(19)
(11)EP 2 748 139 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.04.2017 Bulletin 2017/17

(21)Application number: 12778693.7

(22)Date of filing:  17.10.2012
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C07C 51/347(2006.01)
C07C 51/487(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2012/070524
(87)International publication number:
WO 2013/057126 (25.04.2013 Gazette  2013/17)

(54)

PROCESS FOR THE HYDRODECHLORINATION OF A LIQUID FEED COMPRISING DICHLOROACETIC ACID

VERFAHREN ZUR HYDRODECHLORIERUNG EINER FLÜSSIGKEITSZUFUHR MIT DICHLORESSIGSÄURE

PROCÉDÉ D'HYDRODÉCHLORATION D'ALIMENTATION DE LIQUIDE COMPORTANT DE L'ACIDE DICHLORACÉTIQUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 20.10.2011 EP 11185953

(43)Date of publication of application:
02.07.2014 Bulletin 2014/27

(73)Proprietor: Akzo Nobel Chemicals International B.V.
6824 BM Arnhem (NL)

(72)Inventors:
  • NIEUWHOF, Melle Rinze
    6953 BG Dieren (NL)
  • KOOIJMAN, Cornelis
    7412 AC Deventer (NL)
  • VOS, Hendrik Jan
    7313 GK Apeldoorn (NL)
  • TOLLIN, Lars Magnus
    663 31 Skoghall (SE)
  • VAN DEN BERG, Jacobus
    3781 MG Voorthuizen (NL)
  • VAN HAL, Henricus Johannes Marinus Petrus
    3771 ZC Barneveld (NL)

(74)Representative: Akzo Nobel IP Department 
Velperweg 76
6824 BM Arnhem
6824 BM Arnhem (NL)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 0 728 730
GB-A- 1 249 718
RU-C1- 2 318 796
US-A- 5 356 850
WO-A1-2008/025758
GB-A- 1 411 214
US-A- 3 754 029
US-A- 5 466 650
  
  • G. Mary Et Al: "Trickle-Bed laboratory reactors for Kinetic Studies", Int..1. Chem. Reactor Eng, 1 January 2009 (2009-01-01), page r2, XP055249516, DOI: 10.2202/1542-6580.1730 Retrieved from the Internet: URL:https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ijcre .2009.7.1/ijcre.2009.7.1.1730/ijcre.2009.7 .1.1730.xml [retrieved on 2016-02-12]
  • S.T. Sie Et Al.: "process development and scale up: III scale-up and scale-down or trickle bed processes", delft university of technology, 1 January 1998 (1998-01-01), page 3, XP055249517, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/revce .1998.14.3/revce.1998.14.3.203/revce.1998. 14.3.203.xml [retrieved on 2016-02-12]
  • M. Bhaskar ET AL: "Three-Phase Reactor Model to Simulate the Performance of Pilot-Plant and Industrial Trickle-Bed Reactors Sustaining Hydrotreating Reactions", INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH., vol. 43, no. 21, 1 October 2004 (2004-10-01), pages 6654-6669, XP055249362, US ISSN: 0888-5885, DOI: 10.1021/ie049642b
  • Shah, Y. T.: "Gas liquid solid reactor design", 1979, McGraw-Hill Inc page 93,
  • Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry: "Three-phase trickle-bed reactors", 2013, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim pages 1-34,
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The present invention relates to a process for the hydrodechlorination of a liquid feed comprising dichloroacetic acid (DCA).

[0002] The predominant industrial route for the production of monochloroacetic acid is by reacting acetic acid with chlorine. Such a process is commonly known and generally makes use of a reactor in which a mixture of liquid acetic acid (HAc) is reacted with chlorine under anhydrous conditions, using acetyl chloride as the catalyst. Acetyl chloride is preferably formed in-situ by the addition of e.g. acetic anhydride. In the chlorination reactor, monochloroacetic acid (MCA) and gaseous HCl are formed together with by-products of which dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are examples.

[0003] After the MCA-containing reaction product mixture has passed the reactor(s) and the catalyst recovery section, DCA is present in a significant amount, typically about 3-10%. To reduce the amount of DCA in the MCA, the MCA/DCA-containing product mixture is subsequently subjected to a purification process. The purification process can either be a physical separation, such as crystallization or distillation, or a chemical conversion, such as a reduction where DCA is reduced with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, e.g. a metal-based catalyst.

[0004] As the boiling points of monochloroacetic acid and dichloroacetic acid are very close (189° and 194°C, respectively), removal of DCA from MCA by distillation is expensive and uneconomical.
With crystallization, the concentration of dichloroacetic acid in a crude monochloroacetic acid feed can only be reduced by a factor of approximately 4, i.e., for example, from 3 to 0.7-0.8% by weight, with a one-stage recrystallization. Hence, for the production of pure monochloroacetic acid, the space and time requirements are considerable. Furthermore, after several crystallizations, a mother liquor remains comprising a mixture of monochloroacetic acid and dichloroacetic acid. Although this mother liquor still comprises at least 30% by weight of monochloroacetic acid, depending on the cooling conditions, it cannot be converted into a saleable product by further crystallization and has to be regarded as waste.

[0005] It is known that the concentration of dichloroacetic acid in crude monochloroacetic acid can be reduced considerably by a catalytic hydrodechlorination (for example in accordance with US 5,191,118 and US 5,356,850).

[0006] Further, US 3 754 029 describes a continuous process for purifying crude monochloroacetic acid by partial dehalogenation of the di- and trichloroacetic acid contained therein, which comprises trickling the crude acid in the liquid phase, at a temperature in the range of from 110°C to 145°C, over a stationary hydrogen catalyst consisting of at least one noble metal of subgroup VIII of the Periodic Table supported on an acid-resistant carrier material, simultaneously introducing hydrogen in countercurrent flow, and separating the acetic acid and monochloroacetic acid vapors contained in the hydrogen/hydrogen chloride waste gas leaving the reactor by fractional condensation.

