer l'un contre l'autre, et au moyen d'une structure interne du moule complémentaire des structures de barrage de retenue de luminophore (316) pour former simultanément les multiples structures de barrage de retenue de luminophore (316) ;

    b. le couplage de multiples puces à DEL (400) sur la tranche de silicium (302) à l'intérieur de chacune des structures de barrage de retenue de luminophore (316) ;

    c. l'ajout d'un luminophore (604) à une zone délimitée par les multiples structures de barrage de retenue de luminophore (316) ;

    d. le durcissement du luminophore (604) ; et

    e. l'encapsulation du luminophore (604).


     
    2. Procédé de la revendication 1, dans lequel l'encapsulation du luminophore (604) comprend l'utilisation d'un moule de moulage liquide (310).
     
    3. Procédé de la revendication 1, dans lequel l'encapsulation du luminophore (604) comprend la formation d'une ou plusieurs structures de dôme (704) sur les multiples structures de barrage de retenue de luminophore (316).
     
    4. Procédé de la revendication 1, comprenant en outre une singulation (800) après l'encapsulation du luminophore (604).
     
    5. Procédé de la revendication 1, comprenant en outre la formation simultanée de multiples structures de dôme (704) sur la tranche de silicium (302).
     
    6. Procédé de la revendication 1, comprenant en outre la découpe de la tranche de silicium (302) en une ou plusieurs bandes après la formation de multiples structures de barrage de retenue de luminophore (316).
     
    7. Procédé de la revendication 1 comprenant en outre
    la formation (700) d'une structure de dôme (704) sur chacune des structures de barrage de retenue de luminophore (316) au moyen d'un moule de transfert de liquide (310).
     
    8. Procédé de la revendication 7, comprenant en outre une singulation (800).
     
    9. Procédé de la revendication 8, dans lequel la singulation (800) est effectuée par une scie (804).
     
    10. Procédé de la revendication 7, comprenant en outre la formation d'un réseau de multiples unités d'éclairage à DEL (304) sur la tranche de silicium (302).
     
    11. Procédé de la revendication 1 comprenant en outre
    la formation simultanée (700) d'une structure de dôme (704) sur chacune des multiples structures de barrage de retenue de luminophore (316) au moyen d'un deuxième moulage liquide.
     




    Drawing





























    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description