(19)
(11)EP 2 771 348 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
20.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/21

(21)Application number: 12843460.2

(22)Date of filing:  24.10.2012
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C07H 7/02  (2006.01)
A61K 31/7008  (2006.01)
C07H 5/04  (2006.01)
A61P 21/00  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2012/061737
(87)International publication number:
WO 2013/063149 (02.05.2013 Gazette  2013/18)

(54)

SIALIC ACID ANALOGS

SIALSÄURE-ANALOGE

ANALOGUES DE L'ACIDE SIALIQUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 24.10.2011 US 201161550610 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
03.09.2014 Bulletin 2014/36

(73)Proprietor: Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical Inc.
Novato, CA 94949 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • KAKKIS, Emil
    Novato, California 94945 (US)
  • JUNGLES, Steven
    Novato, California 94949 (US)
  • ZHAO, He
    Madison, CT 06443 (US)

(74)Representative: Cooley (UK) LLP 
Dashwood 69 Old Broad Street
London EC2M 1QS
London EC2M 1QS (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2010/131712
  
  • GESCHE DUFNER ET AL: "Base- and Sugar-Modified Cytidine MonophosphateN-Acetylneuraminic Acid (CMP-Neu5Ac) Analogues - Synthesis and Studies with [alpha](2-6)-Sialyltransferase from Rat Liver", EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 2000, no. 8, 1 April 2000 (2000-04-01), pages 1467-1482, XP055168614, ISSN: 1434-193X, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0690(200004)2000:8<1467 ::AID-EJOC1467>3.0.CO;2-E
  • MARTIN R ET AL: "The synthesis and enzymatic incorporation of sialic acid derivatives for use as tools to study the structure, activity, and inhibition of glycoproteins and other glycoconjugates", BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, PERGAMON, GB, vol. 6, no. 8, 1 August 1998 (1998-08-01), pages 1283-1292, XP027388313, ISSN: 0968-0896 [retrieved on 1998-08-01]
  • LIU ET AL: "Overproduction of CMP-sialic acid synthetase for organic synthesis", JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 114, no. 10, 1 January 1992 (1992-01-01), pages 3901-3910, XP002231685, ISSN: 0002-7863, DOI: 10.1021/JA00036A044
  • SHINGO SATO ET AL: "Studies on Sialic Acids.XIV.Lactone Derivatives of N-Acetylneuraminic Acid", CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN, vol. 36, no. 12, 1 December 1988 (1988-12-01), page 4678, XP055205859, ISSN: 0009-2363
  • HORN ET AL: "Investigation into an efficient synthesis of 2,3-dehydro-N-acetyl neuraminic acid leads to three decarboxylated sialic acid dimers", CARBOHYDRATE RESEARCH, PERGAMON, GB, vol. 343, no. 5, 2 February 2008 (2008-02-02), pages 936-940, XP022509921, ISSN: 0008-6215, DOI: 10.1016/J.CARRES.2008.01.033
  • CAROLIREZENDE M. ET AL.: 'A facile route to 9-phosphorylated neuraminic acid derivatives' SYNTHETIC COMMUNICATIONS vol. 28, no. 23, December 1998, pages 4393 - 4400, XP055066457
  • COLOMBO R. ET AL.: 'The first synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid 1,7-lac-tone' CHEM. COMMUN. 2008, pages 5517 - 5519, XP055066459
  • DATABASE PUBCHEM [Online] 24 June 2005 'N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate', XP003032861 Database accession no. CID_440962
  • ALLEVI, P. ET AL.: 'Chemoselective synthesis of sialic acid 1,7-lactones' J. ORG. CHEM. vol. 75, 22 July 2010, pages 5542 - 5548, XP005506646
  • ROTA, P. ET AL.: 'General and chemoselective N-transacylation of secondary amides by means of perfluorinated anhydrides' ANGEW. CHEM. INT. ED. vol. 49, no. 10, 01 March 2010, pages 1850 - 1853, XP055066462
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION



[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/550,610 filed October 24, 2011.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0002] The present invention relates to sialic acid analogs useful for treating a sialic acid deficiency.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0003] Sialic acid generally refers to the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone. The most common member of this group is N-acetylneuraminic acid (also known as Neu5Ac or NANA) and thereby the term "sialic acid" is often used as the name of N-acetylneuraminic acid. It is the only sugar that contains a net negative charge and is typically found on terminating branches of N-glycans, O-glycans, and glycosphingolipids (gangliosides) (and occasionally capping side chains of GPI anchors). The sialic acid modification of cell surface molecules is crucial for many biological phenomena including protein structure and stability, regulation of cell adhesion, and signal transduction. Thus, sialic acid abnormalities, such as sialic acid deficiency, can cause severe health problems. Sialic acid deficiency disorders, such as Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM or HIBM type 2), Nonaka myopathy, Distal Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles (DMRV) and most recently renamed GNE myopathy are a clinical disease resulting from a reduction in sialic acid production.

[0004] The biosynthesis steps and feedback regulation of GNE/MNK is depicted in Figure 1. The production of sialic acid on glycoconjugates requires the conversion of N-acetylglucosamine (conjugated to its carrier nucleotide sugar UDP) to sialic acid. The sialic acid subsequently enters the nucleus where it is conjugated with its nucleotide sugar carrier CMP to make CMP-sialic acid, which is used as a donor sugar for glycosylation reactions in the cell. CMP-sialic acid is a known regulator of GNE/MNK activity. Jay et al., Gene Reg. & Sys. Biol. 3:181-190 (2009). Patients with HIBM have a deficiency in the production of sialic acid via the rate controlling enzyme GNE/MNK, which conducts the first two steps of this sequence: 1) epimerization of the glucosamine moiety to mannosamine with release of UDP, and 2) phosphorylation of the N-acetylmannosamine. The mutations causing HIBM occur in the regions encoding either the epimerase domain (GNE) or the kinase domain (MNK). Nearly twenty GNE mutations have been reported in HIBM patients from different ethnic backgrounds with founder effects among the Iranian Jews and Japanese. Broccolini et al., Hum. Mutat. 23:632 (2004). Most are missense mutations and result in decreased enzyme GNE activity and underproduction of sialic acid. Sparks et al., Glycobiology 15(11):1102-10 (2005); Penner et al., Biochemistry 45:2968-2977 (2006).

[0005] Researchers have investigated the use of sialic acid in substrate replacement therapy for treating sialic acid deficiency disorders and achieved some promising results in the preliminary studies.

[0006] WO-A-2010/131712 discloses a therapeutic pharmaceutical agent for diseases associated with the decrease in function of GNE protein, a food composition, and a food additive. Colombo R. et al. disclose, in CHEM. COMMUN., (2008), pages 5517-5519, "The first synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid 1,7-lactone". Shingo Sato et al. disclose, in CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN, (1988), vol. 36, no. 12, page 4678, "Studies on Sialic Acids.XIV.Lactone Derivatives of N-Acetylneuraminic Acid". Horn et al. disclose, in CARBOHYDRATE RESEARCH, (2008), vol. 343, no. 5, pages 936 - 940, "Investigation into an efficient synthesis of 2,3-dehydro-N-acetyl neuraminic acid leads to three decarboxylated sialic acid dimers".

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0007] The present invention provides novel sialic acid analogs useful for treating any sialic acid deficiency disorders. Also disclosed are methods of treating and preventing sialic acid deficiencies utilizing the present compounds and the pharmaceutical compositions or formulations thereof.

[0008] In one embodiment, the present application provides a compound according to claim 1 having structural Formula (Ia):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof; wherein:

R2, R4, and R6 are independently hydrogen or a moiety selected from structural formula (a), (b), (c), (f), and (g):



R1 is hydrogen or structural formula (f);

X is oxygen or sulfur;

L1 and L2 are each independently a covalent bond, -O-, or -NR10a-;

R10a is hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl;

R1a and R2a are each independently hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted carbocyclyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, -Xa-C(O)-O-R11a, or -Xa-O-C(O)-O-R11a;

Xa is optionally substituted alkylene;

each R11a is independently hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted heteroalkyl;

R3a, together with the carboxyl moiety to which it is attached, form a monopeptidyl or dipeptidyl group;

each R8a and R9a is independently hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl;

m is 1 or 2;

Z is hydrogen, C1-C6 alkyl, an amide group, a lactam group, an ester group, a lactone group, an urea group, a cyclic urea group, a carbonate group, a cyclic carbonate group, a carbamate group, a cyclic carbamate group, or a moiety selected from (a), (b), (c), and (f);

wherein, when R1 is hydrogen, R2 and R4 are hydrogen and R6 is structural formula (f).



[0009] Preferred features are defined in the dependent claims.

[0010] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a compound selected from the group consisting of







, and



[0011] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a pharmaceutical composition according to claim 11 comprising a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

[0012] The pharmaceutical composition may be such that release of the compound is over a period of about four hours or more.

[0013] The pharmaceutical composition may be such that the pharmacological effect from the compound lasts about four hours or more upon administration of the composition.

[0014] The pharmaceutical composition may be such that the composition, upon administration, provides a therapeutically effective amount of the compound for about 4 hours or more.

[0015] Preferred features are defined in the dependent claims.

[0016] Also described herein is a method for treating a sialic acid deficiency in a patient in need thereof comprising administering an effective amount of a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

[0017] Also described herein is a method for treating a sialic acid deficiency in a patient in need thereof comprising administering a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof; wherein upon administration, the compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, continuously provides a therapeutically effective amount of sialic acid for about 4 hours to about 24 hours.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING



[0018] 

Figure 1 shows the biosynthetic pathway of sialic acid in its subcellular locations.

Figures 2A-2C are graphs demonstrating the data from a single dose PO crossover pharmacokinetics study of sialic acid and Compound 1 in cynomolgus monkeys.

Figures 3A-3D show pharmacokinetic data obtained following single dose oral administration of various compounds of the present invention to male Sprague Dawley rats.

Figure 4A-4D show pharmacokinetic data obtained following single dose oral administration of various compounds of the present invention to male Sprague Dawley rats.


DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS OF THE INVENTION



[0019] Various embodiments and advantages of the present invention will be set forth in part in the description that follows, and in part will be obvious from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention. It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the invention as described.

Definitions



[0020] The terms "a" and "an" do not denote a limitation of quantity, but rather denote the presence of at least one of the referenced item. The term "or" or "and/or" is used as a function word to indicate that two words or expressions are to be taken together or individually. The terms "comprising", "having", "including", and "containing" are to be construed as open-ended terms (i.e., meaning "including, but not limited to"). The endpoints of all ranges directed to the same component or property are inclusive and independently combinable.

[0021] Reference to "about" a value or parameter herein includes (and describes) variations that are directed to that value or parameter per se. For example, description referring to "about X" includes description of "X".