[0007] GB 1 249 718 relates to a process for the purification of a crude material obtained by the chlorination of acetic acid with the resultant formation of monochloroacetic acid, the said crude material containing monochloroacetic acid together with dichloroacetic acid, acetic acid, and possibly trichloroacetic acid as by-products, by the steps of introducing an excess of hydrogen gas into the liquid crude material heated to a temperature of between 60 and 170°C and having a fine particulate hydrogenation catalyst consisting of an inert carrier and a noble metal consisting of an inert carrier and a noble metal belonging to group VIII of the periodic system suspended therein, with partial dechlorination of the dichloroacetic acid and eventually any trichloroacetic acid to monochloroacetic acid, and isolating the monochloroacetic acid from the hydrogenated material, which comprises using the noble metal deposited on the inert carrier in a concentration of less than 1 weight percent and using the catalyst in the feed material in a concentration of between 0.05 and 15 weight percent.

[0008] EP 0 728 730 describes a lab scale method for producing MCA by chlorination of acetic acid resulting in raw MCA, wherein the raw MCA is subjected to a catalytic hydrogenolysis before crystallization. The catalytic hydrogenolysis is carried out by contacting the raw MCA containing DCA with hydrogen in the presence of a solid heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst, wherein the process is carried out a temperature of 125°C to 140°C.

[0009] US 5,356,850 relates to a catalyst for the dehalogenation of alpha-halogenated carboxylic acids in the presence of hydrogen. Said catalyst comprises a rare metal of Group VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements which has been deposited on an inert support.

[0010] US 5,466,650 relates to a catalyst formed of an active charcoal support in the form of particles or of cylinders having a diameter from 0.3 to 1.5 mm and a length of 0.3 to 5 mm or spheres having a diameter from 0.3 to 2 mm, the said particles being loaded with a precious metal from group 8.

[0011] GB 1 411 214 discloses a lab scale process for the continuous purification of crude MCA by partially dehalogenating the di- and trichloroacetic acid impurities therein with hydrogen to form MCA, which comprises the steps of (a) intimately contacting the hydrogen with at least part of the hydrogenated product at a temperature of from 5 to 20°C above the hydrogenation temperature; (b) dehalogenating the di- and trichloro-acetic acids by trickling the molten crude acid at a temperature of from 110 to 155°C through a hydrogenation catalyst comprising a noble metal of Group 8 of the periodic table which has been precipitated substantially on the geometric surface of an acid-resistant carrier, in counter current to the hydrogen from step (a); and (c) fractionating the gas mixture obtained in step (b) at a temperature of from 115 to 135°C to produce a partial reflux.

[0012] WO 2008/025758 describes a process for the manufacture of substantially pure monochloroacetic acid from a liquid chloroacetic acid mixture comprising monochloroacetic acid and dichloroacetic acid, in particular in an amount of 2 to 40 percent by weight, wherein said mixture, further mixed with a suspended hydrogenation catalyst, is mixed with hydrogen gas and the liquid recirculation system coupled via an ejector mixing nozzle, in which reactor the gas and liquid are circulated in co-current flow, and the mixing intensity introduced to the liquid phase is at least 50 W/I of liquid phase.

[0013] In G. Mary et al. "Trickle-Bed laboratory reactors for Kinetic Studies, Int. 1 Chem. Reactor Eng, 1 January 2009, different phenomena affecting laboratory trickle-bed reactors are reviewed. In S.T. Sie et al. "Process Development and scale up: III scale-up and scale-down or trickle bed processes", Delft University of technology, 1 January 1998, scaling rules of laboratory trickle bed reactors are discussed as well as the influence of scale parameters on residence time distribution and catalyst contacting under conditions that are typical for hydrotreatment of oils.

[0014] M. Bhaskar et al. in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 43, no. 21, 1 October 2004, pp 6654-6669 discusses a three-phase heterogeneous model which was development to simulate the performance of pilot-plant and industrial trickle-bed reactors applied to the hydrodesulfurization of diesel fractions.

[0015] This reaction can be carried out in the vapour phase (for example in accordance with NL 109,769 and DE 1,072,980). However, this vapour phase reaction requires the evaporation of the feed to the hydrodechlorination reactor, which is unattractive with respect to energy consumption and investment costs for required heat transfer equipment.

[0016] Alternatively, the hydrodechlorination is carried out in slurry reactors in which the catalyst is finely dispersed in the liquid phase (for example in accordance with US 2,863,917, DE 1,816,931 and WO 2008/025758). The troublesome separation of the finely dispersed catalyst from the liquid phase is a significant disadvantage of these reactor types and the high degree of backmixing, in case of continuous operation of these reactors, will require multiple reactors in series to achieve high conversions. The latter will lead to high investment costs. Another possibility is to feed the liquid crude monochloroacetic acid to the top of a vertical tubular reactor in which it trickles downwards over a heterogeneous catalyst that is accommodated in a fixed bed, while hydrogen is fed to the top or bottom of the vertical tubular reactor (for example in accordance with US 3,754,029). These reactors are commonly known as trickle-bed reactors). However, from a hydrodynamic point of view this way of operation (with the gas in countercurrent flow) is disadvantageous, as it limits the capacity of the reactor column by flooding.

[0017] It is therefore preferred to feed the liquid crude monochloroacetic acid to the top of a vertical tubular reactor, in which it trickles down over a heterogeneous catalyst that is accomodated in a fixed bed, with cocurrent downflow of the source of hydrogen (as also mentioned in US 3, 754,029, RU 2,318,796, or RU 2,391,331). This way of operation prevents the excessive use of energy for the evaporation of the liquid feed to the reactor column, circumvents the troublesome separation of finely dispersed catalyst in slurry reactors, and allows for a broader operating window in comparison with trickle-bed reactors operated with countercurrent flow of the source of hydrogen.

[0018] The design and scale-up of these trickle-bed reactors (also denoted throughout this specification as vertical tubular reactors) is very complex due to complicated hydrodynamics, as argued by e.g. Shah (Y.T. Shah, Gas-liquid-solid reactor design, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1979, p.93), Westerterp & Wammes (K. Roel Westerterp, Wino J.A. Wammes: "Three-Phase Trickle-Bed Reactors" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, weinheim, 2005, and Hofmann (Hans Hofmann, "Hydrodynamics and hydrodynamic models of fixed bed reactors" in Agostini Gianetto and Peter L. Silveston (eds.), Multiphase chemical reactors - theory, design, scale-up, Hemishere Publishing Co., 1986). Moreover, it is impossible to operate a laboratory vertical tubular reactor and an industrial vertical tubular reactor simultaneously at the same liquid hourly space velocity (i.e. the amount of liquid fed to the reactor per hour and per unit volume of catalyst) and superficial mass velocity (i.e. the amount of liquid fed to the reactor per square meter cross-section), due to the large difference between the geometry of such units (see Mary et al., "Trickle-Bed Laboratory Reactors for Kinetic Studies," International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, Vol. 7: R2, 2009).

