An aspect of the invention relates, in general, to text processing, and in particular, to facilitating processing associated with character data.
Text processing often requires the comparing of character data, including, but not limited to, the comparing of character data strings. Typically, instructions used to compare character data compare a single byte of data at a time.
Further, text processing often requires other types of character data processing, including finding the termination point (e.g., end of a string), determining the length of the character data, finding a particular character, etc. Current instructions to perform these types of processing tend to be inefficient.
 US 2004/215 924 A1
describes a method of locating a target value which includes loading the target value into elements of a first register.
The shortcomings of the prior art are overcome and advantages are provided through the provision of a method as claimed in claim 1.
A corresponding computer program product, and computer system, are also provided.
Additional features and advantages are realized through the techniques of the present invention. Other embodiments and aspects of the invention are described in detail herein and are considered a part of the claimed invention.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
One or more aspects of the present invention are particularly pointed out and distinctly claimed as examples in the claims at the conclusion of the specification. The foregoing and other objects, features, and advantages of the invention are apparent from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 depicts one example of a computing environment to incorporate and use one or more aspects of the present invention;
FIG. 2A depicts another example of a computing environment to incorporate and use one or more aspects of the present invention;
FIG. 2B depicts further details of the memory of FIG. 2A, in accordance with an aspect of the present invention;
FIG. 3 depicts one embodiment of a format of a Vector Find Element Not Equal instruction, in accordance with an aspect of the present invention;
FIG. 4 depicts one embodiment of the logic associated with a Vector Find Element Not Equal instruction, in accordance with an aspect of the present invention;
FIG. 5 depicts one embodiment of various processing blocks to perform the logic of FIG. 4, in accordance with an aspect of the present invention;
FIG. 6 depicts one example of a register file, in accordance with an aspect of the present invention;
FIG. 7 depicts one embodiment of a computer program product incorporating one or more aspects of the present invention;
FIG. 8 depicts one embodiment of a host computer system to incorporate and use one or more aspects of the present invention;
FIG. 9 depicts a further example of a computer system to incorporate and use one or
more aspects of the present invention;
FIG. 10 depicts another example of a computer system comprising a computer network to incorporate and use one or more aspects of the present invention;
FIG. 11 depicts one embodiment of various elements of a computer system to incorporate and use one or more aspects of the present invention;
FIG. 12A depicts one embodiment of the execution unit of the computer system of FIG. 11 to incorporate and use one or more aspects of the present invention;
FIG. 12B depicts one embodiment of the branch unit of the computer system of FIG. 11 to incorporate and use one or more aspects of the present invention;
FIG. 12C depicts one embodiment of the load/store unit of the computer system of FIG. 11 to incorporate and use one or more aspects of the present invention; and
FIG. 13 depicts one embodiment of an emulated host computer system to incorporate and use one or more aspects of the present invention.
In accordance with an aspect of the present invention, a capability is provided for facilitating processing of character data, including, but not limited to, alphabetic characters, in any language; numeric digits; punctuation; and/or other symbols. The character data may or may not be strings of data. Associated with character data are standards, examples of which include, but are not limited to, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange); Unicode, including, but not limited to, UTF (Unicode Transformation Format) 8; UTF16; etc.
In one example, a Find Element Not Equal instruction is provided that compares data of multiple vectors for inequality and provides an indication of inequality, if inequality exists. In one example, an index associated with the unequal element is stored in a target vector register.
As described herein, an element of a vector register (also referred to as a vector) is one, two or four bytes in length, as examples; and a vector operand is, for instance, a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) operand having a plurality of elements. In other embodiments, elements can be of other sizes; and a vector operand need not be SIMD, and/or may include one element.
In a further embodiment, the same instruction, the Find Element Not Equal instruction, also searches a selected vector for null elements, also referred to as zero elements (e.g., entire element is zero). A null or zero element indicates termination of the character data; e.g., an end of a particular string of data. A result of the instruction is dependent on whether the null search is provided, or just the compare.
One embodiment of a computing environment to incorporate and use one or more aspects of the present invention is described with reference to FIG. 1. A computing environment 100 includes, for instance, a processor 102 (e.g., a central processing unit), a memory 104 (e.g., main memory), and one or more input/output (I/O) devices and/or interfaces 106 coupled to one another via, for example, one or more buses 108 and/or other connections.
In one example, processor 102 is based on the z/Architecture offered by International Business Machines Corporation, and is part of a server, such as the System z server, which is also offered by International Business Machines Corporation, and implements the z/Architecture. One embodiment of the z/Architecture is described in an IBM®
publication entitled, "z/Architecture Principles of Operation," IBM®
Publication No. SA22-7832-08, Ninth Edition, August, 2010. In one example, the processor executes an operating system, such as z/OS, also offered by International Business Machines Corporation. IBM®
are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, New York, USA. Other names used herein may be registered trademarks, trademarks, or product names of International Business Machines Corporation or other companies.
In yet a further embodiment, processor 102 is based on an Intel architecture offered by Intel Corporation. One embodiment of the Intel architecture is described in "Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Developer's Manual: Vol. 2B, Instructions Set Reference, A-L," Order Number 253666-041US, December 2011
, and "Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Developer's Manual: Vol. 2B, Instructions Set Reference, M-Z," Order Number 253667-041US, December 2011
is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, California.
Another embodiment of a computing environment to incorporate and use one or more aspects of the present invention is described with reference to FIG. 2A. In this example, a computing environment 200 includes, for instance, a native central processing unit 202, a memory 204, and one or more input/output devices and/or interfaces 206 coupled to one another via, for example, one or more buses 208 and/or other connections. As examples, computing environment 200 may include a PowerPC processor, a pSeries server or an xSeries server offered by International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, New York; an HP Superdome with Intel Itanium II processors offered by Hewlett Packard Co., Palo Alto, California; and/or other machines based on architectures offered by International Business Machines Corporation, Hewlett Packard, Intel, Oracle, or others.
Native central processing unit 202 includes one or more native registers 210, such as one or more general purpose registers and/or one or more special purpose registers used during processing within the environment. These registers include information that represent the state of the environment at any particular point in time.
Moreover, native central processing unit 202 executes instructions and code that are stored in memory 204. In one particular example, the central processing unit executes emulator code 212 stored in memory 204. This code enables the processing environment configured in one architecture to emulate another architecture. For instance, emulator code 212 allows machines based on architectures other than the z/Architecture, such as PowerPC processors, pSeries servers, xSeries servers, HP Superdome servers or others, to emulate the z/Architecture and to execute software and instructions developed based on the z/Architecture.
Further details relating to emulator code 212 are described with reference to FIG. 2B. Guest instructions 250 comprise software instructions (e.g., machine instructions) that were developed to be executed in an architecture other than that of native CPU 202. For example, guest instructions 250 may have been designed to execute on a z/Architecture processor 102, but instead, are being emulated on native CPU 202, which may be, for example, an Intel Itanium II processor. In one example, emulator code 212 includes an instruction fetching unit 252 to obtain one or more guest instructions 250 from memory 204, and to optionally provide local buffering for the instructions obtained. It also includes an instruction translation routine 254 to determine the type of guest instruction that has been obtained and to translate the guest instruction into one or more corresponding native instructions 256. This translation includes, for instance, identifying the function to be performed by the guest instruction and choosing the native instruction(s) to perform that function.
Further, emulator 212 includes an emulation control routine 260 to cause the native instructions to be executed. Emulation control routine 260 may cause native CPU 202 to execute a routine of native instructions that emulate one or more previously obtained guest instructions and, at the conclusion of such execution, return control to the instruction fetch routine to emulate the obtaining of the next guest instruction or a group of guest instructions. Execution of the native instructions 256 may include loading data into a register from memory 204; storing data back to memory from a register; or performing some type of arithmetic or logic operation, as determined by the translation routine.