[0022] The term "present compound(s)" or "compound(s) of the present invention" refers to compounds encompassed by structural formulae disclosed herein and includes any subgenus and specific compounds within these formulae whose structure is disclosed herein. Compounds may be identified either by their chemical structure and/or chemical name. When the chemical structure and chemical name conflict, the chemical structure is determinative of the identity of the compound. The compounds described herein may contain one or more chiral centers and/or double bonds and therefore, may exist as stereoisomers, such as double-bond isomers (i.e., geometric isomers), enantiomers or diastereomers. Accordingly, the chemical structures depicted herein encompass all possible enantiomers and stereoisomers of the illustrated compounds including the stereoisomerically pure form (e.g., geometrically pure, enantiomerically pure or diastereomerically pure) and enantiomeric and stereoisomeric mixtures. Enantiomeric and stereoisomeric mixtures can be resolved into their component enantiomers or stereoisomers using separation techniques or chiral synthesis techniques well known to the skilled artisan. The compounds may also exist in several tautomeric forms including the enol form, the keto form and mixtures thereof. Accordingly, the chemical structures depicted herein encompass all possible tautomeric forms of the illustrated compounds. The compounds described also include isotopically labeled compounds where one or more atoms have an atomic mass different from the atomic mass conventionally found in nature. Examples of isotopes that may be incorporated into the compounds of the invention include, but are not limited to, 2H, 3H, 13C, 14C, 15N, 18O, 17O, etc. Compounds may exist in unsolvated forms as well as solvated forms, including hydrated forms and as N-oxides. In general, compounds may be hydrated, solvated or N-oxides. Certain compounds may exist in multiple crystalline or amorphous forms. In general, all physical forms are equivalent for the uses contemplated herein and are intended to be within the scope of the present invention. Further, it should be understood, when partial structures of the compounds are illustrated, that brackets indicate the point of attachment of the partial structure to the rest of the molecule. The term "tautomer" as used herein refers to isomers that change into one another with great ease so that they can exist together in equilibrium.

[0023] "Alkyl," by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to a saturated branched, straight-chain or cyclic monovalent hydrocarbon radical derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single carbon atom of a parent alkane. The term "alkyl" includes "cycloakyl" as defined herein below. Typical alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, methyl; ethyl; propyls such as propan-1-yl, propan-2-yl (isopropyl), cyclopropan-1-yl, etc.; butanyls such as butan-1-yl, butan-2-yl (sec-butyl), 2-methyl-propan-1-yl (isobutyl), 2-methyl-propan-2-yl (t-butyl), cyclobutan-1-yl, etc.; and the like. In some embodiments, an alkyl group comprises from 1 to 20 carbon atoms (C1-C20 alkyl). In other embodiments, an alkyl group comprises from 1 to 10 carbon atoms (C1-C10 alkyl). In still other embodiments, an alkyl group comprises from 1 to 6 carbon atoms (C1-C6 alkyl). C1-C6 alkyl is also known as "lower alkyl".

[0024] It is noted that when an alkyl group is further connected to another atom, it becomes an "alkylene" group. In other words, the term "alkylene" refers to a divalent alkyl. For example, -CH2CH3 is an ethyl, while -CH2CH2- is an ethylene. That is, "Alkylene," by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to a saturated or unsaturated, branched, straight-chain or cyclic divalent hydrocarbon radical derived by the removal of two hydrogen atoms from a single carbon atom or two different carbon atoms of a parent alkane, alkene or alkyne. The term "alkylene" includes "cycloalkylene" as defined herein below. The term "alkylene" is specifically intended to include groups having any degree or level of saturation, i.e., groups having exclusively single carbon-carbon bonds, groups having one or more double carbon-carbon bonds, groups having one or more triple carbon-carbon bonds and groups having mixtures of single, double and triple carbon-carbon bonds. In some embodiments, an alkylene group comprises from 1 to 20 carbon atoms (C1-C20 alkylene). In other embodiments, an alkylene group comprises from 1 to 10 carbon atoms (C1-C10 alkylene). In still other embodiments, an alkylene group comprises from 1 to 6 carbon atoms (C1-C6 alkylene).

[0025] "Alkenyl," by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to an unsaturated branched, straight-chain or cyclic monovalent hydrocarbon radical having at least one carbon-carbon double bond derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single carbon atom of a parent alkene. The term "alkenyl" includes "cycloalkenyl" as defined herein below. The group may be in either the cis or trans conformation about the double bond(s). Typical alkenyl groups include, but are not limited to, ethenyl; propenyls such as prop-1-en-1-yl, prop-1-en-2-yl, prop-2-en-1-yl (allyl), prop-2-en-2-yl, cycloprop-1-en-1-yl; cycloprop-2-en-1-yl; butenyls such as but-1-en-1-yl, but-1-en-2-yl, 2-methyl-prop-1-en-1-yl, but-2-en-1-yl , but-2-en-1-yl, but-2-en-2-yl, buta-1,3-dien-1-yl, buta-1,3-dien-2-yl, cyclobut-1-en-1-yl, cyclobut-1-en-3-yl, cyclobuta-1,3-dien-1-yl, etc.; and the like.

[0026] "Alkynyl," by itself or as part of another substituent refers to an unsaturated branched, straight-chain or cyclic monovalent hydrocarbon radical having at least one carbon-carbon triple bond derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single carbon atom of a parent alkyne. Typical alkynyl groups include, but are not limited to, ethynyl; propynyls such as prop-1-yn-1-yl, prop-2-yn-1-yl, etc.; butynyls such as but-1-yn-1-yl, but-1-yn-3-yl, but-3-yn-1-yl, etc.; and the like.

[0027] "Alkoxy," by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to a radical of the formula -O-R199, where R199 is alkyl or substituted alkyl as defined herein.

[0028] "Acyl" by itself or as part of another substituent refers to a radical -C(O)R200, where R200 is hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, arylalkyl, substituted arylalkyl, heteroalkyl, substituted heteroalkyl, heteroarylalkyl or substituted heteroarylalkyl as defined herein. Representative examples include, but are not limited to formyl, acetyl, cyclohexylcarbonyl, cyclohexylmethylcarbonyl, benzoyl, benzylcarbonyl and the like.

[0029] "Aryl," by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to a monovalent aromatic hydrocarbon group derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single carbon atom of a parent aromatic ring system, as defined herein. Typical aryl groups include, but are not limited to, groups derived from aceanthrylene, acenaphthylene, acephenanthrylene, anthracene, azulene, benzene, chrysene, coronene, fluoranthene, fluorene, hexacene, hexaphene, hexalene, as-indacene, s-indacene, indane, indene, naphthalene, octacene, octaphene, octalene, ovalene, penta-2,4-diene, pentacene, pentalene, pentaphene, perylene, phenalene, phenanthrene, picene, pleiadene, pyrene, pyranthrene, rubicene, triphenylene, trinaphthalene and the like. In some embodiments, an aryl group comprises from 6 to 20 carbon atoms (C6-C20 aryl). In other embodiments, an aryl group comprises from 6 to 15 carbon atoms (C6-C15 aryl). In still other embodiments, an aryl group comprises from 6 to 15 carbon atoms (C6-C10 aryl).

[0030] "Arylalkyl," by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to an acyclic alkyl group in which one of the hydrogen atoms bonded to a carbon atom, typically a terminal or sp3 carbon atom, is replaced with an aryl group as, as defined herein. That is, arylakyl can also be considered as an alkyl substituted by aryl. Typical arylalkyl groups include, but are not limited to, benzyl, 2-phenylethan-1-yl, 2-phenylethen-1-yl, naphthylmethyl, 2-naphthylethan-1-yl, 2-naphthylethen-1-yl, naphthobenzyl, 2-naphthophenylethan-1-yl and the like. Where specific alkyl moieties are intended, the nomenclature arylalkanyl, arylalkenyl and/or arylalkynyl is used. In some embodiments, an arylalkyl group is (C6-C30) arylalkyl, e.g., the alkanyl, alkenyl or alkynyl moiety of the arylalkyl group is (C1-C10) alkyl and the aryl moiety is (C6-C20) aryl. In other embodiments, an arylalkyl group is (C6-C20) arylalkyl, e.g., the alkanyl, alkenyl or alkynyl moiety of the arylalkyl group is (C1-C8) alkyl and the aryl moiety is (C6-C12) aryl. In still other embodiments, an arylalkyl group is (C6-C15) arylalkyl, e.g., the alkanyl, alkenyl or alkynyl moiety of the arylalkyl group is (C1-C5) alkyl and the aryl moiety is (C6-C10) aryl.

[0031] "Carbocyclic," or "Carbocyclyl," by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to a saturated or partially saturated, buy not aromatic, cyclic monovalent hydrocarbon radical, including cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, and cycloalkynyl as defined herein. Typical carbocyclyl groups include, but are not limited to, groups derived from cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane, and the like. In some embodiments, the cycloalkyl group comprises from 3 to 10 ring atoms (C3-C10 cycloalkyl). In other embodiments, the cycloalkyl group comprises from 3 to 7 ring atoms (C3-C7 cycloalkyl). The carbocyclyl may be further substituted by one or more heteroatoms including, but not limited to, N, P, O, S, and Si, which attach to the carbon atoms of the cycloalkyl via monovalent or multivalent bond.

[0032] "Heteroalkyl," by themselves or as part of other substituents, refer to alkyl groups, in which one or more of the carbon atoms, are each, independently of one another, replaced with the same or different heteroatoms or heteroatomic groups. Typical heteroatoms or heteroatomic groups which can replace the carbon atoms include, but are not limited to, -O-, -S-, -N-, -Si-, -NH-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -S(O)NH-, -S(O)2NH- and the like and combinations thereof. The heteroatoms or heteroatomic groups may be placed at any interior position of the alkyl group. Typical heteroatomic groups which can be included in these groups include, but are not limited to, -O-, -S-, -O-O-, -S-S-, -O-S-, -NR201R202-, =N-N=, -N=N-, -N=N-NR203R204, -PR205-, -P(O)2-, -POR206-, -O-P(O)2-, -SO-, -SO2-, -SnR207R208- and the like, where R201, R202, R203, R204, R205, R206, R207 and R208 are independently hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, arylalkyl, substituted arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, heteroalkyl, substituted heteroalkyl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl or substituted heteroarylalkyl.

[0033] "Heterocyclic," or "Heterocyclyl,"by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to a carbocyclic radical in which one or more carbon atoms are independently replaced with the same or different heteroatom. The heterocyclyl may be further substituted by one or more heteroatoms including, but not limited to, N, P, O, S, and Si, which attach to the carbon atoms of the heterocyclyl via monovalent or multivalent bond. Typical heteroatoms to replace the carbon atom(s) include, but are not limited to, N, P, O, S, Si, etc. Typical heterocyclyl groups include, but are not limited to, groups derived from epoxides, azirines, thiiranes, imidazolidine, morpholine, piperazine, piperidine, pyrazolidine, pyrrolidone, quinuclidine, and the like. In some embodiments, the heterocyclyl group comprises from 3 to 10 ring atoms (3-10 membered heterocyclyl) In other embodiments, the heterocyclyl group comprise from 5 to 7 ring atoms (5-7 membered heterocyclyl). A cycloheteroalkyl group may be substituted at a heteroatom, for example, a nitrogen atom, with a (C1-C6) alkyl group. As specific examples, N-methyl-imidazolidinyl, N-methyl-morpholinyl, N-methyl-piperazinyl, N-methyl-piperidinyl, N-methyl-pyrazolidinyl and N-methyl-pyrrolidinyl are included within the definition of "heterocyclyl." A heterocyclyl group may be attached to the remainder of the molecule via a ring carbon atom or a ring heteroatom.

[0034] "Halo," by itself or as part of another substituent refers to a radical -F, -Cl, -Br or -I.

[0035] "Heteroaryl," by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to a monovalent heteroaromatic radical derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single atom of a parent heteroaromatic ring systems, as defined herein. Typical heteroaryl groups include, but are not limited to, groups derived from acridine, β-carboline, chromane, chromene, cinnoline, furan, imidazole, indazole, indole, indoline, indolizine, isobenzofuran, isochromene, isoindole, isoindoline, isoquinoline, isothiazole, isoxazole, naphthyridine, oxadiazole, oxazole, perimidine, phenanthridine, phenanthroline, phenazine, phthalazine, pteridine, purine, pyran, pyrazine, pyrazole, pyridazine, pyridine, pyrimidine, pyrrole, pyrrolizine, quinazoline, quinoline, quinolizine, quinoxaline, tetrazole, thiadiazole, thiazole, thiophene, triazole, xanthene, and the like. In some embodiments, the heteroaryl group comprises from 5 to 20 ring atoms (5-20 membered heteroaryl). In other embodiments, the heteroaryl group comprises from 5 to 10 ring atoms (5-10 membered heteroaryl). Exemplary heteroaryl groups include those derived from furan, thiophene, pyrrole, benzothiophene, benzofuran, benzimidazole, indole, pyridine, pyrazole, quinoline, imidazole, oxazole, isoxazole and pyrazine.