[0019] It is an object of the present invention to provide an industrial scale process for the purification of monochloroacetic acid by the catalytic hydrodechlorination of dichloracetic acid (and optionally trichloroacetic acid) in a vertical tubular reactor, wherein a higher mass transfer rate is achieved combined with a residence time distribution close to that of plug flow and wherein a higher conversion is achieved.
By an "industrial scale process" is meant that the catalytic hydrodechlorination step is carried out in an industrial scale sized vertical tubular reactor, hereinafter meaning a vertical tubular reactor having a diameter equal to or greater than 0.4 m.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an industrial scale process for the purification of monochloroacetic acid by the catalytic hydrodechlorination of dichloracetic acid (and optionally trichloroacetic acid) in a vertical tubular reactor while minimizing the required catalyst inventory.
It has surprisingly been found that these objectives are met when, for a vertical tubular reactor having a certain diameter, the superficial mass velocity of the liquid and the superficial gas velocity are within a certain range so that a relatively high average axial pressure gradient is obtained. More specifically, the present invention relates to a process wherein a liquid feed comprising monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and optionally acetic acid and/or trichloroacetic acid is subjected to a catalytic hydrodechlorination step by contacting it with a source of hydrogen to convert the dichloroacetic acid into monochloroacetic acid in the presence of a solid heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst comprising one or more metals of Group VIII of the Periodic Table of the Elements deposited on a carrier, characterized in that said catalytic hydrodechlorination step is carried out in a vertical tubular reactor with a diameter exceeding 0.4 m, with the solid heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst being situated in a fixed catalyst bed, wherein the liquid feed is fed to the top of said vertical tubular reactor at a superficial mass velocity of between 1 and 10 kg/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of the vertical tubular reactor and a rate of between 250 and 3000 kg/hr per m3 of said catalyst bed, wherein the source of hydrogen is fed to the top or bottom of the vertical tubular reactor at a superficial gas velocity of between 0.025 to 0.25 Nm3/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of the vertical tubular reactor, so as to obtain an average axial pressure gradient of at least 2 kPa per meter of said catalyst bed, and wherein the temperature in the top of the vertical tubular reactor is between 100 and 200°C, and wherein the pressure in the top of the vertical tubular reactor is between 0.2 and 1.0 MPa.

[0020] In a preferred embodiment, the liquid feed which is fed to the top of the vertical tubular reactor comprises at least 5.5% by weight of acetic acid. The acetic acid will partly evaporate in the trickle-bed reactor and thus increases the pressure drop over the reactor, resulting in a higher mass transfer coefficient.

[0021] The heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst according to the present invention preferably comprises between 0.1 and 3% by weight, more preferably between 0.5 and 2% by weight, based on the total weight of the heterogeneous catalyst, of one or more metals of Group VIII of the Periodic Table of the Elements. Preferably, the heterogeneous catalyst comprises ruthenium, rhodium, palladium and/or platinum. More preferably, it comprises palladium, platinum, or a combination thereof. Most preferably, it comprises palladium (Pd) and either sulfur or a sulfur compound. For example, the catalyst described in EP 0557169 or the catalysts as described in EP 0453690 are suitable for use in the present process.

[0022] The carrier on which the one or more metals of Group VIII of the Periodic Table of the Elements have been deposited is preferably selected from the group consisting of activated carbon, silica, alumina, zirconium oxide, and titanium oxide. Activated carbon is most preferred. The carrier may comprise sulfur or sulfur-containing components (either organic or inorganic in nature).

[0023] In a preferred embodiment, the heterogeneous catalyst which is used in step (b) of the process according to the present invention is palladium on an activated carbon carrier, while sulfur or sulfur-containing components such as CS2 may be added to the feed.

[0024] In one embodiment, the one or more metals of the heterogenous hydrogenation catalyst have been deposited on particles prepared from activated carbon, silica, or alumina, said particles being in the form of irregularly shaped granules, spheres, rings, trilobes, quadrulobes, or extrudates. More preferably, said particles are in the form of extrudates, trilobes, or quadrulobes, having a diameter of between 0.5 and 5 mm, preferably 0.8 to 3 mm, and a length of between 1 to 10 mm.

[0025] The catalyst is situated in a fixed catalyst bed. This fixed bed can consist of one single bed, or may be subdivided into multiple sub-beds that are together called "the fixed catalyst bed". The catalyst bed or each sub-bed are supported by a support grid. Furthermore, a liquid distributor may be mounted above the surface of the entire catalyst bed and/or above the surface of one or more sub-beds to provide for a good liquid distribution over the diameter of said catalyst bed.
Suitable construction materials for these column internals (i.e. the support grid and the liquid distributor) include glass lined steel; tantalum and tantalum alloys, including tantalum claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; platinum and platinum alloys, including platinum claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; zirconium and zirconium alloys, including zirconium claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; graphite or impregnated graphite; ceramics - such as e.g. silicon carbide (SiC), zirconia (ZrO2), alumina (Al2O3), glas, or quartz; acid resistant bricks; polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE); fluoropolymer - e.g. PTFE, perfluoralkoxy polymers (PFA), fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP) or polyethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) - linings or coatings on steel, stainless steel, or fiber-reinforced plastics; nickel-chromium alloys; nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys; nickel-copper alloys; silver, including silver claddings or silver coatings on steel or stainless steel; niobium and niobium alloys; and polyether ether ketone and PEEK-coated steel.
Preferred construction materials for the internals are glass lined steel; tantalum and tantalum alloys, including tantalum claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; platinum and platinum alloys, including platinum claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; zirconium and zirconium alloys, including zirconium claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; graphite or impregnated graphite; ceramics - such as silicon carbide (SiC), zirconia (ZrO2), alumina (Al2O3), glass, or quartz; acid resistant bricks; polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE); fluoropolymer - e.g. PTFE, perfuloralkoxy polymers (PFA), fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP) or polyethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) - linings or coatings on steel, stainless steel, or fiber-reinforced plastics.
More preferred construction material of the internals are glass lined steel; graphite or impregnated graphite; tantalum and tantalum alloys, including tantalum claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; and zirconium and zirconium alloys, including zirconium claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel.
Most preferably, the construction material for the internals is graphite or impregnated graphite.