Each routine is, for instance, implemented in software, which is stored in memory and executed by native central processing unit 202. In other examples, one or more of the routines or operations are implemented in firmware, hardware, software or some combination thereof. The registers of the emulated processor may be emulated using registers 210 of the native CPU or by using locations in memory 204. In embodiments, guest instructions 250, native instructions 256 and emulator code 212 may reside in the same memory or may be disbursed among different memory devices.
As used herein, firmware includes, e.g., the microcode, millicode and/or macrocode of the processor. It includes, for instance, the hardware-level instructions and/or data structures used in implementation of higher level machine code. In one embodiment, it includes, for instance, proprietary code that is typically delivered as microcode that includes trusted software or microcode specific to the underlying hardware and controls operating system access to the system hardware.
In one example, a guest instruction 250 that is obtained, translated and executed is an instruction described herein. The instruction, which is of one architecture (e.g., the z/Architecture) is fetched from memory, translated and represented as a sequence of native instructions 256 of another architecture (e.g., PowerPC, pSeries, xSeries, Intel, etc.). These native instructions are then executed.
In one embodiment, the instruction described herein is a vector instruction, which is part of a vector facility, provided in accordance with an aspect of the present invention. The vector facility provides, for instance, fixed sized vectors ranging from one to sixteen elements. Each vector includes data which is operated on by vector instructions defined in the facility. In one embodiment, if a vector is made up of multiple elements, then each element is processed in parallel with the other elements. Instruction completion does not occur until processing of all the elements is complete.
As described herein, vector instructions can be implemented as part of various architectures, including, but not limited to, the z/Architecture, Power, Intel, etc. Although an embodiment described herein is for the z/Architecture, the vector instruction and one or more aspects of the present invention may be based on many other architectures. The z/Architecture is only one example.
In one embodiment in which the vector facility is implemented as part of the z/Architecture, to use the vector registers and instructions, a vector enablement control and a register control in a specified control register (e.g., control register 0) are set to, for instance, one. If the vector facility is installed and a vector instruction is executed without the enablement controls set, a data exception is recognized. If the vector facility is not installed and a vector instruction is executed, an operation exception is recognized.
Vector data appears in storage, for instance, in the same left-to-right sequence as other data formats. Bits of a data format that are numbered 0-7 constitute the byte in the leftmost (lowest-numbered) byte location in storage, bits 8-15 form the byte in the next sequential location, and so on. In a further example, the vector data may appear in storage in another sequence, such as right-to-left.
Many of the vector instructions provided with the vector facility have a field of specified bits. This field, referred to as the register extension bit or RXB, includes the most significant bit for each of the vector register designated operands. Bits for register designations not specified by the instruction are to be reserved and set to zero.
In one example, the RXB field includes four bits (e.g., bits 0-3), and the bits are defined, as follows:
0 - Most significant bit for the first vector register designation of the instruction.
1 - Most significant bit for the second vector register designation of the instruction, if any.
2 - Most significant bit for the third vector register designation of the instruction, if any.
3 - Most significant bit for the fourth vector register designation of the instruction, if any.
Each bit is set to zero or one by, for instance, the assembler depending on the register number. For instance, for registers 0-15, the bit is set to 0; for registers 16-31, the bit is set to 1, etc.
In one embodiment, each RXB bit is an extension bit for a particular location in an instruction that includes one or more vector registers. For instance, in one or more vector instructions, bit 0 of RXB is an extension bit for location 8-11, which is assigned to e.g., V1
; bit 1 of RXB is an extension bit for location 12-15, which is assigned to, e.g., V2
; and so forth.
In a further embodiment, the RXB field includes additional bits, and more than one bit is used as an extension for each vector or location.
One instruction, provided in accordance with an aspect of the present invention that includes the RXB field is a Vector Find Element Not Equal instruction, an example of which is depicted in FIG. 3. In one example, the Vector Find Element Not Equal instruction 300 includes opcode fields 302a (e.g., bits 0-7), 302b (e.g., bits 40-47) indicating a Vector Find Element Not Equal operation; a first vector register field 304 (e.g., bits 8-11) used to designate a first vector register (V1
); a second vector register field 306 (e.g., bits 12-15) used to designate a second vector register (V2
); a third vector register field 308 (e.g., bits 16-19) used to designate a third vector register (V3
); a first mask field (M5
) 310 (e.g., bits 24-27); a second mask field (M4
) 312 (e.g., bits 32-35); and an RXB field 314 (e.g., bits 36-39). Each of the fields 304-314, in one example, is separate and independent from the opcode field(s). Further, in one embodiment, they are separate and independent from one another; however, in other embodiments, more than one field may be combined. Further information on the use of these fields is described below.
In one example, selected bits (e.g., the first two bits) of the opcode designated by opcode field 302a specify the length and format of the instruction. In this particular example, the selected bits indicate that the length is three halfwords, and the format is a vector register-and-register operation with an extended opcode field. Each of the vector (V) fields, along with its corresponding extension bit specified by RXB, designates a vector register. In particular, for vector registers, the register containing the operand is specified using, for instance, a four-bit field of the register field with the addition of the register extension bit (RXB) as the most significant bit. For instance, if the four bit field is 0110 and the extension bit is 0, then the five bit field 00110 indicates register number 6.
The subscript number associated with a field of the instruction denotes the operand to which the field applies. For instance, the subscript number 1 associated with vector register V1
denotes the first operand, and so forth. A register operand is one register in length, which is, for instance, 128 bits.
field having, for instance, four bits, 0-3, specifies an element size control in, for instance, bits 1-3. The element size control specifies the size of the elements in the vector register operands. In one example, the element size control can specify a byte, halfword (e.g., 2 bytes) or word (e.g., 4 bytes). For instance, a 0 indicates a byte; a 1 indicates a halfword; and a 2 indicates a word, a.k.a., fullword. If a reserved value is specified, a specification exception is recognized.
field is, for instance, a four bit field, bits 0-3, including, for instance:
A zero search field (ZS, bit 2), which if one, each element of the second operand is also compared to zero. (In a further example, it is each element of the third operand or another operand that is compared to zero.); and
A condition code set field (CC, bit 3), which if zero, the condition code is not set and remains unchanged. If one, the condition code is set as specified below, as an example:
0 - If the zero search bit is set, comparison detected a zero element in both operands in a lower index element than unequal compares;
1 - An element mismatch was detected and the element in V2 is less than the element in V3;
2 - An element mismatch was detected and the element in V2 is greater than the element in V3; and
3 - All elements compared equal, and if the zero search bit is set, no zero elements were found in the second operand (or, in another embodiment, other operands).
In execution of one embodiment of the Vector Find Element Not Equal instruction, proceeding in one embodiment from left to right, the unsigned binary integer elements of the second operand (included in the vector register specified by V2
and its extension bit) are compared with the corresponding unsigned binary integer elements of the third operand (included in the vector register specified by the V3
field plus its extension bit). If two elements are not equal, a byte index of the leftmost non-equal element is placed in a specified byte (e.g., byte 7) of the first operand (designated in the register specified by V1
and its extension bit), and zeros are stored to all other bytes of the first operand.
In one example, the byte index of the element that is returned (e.g., stored in the specified byte) is the index of the first byte of the leftmost element that is unequal. For instance, if the element size is byte, then the index of the leftmost unequal element is returned (e.g., if there are 16 elements, 0-15, and element 6 is unequal, then byte index 6 is returned). Similarly, if the element size is halfword, and there are 8 elements, 0-7, and either byte 6 or 7 of element three is unequal, then byte index 6 is returned. Likewise, if the element size is fullword and there are four elements, 0-3, and one of bytes 4-7 of element one is unequal, byte index 4 is returned.