[0036] "Heteroarylalkyl" by itself or as part of another substituent refers to an acyclic alkyl group in which one of the hydrogen atoms bonded to a carbon atom, typically a terminal or sp3 carbon atom, is replaced with a heteroaryl group. Where specific alkyl moieties are intended, the nomenclature heteroarylalkanyl, heteroarylakenyl and/or heteroarylalkynyl is used. In some embodiments, the heteroarylalkyl group is a 6-21 membered heteroarylalkyl, e.g., the alkanyl, alkenyl or alkynyl moiety of the heteroarylalkyl is (C1-C6) alkyl and the heteroaryl moiety is a 5-15-membered heteroaryl. In other embodiments, the heteroarylalkyl is a 6-13 membered heteroarylalkyl, e.g., the alkanyl, alkenyl or alkynyl moiety is (C1-C3) alkyl and the heteroaryl moiety is a 5-10 membered heteroaryl.

[0037] An "amide" refers to an organic compound that contains the functional group consisting of a carbonyl group linked to a nitrogen atom. For example, an amide group can be represented by the following structural formula:

R is an optionally substituted hydrocarbon moiety;

R' and R" are independently hydrogen or optionally substituted hydrocarbon moiety.



[0038] A "lactam" group is a cyclic amide. That is, a lactam is an amide with the above structural formula where R and R' or R and R", taken together with the carbon and nitrogen atoms to which they are attached, form an optionally substituted cyclic group.

[0039] An "ester" refers to an organic compound derived by reacting/condensing an oxoacid with a hydroxyl compound. For example, an amide group can be represented by the following structural formula:

R and R' are independently hydrogen or optionally substituted hydrocarbon moiety.

[0040] A "lactone" group is a cyclic ester. That is, a lactone is an ester with the above structural formula where R and R', taken together with the carbon and oxygen atoms to which they are attached, form an optionally substituted cyclic group which can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.

[0041] A "urea" or "carbamide" refers to an organic compound having the following structural formula:

Ra, Rb, Rc, and Rd are independently hydrogen or optionally substituted hydrocarbon moiety.

[0042] A cyclic urea is a urea with the above structural formula where any two of Ra, Rb, Rc, and Rd, taken together with the carbon and nitrogen atoms to which they are attached, form an optionally substituted cyclic group which can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.

[0043] A "carbonate" refers to an organic compound having the following structural formula:

R' and R" are independently hydrogen or optionally substituted hydrocarbon moiety.

[0044] A cyclic carbonate is a carbonate with the above structural formula where R' and R", taken together with the carbon and oxygen atoms to which they are attached, form an optionally substituted cyclic group which can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.

[0045] A "carbamate" refers to an organic compound having the following structural formula:

Ra, Rb, and Rc are independently hydrogen or optionally substituted hydrocarbon moiety.

[0046] A cyclic carbamate is a carbamate with the above structural formula where any two of Ra and Rb, or Ra and Rc, taken together with the carbon and nitrogen/oxygen atoms to which they are attached, form an optionally substituted cyclic group which can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.

[0047] "Hydrocarbon" refers to an organic compound consisting of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons can be straight, branched, or cyclic; and include arenes, alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, alkynes, and etc. The term "substituted hydrocarbon" refers to a hydrocarbon where a carbon or hydrogen atom is replaced by an atom which is not carbon or hydrogen. The substituted hydrocarbons include substituted arenes, substituted alkanes, heteroalkanes, substituted alkenes, heteroalkenes, substituted cycloalkanes, heterocycloalkanes, substituted alkynes, and etc.

[0048] "Prodrug" refers to an inactive derivative of a therapeutically active agent that will be converted to the active agent in vivo. That is, a prodrug is a precursor of a drug.

[0049] "Protecting group" refers to a grouping of atoms that when attached to a reactive functional group in a molecule masks, reduces or prevents reactivity of the functional group. Examples of protecting groups can be found in Green et al., "Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry", (Wiley, 2nd ed. 1991) and Harrison et al., "Compendium of Synthetic Organic Methods", Vols. 1-8 (John Wiley and Sons, 1971-1996). Representative amino protecting groups include, but are not limited to, formyl, acetyl, trifluoroacetyl, benzyl, benzyloxycarbonyl ("CBZ"), tert-butoxycarbonyl ("Boc"), trimethylsilyl ("TMS"), 2-trimethylsilyl-ethanesulfonyl ("SES"), trityl and substituted trityl groups, allyloxycarbonyl, 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl ("FMOC"), nitro-veratryloxycarbonyl ("NVOC") and the like. Representative hydroxyl protecting groups include, but are not limited to, those where the hydroxyl group is either acylated or alkylated such as benzyl, and trityl ethers as well as alkyl ethers, tetrahydropyranyl ethers, trialkylsilyl ethers and allyl ethers.

[0050] "Salt" refers to a salt of a compound, which possesses the desired pharmacological activity of the parent compound. Such salts include: (1) acid addition salts, formed with inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, and the like; or formed with organic acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, hexanoic acid, cyclopentanepropionic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, malic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, benzoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxybenzoyl) benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, mandelic acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, 1,2-ethane-disulfonic acid, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, 4-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 4-toluenesulfonic acid, camphorsulfonic acid, 4-methylbicyclo[2.2.2]-oct-2-ene-1-carboxylic acid, glucoheptonic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, trimethylacetic acid, tertiary butylacetic acid, lauryl sulfuric acid, gluconic acid, glutamic acid, hydroxynaphthoic acid, salicylic acid, stearic acid, muconic acid, and the like; or (2) salts formed when an acidic proton present in the parent compound is replaced by a metal ion, e.g., an alkali metal ion, an alkaline earth ion, or an aluminum ion; or coordinates with an organic base such as ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, N-methylglucamine and the like.

[0051] "Solvate" means a compound formed by solvation (the combination of solvent molecules with molecules or ions of the solute), or an aggregate that consists of a solute ion or molecule, i.e., a compound of the present invention, with one or more solvent molecules. When water is the solvent, the corresponding solvate is "hydrate".

[0052] By "pharmaceutically acceptable" is meant a material that is not biologically or otherwise undesirable, i.e., the material may be incorporated into a pharmaceutical composition administered to a patient without causing any significant undesirable biological effects or interacting in a deleterious manner with any of the other components of the composition in which it is contained. When the term "pharmaceutically acceptable" is used to refer to a pharmaceutical carrier or excipient, it is implied that the carrier or excipient has met the required standards of toxicological and manufacturing testing or that it is included on the Inactive Ingredient Guide prepared by the U.S. Food and Drug administration.

[0053] "N-oxide", also known as amine oxide or amine-N-oxide, means a compound that derives from a compound of the present invention via oxidation of an amine group of the compound of the present invention. An N-oxide typically contains the functional group R3N+-O- (sometimes written as R3N=O or R3N→O).

[0054] "Substituted," when used to modify a specified group or radical, means that one or more hydrogen atoms of the specified group or radical are each, independently of one another, replaced with the same or different substituent(s). Substituent groups useful for substituting saturated carbon atoms in the specified group or radical include, but are not limited to -Ra, halo, -O-, =O, -ORb, -SRb, -S-, =S, -NRcRc, =NRb, =N-ORb, trihalomethyl, -CF3, -CN, -OCN, -SCN, -NO, -NO2, =N2, -N3, -S(O)2Rb, -S(O)2NRb, -S(O)2O-, -S(O)2ORb, -OS(O)2Rb, -OS(O)2O-, -OS(O)2ORb, -P(O)(O)2, -P(O)(ORb)(O-), -P(O)(ORb)(ORb), -C(O)Rb, -C(S)Rb, -C(NRb)Rb, -C(O)O-, -C(O)ORb, -C(S)ORb, -C(O)NRcRc, -C(NRb)NRcRc, -OC(O)Rb, -OC(S)Rb, -OC(O)O-, -OC(O)ORb, -OC(S)ORb, -NRbC(O)Rb, -NRbC(S)Rb, -NRbC(O)O-, -NRbC(O)ORb, -NRbC(S)ORb, -NRbC(O)NRcRc, -NRbC(NRb)Rb and -NRbC(NRb)NRcRc, where Ra is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl and heteroarylalkyl; each Rb is independently hydrogen or Ra; and each Rc is independently Rb or alternatively, the two Rc s may be taken together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a 4-, 5-, 6- or 7-membered cycloheteroalkyl which may optionally include from 1 to 4 of the same or different additional heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of O, N and S. As specific examples, -NRcRc is meant to include -NH2, -NH-alkyl, N-pyrrolidinyl and N-morpholinyl. As another specific example, a substituted alkyl is meant to include - alkylene-O-alkyl, -alkylene-heteroaryl, -alkylene-cycloheteroalkyl, -alkylene-C(O)ORb, - alkylene-C(O)NRbRb, and -CH2-CH2-C(O)-CH3. The one or more substituent groups, taken together with the atoms to which they are bonded, may form a cyclic ring including cycloalkyl and cycloheteroalkyl.

[0055] Similarly, substituent groups useful for substituting unsaturated carbon atoms in the specified group or radical include, but are not limited to, -Ra, halo, -O-, -ORb, -SRb, -S-, -NRcRc, trihalomethyl, -CF3, -CN, -OCN, -SCN, -NO, -NO2, -N3, -S(O)2Rb, -S(O)2O-, -S(O)2ORb, -OS(O)2Rb, -OS(O)2O-, -OS(O)2ORb, -P(O)(O-)2, -P(O)(ORb)(O-), -P(O)(ORb)(ORb), -C(O)Rb, -C(S)Rb, -C(NRb)Rb, -C(O)O-, -C(O)ORb, -C(S)ORb, -C(O)NRcRc, -C(NRb)NRcRc, -OC(O)Rb, -OC(S)Rb, -OC(O)O-, -OC(O)ORb, -OC(S)ORb, -NRbC(O)Rb, -NRbC(S)Rb, -NRbC(O)O-, -NRbC(O)ORb, -NRbC(S)ORb, -NRbC(O)NRcRc, -NRbC(NRb)Rb and -NRbC(NRb)NRcRc, where Ra, Rb and Rc are as previously defined.

[0056] Substituent groups useful for substituting nitrogen atoms in heteroalkyl and cycloheteroalkyl groups include, but are not limited to, -Ra, -O-, -ORb, -SRb, -S-, -NRcRc, trihalomethyl, -CF3, -CN, -NO, -NO2, -S(O)2Rb, -S(O)2O-, -S(O)2ORb, -OS(O)2Rb, -OS(O)2O-, -OS(O)2ORb, -P(O)(O-)2, -P(O)(ORb)(O-), -P(O)(ORb)(ORb), -C(O)Rb, -C(S)Rb, -C(NRb)Rb, -C(O)ORb, -C(S)ORb, -C(O)NRcRc, -C(NRb)NRcRc, -OC(O)Rb, -OC(S)Rb, -OC(O)ORb, -OC(S)ORb, -NRbC(O)Rb, -NRbC(S)Rb, -NRbC(O)ORb, -NRbC(S)ORb, -NRbC(O)NRcRc, -NRbC(NRb)Rb and -NRbC(NRb)NRcRc, where Ra, Rb and Rc are as previously defined.
Substituent groups from the above lists useful for substituting other specified groups or atoms will be apparent to those of skill in the art.