[0026] The source of hydrogen that is fed to the purification process according to the present invention is a source of hydrogen gas, which can either be substantially pure hydrogen gas or a gas comprising hydrogen gas and up to 50 mole% of nitrogen, hydrogen chloride, or a mixture thereof.

[0027] The hydrodechlorination step is carried out using a vertical tubular reactor containing the solid heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst as described above in a fixed bed (also sometimes denoted as a stationary bed of catalyst particles). Suitable reactor construction materials include glass lined steel; tantalum and tantalum alloys, including tantalum claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; platinum and platinum alloys, including platinum claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; zirconium and zirconium alloys, including zirconium claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; graphite or impregnated graphite; ceramics - e.g. silicon carbide (SiC), zirconia (ZrO2), alumina (Al2O3), glas and quartz; acid resistant bricks, polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE); fluoropolymer - e.g. PTFE, perfuloralkoxy polymers (PFA), fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP) or polyethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) - linings or coatings on steel, stainless steel, or fiber-reinforced plastics; nickel-chromium alloys; nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys; nickel-copper alloys; silver, including silver claddings or silver coatings on steel or stainless steel; niobium and niobium alloys; and polyether ether ketone or PEEK coated steel. Preferred construction materials are glass lined steel; tantalum and tantalum alloys, including tantalum claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; platinum and platinum alloys ,including platinum claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; zirconium and zirconium alloys, including zirconium claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; graphite or impregnated graphite; ceramics - such as silicon carbide (SiC), zirconia (ZrO2), alumina (Al2O3), glass and quartz; acid resistant bricks; polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE); fluoropolymer - e.g. PTFE, perfuloralkoxy polymers (PFA), fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP), or polyethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) - linings or coatings on steel, stainless steel, or and fiber-reinforced plastics.
More preferably, the construction material is selected from the group consisting of glass lined steel; tantalum and tantalum alloys, including tantalum claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel; and zirconium and zirconium alloys, including zirconium claddings or coatings on steel or stainless steel.
The most preferred construction material is glass lined steel.
The liquid feed comprising monochloroactic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and optionally acetic acid and/or trichloroacetic acid is fed to the top of the vertical tubular reactor. The hydrogen gas or the mixture of hydrogen gas and up to 50 mole% of an inert gas is preferably fed to the top of the vertical tubular reactor (resulting in a co-current downflow with the liquid feed). The hydrogen gas or mixture of hydrogen gas and up to 50 mol% of an inert gas can also be fed from the bottom of the vertical tubular reactor (i.e. in countercurrent with the liquid feed); however, as the operating window is smaller (i.e. the capacity of the reactor is limited by flooding), the co-current downflow embodiment is preferred.

[0028] As mentioned above, the liquid feed is fed to the top of said vertical tubular reactor at a superficial mass velocity of between 1 and 10 kg/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of said reactor (the term superficial mass velocity (kg/m2/s) refers to the mass flow divided by the horizontal cross-sectional area of said reactor). Preferably, it is fed to the top of said vertical tubular reactor at a superficial mass velocity of at least 2 kg/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of said reactor, more preferably at least 2.5 kg/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of said reactor, and most preferably at least 3 kg/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of said reactor. Preferably, the liquid feed is fed to the top of said vertical tubular reactor at a superficial mass velocity of at most 8 kg/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of said reactor, more preferably at a superficial mass velocity of at most 7 kg/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of said reactor, and most preferably at a superficial mass velocity of at most 6 kg/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of said reactor.

[0029] The source of hydrogen is fed to the top of the vertical tubular reactor at a superficial gas velocity of between 0.025 to 0.25 Nm3/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of the vertical tubular reactor (the term superficial gas velocity (m/s) refers to the gas velocity based on the horizontal cross-section of said vertical tubular reactor). Preferably, the source of hydrogen is fed to the top or bottom of the vertical tubular reactor at a superficial gas velocity of at least 0.03 Nm3/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of the vertical tubular reactor, more preferably at a superficial gas velocity of at least 0.035 Nm3/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of the vertical tubular reactor, and most preferably at a superficial gas velocity of at least 0.04 Nm3/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of the vertical tubular reactor. Preferably, it is fed at a superficial gas velocity of at most 0.25 Nm3/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of the vertical tubular reactor, more preferably of at most 0.20 Nm3/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of the vertical tubular reactor, and most preferably of at most 0.15 Nm3/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of the vertical tubular reactor.
The temperature in the top of the reactor is preferably kept between 100 and 200°C, and more preferably between 145 and 175°C. The pressure in the top of the vertical tubular reactor is preferably kept between 0.2 and 1.0 MPa, preferably between 0.3 and 0.6 MPa.

[0030] In order to minimize the risk of liquid maldistribution in the trickle-bed reactor (see e.g. Saroha & Nigam, "Trickle-bed reactors," Reviews in Chemical Engineering, 12, 3-4, 207-347, 1996), the fixed bed in which the heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst is situated has preferably been prepared by loading the vertical tubular reactor with the heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst using a dense loading technique. Maldistribution in catalyst beds is known to significantly decrease the reactor's performance and runtime. The dense loading technique is a conventional loading technique whereby the vertical tubular reactor is loaded with particles of catalyst simultaneously over the entire cross-section of said reactor. The result is that a catalyst bed is obtained which is uniformly loaded and wherein the density is increased when compared to other reactor loading techniques. When compared to sock loading, a well known loading technique, the density of the catalyst bed has increased by on average at least 10%, as can be found in Gert Griffioen and Michel Wijbrands, "Caring for Catalysts," Hydrocarbon Engineering, June 2010by. The fixed bed with densely loaded catalyst according to the present invention can for instance be prepared using the well-known Densicat® or the Catapac™ technique. Suitable dense loading methods and equipment are described in EP 769,462, US 4,051,019, US 4,159,785, EP 0727250, WO 2008/109671, and US 5,449,501.