If the condition code set bit in the M5
field is set to, for instance, one, the condition code is set to indicate which operand was greater, if any. That is, the binary integer equivalent of, for instance, a character in the second operand is compared to a binary integer equivalent of the unequal character in the third operand, and the condition code is set based on this comparison. If elements were equal, then a byte index equal to the vector size (in number of bytes, e.g., 16) is placed in the specified byte (e.g., byte 7) of the first operand and zeros are placed in all other byte locations. If the condition code set bit is one, a selected condition code (e.g., condition code 3) is set.
If the zero search bit is set in the M5
field, each element in the second operand (or in other embodiments, the third operand or another operand) is also compared for equality with zero (a.k.a., null, terminator, end of string, etc.). If a zero element is found in the second operand before any other element of the second operand is found to be unequal, the byte index of the first byte of the element found to be zero is stored in the specified byte (e.g., byte 7) of the first operand. Zeros are stored in all other bytes and a selected condition code (e.g., condition code zero) is set.
In one embodiment, the comparison of the elements is performed in parallel. For instance, if the vector registers being compared are 16 bytes in length, then 16 bytes are compared in parallel. Further, in another embodiment, the direction of the vectors, left-to-right or right-to-left, is provided at runtime. For instance, the instruction accesses a register, status control or other entity that indicates the direction of processing as either left-to-right or right-to-left, as examples. In one embodiment, this direction control is not encoded as part of the instruction, but provided to the instruction at runtime.
In a further embodiment, the instruction does not include the RXB field. Instead, no extension is used or the extension is provided in another manner, such as from a control outside of the instruction, or provided as part of another field of the instruction.
Further details regarding one embodiment of processing the Vector Find Element Not Equal instruction are described with reference to FIG. 4. In one example, a processor of the computing environment is performing this logic.
Initially, a determination is made as to whether a search for null (a.k.a., zero element, end of string, terminator, etc.) is to be performed, INQUIRY 400. If a search for null is to be performed, a comparison is made against null characters, i.e., for zero elements, STEP 402, and the result is output to nullidx 403. For instance, if the element size is bytes and a zero element is found in byte 5, the index of the byte in which the zero element is found (e.g., 5) is placed in nullidx. Similarly, if the element size is halfword, and there are 8 elements, 0-7, and element three (i.e., bytes 6-7) is zero, then 6 (for byte index 6) is placed in nullidx. Likewise, if the element size is fullword and there are four elements, 0-3, and element one (i.e., bytes 4-7) is zero, then 4 (for byte index 4) is placed in nullidx. If no null element is found, then, in one example, the size of the vector (e.g., in bytes; e.g., 16) is placed in nullidx.
Additionally, or if no null search is to be performed, a plurality of comparisons (e.g., 16) are performed in parallel comparing A to B based on a compare operation, STEP 404. In one example, A is the contents of the second operand and B is the contents of the third operand, and the compare operation is not equal.
A result of the compare is stored in a variable 406, referred to either as a left index, cmpidxl, or a right index, cmpidxr, depending on whether the search is from the left or the right. For instance, if the comparison is a not equal comparison, the search is left-to-right, and the comparison results in one or more inequalities, the index associated with the first byte of the lowest unequal element is placed in cmpidxl. As one example, if the element size is bytes and there are 16 elements in the vector (0-15) and an inequality is found in element 6, then 6 is stored in cmpidxl. Similarly, if the element size is halfwords, and there are 8 elements in the vector (0-7), and an inequality is found in element 3 (e.g., at byte 6 or 7), the index of the first byte of the element (byte 6) is returned. Likewise, if the element size is fullword and there are four elements (0-3), and an inequality is found in element 1 (e.g., at byte 4-7), the index of the first byte of the element (byte 4) is returned. If there are no unequal comparisons, then, in one embodiment, cmpidxl or cmpidxr, depending on the direction of the compare, is set equal to the size of the vector (e.g., in bytes; e.g., 16).
Thereafter, a determination is made as to whether the search is from the left or right, INQUIRY 408. If the search is from the left, a variable cmpidx is set equal to cmpidxl, STEP 410; otherwise, cmpidx is set equal to cmpidxr, STEP 412.
Subsequent to setting cmpidx, a determination is made as to whether a search was performed for null characters, INQUIRY 414. If there was no search for null characters, then a variable, idx, is set, for instance, the compare index, cmpidx, STEP 416. If null was searched, then idx is set to the minimum of the compare index or the null index, nullidx, STEP 418. This concludes processing.
An example of block logic for the processing of FIG. 4 is depicted in FIG. 5. In this example, there are two inputs, Vector B 500 and Vector A 502. Both inputs are input to comparison logic 504, which performs the comparisons (e.g., unequal) in parallel. Further, one input, Vector A, is also input to zero detection logic 506, which performs null processing.
The output of the comparison logic, idxL or idxR 508, is input to result determination logic 512, as well as the output of the zero detection logic, nullidx 510. The result determination logic also takes as input the following controls: right/left 514 indicating the direction of the search; zero detect 516 indicating whether null processing is to be performed; and element size 518 providing the size of each element (e.g., byte, halfword, word); and produces a resulting index 520, resultidx, which is stored in an output vector 522 (e.g., in byte 7).
Further, the result determination logic includes condition code processing 523, which optionally outputs a condition code 524.
Example pseudo-code for comparison logic 504 is as follows:
idxL = 16; idxR = 16
For i = 0 to vector_length
If A[i]! = to B[i] THEN
idxL = i
For i = vector_length downto 0
If A[i]! = to B[i] THEN
idxR = i
As shown, variable idxL or idxR, depending on direction, is initialized to the size of the vector (e.g., in number of bytes; e.g., 16). Then, each element of Vector A is compared to a corresponding element of Vector B. In one example, the comparisons are byte comparisons, so a comparison is made for each of the 16 bytes (i). In this example, the comparison operation is not equal, and if an inequality is found, the index of the unequal byte is stored in idxL if searching from left, or idxR if searching from right.
Example pseudo-code for zero detection logic 506 is as follows:
nullidx = 16
FOR j = 0 to vector_length
IF A[j] == 0 THEN
nullidx = j x element_size
As shown, each element (j) of the vector is tested to see if it is equal to zero. If an element is equal to zero, nullidx is set equal to the index of that element times the element size. For instance, if the element size if halfwords (2 bytes), and a null character is detected in element 3, 3 is multiplied by 2, and nullidx is set to 6, which represents byte 6. Similarly, if the element size is fullword (4 bytes), and a null character is detected in element 3, 3 is multiplied by 4, and nullidx is set to 12.
Likewise, example pseudo-code for result determination logic 512 as follows:
IF Left/Right = Left THEN
cmpidx = idxL
cmpidx = idxR
IF zero_detect = ON THEN
resultidx = min (cmpidx, nullidx)
IF set_CC=ON &&nullidx < = cmpidx < 16 THEN
CC = 0
resultidx = cmpidx
IF element_size = byte THEN element_size_mask = |11111|b
IF element_size = 2byte THEN element_size_mask = |11110|b
IF element_size = 4byte THEN element_size_mask = |11100|b
resultidx = resultidx & element_size_mask
IF SetCC = ON THEN
IF resultidx == 16 THEN
CC = 3
ELSE IF A[resultidx] < B[resultidx] THEN
CC = 1
CC = 2
ELSE no updates to control code register
As shown, if the left/right control indicates left, then cmpidx is set equal to idxL; otherwise, cmpidx is set equal to idxR. Further, if the zero detect indicator is on, then resultidx is set equal to the minimum of cmpidx or nullidx; and if the condition code set control is on and cmpidx is greater than nullidx, the condition code is set to zero. Otherwise, if zero detect is not on, resultidx is set equal to cmpidx.