[0057] The term "substituted" specifically envisions and allows for one or more substitutions that are common in the art. However, it is generally understood by those skilled in the art that the substituents should be selected so as to not adversely affect the useful characteristics of the compound or adversely interfere with its function. Suitable substituents may include, for example, halogen groups, perfluoroalkyl groups, perfluoroalkoxy groups, alkyl groups, alkenyl groups, alkynyl groups, hydroxy groups, oxo groups, mercapto groups, alkylthio groups, alkoxy groups, aryl or heteroaryl groups, aryloxy or heteroaryloxy groups, arylalkyl or heteroarylalkyl groups, arylalkoxy or heteroarylalkoxy groups, amino groups, alkyl- and dialkylamino groups, carbamoyl groups, alkylcarbonyl groups, carboxyl groups, alkoxycarbonyl groups, alkylaminocarbonyl groups, dialkylamino carbonyl groups, arylcarbonyl groups, aryloxycarbonyl groups, alkylsulfonyl groups, arylsulfonyl groups, cycloalkyl groups, cyano groups, C1-C6 alkylthio groups, arylthio groups, nitro groups, keto groups, acyl groups, boronate or boronyl groups, phosphate or phosphonyl groups, sulfamyl groups, sulfonyl groups, sulfinyl groups, and combinations thereof. In the case of substituted combinations, such as "substituted arylalkyl," either the aryl or the alkyl group may be substituted, or both the aryl and the alkyl groups may be substituted with one or more substituents. Additionally, in some cases, suitable substituents may combine to form one or more rings as known to those of skill in the art.

[0058] The term "optionally substituted" denotes the presence or absence of the substituent group. For example, optionally substituted alkyl includes both unsubstituted alkyl and substituted alkyl. The substituents used to substitute a specified group can be further substituted, typically with one or more of the same or different groups selected from the various groups specified above.

[0059] "Carrier" refers to a diluent, adjuvant, excipient or vehicle with which a compound is administered.

[0060] The term "amino acid" refers to an organic compound containing an amino group (NH2), a carboxylic acid group (COOH), and any of various side groups. For example, the twenty two amino acids that are naturally incorporated into polypeptides (a.k.a. natural amino acids or naturally occurring amino acids) have the structural formula NH2CHRCOOH, wherein R is a moiety including hydrogen, optionally substituted hydrocarbon moiety, etc. It is commonly known that certain amino acids have two stereoisomers designated as L and D amino acids. Amino acids as mentioned herein include L isomer, D isomer, or a mixture thereof. Furthermore, any of the L, D, or mixed amino acids may further contain additional steroisomeric center(s) in their structures.

[0061] The term "peptidyl group", as used herein, denotes an organic moiety derived from one or more amino acid(s) by removal of a hydrogen atom from the NH2 and/or OH group of the amino acid(s). When the peptidyl group is derived from a single amino acid, it is a monopeptidyl group. When the peptidyl group is derived from a molecule of multiple amino acids, it is a multipeptidyl group, e.g., dipeptidyl or tripeptidyl. The amino acids in a multipeptidyl group is linked with each other via amide bond(s).

[0062] By "immediate-release" or "instant-release", it is meant a conventional or non-modified release in which greater than or equal to about 75% of the active agent is released within two hours of administration, specifically within one hour of administration.

[0063] By "sustained release", it is meant a dosage form in which the release of the active agent is controlled or modified over a period of time. Sustained can mean, for example, extended-, controlled-, delayed-, timed-, or pulsed-release at a particular time. Alternatively, controlled can mean that the release of the active agent is extended for longer than it would be in an immediate-release dosage form, e.g., at least over several hours.

[0064] By "effective amount" or "therapeutically effective amount" it is meant the amount of the present compound that, when administered to a patient for treating a disease, such as one related to sialic acid deficiency, is sufficient to effect such treatment for the disease. The "effective amount" or "therapeutically effective amount" will vary depending on the active agent, the disease and its severity, and the age, weight, and other conditions of the patient to be treated.

[0065] The terms "treating" and "treatment", as used herein, refer to an approach for obtaining beneficial or desired results including clinical results. For purposes of this invention, beneficial or desired clinical results include, but are not limited to, one or more of the following: decreasing the severity and/or frequency one or more symptoms resulting from the disease, diminishing the extent of the disease, stabilizing the disease (e.g., preventing or delaying the worsening of the disease), delay or slowing the progression of the disease, ameliorating the disease state, increasing production of sialic acid, the sialylation precursor CMP-sialic acid (e.g., increasing intracellular production of sialic acid) and restoring the level of sialylation in muscle and other proteins, decreasing the dose of one or more other medications required to treat the disease, and/or increasing the quality of life. "Treating" a patient with a compound or composition described herein includes management of an individual to inhibit or cause regression of a disease or condition.

[0066] "Prophylaxis" or "prophylactic treatment" "or preventive treatment" refers to prevention of the occurrence of symptoms and/or their underlying cause, for example, prevention of a disease or condition in a patient susceptible to developing a disease or condition (e.g., at a higher risk, as a result of genetic predisposition, environmental factors, predisposing diseases or disorders, or the like). Prophylaxis includes HIBM myopathy in which chronic disease changes in the muscles are irreversible and for which animal model data suggests treatment benefit in prophylaxis.

[0067] The term "patient" refers to an animal, for example, a mammal and includes, but is not limited to, human, bovine, horse, feline, canine, rodent, or primate. Preferably, the patient is a human.

Embodiments of the Compounds



[0068] In one aspect, the present invention is directed to sialic acid analogs which are converted, at least in part, to sialic acid upon administration to a patient.

[0069] In one embodiment, the present invention is directed to a compound represented by a structural Formula (Ia):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof; wherein:

R2, R4, and R6 are independently hydrogen or a moiety selected from structural formula (a), (b), (c), (f), and (g):



R1 is hydrogen or structural formula (f);

X is oxygen or sulfur;

L1 and L2 are each independently a covalent bond, -O-, or -NR10a-;

R10a is hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl;

R1a and R2a are each independently hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted carbocyclyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, -Xa-C(O)-O-R11a, or -Xa-O-C(O)-O-R11a;

Xa is optionally substituted alkylene;

each R11a is independently hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted heteroalkyl;

R3a, together with the carboxyl moiety to which it is attached, form a monopeptidyl or dipeptidyl group;

each R8a and R9a is independently hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl;

m is 1 or 2;

Z is hydrogen, C1-C6 alkyl, an amide group, a lactam group, an ester group, a lactone group, an urea group, a cyclic urea group, a carbonate group, a cyclic carbonate group, a carbamate group, a cyclic carbamate group, or a moiety selected from (a), (b), (c), and (f);

wherein, when R1 is hydrogen, R2 and R4 are hydrogen, and R6 is structural formula (f).



[0070] In one embodiment of the present invention, the structural Formula (Ia) is represented by structural Formula (IIa):

R1, R2, R4, and R6 are the same as previously defined.

[0071] In one embodiment of structural Formula (Ia) or (IIa), at least one of R2 and R4 is hydrogen. In one embodiment of structural Formula (Ia) or (IIa), R2 and R4 are hydrogen.

[0072] In one embodiment of structural Formula (Ia) or (IIa), R6 is hydrogen.

[0073] In one embodiment of structural Formula (Ia) or (IIa), m is 1; R8a is hydrogen; and R9a is hydrogen or lower alkyl.

[0074] In one embodiment of structural Formula (Ia) or (IIa), R1 is structural formula (f); and R2, R4 and R6 are hydrogen.

[0075] In one embodiment of structural Formula (Ia) or (IIa), R1 is structural formula (f); and the monopeptidyl or dipeptidyl group is derived from naturally occurring amino acid, non-naturally occurring amino acid, or a combination thereof. In one embodiment, the monopeptidyl or dipeptidyl group of R3a is derived from amino acids selected from the group consisting of Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine, and a combination thereof.

[0076] In one embodiment of structural formula (f), the monopeptidyl group can be represented by structural fomula (d) and (e):



[0077] R4a is hydrogen, halogen, nitro, cyano, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted carbocyclyl, OR, NR2, or SR; each R, R7a, R5a, and R6a is independently hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl; or alternatively, R4a and NR5aR6a, together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, or R5a and R6a, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form an optionally substituted four- to seven-membered azacyclic ring which optionally contains one or more additional heteroatom(s) selected from oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and L3 is optionally substituted alkylene.

[0078] Also described herein (not in accordance with the present invention) is a compound of structural Formula (Ia) or (IIa), wherein R1 is structural formula (d) or (e); R4a is hydrogen, halogen, cyano, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, OR, NR2, or SR; R, R7a, R5a, and R6a are independently hydrogen or lower alkyl; L3 is optionally substituted C1 to C6 alkylene; and the optional substituent is selected from the group consisting of halogen, nitro, cyano, hydroxyl, alkoxy, amino, N-alkyl amino, N, N-dialkylamino, =O, acyl, carboxyl, carboxyl ester, amide, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted carbocyclyl. In one such compound, Z is hydrogen, lower alkyl, or structural formula (d) or (e). In one such compound, R2, R4, and R6 are hydrogen.

[0079] In one embodiment of structural formula (f), the dipeptidyl group can be represented by structural Formula (h) or (i):

or

wherein, R4a and R5a are the same as previously defined; R12a is hydrogen, halogen, nitro, cyano, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted carbocyclyl, =O, OR, NR2, or SR; R13a and R14a are independently hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl; or alternatively, R12a and NR13aR14a, together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, or R13a and R14a, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form an optionally substituted four- to seven-membered azacyclic ring which optionally contains one or more additional heteroatom(s) selected from oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; R15a and R16a are independently hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl; and L4 and L5 are independently optionally substituted alkylene. In one embodiment, Z is hydrogen, lower alkyl, or structural formula (f). In another embodiment, R2, R4, and R6 are hydrogen.

[0080] Also described herein is a compound of Formula (III):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof; wherein:

R1b, R2b, R3b, R4b, and R5b are independently OH, -O-C(O)-Y, or -O-(CHR)n-O-C(O)-Y; with the proviso that at least one of R1b, R2b, R3b, and R4b and R5b is not OH;

n is 1 or 2;

Rb is hydrogen or lower alkyl;

each -O-C(O)-Y is independently a peptidyl moiety; and

the presence of one or more -O-C(O)-Y in Formula (III) increases the uptake of the compound thereof by peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) as compared to the uptake of a compound of Formula (III) wherein R1b, R2b, R3b, R4b, and R5b are OH.



[0081] Structural Formula (III) may be represented by structural Formula (IV):

R1b, R2b, R3b, R4b, and R5b are the same as previously defined.

[0082] In structural Formula (III) or (IV), R2b, R3b, and R4b may be OH.

[0083] In structural Formula (III) or (IV), R1b may be -O-C(O)-Y and R5b may be OH.

[0084] In structural Formula (III) or (IV), R1b may be -O-C(O)-Y; and R5b may be -O-(CHR)n-O-C(O)-Y.

[0085] In structural Formula (III) or (IV), the peptidyl moiety may be a monopeptidyl moiety derived from an amino acid selected from the group consisting of Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, and Valine. The monopeptidyl moiety may be derived from an amino acid selected from the group consisting of Aspartic acid, Lysine, Proline, and Valine.

[0086] In structural Formula (III) or (IV), the peptidyl moiety may be a dipeptidyl moiety derived from any of two amino acids selected from the group consisting of Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine, and a combination thereof. The dipeptidyl moiety may be derived from (1) Aspartic acid and Alanine, or (2) glutamic acid and Alanine.