[0031] The liquid feed to be subjected to the process according to the present invention preferably comprises
  1. (i) between 60 and 99.5% by weight of monochloroacetic acid,
  2. (ii) between 0.05 and 20% by weight, preferably between 1 and 12% by weight, of dichloroacetic acid,
  3. (iii) between 0 and 30% by weight of acetic acid,
  4. (iv) between 0.1 and 5% by weight of water, preferably between 0.1 and 1% by weight of water, most preferably between 0.1 and 0.5% by weight of water, and
  5. (v) between 0 and 5% by weight of other components,
up to a total of 100%, based on the total weight of the liquid feed.

[0032] Other components may include a minor amount of acid anhydrides, trichloroacetic acid, bromoacetic acid, and alpha-chloropropionic acid. It is noted that due to the presence of the water, acid chlorides cannot be present in said liquid feed.

[0033] The liquid feed to be subjected to the process according to the present invention preferably comprises at least 5.5% by weight of acetic acid, more preferably at least 6% by weight of acetic acid, and most preferably at least 8% by weight of acetic acid, based on the total weight of the liquid feed. Preferably, no more than 20% of acetic acid is present in the liquid feed, more preferably no more than 12% by weight of acetic acid is present in the liquid feed, based on the total weight of the liquid feed.

[0034] The process according to the present invention is further illustrated by the following non-limiting examples.

Comparative Example 1



[0035] A liquid feed of 1,620 kg/h comprising 88.1% monochloroacetic acid, 4.1% dichloroacetic acid, 5.4% acetic acid, 1.9% HCl, and 0.5% water was mixed with 3.86 kg/h hydrogen. The resulting gas-liquid mixture was heated to 171°C and fed to the top of a vertical column with a diameter of 0.8 m and a length of 16 m. The vertical column was filled with a catalyst comprising 1% of Pd on an activated carbon support (catalyst particles comparable to those described in Example 1 of EP 0557169). The catalyst particles were loaded into the reactor by first filling the reactor with water and (slowly) adding the catalyst. Where necessary, water was allowed to drain via the bottom of the reactor to prevent the reactor from overflowing during its filling with catalyst. The reactor is completely drained after all the required catalyst has been added. The catalyst particles were in the form of extrudates having a diameter of 1.5 mm and an average length over diameter ratio of 1.84. The pressure in the top of the column was maintained at 0.32 MPa. The pressure drop over the vertical column was 4 kPa. The gas flow from the bottom of the reactor was passed over a condenser and the condensed vapours were mixed with the liquid leaving the bottom of the reactor, resulting in a crude mixture comprising 0.19% dichloroacetic acid. The final monochloroacetic acid product comprised 0.20% dichloroacetic acid, after distilling off the light and heavy ends.

Comparative Example 2



[0036] A liquid feed of 1,620 kg/h comprising 88.1% monochloroacetic acid, 4.1% dichloroacetic acid, 5.4% acetic acid, 1.9% HCl, and 0.5% water was mixed with 3.86 kg/h hydrogen. The resulting gas-liquid mixture was heated to 171°C and fed to the top of a vertical column with a diameter of 0.6 m and a length of 16 m, reducing the catalyst inventory from 8 m3 to 4.5 m3. The vertical column was filled with a catalyst comprising 1% of Pd on an activated carbon support (catalyst particles comparable to those described in Example 1 of EP 0557169). The catalyst particles were loaded into the reactor by first filling the reactor with water and (slowly) adding the catalyst. Where necessary, water was allowed to drain via the bottom of the reactor to prevent the reactor from overflowing during its filling with catalyst. The reactor is completely drained after all the required catalyst has been added. The catalyst particles were in the form of extrudates having a diameter of 1.5 mm and an average length over diameter ratio of 1.84. The pressure in the top of the column was maintained at 0.32 MPa. The pressure drop over the vertical column was 27 kPa. The gas flow from the bottom of the reactor was passed over a condenser and the condensed vapours were mixed with the liquid leaving the bottom of the reactor, resulting in a crude mixture comprising 0.11 % dichloroacetic acid. The final monochloroacetic acid product, after distilling off the light and heavy ends, comprised 0.11% dichloroacetic acid.

[0037] The results as shown in Comparative Example 1 and Example 2 clearly show that with less catalyst (in a column having a smaller diameter), a purer product is obtained.

Example 5



[0038] A liquid feed of 4,043 kg/h comprising 88.1% monochloroacetic acid, 4.1% dichloroacetic acid, 5.4% acetic acid, 1.9% HCl, and 0.5% water was mixed with 8.91 kg/h hydrogen. The resulting gas-liquid mixture was heated to 171°C and fed to the top of a vertical column with a diameter of 0.8 m and a length of 16 m. The vertical column was filled with a catalyst comprising 1% of Pd on an activated carbon support (catalyst particles comparable to those described in Example 1 of EP 0557169). The catalyst particles were loaded into the reactor by first filling the reactor with water and (slowly) adding the catalyst. Where necessary, water was allowed to drain via the bottom of the reactor to prevent the reactor from overflowing during its filling with catalyst. The reactor is completely drained after all the required catalyst has been added. The catalyst particles were in the form of extrudates having a diameter of 1.5 mm and an average length over diameter ratio of 1.84. The pressure in the top of the column was maintained at 0.4 MPa. The pressure drop over the vertical column was 31 kPa. The gas flow from the bottom of the reactor was passed over a condenser and the condensed vapours were mixed with the liquid leaving the bottom of the reactor, resulting in a crude mixture comprising 0.074% dichloroacetic acid. The final monochloroacetic acid product comprised 0.080% dichloroacetic acid, after distilling off the light and heavy ends.

Example 6



[0039] A liquid feed of 4,043 kg/h comprising 87.0% monochloroacetic acid, 4.1% dichloroacetic acid, 6.5% acetic acid, 1.9% HCl, and 0.5% water was mixed with 8.91 kg/h hydrogen. The resulting gas-liquid mixture was heated to 171°C and fed to the top of a vertical column with a diameter of 0.8 m and a length of 16 m. The vertical column was filled with a catalyst comprising 1% of Pd on an activated carbon support (catalyst particles comparable to those described in Example 1 of EP 0557169). The catalyst particles were loaded into the reactor by first filling the reactor with water and (slowly) adding the catalyst. Where necessary, water was allowed to drain via the bottom of the reactor to prevent the reactor from overflowing during its filling with catalyst. The reactor is completely drained after all the required catalyst has been added. The catalyst particles were in the form of extrudates having a diameter of 1.5 mm and an average length over diameter ratio of 1.84. The pressure in the top of the column was maintained at 0.4 MPa. The pressure drop over the vertical column was 33 kPa. The gas flow from the bottom of the reactor was passed over a condenser and the condensed vapours were mixed with the liquid leaving the bottom of the reactor, resulting in a crude mixture comprising 0.068% dichloroacetic acid. The final monochloroacetic acid product comprised 0.074% dichloroacetic acid, after distilling off the light and heavy ends.