Further, if element size is equal to byte, then an element size mask is set to |11111|; if element size is equal to 2 bytes, the mask is set to |11110|, and if element size is equal to 4 bytes, the mask is set to |11100|.
Thereafter, resultidx is set equal to resultidx ANDed with element size mask. For instance, if element size is halfword and byte 7 is resultidx, then resultidx = 00111 AND 11110, providing 00110; so resultidx is set equal to 6 (i.e., 00110 in binary), which is the first byte of the element.
Additionally, a condition code is optionally set. If the set condition code control of the instruction is set on, then a condition code is provided; otherwise, no condition code is set. As examples, if the control is set on, then if resultidx = 16, the condition code is set to 3. Otherwise, if resultidx of A is less than resultidx of B, then the condition code is set to 1; else, the condition code is set to 2.
Described above is one example of a vector instruction used to facilitate character data processing. As described herein, for a 128 bit vector, the comparison logic only performs 16 byte compares, rather than, for instance, 256 compares. This provides for scaling for larger vectors. Further, a left/right control may be provided as a runtime value and not encoded within the instruction. Yet further, the value returned as the result is a byte position, rather than an element index. Further, 4 byte compares along with 1 byte and 2 byte compares are supported.
In accordance with an aspect of the present invention, a condition code is optionally provided based on a control provided with the instruction. By allowing the condition code not to be set, scheduling of an instruction is facilitated.
In a further embodiment, the zero search is not a condition, but instead, is performed when the Vector Find Element Not Equal instruction is executed. Based on or responsive to executing the instruction, the zero search is performed and the position (e.g., byte index) of the zero element is returned and/or the position (e.g., byte index) of the first mismatched element. In one embodiment, the number of compares that are performed, regardless of embodiment, for the Vector Find Element Not Equal instruction corresponds to the number of bytes of the vector. For instance, if the vector being searched or compared is 16 bytes, then at most 16 compares are performed, e.g., in parallel. In a further embodiment, once a mismatch or zero element is found, the comparing ceases.
In one embodiment, there are 32 vector registers and other types of registers can map to a quadrant of the vector registers. For instance, as shown in FIG. 6, if there is a register file 600 that includes 32 vector registers 602 and each register is 128 bits in length, then 16 floating point registers 604 which are 64 bits in length can overlay the vector registers. Thus, as an example, when floating point register 2 is modified, then vector register 2 is also modified. Other mappings for other types of registers are also possible.
Herein, memory, main memory, storage, and main storage are used interchangeably, unless otherwise noted explicitly or by context.
Additional details relating to the vector facility, including examples of other instructions, are provided as part of the Detailed Description further below.
As will be appreciated by one skilled in the art, one or more aspects of the present invention may be embodied as a system, method or computer program product. Accordingly, one or more aspects of the present invention may take the form of an entirely hardware embodiment, an entirely software embodiment (including firmware, resident software, micro-code, etc.) or an embodiment combining software and hardware aspects that may all generally be referred to herein as a "circuit," "module" or "system". Furthermore, one or more aspects of the present invention may take the form of a computer program product embodied in one or more computer readable medium(s) having computer readable program code embodied thereon.
Any combination of one or more computer readable medium(s) may be utilized. The computer readable medium may be a computer readable storage medium. A computer readable storage medium may be, for example, but not limited to, an electronic, magnetic, optical, electromagnetic, infrared or semiconductor system, apparatus, or device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing. More specific examples (a non-exhaustive list) of the computer readable storage medium include the following: an electrical connection having one or more wires, a portable computer diskette, a hard disk, a random access memory (RAM), a read-only memory (ROM), an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM or Flash memory), an optical fiber, a portable compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM), an optical storage device, a magnetic storage device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing. In the context of this document, a computer readable storage medium may be any tangible medium that can contain or store a program for use by or in connection with an instruction execution system, apparatus, or device.
Referring now to FIG. 7, in one example, a computer program product 700 includes, for instance, one or more non-transitory computer readable storage media 702 to store computer readable program code means or logic 704 thereon to provide and facilitate one or more aspects of the present invention.
Program code embodied on a computer readable medium may be transmitted using an appropriate medium, including but not limited to wireless, wireline, optical fiber cable, RF, etc., or any suitable combination of the foregoing.
Computer program code for carrying out operations for one or more aspects of the present invention may be written in any combination of one or more programming languages, including an object oriented programming language, such as Java, Smalltalk, C++ or the like, and conventional procedural programming languages, such as the "C" programming language, assembler or similar programming languages. The program code may execute entirely on the user's computer, partly on the user's computer, as a stand-alone software package, partly on the user's computer and partly on a remote computer or entirely on the remote computer or server. In the latter scenario, the remote computer may be connected to the user's computer through any type of network, including a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN), or the connection may be made to an external computer (for example, through the Internet using an Internet Service Provider).
One or more aspects of the present invention are described herein with reference to flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams of methods, apparatus (systems) and computer program products according to embodiments of the invention. It will be understood that each block of the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, and combinations of blocks in the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, can be implemented by computer program instructions. These computer program instructions may be provided to a processor of a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a machine, such that the instructions, which execute via the processor of the computer or other programmable data processing apparatus, create means for implementing the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
These computer program instructions may also be stored in a computer readable medium that can direct a computer, other programmable data processing apparatus, or other devices to function in a particular manner, such that the instructions stored in the computer readable medium produce an article of manufacture including instructions which implement the function/act specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
The computer program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer, other programmable data processing apparatus, or other devices to cause a series of operational steps to be performed on the computer, other programmable apparatus or other devices to produce a computer implemented process such that the instructions which execute on the computer or other programmable apparatus provide processes for implementing the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
The flowchart and block diagrams in the figures illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operation of possible implementations of systems, methods and computer program products according to various embodiments of one or more aspects of the present invention. In this regard, each block in the flowchart or block diagrams may represent a module, segment, or portion of code, which comprises one or more executable instructions for implementing the specified logical function(s). It should also be noted that, in some alternative implementations, the functions noted in the block may occur out of the order noted in the figures. For example, two blocks shown in succession may, in fact, be executed substantially concurrently, or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality involved. It will also be noted that each block of the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, can be implemented by special purpose hardware-based systems that perform the specified functions or acts, or combinations of special purpose hardware and computer instructions.
In addition to the above, one or more aspects of the present invention may be provided, offered, deployed, managed, serviced, etc. by a service provider who offers management of customer environments. For instance, the service provider can create, maintain, support, etc. computer code and/or a computer infrastructure that performs one or more aspects of the present invention for one or more customers. In return, the service provider may receive payment from the customer under a subscription and/or fee agreement, as examples. Additionally or alternatively, the service provider may receive payment from the sale of advertising content to one or more third parties.
In one aspect of the present invention, an application may be deployed for performing one or more aspects of the present invention. As one example, the deploying of an application comprises providing computer infrastructure operable to perform one or more aspects of the present invention.
As a further aspect of the present invention, a computing infrastructure may be deployed comprising integrating computer readable code into a computing system, in which the code in combination with the computing system is capable of performing one or more aspects of the present invention.
As yet a further aspect of the present invention, a process for integrating computing infrastructure comprising integrating computer readable code into a computer system may be provided. The computer system comprises a computer readable medium, in which the computer medium comprises one or more aspects of the present invention. The code in combination with the computer system is capable of performing one or more aspects of the present invention.
Although various embodiments are described above, these are only examples. For example, computing environments of other architectures can incorporate and use one or more aspects of the present invention. Further, vectors of other sizes may be used, and changes to the instruction may be made without departing from the spirit of the present invention. Moreover, registers other than vector registers may be used, and/or the data may be other than character data, such as integer data or other types of data.