[0087] In structural Formula (III) or (IV), n may be 1; and Rb may be hydrogen.

[0088] In one embodiment, the compound of the present invention is represented by structural Formula (Ia):

wherein R1, R2, and R4 are hydrogen; R6 is structural formula (f); and R3a, together with the carboxyl moiety to which it is attached, form a monopeptidyl or dipeptidyl group.

[0089] In one embodiment of structural Formula (Ia), the monopeptidyl or dipeptidyl group is derived from naturally occurring amino acid, non-naturally occurring amino acid, or a combination thereof.

[0090] Also described herein is structural Formula (V):

wherein R1a is structural (f), and R3a, together with the carboxyl moiety to which it is attached, form a monopeptidyl or dipeptidyl group; and R5a is structural (f), and R3a is optionally substituted alkyl.

[0091] In structural Formula (V), R3a, together with the carboxyl moiety to which it is attached, may form a monopeptidyl group which is derived from amino acids selected from the group consisting of Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, and Valine. The monopeptidyl group may be derived from amino acids selected from the group consisting of Aspartic acid, Lysine, Proline, and Valine.

[0092] In structural Formula (V), R3a, together with the carboxyl moiety to which it is attached, may form a dipeptidyl group which is derived from any two amino acids selected from the group consisting of Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine, and a combination thereof. The dipeptidyl group may be derived from two amino acids selected from (1) Aspartic acid and Alanine, or (2) glutamic acid and Alanine.

[0093] In structural Formula (V), R1a may be structural formula (f), and R3a may be unsubstituted C1 to C6 alkyl.

[0094] In structural Formula (V), R1a may be structural formula (f), and R3a may be C1 to C6 alkyl substituted with one or more groups selected from alkoxy, hydroxyl, amino, N-alkyl amino, N-dialkyl amino, halo, nitro, cyano, -C(O)-R', -C(O)-NH2, -C(O)-NHR', -C(O)-NR'R', -C(O)-OH, -C(O)-OR'; or two substituents, together with the atoms to which they are attached, form an optionally substituted carbocyclyl or heterocyclyl containing one or more heteroatom(s) selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur; wherein each R' is independently an optionally substituted alkyl.

[0095] In one embodiment, the compound of the present invention is:



[0096] The present invention also provides compounds selected from the group consisting of





and



[0097] Also disclosed herein (not in accordance with the present invention) are the following compounds:















































































and


Embodiments of the Utilities of the Present Compounds



[0098] The compounds of the present invention can be used for the treatment of sialic acid deficiencies by administering an effective amount of the present compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, to a patient in need of such treatment. The method may comprise administering a present compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, to a patient in need of such treatment; wherein upon administration, the compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, continuously provides a therapeutically effective amount of sialic acid for more than about 4 hours.

[0099] The sialic acid deficiency may be a myopathy associated with sialic acid deficiency. The myopathy associated with sialic acid deficiency may be Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM), Nonaka myopathy, and/or Distal Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles (DMRV).

[0100] The method can continuously provide a therapeutically effective amount of sialic acid for a period from about 1 hour to about 2, about 3, about 4, about 5, about 6, about 7, about 8, about 9, about 10, about 11, about 12, about 13, about 14, about 15, about 16, about 17, about 18, about 19, about 20, about 21, about 22, about 23, or about 24 hours.

[0101] The therapeutically effective amount may refer to the amount administered to the patient. The therapeutically effective amount may refer to the amount delivered to the bloodstream of the individual. The therapeutically effective amount may refer to the amount delivered to muscle tissue of the individual. The present compounds, upon administration, are converted to sialic acid in vivo. That is, the present compounds, upon administration, are metabolized to one or more compounds in the sialic acid pathway or derivatives thereof (including sialic acid itself).

[0102] The present method can deliver to the blood stream of a patient one or more compounds in the sialic acid pathway or derivatives thereof (including sialic acid itself) with a Cmax of about 0.2 to about 40 µg/mL or about 2 to about 40 µg/mL. The therapeutically effective amount may denote one or more compounds in the sialic acid pathway or derivatives thereof (including sialic acid itself) with a Cmax of about 5 to about 40 µg/mL.

[0103] The present method can deliver to the blood stream of a patient one or more compounds in the sialic acid pathway or derivatives thereof (including sialic acid itself) with a trough level of about 0.1 to about 20 µg/mL. The present method can deliver to a patient in need of the treatment one or more compounds in the sialic acid pathway or derivatives thereof (including sialic acid itself) with a trough level of about any one of 0.1 - 15 µg/mL, 0.1 - 10 µg/mL, 0.1 -5 µg/mL, 0.5 -20 µg/mL, 0.5-15 µg/mL, 0.5 - 10 µg/mL, 0.5 - 5 µg/mL, 1-20 µg/mL, 1-15 µg/mL, 1 - 10 µg/mL, or 1 - 5 µg/mL or about any one of 0.1, 0.5, 1 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 or 15 µg/mL.

[0104] A patient may be administered about any of 0.1 to 40 g/day, 0.2 to 20 g/day, 0.5 to 10 g/day, 0.5 to 5 g/day, or 0.5 to 4 g/day of one or more of the present compound. A patient may be administered about any of 0.2 g/day to 5 g/day, 0.3 g/day to 4 g/day, or 0.5 g/day to 3 g/day of one or more of the present compounds.

[0105] A patient may be administered about any of 0.01-500 mg/kg, 0.05-300 mg/kg, 0.1-150 mg/kg, 0.5-100 mg/kg, or 1-50 mg/kg of one or more compounds of the present invention. The method is capable of delivering to a patient in need thereof from about any of 1 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 35 mg/kg, or 2 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg of one or more compounds in the sialic acid pathway or derivatives thereof (including sialic acid itself).

Embodiments of Compositions and Routes of Administration



[0106] A compound of the present invention can be formulated as a pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, such a composition comprises a present compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The pharmaceutical composition can then be administered orally, parenterally, by inhalation spray, rectally, or topically in dosage unit formulations containing conventional nontoxic pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, adjuvants, and vehicles as desired. The amount of active ingredient that can be combined with the carrier materials to produce a single dosage form varies depending upon the mammalian host treated and the particular mode of administration. Topical administration can also involve the use of transdermal administration such, as transdermal patches or iontophoresis devices. The term parenteral as used herein includes subcutaneous injections, intravenous, intramuscular, intrasternal injection, or infusion techniques. Formulation of drugs is discussed in, for example, Hoover, John E., REMINGTON'S PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Mack Publishing Co., Easton, Pa.; 1975. Other examples of drug formulations can be found in Liberman, H. A. and Lachman, L., Eds., PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS, Marcel Decker, New York, N.Y., 1980.

[0107] Injectable preparations, for example, sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspensions can be formulated according to the known art using suitable dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents. The sterile injectable preparation can also be a sterile injectable solution or suspension in a nontoxic parenterally acceptable diluent or solvent, for example, as a solution in 1,3-butanediol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that can be employed are water, Ringer's solution, and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose any bland fixed oil can be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. In addition, fatty acids such as oleic acid find use in the preparation of injectables. Dimethyl acetamide, surfactants including ionic and non-ionic detergents, polyethylene glycols can be used. Mixtures of solvents and wetting agents such as those discussed above are also useful.

[0108] Suppositories for rectal administration of the drug can be prepared by mixing the drug with a suitable nonirritating excipient such as cocoa butter, synthetic mono- di- or triglycerides, fatty acids and polyethylene glycols that are sold at ordinary temperatures but liquid at the rectal temperature and will therefore melt in the rectum and release the drug.

[0109] Solid dosage forms for oral administration can include capsules, tablets, pills, powders, and granules. In such solid dosage forms, the compounds of this invention are ordinarily combined with one or more adjuvants appropriate to the indicated route of administration. If administered per os, a compound of the invention can be admixed with lactose, sucrose, starch powder, cellulose esters of alkanoic acids, cellulose alkyl esters, talc, stearic acid, magnesium stearate, magnesium oxide, sodium and calcium salts of phosphoric and sulfuric acids, gelatin, acacia gum, sodium alginate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and/or polyvinyl alcohol, and then tableted or encapsulated for convenient administration. Such capsules or tablets can contain a controlled-release formulation as can be provided in a dispersion of active compound in hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. In the case of capsules, tablets, and pills, the dosage forms can also comprise buffering agents such as sodium citrate, magnesium or calcium carbonate or bicarbonate. Tablets and pills can additionally be prepared with enteric coatings.

[0110] For therapeutic purposes, formulations for parenteral administration can be in the form of aqueous or non-aqueous isotonic sterile injection solutions or suspensions. These solutions and suspensions can be prepared from sterile powders or granules having one or more of the carriers or diluents mentioned for use in the formulations for oral administration. A compound of the invention can be dissolved in water, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, ethanol, corn oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, benzyl alcohol, sodium chloride, and/or various buffers. Other adjuvants and modes of administration are well and widely known in the pharmaceutical art.

[0111] Liquid dosage forms for oral administration can include pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and elixirs containing inert diluents commonly used in the art, such as water. Such compositions can also comprise adjuvants, such as wetting agents, emulsifying and suspending agents, and sweetening, flavoring, and perfuming agents.

[0112] The dosage regimen utilizing the compounds of the present invention in combination with an anticancer agent is selected in accordance with a variety of factors including type, species, age, weight, sex and medical condition of the patient; the severity of the condition to be treated; the route of administration; the renal and hepatic function of the patient; and the particular compound or salt or ester thereof employed. A consideration of these factors is well within the purview of the ordinarily skilled clinician for the purpose of determining the therapeutically effective dosage amounts to be given to a person in need of the instant combination therapy.

[0113] Systemic administration may also include relatively noninvasive methods such as the use of suppositories, transdermal patches, transmucosal delivery and intranasal administration. Oral administration is also suitable for compounds of the invention. Suitable forms include syrups, capsules, tablets, as is understood in the art.

[0114] Dosage levels are dependent on the nature of the condition, drug efficacy, the condition of the patient, the judgment of the practitioner, and the frequency and mode of administration; optimization of such parameters is within the ordinary level of skill in the art.

[0115] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a sustained release pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein the release of the compound is over a period of about 4 hours or more. In other embodiments, the release of the compound is over a period of about 5, about 6, about 7, about 8, about 9, about 10, about 11, about 12, about 13, about 14, about 15, about 16, about 17, about 18, about 19, about 20, about 21, about 22, about 23, or about 24 hours.

[0116] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a sustained release pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein the pharmacological effect from the compound lasts about 4 hours or more upon administration of the composition. In other embodiments, the pharmacological effect from the compound lasts about 5, about 6, about 7, about 8, about 9, about 10, about 11, about 12, about 13, about 14, about 15, about 16, about 17, about 18, about 19, about 20, about 21, about 22, about 23, or about 24 hours.

[0117] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a sustained release pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof; wherein the composition, upon administration, provides a therapeutically effective amount of the compound for about 4 hours or more. In other embodiments, the composition provides a therapeutically effective amount of the compound for about 5, about 6, about 7, about 8, about 9, about 10, about 11, about 12, about 13, about 14, about 15, about 16, about 17, about 18, about 19, about 20, about 21, about 22, about 23, or about 24 hours.

[0118] In one embodiment of any of the above-described sustained release pharmaceutical composition, the composition contains a matrix which comprises a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof; and one or more release rate controlling polymers. In one embodiment, the matrix is in form of a core or a layer over a core.

[0119] In one embodiment, the matrix comprises one or more polymers selected from the group consisting of a) at least one water-swellable, pH independent polymer, b) at least one anionic, pH-dependent, gel-forming copolymer, c) at least one cationic polymer, and d) at least one hydrocolloid polymer.