[0040] The results as shown in Example 5 and Example 6 again show that with an increased acetic acid content in the feed, an even purer product is obtained.

Example 7



[0041] A liquid feed of 4,043 kg/h comprising 87.0% monochloroacetic acid, 4.1% dichloroacetic acid, 6.5% acetic acid, 1.9% HCl, and 0.5% water was mixed with 8.91 kg/h hydrogen. The resulting gas-liquid mixture was heated to 171°C and fed to the top of a vertical column with a diameter of 0.6 m and a length of 20 m. The vertical column was filled with a catalyst comprising 1% of Pd on an activated carbon support (catalyst particles comparable to those described in Example 1 of EP 0557169). The catalyst particles were loaded into the reactor by first filling the reactor with water and (slowly) adding the catalyst. Where necessary, water was allowed to drain via the bottom of the reactor to prevent the reactor from overflowing during its filling with catalyst. The reactor is completely drained after all the required catalyst has been added. The catalyst particles were in the form of extrudates having a diameter of 1.5 mm and an average length over diameter ratio of 1.84. The pressure in the top of the column was maintained at 0.4 MPa. The pressure drop over the vertical column was 157 kPa. The gas flow from the bottom of the reactor was passed over a condenser and the condensed vapours were mixed with the liquid leaving the bottom of the reactor, resulting in a crude mixture comprising 0.043% dichloroacetic acid. The final monochloroacetic acid product comprised 0.047% dichloroacetic acid, after distilling off the light and heavy ends.

[0042] The results as shown in Example 6 and Example 7 show that with less catalyst (in a column with a smaller diameter), an even purer product is obtained.

Example 8



[0043] A liquid feed of 4,043 kg/h comprising 87.0% monochloroacetic acid, 4.1% dichloroacetic acid, 6.5% acetic acid, 1.9% HCl, and 0.5% water was mixed with 8.91 kg/h hydrogen. The resulting gas-liquid mixture was heated to 171°C and fed to the top of a vertical column with a diameter of 0.8 m and a length of 12 m. The vertical column was filled with a catalyst comprising 1% of Pd on an activated carbon support (catalyst particles comparable to those described in Example 1 of EP 0557169). The reactor was filled with catalyst by means of the Densicat® dense loading technique. Other dense loading techniques, including e.g. the Catapac™ dense loading techniques, are also suitable. The catalyst particles were in the form of extrudates having a diameter of 1.5 mm and an average length over diameter ratio of 1.84. The pressure in the top of the column was maintained at 0.4 MPa. The pressure drop over the vertical column was 97 kPa. The gas flow from the bottom of the reactor was passed over a condenser and the condensed vapours were mixed with the liquid leaving the bottom of the reactor, resulting in a crude mixture comprising 0.027% dichloroacetic acid. The final monochloroacetic acid product comprised 0.030% dichloroacetic acid, after distilling off the light and heavy ends.

[0044] The difference between Examples 5, 6, 7 and Example 8 is that in Example 8, the catalyst was loaded using a dense loading technique and a high average axial pressure gradient was applied. This results in a pure product.


Claims

1. A process wherein a liquid feed comprising monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and optionally acetic acid and/or trichloroacetic acid is subjected to a catalytic hydrodechlorination step by contacting it with a hydrogen gas or a gas comprising hydrogen gas and up to 50 mole% of nitrogen, hydrogen choride, or a mixture thereof, to convert the dichloroacetic acid into monochloroacetic acid in the presence of a solid heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst comprising one or more metals of Group VIII of the Periodic Table of the Elements deposited on a carrier, characterized in that said catalytic hydrodechlorination step is carried out in a vertical tubular reactor with a diameter exceeding 0.4 m, with the solid heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst being situated in a fixed catalyst bed, wherein the liquid feed is fed to the top of said vertical tubular reactor at a superficial mass velocity of between 1 and 10 kg/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of the vertical tubular reactor and a rate of between 250 and 3,000 kg/hr per m3 of said catalyst bed, wherein the hydrogen gas or gas comprising hydrogen gas and up to 50 mole% of nitrogen, hydrogen choride, or a mixture thereof is fed to the top or bottom of the vertical tubular reactor at a superficial gas velocity of between 0.025 to 0.25 Nm3/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of the vertical tubular reactor, so as to obtain an average axial pressure gradient of at least 2 kPa per meter of said catalyst bed, and wherein the temperature in the top of the vertical tubular reactor is between 100 and 200°C, and wherein the pressure in the top of the vertical tubular reactor is between 0.2 and 1.0 MPa.
 
2. Process according to claim 1 wherein the liquid feed fed to the top of said vertical tubular reactor comprises at least 5.5% by weight acetic acid.
 
3. Process according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the fixed bed in which the heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst is situated has been prepared by loading the vertical tubular reactor with the heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst using a dense loading technique.
 
4. Process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the liquid feed is fed to the top of said vertical tubular reactor at a superficial mass velocity is between 2.5 and 6 kg/s per square meter of the horizontal cross-section of the vertical tubular reactor.
 
5. Process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the heterogeneous catalyst comprises between 0.1 and 3% by weight, preferably between 0.5 and 2% by weight, based on the total weight of the heterogeneous catalyst, of the one or more metals of Group VIII of the Periodic Table of the Elements.
 
6. Process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the carrier is selected from the group consisting of activated carbon, silica, alumina, zirconium oxide, and titanium oxide, and optionally comprises sulfur or one or more sulfur-containing components.
 
7. Process according to claim 6, wherein the carrier is in the form of particles, said particles being in the form of irregularly shaped granules, spheres, rings, trilobes, quadrulobes, or extrudates.
 
8. Process according to claim 7 wherein the particles are in the form of extrudates, trilobes, or quadrulobes, and wherein said extrudates, trilobes or quadrulobes have a diameter of between 0.8 to 3 mm and a length of between 1 to 10 mm.
 
9. Process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the heterogeneous catalyst comprises palladium and/or platinum.
 