Further, other types of computing environments can benefit from one or more aspects of the present invention. As an example, a data processing system suitable for storing and/or executing program code is usable that includes at least two processors coupled directly or indirectly to memory elements through a system bus. The memory elements include, for instance, local memory employed during actual execution of the program code, bulk storage, and cache memory which provide temporary storage of at least some program code in order to reduce the number of times code must be retrieved from bulk storage during execution.
Input/Output or I/O devices (including, but not limited to, keyboards, displays, pointing devices, DASD, tape, CDs, DVDs, thumb drives and other memory media, etc.) can be coupled to the system either directly or through intervening I/O controllers. Network adapters may also be coupled to the system to enable the data processing system to become coupled to other data processing systems or remote printers or storage devices through intervening private or public networks. Modems, cable modems, and Ethernet cards are just a few of the available types of network adapters.
Referring to FIG. 8, representative components of a Host Computer system 5000 to implement one or more aspects of the present invention are portrayed. The representative host computer 5000 comprises one or more CPUs 5001 in communication with computer memory (i.e., central storage) 5002, as well as I/O interfaces to storage media devices 5011 and networks 5010 for communicating with other computers or SANs and the like. The CPU 5001 is compliant with an architecture having an architected instruction set and architected functionality. The CPU 5001 may have dynamic address translation (DAT) 5003 for transforming program addresses (virtual addresses) into real addresses of memory. A DAT typically includes a translation lookaside buffer (TLB) 5007 for caching translations so that later accesses to the block of computer memory 5002 do not require the delay of address translation. Typically, a cache 5009 is employed between computer memory 5002 and the processor 5001. The cache 5009 may be hierarchical having a large cache available to more than one CPU and smaller, faster (lower level) caches between the large cache and each CPU. In some implementations, the lower level caches are split to provide separate low level caches for instruction fetching and data accesses. In one embodiment, an instruction is fetched from memory 5002 by an instruction fetch unit 5004 via a cache 5009. The instruction is decoded in an instruction decode unit 5006 and dispatched (with other instructions in some embodiments) to instruction execution unit or units 5008. Typically several execution units 5008 are employed, for example an arithmetic execution unit, a floating point execution unit and a branch instruction execution unit. The instruction is executed by the execution unit, accessing operands from instruction specified registers or memory as needed. If an operand is to be accessed (loaded or stored) from memory 5002, a load/store unit 5005 typically handles the access under control of the instruction being executed. Instructions may be executed in hardware circuits or in internal microcode (firmware) or by a combination of both.
As noted, a computer system includes information in local (or main) storage, as well as addressing, protection, and reference and change recording. Some aspects of addressing include the format of addresses, the concept of address spaces, the various types of addresses, and the manner in which one type of address is translated to another type of address. Some of main storage includes permanently assigned storage locations. Main storage provides the system with directly addressable fast-access storage of data. Both data and programs are to be loaded into main storage (from input devices) before they can be processed.
Main storage may include one or more smaller, faster-access buffer storages, sometimes called caches. A cache is typically physically associated with a CPU or an I/O processor. The effects, except on performance, of the physical construction and use of distinct storage media are generally not observable by the program.
Separate caches may be maintained for instructions and for data operands. Information within a cache is maintained in contiguous bytes on an integral boundary called a cache block or cache line (or line, for short). A model may provide an EXTRACT CACHE ATTRIBUTE instruction which returns the size of a cache line in bytes. A model may also provide PREFETCH DATA and PREFETCH DATA RELATIVE LONG instructions which effects the prefetching of storage into the data or instruction cache or the releasing of data from the cache.
Storage is viewed as a long horizontal string of bits. For most operations, accesses to storage proceed in a left-to-right sequence. The string of bits is subdivided into units of eight bits. An eight-bit unit is called a byte, which is the basic building block of all information formats. Each byte location in storage is identified by a unique nonnegative integer, which is the address of that byte location or, simply, the byte address. Adjacent byte locations have consecutive addresses, starting with 0 on the left and proceeding in a left-to-right sequence. Addresses are unsigned binary integers and are 24, 31, or 64 bits.
Information is transmitted between storage and a CPU or a channel subsystem one byte, or a group of bytes, at a time. Unless otherwise specified, in, for instance, the z/Architecture, a group of bytes in storage is addressed by the leftmost byte of the group. The number of bytes in the group is either implied or explicitly specified by the operation to be performed. When used in a CPU operation, a group of bytes is called a field. Within each group of bytes, in, for instance, the z/Architecture, bits are numbered in a left-to-right sequence. In the z/Architecture, the leftmost bits are sometimes referred to as the "high-order" bits and the rightmost bits as the "low-order" bits. Bit numbers are not storage addresses, however. Only bytes can be addressed. To operate on individual bits of a byte in storage, the entire byte is accessed. The bits in a byte are numbered 0 through 7, from left to right (in, e.g., the z/Architecture). The bits in an address may be numbered 8-31 or 40-63 for 24-bit addresses, or 1-31 or 33-63 for 31-bit addresses; they are numbered 0-63 for 64-bit addresses. Within any other fixed-length format of multiple bytes, the bits making up the format are consecutively numbered starting from 0. For purposes of error detection, and in preferably for correction, one or more check bits may be transmitted with each byte or with a group of bytes. Such check bits are generated automatically by the machine and cannot be directly controlled by the program. Storage capacities are expressed in number of bytes. When the length of a storage-operand field is implied by the operation code of an instruction, the field is said to have a fixed length, which can be one, two, four, eight, or sixteen bytes. Larger fields may be implied for some instructions. When the length of a storage-operand field is not implied but is stated explicitly, the field is said to have a variable length. Variable-length operands can vary in length by increments of one byte (or with some instructions, in multiples of two bytes or other multiples). When information is placed in storage, the contents of only those byte locations are replaced that are included in the designated field, even though the width of the physical path to storage may be greater than the length of the field being stored.
Certain units of information are to be on an integral boundary in storage. A boundary is called integral for a unit of information when its storage address is a multiple of the length of the unit in bytes. Special names are given to fields of 2, 4, 8, and 16 bytes on an integral boundary. A halfword is a group of two consecutive bytes on a two-byte boundary and is the basic building block of instructions. A word is a group of four consecutive bytes on a four-byte boundary. A doubleword is a group of eight consecutive bytes on an eight-byte boundary. A quadword is a group of 16 consecutive bytes on a 16-byte boundary. When storage addresses designate halfwords, words, doublewords, and quadwords, the binary representation of the address contains one, two, three, or four rightmost zero bits, respectively. Instructions are to be on two-byte integral boundaries. The storage operands of most instructions do not have boundary-alignment requirements.
On devices that implement separate caches for instructions and data operands, a significant delay may be experienced if the program stores into a cache line from which instructions are subsequently fetched, regardless of whether the store alters the instructions that are subsequently fetched.
In one embodiment, the invention may be practiced by software (sometimes referred to licensed internal code, firmware, micro-code, milli-code, pico-code and the like, any of which would be consistent with one or more aspects the present invention). Referring to FIG. 8, software program code which embodies one or more aspects of the present invention may be accessed by processor 5001 of the host system 5000 from long-term storage media devices 5011, such as a CD-ROM drive, tape drive or hard drive. The software program code may be embodied on any of a variety of known media for use with a data processing system, such as a diskette, hard drive, or CD-ROM. The code may be distributed on such media, or may be distributed to users from computer memory 5002 or storage of one computer system over a network 5010 to other computer systems for use by users of such other systems.