[0120] In one embodiment of any of the above-described sustained release pharmaceutical composition, the composition contains a release rate controlling membrane disposed over: a pull layer comprising a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, and an osmotic push layer; wherein the release rate controlling membrane has an orifice immediately adjacent to the pull layer. In one embodiment, the pull layer further comprises a release rate controlling polymer.

[0121] In one embodiment of any of the above-described sustained release pharmaceutical composition, the composition comprise one or more particles, and each of the particles comprises an active core comprising a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof; and a release rate controlling polymer disposed over the core.

[0122] In one embodiment of any of the above-described sustained release pharmaceutical composition, the composition comprises one or more particles, and each of the particles comprises an inert core, an active layer comprising a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof disposed over the inert core, and a release rate controlling polymer disposed over the active layer.

[0123] Various sustained release systems for drugs have also been devised, and can be applied to compounds of the invention. See, for example, U.S. Patent No. 5,624,677, International Patent Application No. PCT/US2011/043910, and U.S. Patent Application No. 12/595,027.

Preparation and Examples



[0124] Standard procedures and chemical transformation and related methods are well known to one skilled in the art, and such methods and procedures have been described, for example, in standard references such as Fiesers' Reagents for Organic Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 2002; Organic Reactions, vols. 1-83, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 2006; March J. and Smith M., Advanced Organic Chemistry, 6th ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY; and Larock R.C., Comprehensive Organic Transformations, Wiley-VCH Publishers, New York, 1999.

[0125] Reactions using compounds having functional groups may be performed on compounds with functional groups that may be protected. A "protected" compound or derivatives means derivatives of a compound where one or more reactive site or sites or functional groups are blocked with protecting groups. Protected derivatives are useful in the preparation of the compounds of the present invention or in themselves; the protected derivatives may be the biologically active agent. An example of a comprehensive text listing suitable protecting groups may be found in T. W. Greene, Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1999.

[0126] Synthesis of the examples of presented compounds is illustrated in the following schemes and procedures. The general synthetic schemes and related procedures used for the preparation of the examples compounds are given hereinafter.

Scheme 1. Synthetic Route for Monoester Prodrug 1.



[0127] 


Example 1. Preparation of N-Acetyl-B-neuraminic Acid Benzyl ester-(1-2).



[0128] 

S.No.Chemicals/Reagents & SolventsMWmmolEq.Amt
1 Sialic Acid (1-1) 309.37 64.7 1.0 20.0 g
2 HPLC grade water       100 mL
3 10% aqueous Cs2CO3       Added until neutral pH.
4 Benzyl Bromide (d= 1.44 g/ml) 171.04 350 5.4 42 mL
5 Dimethylformamide (DMF)       160 mL


[0129] In a 500 mL lyophilization vessel, Sialic acid (20.0 g, 64.7 mmol) is dissolved in HPLC grade water (100 mL). At room temperature, the resulting acidic solution is then neutralized to approximately pH 7.0 (litmus paper) by the addition of a 10% aqueous solution of Cesium Carbonate. The resulting clear solution is frozen and placed on a Lyophilizer for 1-2 days until a flakey dry white powder is obtained. The powder is then dissolved in anhydrous DMF (160 mL) and placed under an atmosphere of argon gas to give a light suspension (mostly soluble). To this is then added Benzyl Bromide (dropwise via syringe) at room temperature under an argon balloon, at which time the solution becomes clear. The solution is stirred overnight at room temperature leading to the formation of a white suspension of cesium bromide. The white solid (not desired product) is filtered through a Celite pad and the pad washed with copious amounts of DMF. The DMF is then removed under high vacuum with the temperature bath not exceeding 50 °C to give a viscous, pale yellow syrup. In order to remove excess benzyl bromide, the syrupy residue is triturated using a mixture of diethyl ether and hexanes (approx 2:1) and the solvent is decanted off. The remaining syrup is then dissolved is a minimum of isopropanol and placed in the freezer for several hours. A precipitate forms at this time which is filtered through a Buchner funnel and collected to provide 10.95 g of pure N-Acetyl-β-neuraminic Acid Benzyl ester as a white solid . Diethyl ether is added in small amounts to the mother liquor to induce crystallization of a second lot of product benzyl ester (625 mg.). Total Yield = 10.95 (Crop 1) + 625 mg. (crop 2) = 11.58 g (52% yield). LC/MS: (+) ESI: m/z = 400.1 [M+1]; 422.1 [M+ Na, major signal); retention time = 2.53 min. 1H NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOD) δ 7.31-7.46 (m, 5H), 5.25 (dd, J=22.0, 12.8 Hz), 3.92-4.11 (m, 2H), 3.77-3.89 (m, 2H), 3.70-3.76 (m, 2H), 3.65 (dd, J=16.0, 8.0 Hz, 1H), 3.52 (dd, J=9.2, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 2.26 (dd, J=13.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 2.03 (s, 3H), 1.93 (dd, J=12.4, 11.2 Hz, 1H).

Example 2. Preparation of 5-Acetylamino-6-[3-(2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-3-methyl-utyryloxy)-1,2-dihydroxy-propyl]-2,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-pyran-2-carboxylic acid benzyl ester (1-5).



[0130] 

S.No.Chemicals/Reagents & SolventsMWmmolEq.Amt
1 N-Acetyl-β-neuraminic Acid Benzyl ester (1-2) 399.39 4.88 1.0 1.95 g
2 Carbobenzyloxy-L-Valine 251.28 5.37 1.1 1.35 g
3 1-Chloro-N,N,2-trimethyl-1-propenylamine (Ghosez' Reagent) (d= 1.01) 133.6 6.34 1.3 847 mg. (848 µL)
4 Dichloromethane (anhydrous)       12.0 mL
5 Pyridine (anhydrous)       8.0 mL


[0131] To a solution of Carbobenzyloxy-L-Valine (1.35 g, 5.37 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (12 mL) at 0 °C under argon is added 1-Chloro-N,N,-2-trimethyl-1-propenylamine (848 µL, 6.34 mmol) by dropwise addition via a syringe. The resulting solution is then stirred at 0 °C for 10 minutes resulting in a clear colorless solution. To this solution is then added the N-Acetyl-β-neuraminic Acid Benzyl ester (1-2), previously dissolved in anhydrous pyridine (8.0 mL) via dropwise addition. The solution immediately turns yellow and is kept at 0 °C and under an argon atmosphere for 3 hours. The cooling bath is then removed and the solution kept at rt for overnight resulting in a cloudy suspension. The solvents are removed under high vacuum being careful that the temperature bath does not exceed 50 °C to give a light yellow oil. In order to remove traces of pyridine, the oil is triturated with toluene and again evaporated under high vacuum. The remaining oil is dissolved in minimum amount of dichloromethane (DCM) and loaded directly unto a silica gel column (Silicycle-FLH-R10030B-IS080, 80 g Cartridge) and purified by flash chromatography (Mobile Phase: DCM / Methanol = 96/4 to 88/12 over 24 minutes). Combination of the purest fractions yields 996 mg (32% yield) of pure (1-5) as a white solid. LC/MS: (+) ESI: m/z = 633.2 [M+1]; 655.2 [M+Na, major signal); retention time = 3.69 min. 1H NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOD) δ 7.12-7.37 (m, 11H), 5.08-5.17 (m, 2H), 4.95-5.03 (m, 2H), 4.28 (dd, J=11.6, 2.0 Hz, 1H, C-9), 4.18 (dd, J=11.6, 6.0 Hz, 1H, C-9'), 4.05-4.06 (m, 1H), 3.91-3.98 (m, 1H), 3.89 (dd, J=10.5, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 3.80-3.86 (m, 11H), 3.70 (t, 1H), 3.41-3.43 (m, 1H), 2.14 (dd, J=12.8, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 1.98-2.08 (m, 1H), 1.91 (s, 3H), 1.79-1.89 (m, 1H), 0.80-0.84 (m, 6H); 13C NMR (400 mHz, d4-MeOD) δ 173.7, 170.9, 158.9, 136.2, 137.1, 129.6, 129.5, 129.4, 129.1, 129.0, 128.8, 96.7, 72.0, 70.3, 69.3, 68.3, 68.0, 67.8, 61.1, 54.4, 40.7, 32.1, 22.7, 19.6, 18.4.

Example 3. Preparation of 5-Acetylamino-6-[3-(2-amino-3-methyl-butyryloxy)-1,2-dihydroxy-propyl]-2,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-pyran-2-carboxylic acid (1).



[0132] 

S.No.Chemicals/Reagents & SolventsMWmmolEq.Amt
1 Benzyl Ester (1-5) 632.6 3.96 1.0 2.50 g
2 10% Palladium on Carbon       2.0 g
3 Hydrogen (50 psi) overnight        
4 Tetrahydrofuran       22 mL
5 Ethyl Acetate       10 mL


[0133] In a 500 mL Parr shaker is placed the Z-valine protected benzyl ester (1-5) (2.50 g, 3.96 mmol) and the solid is dissolved in a mixture of THF (22 mL) and ethyl acetate (10 mL). To this is then added 10% Palladium on Carbon (2.0 g) in a single lot and the resulting suspension is hydrogenated at 50 psi at room temperature for overnight. LC/MS at this time of a small filtered aliquot, shows complete absence of starting material and the presence of the desired material (M+1 = 409). The remaining suspension is filtered through a Celite pad and the pad washed with THF. Evaporation of solvent leaves a light yellow semisolid which upon trituration with isopropanol produces an off-white solid. The solid is collected by filtration through a Buchner funnel to provide 1.28 g (80% yield) of essentially pure pro-drug ester 1. LC/MS: (+) ESI: m/z = 409.0 [M+1]; retention time = 0.40 min. Melting Point: Decomposes between 140 to 145 °C. Appearance: Off-white solid. Analytical HPLC; Column = Phenomenex Luna HILIC (reverse phase): Mobile Phase: A= 0.05% H3PO4 in Water, B= 0.05% H3PO4 in CH3CN: Gradient: 5% A to 50% B over 20 minutes, λ = 205 nM; Retention Time: 3.8 minutes (Single Peak). 1H NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOD) δ 4.41-4.49 (m, 2H), 3.98-4.08 (m, 3H), 3.87-3.97 (m, 2H), 3.57 (dd, J=9.6, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 2.28-2.39 (m, 1H), 2.22 (dd, J=12.8, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 2.04 (s, 3H), 1.83 (dd, J=12.8, 11.6 Hz, 1H), 1.04-1.06 (m, 6H); 13C NMR (400 mHz, D2O) δ 176.6, 174.6, 169.9, 96.4, 69.9, 68.4, 67.8, 67.4, 67.2, 58.4, 52.3, 39.4, 29.4, 22.1, 17.3, 17.1. Final Purity Estimate: 96-97% (Based upon 1H NMR integration in Trifluoroacetic Acid-D).

Example 4. Sialic acid / Prodrug Single Dose PO Crossover Pharmacokinetics Study in Cynomolgus Monkeys.



[0134] 
Test System Young adult (2.5-5 yo), Cynomolgus Macaques
Drug Status Non-naive
# of Animals 3 animals (0♂, 3♀)
Acclimation 14 days
Dosing Regimen PO on days 1 and 8
DayTest ArticleDose LevelDose RouteNo of Animals
1 Sialic acid 100 mg/kg PO 3
8 Prodrug 1 100 mg/kg PO
Test Substance Sialic Acid and Compound 1
Clinical Observations Once daily
Body Weight Once weekly
Blood Collection for PK PO arm: Pre-dose -1 and 0, 15, 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24hrs.
Urine Collection for PK Pre-dose overnight, 0 - 4hrs, 4 - 8 hrs, 8 - 12 hrs, 12 - 24hrs. Total volumes were determined and 5 ml samples were preserved for possible future analysis.
Blank plasma / urine Blank monkey plasma and urine (up to 100ml if possible)
Quality Assurance The study will be conducted according to the principles of GLP.