10. Process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the temperature in the top of the vertical tubular reactor is between 145 and 175°C.
 
11. Process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the hydrogen gas or gas comprising hydrogen gas and up to 50 mole% of nitrogen, hydrogen choride, or a mixture thereof is fed to the top of the vertical tubular reactor, resulting in a co-current downflow with the liquid feed.
 
12. Process according to claim 11 wherein the pressure in the top of the vertical tubular reactor is between 0.3 and 0.6 MPa.
 
13. Process according to any one of claims 1-10 wherein the hydrogen gas or gas comprising hydrogen gas and up to 50 mole% of nitrogen, hydrogen choride, or a mixture thereof is fed to the bottom of the vertical tubular reactor and the pressure at the bottom of the vertical tubular reactor is between 0.3 and 0.6 MPa.
 
14. Process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the liquid feed to be subjected to the catalytic hydrodehalogenation step comprises

(i) between 60 and 99.5% by weight of monochloroacetic acid,

(ii) between 0.05 and 20% by weight, preferably between 2 and 12% by weight, of dichloroacetic acid,

(iii) between 0 and 30% by weight of acetic acid,

(iv) between 0.1 and 5% by weight of water, and

(v) between 0 and 5% by weight of other components,

up to a total of 100%, based on the total weight of the liquid feed.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren, wobei eine Flüssigkeitszufuhr welche Monochloressigsäure, Dichloressigsäure und wahlweise Essigsäure und/oder Trichloressigsäure umfasst einem katalytischen Hydrodechlorierungsschritt unterzogen wird, indem sie mit Wasserstoffgas oder einem Wasserstoffgas umfassenden Gas und bis zu 50 Mol-% Stickstoff, Chlorwasserstoff oder einer Mischung aus diesen in Kontakt gebracht wird, um die Dichloressigsäure in Gegenwart eines festen heterogenen Hydrierungskatalysators mit einem oder mehreren Metallen der Gruppe VIII des Periodensystems, die auf einen Träger aufgetragen sind, in Monochloressigsäure umzusetzen, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der katalytische Hydrodechlorierungsschritt in einem senkrechten Rohrreaktor mit einem Durchmesser von mehr als 0,4 m durchgeführt wird, wobei der feste heterogene Hydrierungskatalysator in einem feststehenden Katalysatorbett vorliegt, wobei die Flüssigkeitszufuhr an der Oberseite des senkrechten Rohrreaktors mit einer Oberflächenmassengeschwindigkeit zwischen 1 und 10 kg/s pro Quadratmeter des waagerechten Querschnittes des senkrechten Rohrreaktors und einer Geschwindigkeit zwischen 250 und 3000 kg/h pro m3 des Katalysatorbettes zugeleitet wird, wobei das Wasserstoffgas oder Wasserstoffgas umfassende Gas und bis zu 50 Mol-% Stickstoff, Chlorwasserstoff oder einer Mischung aus diesen an der Oberseite oder Unterseite des senkrechten Rohrreaktors mit einer Oberflächengasgeschwindigkeit zwischen 0,025 und 0,25 Nm3/s pro Quadratmeter des waagerechten Querschnittes des senkrechten Rohrreaktors zugeführt wird, so dass ein durchschnittliches axiales Druckgefälle von mindestens 2 kPa pro Meter des Katalysatorbettes erzielt wird, und wobei die Temperatur oben in dem senkrechten Rohrreaktor zwischen 100 und 200°C beträgt, und wobei der Druck oben in dem senkrechten Rohrreaktor zwischen 0,2 und 1,0 MPa beträgt.
 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die an der Oberseite des senkrechten Rohrreaktors zugeleitete Flüssigkeitszufuhr mindestens 5,5 Gewichts-% Essigsäure umfasst.
 
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei das feststehende Bett, in dem sich der heterogene Hydrierungskatalysator befindet, durch Beladen des senkrechten Rohrreaktors mit dem heterogenen Hydrierungskatalysator unter Einsatz einer dichten Beladetechnik hergestellt worden ist.
 
4. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Flüssigkeitszufuhr an der Oberseite des senkrechten Rohrreaktors mit einer Oberflächenmassengeschwindigkeit zwischen 2,5 und 6 kg/s pro Quadratmeter des waagerechten Querschnittes des senkrechten Rohrreaktors zugeleitet wird.
 
5. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei der heterogene Katalysator zwischen 0,1 und 3 Gewichts-%, vorzugsweise zwischen 0,5 und 2 Gewichts-%, bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht des heterogenen Katalysators, des einen oder der mehreren Metalle der Gruppe VIII des Periodensystems umfasst.
 
6. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei der Träger aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Aktivkohle, Kieselsäure, Aluminiumoxid, Zirkoniumoxid und Titanoxid ausgewählt ist und wahlweise Schwefel oder einen oder mehrere schwefelhaltige Bestandteile umfasst.
 
7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 6, wobei der Träger in Form von Partikeln vorliegt, wobei diese Partikel in Form von unregelmäßig geformten Körnchen, Kugeln, Ringen, dreilappigen oder vierlappigen Formen oder Extrudaten vorliegen.
 
8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, wobei die Partikel in Form von Extrudaten, dreilappigen oder vierlappigen Formen vorliegen und wobei diese Extrudate, dreilappigen oder vierlappigen Formen einen Durchmesser von 0,8 bis 3 mm und eine Länge von 1 bis 10 mm aufweisen.
 
9. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei der heterogene Katalysator Palladium und/oder Platin umfasst.
 
10. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Temperatur oben in dem senkrechten Rohrreaktor zwischen 145 und 175°C beträgt.
 
11. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Wasserstoffgas oder Wasserstoffgas umfassende Gas und bis zu 50 Mol-% Stickstoff, Chlorwasserstoff oder einer Mischung aus diesen an der Oberseite des senkrechten Rohrreaktors zugeführt wird, wodurch sich ein Abwärtsgleichstrom mit der Flüssigkeitszufuhr ergibt.
 
12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 11, wobei der Druck oben in dem senkrechten Rohrreaktor zwischen 0,3 und 0,6 MPa beträgt.
 
13. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, wobei das Wasserstoffgas oder Wasserstoffgas umfassende Gas und bis zu 50 Mol-% Stickstoff, Chlorwasserstoff oder einer Mischung aus diesen an der Unterseite des senkrechten Rohrreaktors zugeführt wird und der Druck an der Unterseite des senkrechten Rohrreaktors zwischen 0,3 und 0,6 MPa beträgt.
 
14. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Flüssigkeitszufuhr, die dem katalytischen Hydrodehalogenierungsschritt zu unterziehen ist, Folgendes umfasst:

(i) zwischen 60 und 99,5 Gewichts-% Monochloressigsäure,

(ii) zwischen 0,05 und 20 Gewichts-%, vorzugsweise zwischen 2 und 12 Gewichts-%, Dichloressigsäure,

(iii) zwischen 0 und 30 Gewichts-% Essigsäure,

(iv) zwischen 0,1 und 5 Gewichts-% Wasser sowie

(v) zwischen 0 und 5 Gewichts-% anderer Bestandteile,

bis zu einer Gesamtsumme von 100%, bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht der Flüssigkeitszufuhr.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé dans lequel une charge liquide comprenant de l'acide monochloracétique, de l'acide dichloracétique et facultativement de l'acide acétique et/ou de l'acide trichloracétique est soumise à une étape d'hydrodéchloration catalytique en la mettant en contact avec l'hydrogène gazeux ou un gaz comprenant de l'hydrogène gazeux et jusqu'à 50% en moles d'azote, de chlorure d'hydrogène ou d'un mélange de ceux-ci, pour convertir l'acide dichloracétique en acide monochloracétique en présence d'un catalyseur d'hydrogénation hétérogène solide comprenant un métal ou plusieurs métaux du Groupe VIII du Tableau Périodique des Éléments déposé(s) sur un support, caractérisé en ce que ladite étape d'hydrodéchloration catalytique est réalisée dans un réacteur tubulaire vertical ayant un diamètre dépassant 0,4 m, le catalyseur d'hydrogénation hétérogène solide étant situé dans un lit catalytique fixe, dans lequel la charge liquide est introduite dans la partie supérieure dudit réacteur tubulaire vertical à une vitesse massique superficielle comprise entre 1 et 10 kg/s par mètre carré de la section transversale horizontale du réacteur tubulaire vertical et un débit compris entre 250 et 3000 kg/h par m3 dudit lit catalytique, dans lequel l'hydrogène gazeux ou un gaz comprenant de l'hydrogène gazeux et jusqu'à 50% en moles d'azote, de chlorure d'hydrogène ou d'un mélange de ceux-ci est introduit dans la partie supérieure ou la partie inférieure du réacteur tubulaire vertical à une vitesse de gaz superficielle comprise entre 0,025 et 0,25 Nm3/s par mètre carré de la section transversale horizontale du réacteur tubulaire vertical, de manière à obtenir un gradient de pression axial moyen d'au moins 2 kPa par mètre dudit lit catalytique, et dans lequel la température dans la partie supérieure du réacteur tubulaire vertical est comprise entre 100 et 200°C, et dans lequel la pression dans la partie supérieure du réacteur tubulaire vertical est comprise entre 0,2 et 1,0 MPa.
 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la charge liquide introduite dans la partie supérieure dudit réacteur tubulaire vertical comprend au moins 5,5% en poids d'acide acétique.
 
3. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel le lit fixe dans lequel se trouve le catalyseur d'hydrogénation hétérogène a été préparé en chargeant le réacteur tubulaire vertical de catalyseur d'hydrogénation hétérogène en utilisant une technique de chargement dense.
 
4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la charge liquide est introduite dans la partie supérieure dudit réacteur tubulaire vertical à une vitesse massique superficielle comprise entre 2,5 et 6 kg/s par mètre carré de la section transversale horizontale du réacteur tubulaire vertical.
 
5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le catalyseur hétérogène comprend entre 0,1 et 3% en poids, de préférence entre 0,5 et 2% en poids, par rapport au poids total du catalyseur hétérogène, du métal ou des plusieurs métaux du Groupe VIII du Tableau Périodique des Éléments.
 
6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le support est choisi dans le groupe constitué du charbon actif, de la silice, de l'alumine, de l'oxyde de zirconium et de l'oxyde de titane et comprend facultativement du soufre ou un ou plusieurs composant(s) contenant du soufre.
 
7. Procédé selon la revendication 6, dans lequel le support est sous forme de particules, lesdites particules étant sous forme de granules, de sphères, d'anneaux, de trilobes, de quadrilobes ou d'extrudats de forme irrégulière.
 
8. Procédé selon la revendication 7, dans lequel les particules sont sous forme d'extrudats, de trilobes ou de quadrilobes, et dans lequel lesdits extrudats, trilobes ou quadrilobes ont un diamètre compris entre 0,8 et 3 mm et une longueur comprise entre 1 et 10 mm.
 
9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le catalyseur hétérogène comprend du palladium et/ou du platine.
 
10. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la température dans la partie supérieure du réacteur tubulaire vertical est comprise entre 145 et 175°C.
 
11. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel l'hydrogène gazeux ou un gaz comprenant de l'hydrogène gazeux et jusqu'à 50% en moles d'azote, de chlorure d'hydrogène, ou d'un mélange de ceux-ci, est introduit dans la partie supérieure du réacteur tubulaire vertical, entraînant un écoulement descendant en co-courant avec la charge liquide.
 
12. Procédé selon la revendication 11, dans lequel la pression dans la partie supérieure du réacteur tubulaire vertical est comprise entre 0,3 et 0,6 MPa.
 
13. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10, dans lequel l'hydrogène gazeux ou un gaz comprenant de l'hydrogène gazeux et jusqu'à 50% en moles d'azote, de chlorure d'hydrogène ou d'un mélange de ceux-ci, est introduit dans la partie inférieure du réacteur tubulaire vertical et la pression au niveau de la partie inférieure du réacteur tubulaire vertical est comprise entre 0,3 et 0,6 MPa.
 
14. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la charge liquide à soumettre à l'étape d'hydrodéshalogénation catalytique comprend

(i) entre 60 et 99,5% en poids d'acide monochloracétique,

(ii) entre 0,05 et 20% en poids, de préférence entre 2 et 12% en poids d'acide dichloracétique,

(iii) entre 0 et 30% en poids d'acide acétique,

(iv) entre 0,1 et 5% en poids d'eau, et

(v) entre 0 et 5% en poids d'autres composants,

jusqu'à un total de 100%, par rapport au poids total de la charge liquide.
 






Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description