The software program code includes an operating system which controls the function and interaction of the various computer components and one or more application programs. Program code is normally paged from storage media device 5011 to the relatively higher-speed computer storage 5002 where it is available for processing by processor 5001. The techniques and methods for embodying software program code in memory, on physical media, and/or distributing software code via networks are well known and will not be further discussed herein. Program code, when created and stored on a tangible medium (including but not limited to electronic memory modules (RAM), flash memory, Compact Discs (CDs), DVDs, Magnetic Tape and the like is often referred to as a "computer program product". The computer program product medium is typically readable by a processing circuit preferably in a computer system for execution by the processing circuit.
FIG. 9 illustrates a representative workstation or server hardware system in which one or more aspects of the present invention may be practiced. The system 5020 of FIG. 9 comprises a representative base computer system 5021, such as a personal computer, a workstation or a server, including optional peripheral devices. The base computer system 5021 includes one or more processors 5026 and a bus employed to connect and enable communication between the processor(s) 5026 and the other components of the system 5021 in accordance with known techniques. The bus connects the processor 5026 to memory 5025 and long-term storage 5027 which can include a hard drive (including any of magnetic media, CD, DVD and Flash Memory for example) or a tape drive for example. The system 5021 might also include a user interface adapter, which connects the microprocessor 5026 via the bus to one or more interface devices, such as a keyboard 5024, a mouse 5023, a printer/scanner 5030 and/or other interface devices, which can be any user interface device, such as a touch sensitive screen, digitized entry pad, etc. The bus also connects a display device 5022, such as an LCD screen or monitor, to the microprocessor 5026 via a display adapter.
The system 5021 may communicate with other computers or networks of computers by way of a network adapter capable of communicating 5028 with a network 5029. Example network adapters are communications channels, token ring, Ethernet or modems. Alternatively, the system 5021 may communicate using a wireless interface, such as a CDPD (cellular digital packet data) card. The system 5021 may be associated with such other computers in a Local Area Network (LAN) or a Wide Area Network (WAN), or the system 5021 can be a client in a client/server arrangement with another computer, etc. All of these configurations, as well as the appropriate communications hardware and software, are known in the art.
FIG. 10 illustrates a data processing network 5040 in which one or more aspects of the present invention may be practiced. The data processing network 5040 may include a plurality of individual networks, such as a wireless network and a wired network, each of which may include a plurality of individual workstations 5041, 5042, 5043, 5044. Additionally, as those skilled in the art will appreciate, one or more LANs may be included, where a LAN may comprise a plurality of intelligent workstations coupled to a host processor.
Still referring to FIG. 10, the networks may also include mainframe computers or servers, such as a gateway computer (client server 5046) or application server (remote server 5048 which may access a data repository and may also be accessed directly from a workstation 5045). A gateway computer 5046 serves as a point of entry into each individual network. A gateway is needed when connecting one networking protocol to another. The gateway 5046 may be preferably coupled to another network (the Internet 5047 for example) by means of a communications link. The gateway 5046 may also be directly coupled to one or more workstations 5041, 5042, 5043, 5044 using a communications link. The gateway computer may be implemented utilizing an IBM eServer™ System z server available from International Business Machines Corporation.
Referring concurrently to FIG. 9 and FIG. 10, software programming code which may embody one or more aspects of the present invention may be accessed by the processor 5026 of the system 5020 from long-term storage media 5027, such as a CD-ROM drive or hard drive. The software programming code may be embodied on any of a variety of known media for use with a data processing system, such as a diskette, hard drive, or CD-ROM. The code may be distributed on such media, or may be distributed to users 5050, 5051 from the memory or storage of one computer system over a network to other computer systems for use by users of such other systems.
Alternatively, the programming code may be embodied in the memory 5025, and accessed by the processor 5026 using the processor bus. Such programming code includes an operating system which controls the function and interaction of the various computer components and one or more application programs 5032. Program code is normally paged from storage media 5027 to high-speed memory 5025 where it is available for processing by the processor 5026. The techniques and methods for embodying software programming code in memory, on physical media, and/or distributing software code via networks are well known and will not be further discussed herein. Program code, when created and stored on a tangible medium (including but not limited to electronic memory modules (RAM), flash memory, Compact Discs (CDs), DVDs, Magnetic Tape and the like is often referred to as a "computer program product". The computer program product medium is typically readable by a processing circuit preferably in a computer system for execution by the processing circuit.
The cache that is most readily available to the processor (normally faster and smaller than other caches of the processor) is the lowest (L1 or level one) cache and main store (main memory) is the highest level cache (L3 if there are 3 levels). The lowest level cache is often divided into an instruction cache (I-Cache) holding machine instructions to be executed and a data cache (D-Cache) holding data operands.
Referring to FIG.11, an exemplary processor embodiment is depicted for processor 5026. Typically one or more levels of cache 5053 are employed to buffer memory blocks in order to improve processor performance. The cache 5053 is a high speed buffer holding cache lines of memory data that are likely to be used. Typical cache lines are 64, 128 or 256 bytes of memory data. Separate caches are often employed for caching instructions than for caching data. Cache coherence (synchronization of copies of lines in memory and the caches) is often provided by various "snoop" algorithms well known in the art. Main memory storage 5025 of a processor system is often referred to as a cache. In a processor system having 4 levels of cache 5053, main storage 5025 is sometimes referred to as the level 5 (L5) cache since it is typically faster and only holds a portion of the nonvolatile storage (DASD, tape etc) that is available to a computer system. Main storage 5025 "caches" pages of data paged in and out of the main storage 5025 by the operating system.
A program counter (instruction counter) 5061 keeps track of the address of the current instruction to be executed. A program counter in a z/Architecture processor is 64 bits and can be truncated to 31 or 24 bits to support prior addressing limits. A program counter is typically embodied in a PSW (program status word) of a computer such that it persists during context switching. Thus, a program in progress, having a program counter value, may be interrupted by, for example, the operating system (context switch from the program environment to the operating system environment). The PSW of the program maintains the program counter value while the program is not active, and the program counter (in the PSW) of the operating system is used while the operating system is executing. Typically, the program counter is incremented by an amount equal to the number of bytes of the current instruction. RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) instructions are typically fixed length while CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) instructions are typically variable length. Instructions of the IBM z/Architecture are CISC instructions having a length of 2, 4 or 6 bytes. The Program counter 5061 is modified by either a context switch operation or a branch taken operation of a branch instruction for example. In a context switch operation, the current program counter value is saved in the program status word along with other state information about the program being executed (such as condition codes), and a new program counter value is loaded pointing to an instruction of a new program module to be executed. A branch taken operation is performed in order to permit the program to make decisions or loop within the program by loading the result of the branch instruction into the program counter 5061.
Typically an instruction fetch unit 5055 is employed to fetch instructions on behalf of the processor 5026. The fetch unit either fetches "next sequential instructions", target instructions of branch taken instructions, or first instructions of a program following a context switch. Modem Instruction fetch units often employ prefetch techniques to speculatively prefetch instructions based on the likelihood that the prefetched instructions might be used. For example, a fetch unit may fetch 16 bytes of instruction that includes the next sequential instruction and additional bytes of further sequential instructions.
The fetched instructions are then executed by the processor 5026. In an embodiment, the fetched instruction(s) are passed to a dispatch unit 5056 of the fetch unit. The dispatch unit decodes the instruction(s) and forwards information about the decoded instruction(s) to appropriate units 5057, 5058, 5060. An execution unit 5057 will typically receive information about decoded arithmetic instructions from the instruction fetch unit 5055 and will perform arithmetic operations on operands according to the opcode of the instruction. Operands are provided to the execution unit 5057 preferably either from memory 5025, architected registers 5059 or from an immediate field of the instruction being executed. Results of the execution, when stored, are stored either in memory 5025, registers 5059 or in other machine hardware (such as control registers, PSW registers and the like).