[0135] A single oral dose crossover pharmacokinetic study of sialic acid (API) and prodrug (Compound 1 - a valine ester of sialic acid as described above) was run in fasted cynomolgus monkeys (n=3). For this study, it was essential that the GI tract of the in vivo model have some similarities to human metabolism in order for the Pep T1 transporter system to be present, thus monkeys were chosen since they carry the same transporter in the gut as humans.

[0136] The 100 mg/kg dose level chosen was based on what is known for dosing of sialic acid which has passed complete toxicological evaluation and is safe up to 2,000 mg/kg NOAEL in dogs and rats. On Day 1, three female cynomolgus monkeys were dosed with 100 mg/kg sialic acid (API) and on Day 8 the same three cynomolgus monkeys were dosed with 100 mg/kg of the prodrug. Serum was collected at the following timepoints: predose, then 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 8 hrs, 12 hrs and 24 hrs postdose. Urine samples were collected predose overnight, then at intervals 0-4 hrs, 4-8 hrs, 8-12 hrs and 12-24 hrs post dose. The data in Figure 2A show the mean absorption values (n=3) of serum sialic acid on Days 1 and 8. The prodrug peak serum concentration is earlier (1 hr) than sialic acid API (2 hrs). While the Tmax (1.623 µg/mL) for sialic acid API is higher than the prodrug (Tmax = 0.857 µg/mL), the extent of the absorption for both drugs are similar. The pharmacokinetic data in Figures 2B and 2C show group averages of sialic acid concentrations on Days 1 and 8.

Example 5: Single Dose Pharmacokinetic Studies of Sialic Acid vs. Prodrugs in the Male Sprague Dawley Rat



[0137] The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of Sialic Acid and Prodrugs (Lactone 2C6, Lactone C6, Lactone C3 and Lactone C9) following a single oral administration in the male Sprague Dawley rat. The structures of the Prodrugs are as follows:

Lactone 2C6: (1R,4R,5R,6R,7S)-6-acetomido-4[(R)-2-(hexanoyloxy)-1-hydroxyethyl]-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-3,9-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-1-yl hexanoate:

Lactone C6: (1R,4R,5R,6R,7S)-6-acetomido-4[(R)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-3,9-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1 ]nonan-1-yl hexanoate:

Lactone C3: (1R,4R,5R,6R,7S)-6-acetomido-4[(R)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-3,9-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-1 -yl propionate:

Lactone C9: (1R,4R,5R,6R,7S)-6-acetomido-4[(R)-1 ,2-dihydroxyethyl]-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-3,9-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-1-yl nonanoate:



[0138] Fifteen (15) male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 5 treatment groups (3 animals per group) that received either Sialic acid or Prodrugs at a dose level of 175 mg/kg. Each dose was given as a single oral gavage administration at a dose volume of 10 mL/kg. Blood samples for NANA and Prodrug analysis were collected at pre-dose (Day -2) and on the day of dosing at 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h post dose. Data provided in Figures 3A-3D.

[0139] A second experiment was conducted with a different set of Prodrugs (Lactone C9, Lactone C12, and Lactone C16). Lactone C12 and Lactone C16 have the following structures:

Lactone C12: (1R,4R,5R,6R,7S)-6-acetomido-4[(R)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-3,9-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-1-yl dodeconoate:

Lactone C16: (1R,4R,5R,6R,7S)-6-acetomido-4[(R)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-3,9-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-1-yl palmitate:



[0140] Twelve (12) male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 treatment groups (3 animals per group) that received either Sialic acid or Prodrugs at a dose level of 200 mg/kg. Each dose was given as a single oral gavage administration at a dose volume of 10 mL/kg. Blood samples for NANA and Prodrug analysis were collected at pre-dose (Day -2) and on the day of dosing at 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h post dose. Data provided in Figures 4A-4D. Without being bound by theory, it is proposed that the prolonged PK curves show how the fatty acid is delaying clearance for the sialic lactone.


Claims

1. A compound having structural Formula (Ia):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof;
wherein:

R2, R4, and R6 are independently hydrogen or a moiety selected from structural formula (a), (b), (c), (f), and (g):



R1 is hydrogen or structural formula (f);

X is oxygen or sulfur;

L1 and L2 are each independently a covalent bond, -O-, or -NR10a-;

R10a is hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl;

R1a and R2a are each independently hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted carbocyclyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, -Xa-C(O)-O-R11a, or -Xa-O-C(O)-O-R11a;

Xa is optionally substituted alkylene;

each R11a is independently hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted heteroalkyl;

R3a, together with the -OC(O)- moiety to which it is attached, form a monopeptidyl or dipeptidyl group;

each R8a and R9a is independently hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl;

m is 1 or 2; and

Z is hydrogen, C1-C6 alkyl, an amide group, a lactam group, an ester group, a lactone group, an urea group, a cyclic urea group, a carbonate group, a cyclic carbonate group, a carbamate group, a cyclic carbamate group, or a moiety selected from (a), (b), (c), and (f);

wherein,

when R1 is hydrogen, R2 and R4 are hydrogen, and R6 is structural formula (f).


 
2. The compound of claim 1, wherein structural Formula (Ia) is represented by structural Formula (IIa):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.
 
3. The compound of claims 1 or 2, wherein:

(i) at least one of R2 and R4 is hydrogen; and/or

(ii) R6 is hydrogen; and/or

(iii) m is 1; R8a is hydrogen; and R9a is hydrogen or C1-C6 alkyl.


 
4. The compound of claim 3, wherein both of R2 and R4 are hydrogen.
 
5. The compound of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein:

R1 is structural formula (f); and

R2, R4, and R6 are hydrogen.


 
6. The compound of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein
R1 is structural formula (f);
the monopeptidyl is derived from naturally occurring amino acid or non-naturally occurring amino acid; and
the dipeptidyl group is derived from naturally occurring amino acid, non-naturally occurring amino acid, or a combination thereof.
 
7. The compound of claim 6, wherein the monopeptidyl group is derived from amino acids selected from the group consisting of Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, and Valine; and the dipeptidyl group is derived from amino acids selected from the group consisting of Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine, and a combination thereof.
 
8. The compound of claim 6, wherein
the monopeptidyl group is represented by structural formula (d) or (e);

R4a is hydrogen, halogen, nitro, cyano, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted carbocyclyl, OR, NR2, or SR, such as R4a is hydrogen, halogen, cyano, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, OR, NR2, or SR;

each R, R7a, R5a, and R6a is independently hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl; or alternatively, R4a and NR5aR6a, together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, or R5a and R6a, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form an optionally substituted four- to seven-membered azacyclic ring which optionally contains one or more additional heteroatom(s) selected from oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur, such as R, R7a, R5a, and R6a are independently hydrogen or C1-C6 alkyl;

L3 is optionally substituted alkylene, such as optionally substituted C1 to C6 alkylene;

and optionally the optional substituent is selected from the group consisting of halogen, nitro, cyano, hydroxyl, alkoxy, amino, N-alkyl amino, N, N-dialkylamino, =O, acyl, carboxyl, carboxyl ester, amide, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted carbocyclyl.


 
9. The compound of claim 6, wherein
the dipeptidyl group is represented by structural Formula (h) or (i):

R4a and R5a are defined the same as claim 8;

R12a is hydrogen, halogen, nitro, cyano, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted carbocyclyl, =O, OR, NR2, or SR;

R13a and R14a are independently hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl; or alternatively, R12a and NR13aR14a, together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, or R13a and R14a, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form an optionally substituted four- to seven-membered azacyclic ring which optionally contains one or more additional heteroatom(s) selected from oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur;

R15a and R16a are independently hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl; and

L4 and L5 are independently optionally substituted alkylene.


 
10. A compound selected from the group consisting of







and


 
11. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of claims 1 to 10, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and optionally the pharmaceutical composition is such that (i) the release of the compound is over a period of about four hours or more; or (ii) the pharmacological effect from the compound lasts about four hours or more upon administration of the composition; or (iii) the composition, upon administration, provides a therapeutically effective amount of the compound for about 4 hours or more.
 
12. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 11, wherein the pharmaceutical composition:

(i) has a matrix which comprises the compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof; and one or more release rate controlling polymers, and optionally the matrix is in form of a core or a layer over a core;

(ii) has a release rate controlling membrane disposed over a pull layer comprising the compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, and an osmotic push layer; wherein the release rate controlling membrane has an orifice immediately adjacent to the pull layer, and optionally the pull layer further comprises a release rate controlling polymer;

(iii) has one or more particles, and each of the particles comprises an active core comprising the compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof; and a release rate controlling polymer disposed over the core; or

(iv) has one or more particles, and each of the particles comprises an inert core, an active layer comprising the compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof disposed over the inert core, and a release rate controlling polymer disposed over the active layer.


 
13. The compound of any one of claims 1 to 10, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 11, for use in a method of treatment.
 
14. The compound of any one of claims 1 to 10, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 11, for use in a method of treating a disease associated with sialic acid deficiency in a patient.
 
15. The compound or a pharmaceutical composition for use of claim 14, wherein the disease associated with sialic acid deficiency is a myopathy associated with sialic acid deficiency.
 
16. The compound or a pharmaceutical composition for use of claim 15, wherein the myopathy associated with sialic acid deficiency is Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM), Nonaka myopathy, and/or Distal Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles (DMRV).
 


Ansprüche

1. Verbindung mit einer Strukturformel (Ia):

oder pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz oder Solvat davon;
wobei:

R2, R4 und R6 unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff oder ein Anteil, ausgewählt aus einer Strukturformel (a), (b), (c), (f) und (g), sind:



R1 Wasserstoff oder eine Strukturformel (f) ist;

X Sauerstoff oder Schwefel ist;

L1 und L2 jeweils unabhängig voneinander eine kovalente Bindung, -O- oder -NR10a- sind;

R10a Wasserstoff oder wahlweise substituiertes Alkyl ist;

R1a und R2a jeweils unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff, wahlweise substituiertes Alkyl, wahlweise substituiertes 5 Heteroalkyl, wahlweise substituiertes Aryl, wahlweise substituiertes Heteroaryl, wahlweise substituiertes Carbocyclyl, wahlweise substituiertes Heterocyclyl, -Xa-C(O)-O-R11a oder -Xa-O-C(O)-O-R11a sind;

Xa wahlweise substituiertes Alkylen ist;

10 jedes R11a unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff, wahlweise substituiertes Alkyl oder wahlweise substituiertes Heteroalkyl ist;

R3a zusammen mit dem -OC(O)-Anteil, an den es angehängt ist, eine Monopeptidyl- oder Dipeptidylgruppe bildet;

15 jedes R8a und R9a unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff oder wahlweise substituiertes Alkyl ist;

m 1 oder 2 ist; und

Z Wasserstoff, C1-C6-Alkyl, eine Amidgruppe, eine Lactamgruppe, eine Estergruppe, eine Lactongruppe, eine 20 Harnstoffgruppe, eine cyclische Harnstoffgruppe, eine Carbonatgruppe, eine cyclische Carbonatgruppe, eine Carbamatgruppe, eine cyclische Carbamatgruppe oder ein Anteil, ausgewählt aus (a), (b), (c) und (f), ist;

wobei,

25 wenn R1 Wasserstoff ist, R2 und R4 Wasserstoff sind und R6 eine Strukturformel (f) ist.