A processor 5026 typically has one or more units 5057, 5058, 5060 for executing the function of the instruction. Referring to FIG. 12A, an execution unit 5057 may communicate with architected general registers 5059, a decode/dispatch unit 5056, a load store unit 5060, and other 5065 processor units by way of interfacing logic 5071. An execution unit 5057 may employ several register circuits 5067, 5068, 5069 to hold information that the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) 5066 will operate on. The ALU performs arithmetic operations such as add, subtract, multiply and divide as well as logical function such as and, or and exclusive-or (XOR), rotate and shift. Preferably the ALU supports specialized operations that are design dependent. Other circuits may provide other architected facilities 5072 including condition codes and recovery support logic for example. Typically the result of an ALU operation is held in an output register circuit 5070 which can forward the result to a variety of other processing functions. There are many arrangements of processor units, the present description is only intended to provide a representative understanding of one embodiment.
An ADD instruction for example would be executed in an execution unit 5057 having arithmetic and logical functionality while a floating point instruction for example would be executed in a floating point execution having specialized floating point capability. Preferably, an execution unit operates on operands identified by an instruction by performing an opcode defined function on the operands. For example, an ADD instruction may be executed by an execution unit 5057 on operands found in two registers 5059 identified by register fields of the instruction.
The execution unit 5057 performs the arithmetic addition on two operands and stores the result in a third operand where the third operand may be a third register or one of the two source registers. The execution unit preferably utilizes an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) 5066 that is capable of performing a variety of logical functions such as Shift, Rotate, And, Or and XOR as well as a variety of algebraic functions including any of add, subtract, multiply, divide. Some ALUs 5066 are designed for scalar operations and some for floating point. Data may be Big Endian (where the least significant byte is at the highest byte address) or Little Endian (where the least significant byte is at the lowest byte address) depending on architecture. The IBM z/Architecture is Big Endian. Signed fields may be sign and magnitude, 1's complement or 2's complement depending on architecture. A 2's complement number is advantageous in that the ALU does not need to design a subtract capability since either a negative value or a positive value in 2's complement requires only an addition within the ALU. Numbers are commonly described in shorthand, where a 12 bit field defines an address of a 4,096 byte block and is commonly described as a 4 Kbyte (Kilobyte) block, for example.
Referring to FIG. 12B, branch instruction information for executing a branch instruction is typically sent to a branch unit 5058 which often employs a branch prediction algorithm such as a branch history table 5082 to predict the outcome of the branch before other conditional operations are complete. The target of the current branch instruction will be fetched and speculatively executed before the conditional operations are complete. When the conditional operations are completed the speculatively executed branch instructions are either completed or discarded based on the conditions of the conditional operation and the speculated outcome. A typical branch instruction may test condition codes and branch to a target address if the condition codes meet the branch requirement of the branch instruction, a target address may be calculated based on several numbers including ones found in register fields or an immediate field of the instruction for example. The branch unit 5058 may employ an ALU 5074 having a plurality of input register circuits 5075, 5076, 5077 and an output register circuit 5080. The branch unit 5058 may communicate with general registers 5059, decode dispatch unit 5056 or other circuits 5073, for example.
The execution of a group of instructions can be interrupted for a variety of reasons including a context switch initiated by an operating system, a program exception or error causing a context switch, an I/O interruption signal causing a context switch or multi-threading activity of a plurality of programs (in a multi-threaded environment), for example. Preferably a context switch action saves state information about a currently executing program and then loads state information about another program being invoked. State information may be saved in hardware registers or in memory for example. State information preferably comprises a program counter value pointing to a next instruction to be executed, condition codes, memory translation information and architected register content. A context switch activity can be exercised by hardware circuits, application programs, operating system programs or firmware code (microcode, pico-code or licensed internal code (LIC)) alone or in combination.
A processor accesses operands according to instruction defined methods. The instruction may provide an immediate operand using the value of a portion of the instruction, may provide one or more register fields explicitly pointing to either general purpose registers or special purpose registers (floating point registers for example). The instruction may utilize implied registers identified by an opcode field as operands. The instruction may utilize memory locations for operands. A memory location of an operand may be provided by a register, an immediate field, or a combination of registers and immediate field as exemplified by the z/Architecture long displacement facility wherein the instruction defines a base register, an index register and an immediate field (displacement field) that are added together to provide the address of the operand in memory for example. Location herein typically implies a location in main memory (main storage) unless otherwise indicated.
Referring to FIG. 12C, a processor accesses storage using a load/store unit 5060. The load/store unit 5060 may perform a load operation by obtaining the address of the target operand in memory 5053 and loading the operand in a register 5059 or another memory 5053 location, or may perform a store operation by obtaining the address of the target operand in memory 5053 and storing data obtained from a register 5059 or another memory 5053 location in the target operand location in memory 5053. The load/store unit 5060 may be speculative and may access memory in a sequence that is out-of-order relative to instruction sequence, however the load/store unit 5060 is to maintain the appearance to programs that instructions were executed in order. A load/store unit 5060 may communicate with general registers 5059, decode/dispatch unit 5056, cache/memory interface 5053 or other elements 5083 and comprises various register circuits, ALUs 5085 and control logic 5090 to calculate storage addresses and to provide pipeline sequencing to keep operations in-order. Some operations may be out of order but the load/store unit provides functionality to make the out of order operations to appear to the program as having been performed in order, as is well known in the art.
Preferably addresses that an application program "sees" are often referred to as virtual addresses. Virtual addresses are sometimes referred to as "logical addresses" and "effective addresses". These virtual addresses are virtual in that they are redirected to physical memory location by one of a variety of dynamic address translation (DAT) technologies including, but not limited to, simply prefixing a virtual address with an offset value, translating the virtual address via one or more translation tables, the translation tables preferably comprising at least a segment table and a page table alone or in combination, preferably, the segment table having an entry pointing to the page table. In the z/Architecture, a hierarchy of translation is provided including a region first table, a region second table, a region third table, a segment table and an optional page table. The performance of the address translation is often improved by utilizing a translation lookaside buffer (TLB) which comprises entries mapping a virtual address to an associated physical memory location. The entries are created when the DAT translates a virtual address using the translation tables. Subsequent use of the virtual address can then utilize the entry of the fast TLB rather than the slow sequential translation table accesses. TLB content may be managed by a variety of replacement algorithms including LRU (Least Recently used).
In the case where the processor is a processor of a multi-processor system, each processor has responsibility to keep shared resources, such as I/O, caches, TLBs and memory, interlocked for coherency. Typically, "snoop" technologies will be utilized in maintaining cache coherency. In a snoop environment, each cache line may be marked as being in any one of a shared state, an exclusive state, a changed state, an invalid state and the like in order to facilitate sharing.
I/O units 5054 (FIG. 11) provide the processor with means for attaching to peripheral devices including tape, disc, printers, displays, and networks for example. I/O units are often presented to the computer program by software drivers. In mainframes, such as the System z from IBM®
, channel adapters and open system adapters are I/O units of the mainframe that provide the communications between the operating system and peripheral devices.
Further, other types of computing environments can benefit from one or more aspects of the present invention. As an example, an environment may include an emulator (e.g., software or other emulation mechanisms), in which a particular architecture (including, for instance, instruction execution, architected functions, such as address translation, and architected registers) or a subset thereof is emulated (e.g., on a native computer system having a processor and memory). In such an environment, one or more emulation functions of the emulator can implement one or more aspects of the present invention, even though a computer executing the emulator may have a different architecture than the capabilities being emulated. As one example, in emulation mode, the specific instruction or operation being emulated is decoded, and an appropriate emulation function is built to implement the individual instruction or operation.
In an emulation environment, a host computer includes, for instance, a memory to store instructions and data; an instruction fetch unit to fetch instructions from memory and to optionally, provide local buffering for the fetched instruction; an instruction decode unit to receive the fetched instructions and to determine the type of instructions that have been fetched; and an instruction execution unit to execute the instructions. Execution may include loading data into a register from memory; storing data back to memory from a register; or performing some type of arithmetic or logical operation, as determined by the decode unit. In one example, each unit is implemented in software. For instance, the operations being performed by the units are implemented as one or more subroutines within emulator software.
More particularly, in a mainframe, architected machine instructions are used by programmers, usually today "C" programmers, often by way of a compiler application. These instructions stored in the storage medium may be executed natively in a z/Architecture IBM®
Server, or alternatively in machines executing other architectures. They can be emulated in the existing and in future IBM®
mainframe servers and on other machines of IBM®
(e.g., Power Systems servers and System x®
Servers). They can be executed in machines running Linux on a wide variety of machines using hardware manufactured by IBM®
, and others. Besides execution on that hardware under a z/Architecture, Linux can be used as well as machines which use emulation by Hercules, UMX, or FSI (Fundamental Software, Inc), where generally execution is in an emulation mode. In emulation mode, emulation software is executed by a native processor to emulate the architecture of an emulated processor.
The native processor typically executes emulation software comprising either firmware or a native operating system to perform emulation of the emulated processor. The emulation software is responsible for fetching and executing instructions of the emulated processor architecture. The emulation software maintains an emulated program counter to keep track of instruction boundaries. The emulation software may fetch one or more emulated machine instructions at a time and convert the one or more emulated machine instructions to a corresponding group of native machine instructions for execution by the native processor. These converted instructions may be cached such that a faster conversion can be accomplished. Notwithstanding, the emulation software is to maintain the architecture rules of the emulated processor architecture so as to assure operating systems and applications written for the emulated processor operate correctly. Furthermore, the emulation software is to provide resources identified by the emulated processor architecture including, but not limited to, control registers, general purpose registers, floating point registers, dynamic address translation function including segment tables and page tables for example, interrupt mechanisms, context switch mechanisms, Time of Day (TOD) clocks and architected interfaces to I/O subsystems such that an operating system or an application program designed to run on the emulated processor, can be run on the native processor having the emulation software.
A specific instruction being emulated is decoded, and a subroutine is called to perform the function of the individual instruction. An emulation software function emulating a function of an emulated processor is implemented, for example, in a "C" subroutine or driver, or some other method of providing a driver for the specific hardware as will be within the skill of those in the art after understanding the description of the preferred embodiment. Various software and hardware emulation patents including, but not limited to U.S. Letters Patent No. 5,551,013
, entitled "Multiprocessor for Hardware Emulation", by Beausoleil et al.; and U.S. Letters Patent No. 6,009,261
, entitled "Preprocessing of Stored Target Routines for Emulating Incompatible Instructions on a Target Processor", by Scalzi et al; and U.S. Letters Patent No. 5,574,873
, entitled "Decoding Guest Instruction to Directly Access Emulation Routines that Emulate the Guest Instructions", by Davidian et al; and U.S. Letters Patent No. 6,308,255
, entitled "Symmetrical Multiprocessing Bus and Chipset Used for Coprocessor Support Allowing Non-Native Code to Run in a System", by Gorishek et al; and U.S. Letters Patent No. 6,463,582
, entitled "Dynamic Optimizing Object Code Translator for Architecture Emulation and Dynamic Optimizing Object Code Translation Method", by Lethin et al; and U.S. Letters Patent No. 5,790,825
, entitled "Method for Emulating Guest Instructions on a Host Computer Through Dynamic Recompilation of Host Instructions", by Eric Traut; and many others, illustrate a variety of known ways to achieve emulation of an instruction format architected for a different machine for a target machine available to those skilled in the art.
In FIG. 13, an example of an emulated host computer system 5092 is provided that emulates a host computer system 5000' of a host architecture. In the emulated host computer system 5092, the host processor (CPU) 5091 is an emulated host processor (or virtual host processor) and comprises an emulation processor 5093 having a different native instruction set architecture than that of the processor 5091 of the host computer 5000'. The emulated host computer system 5092 has memory 5094 accessible to the emulation processor 5093. In the example embodiment, the memory 5094 is partitioned into a host computer memory 5096 portion and an emulation routines 5097 portion. The host computer memory 5096 is available to programs of the emulated host computer 5092 according to host computer architecture. The emulation processor 5093 executes native instructions of an architected instruction set of an architecture other than that of the emulated processor 5091, the native instructions obtained from emulation routines memory 5097, and may access a host instruction for execution from a program in host computer memory 5096 by employing one or more instruction(s) obtained in a sequence & access/decode routine which may decode the host instruction(s) accessed to determine a native instruction execution routine for emulating the function of the host instruction accessed. Other facilities that are defined for the host computer system 5000' architecture may be emulated by architected facilities routines, including such facilities as general purpose registers, control registers, dynamic address translation and I/O subsystem support and processor cache, for example. The emulation routines may also take advantage of functions available in the emulation processor 5093 (such as general registers and dynamic translation of virtual addresses) to improve performance of the emulation routines. Special hardware and off-load engines may also be provided to assist the processor 5093 in emulating the function of the host computer 5000'.
The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the invention. As used herein, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It will be further understood that the terms "comprises" and/or "comprising", when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components and/or groups thereof.
The corresponding structures, materials, acts, and equivalents of all means or step plus function elements in the claims below, if any, are intended to include any structure, material, or act for performing the function in combination with other claimed elements as specifically claimed. The description of one or more aspects of the present invention has been presented for purposes of illustration and description, but is not intended to be exhaustive or limited to the invention in the form disclosed. Many modifications and variations will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. The embodiment was chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and the practical application, and to enable others of ordinary skill in the art to understand the invention for various embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated.
Proceeding from left to right, the unsigned binary integer elements of the second operand are compared with the corresponding unsigned binary integer elements of the third operand. If two elements are not equal, the byte index of the left-most non-equal element is placed in byte seven of the first operand and zeros are stored to all other bytes. If the Condition Code Set (CC) bit in the M5
field is set to one, the condition code is set to indicate which operand was greater. If all elements were equal, then abyte index equal to the vector size is placed in byte seven of the first operand and zeros are placed in all other byte locations. If the CC bit is one, condition code three is set.
If the zero search (ZS) bit is set in the M5
field, each element in the second operand is also compared for equality with zero. If a zero element is found in the second operand before any other element of the second operand are found to be unequal, the byte index of the first byte of the element fount to be zero is stored in byte seven of the first operand. Zeros are stored in all other bytes and condition code 0 is set.
field specifies the element size control (ES). The ES control specifies the size of the elements in the vector register operands. If a reserved value is specified, a specification exception is recognized.
0 - Byte
1 - Halfword
2 - Word
3-15 - Reserved
field has the following format:
The bits of the M5
field are defined as follows:
- Zero Search (ZS): If one, each element of the second operand is also compared to zero.
- Condition Code Set (CC): If zero, the condition code is not set and remains unchanged. If one, the condition code is set as specified in the following section.
A specification exception is recognized and no other action is taken if any of the following occurs:
- 1. The M4 field contains a value from 3-15.
- 2. Bits 0-1 of the M5 field are not zero.
Resulting Condition Code:
If bit 3 of the M5
field is set to one, the code is set as follows:
0 If the zero, compare bit is set, comparison detected a zero element in both operands in a lower indexed element than any unequal compares
1 An element mismatch was detected and the element in VR2 is less than the element in VR3
2 An element mismatch was detected and the element in VR2 is greater than the element in VR3
3 All elements compared equal, and if the zero compare bit is set, no zero elements were found in the second operand.
If bit 3 of the M5
field is zero, the code remains unchanged.
- Data with DXC FE, Vector Register
- Operation if the vector-extension facility is not installed
- Specification (Reserved ES value)
- Transaction Constraint