 
2. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Strukturformel (Ia) repräsentiert ist durch die Strukturformel (IIa):

oder pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz oder Solvat davon.
 
3. Verbindung nach den Ansprüchen 1 oder 2, wobei:

(i) mindestens eines von R2 und R4 Wasserstoff ist; und/oder

(ii) R6 Wasserstoff ist; und/oder

(iii) m 1 ist; R8a Wasserstoff ist und R9a Wasserstoff oder C1-C6-Alkyl ist.


 
4. Verbindung nach Anspruch 3, wobei beide von R2 und R4 Wasserstoff sind.
 
5. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei:

R1 eine Strukturformel (f) ist; und

R2, R4 und R6 Wasserstoff sind.


 
6. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei
R1 eine Strukturformel (f) ist;
das Monopeptidyl abgeleitet ist aus natürlich auftretender Aminosäure oder nicht natürlich auftretender Aminosäure; und
die Dipeptidylgruppe abgeleitet ist aus natürlich 223610265 v1 auftretender Aminosäure, nicht natürlich auftretender Aminosäure oder einer Kombination davon.
 
7. Verbindung nach Anspruch 6, wobei die Monopeptidylgruppe abgeleitet ist aus Aminosäuren, die ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Alanin, Arginin, Asparagin, Asparaginsäure, Cystein, Glutaminsäure, Glutamin, Glycin, Histidin, Isoleucin, Leucin, Lysin, Methionin, Phenylalanin, Prolin, Serin, Threonin, Tryptophan, Tyrosin und Valin; und die Dipeptidylgruppe abgeleitet ist aus Aminosäuren, die ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Alanin, Arginin, Asparagin, Asparaginsäure, Cystein, Glutaminsäure, Glutamin, Glycin, Histidin, Isoleucin, Leucin, Lysin, Methionin, Phenylalanin, Prolin, Serin, Threonin, Tryptophan, Tyrosin, Valin und einer Kombination davon.
 
8. Verbindung nach Anspruch 6, wobei
die Monopeptidylgruppe repräsentiert ist durch die Strukturformel (d) oder (e);

R4a Wasserstoff, Halogen, Nitro, Cyano, wahlweises substituiertes Alkyl, wahlweise substituiertes Alkenyl, wahlweise substituiertes Aryl, wahlweise substituiertes Heteroalkyl, wahlweise substituiertes Heterocyclyl, wahlweise substituiertes Heteroaryl, wahlweise substituiertes Carbocyclyl, OR, NR2 oder SR ist, wobei beispielsweise R4a Wasserstoff, Halogen, Cyano, wahlweise substituiertes Alkyl, wahlweise substituiertes Heteroalkyl, OR, NR2 oder SR ist;

jedes R, R7a, R5a und R6a unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff oder wahlweise substituiertes Alkyl ist; oder alternativ dazu R4a und NR5aR6a, zusammen mit dem Kohlenstoffatom, an das sie angehängt sind, oder R5a und R6a, zusammen mit dem Stickstoffatom, an das sie angehängt sind, einen wahlweise substituierten vier- bis siebengliedrigen azacyclischen Ring bilden, der wahlweise ein oder mehr zusätzliche Heteroatom(e) enthält, die ausgewählt sind aus Sauerstoff, Stickstoff und Schwefel, wobei beispielsweise R, R7a, R5a und R6a unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff oder C1-C6-Alkyl sind;

L3 wahlweise substituiertes Alkylen, wie beispielsweise wahlweise substituiertes C1- bis C6-Alkylen ist;

und wahlweise der wahlweise Substituent ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Halogen, Nitro, Cyano, Hydroxyl, Alkoxy, Amino, N-Alkylamino, N, N-Dialkylamino, =O, Acyl, Carboxyl, Carboxylester, Amid, wahlweise substituiertem Aryl, wahlweise substituiertem Heterocyclyl, wahlweise substituiertem Heteroaryl und wahlweise substituiertem Carbocyclyl.


 
9. Verbindung nach Anspruch 6, wobei
die Dipeptidylgruppe repräsentiert ist durch die Strukturformel (h) oder (i):

R4a und R5a gleich wie in Anspruch 8 definiert sind;

R12a Wasserstoff, Halogen, Nitro, Cyano, wahlweise substituiertes Alkyl, wahlweise substituiertes Alkenyl, wahlweise substituiertes Aryl, wahlweise substituiertes Heteroalkyl, wahlweise substituiertes Heterocyclyl, wahlweise substituiertes Heteroaryl, wahlweise substituiertes Carbocyclyl, =O, OR, NR2 oder SR ist;

R13a und R14a unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff oder wahlweise substituiertes Alkyl sind; oder alternativ dazu R12a und NR13aR14a, zusammen mit dem Kohlenstoffatom, an das sie angehängt sind, oder R13a und R14a, zusammen mit dem Stickstoffatom, an das sie angehängt sind, einen wahlweise substituierten vier- bis siebengliedrigen azacyclischen Ring bilden, der wahlweise ein oder mehr zusätzliche Heteroatom(e) enthält, die ausgewählt sind aus Sauerstoff, Stickstoff und Schwefel;

R15a und R16a unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff oder wahlweise substituiertes Alkyl sind; und

L4 und L5 unabhängig voneinander wahlweise substituiertes Alkylen sind.


 
10. Verbindung, die ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus







und


 
11. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, umfassend eine Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz oder Solvat davon, und einen pharmazeutisch akzeptablen Trägerstoff, und wobei wahlweise die pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung derart beschaffen ist, dass (i) die Freisetzung der Verbindung über einen Zeitraum von etwa vier Stunden oder mehr erfolgt; oder (ii) der pharmakologische Effekt aus der Verbindung etwa vier Stunden oder mehr nach der Verabreichung der Zusammensetzung anhält; oder (iii) die Zusammensetzung nach der Verabreichung eine therapeutisch wirksame Menge der Verbindung über 4 Stunden oder mehr bereitstellt.
 
12. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 11, wobei die pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung:

(i) eine Matrix, die die Verbindung, oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz oder Solvat davon umfasst; und ein oder mehr die Freisetzungsrate-kontrollierende Polymere aufweist, und wobei die Matrix wahlweise die Form eines Kerns oder einer Schicht über einem Kern hat;

(ii) eine Freisetzungsrate-kontrollierende Membran, die über einer Zugschicht, die die Verbindung oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz oder Solvat davon umfasst, und einer osmotischen Schubschicht angeordnet ist, aufweist; wobei die Freisetzungsrate-kontrollierende Membran eine Öffnung unmittelbar an die Zugschicht angrenzend aufweist und wobei die Zugschicht wahlweise ferner ein Freisetzungsrate-kontrollierendes Polymer umfasst;

(iii) ein oder mehr Partikel aufweist, und jedes der Partikel einen aktiven Kern, umfassend die Verbindung oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz oder Solvat davon; und ein Freisetzungsrate-kontrollierendes Polymer, das über dem Kern angeordnet ist, umfasst; oder

(iv) ein oder mehr Partikel aufweist, und jedes der Partikel einen inerten Kern, eine aktive Schicht, umfassend die Verbindung oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz oder Solvat davon, das über dem inerten Kern angeordnet ist, und ein Freisetzungsrate-kontrollierendes Polymer, das über der aktiven Schicht angeordnet ist, umfasst;


 
13. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, oder pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz oder Solvat davon, oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 11, zur Verwendung in einem Behandlungsverfahren.
 
14. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10 oder pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz oder Solvat davon, oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 11, zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung einer Erkrankung im Zusammenhang mit Sialsäure-Mangel bei einem Patienten.
 
15. Verbindung oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 14, wobei die Erkrankung im Zusammenhang mit Sialsäure-Mangel eine Myopathie im Zusammenhang mit Sialsäure-Mangel ist.
 
16. Verbindung oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 15, wobei die Myopathie im Zusammenhang mit Sialsäure-Mangel eine hereditäre Einschlusskörpermyopathie (Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy, HIBM), Nonaka-Myopathie und/oder distale Myopathie mit umrandeten (rimmed) Vakuolen (DMRV) ist.
 


Revendications

1. Composé ayant la formule de structure (Ia) :

ou sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable ou solvate de celui-ci ;
dans lequel :

R2, R4 et R6 sont indépendamment l'atome d'hydrogène ou une fraction choisie parmi les formules de structure (a), (b), (c), (f) et (g) :



R1 est l'atome d'hydrogène ou la formule de structure (f) ;

X est l'atome d'oxygène ou de soufre ;

L1 et L2 sont chacun indépendamment une liaison covalente, -O- ou -NR10a- ;

R10a est l'atome d'hydrogène ou un groupe alkyle éventuellement substitué ;

R1a et R2a sont chacun indépendamment l'atome d'hydrogène ou un groupe alkyle éventuellement substitué, hétéroalkyle éventuellement substitué, aryle éventuellement substitué, hétéroaryle éventuellement substitué, carbocyclyle éventuellement substitué, hétérocyclyle éventuellement substitué, -Xa-C(O)-O-R11a ou -Xa-O-C(O)-O-R11a ;

Xa est un groupe alkylène éventuellement substitué ;

chaque R11a est indépendamment l'atome d'hydrogène ou un groupe alkyle éventuellement substitué ou hétéroalkyle éventuellement substitué ;

R3a, conjointement avec la fraction -OC(O)- à laquelle il est lié, forme un groupe monopeptidyle ou dipeptidyle ;

chaque R8a et R9a est indépendamment l'atome d'hydrogène ou un groupe alkyle éventuellement substitué ;

m vaut 1 ou 2 ; et

Z est l'atome d'hydrogène, un groupe alkyle en C1-C6, un groupe amide, un groupe lactame, un groupe ester, un groupe lactone, un groupe urée, un groupe urée cyclique, un groupe carbonate, un groupe carbonate cyclique, un groupe carbamate, un groupe carbamate cyclique ou une fraction choisie entre (a), (b), (c) et (f) ;

dans lequel,

lorsque R1 est l'atome d'hydrogène, R2 et R4 sont des atomes d'hydrogène et R6 est la formule de structure (f).


 
2. Composé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la formule de structure (Ia) est représentée par la formule de structure (IIa) :

ou sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable ou solvate de celui-ci.
 
3. Composé selon les revendications 1 ou 2, dans lequel :

(i) au moins l'un de R2 et R4 est l'atome d'hydrogène ; et/ou

(ii) R6 est l'atome d'hydrogène ; et/ou

(iii) m vaut 1 ; R8a est l'atome d'hydrogène ; et R9a est l'atome d'hydrogène ou un groupe alkyle en C1-C6.


 
4. Composé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel R2 et R4 sont l'un et l'autre un atome d'hydrogène.
 
5. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel :

R1 est la formule de structure (f) ; et

R2, R4 et R6 sont des atomes d'hydrogène.


 
6. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel
R1 est la formule de structure (f) ;
le groupe monopeptidyle est dérivé d'un acide aminé d'origine naturelle ou d'un acide aminé d'origine non naturelle ; et
le groupe dipeptidyle est dérivé d'un acide aminé d'origine naturelle, d'un acide aminé d'origine non naturelle ou d'une combinaison de ceux-ci.
 
7. Composé selon la revendication 6, dans lequel le groupe monopeptidyle est dérivé d'acides aminés choisis dans le groupe constitué par l'alanine, l'arginine, l'asparagine, l'acide aspartique, la cystéine, l'acide glutamique, la glutamine, la glycine, l'histidine, l'isoleucine, la leucine, la lysine, la méthionine, la phénylalanine, la proline, la sérine, la thréonine, le tryptophane, la tyrosine et la valine ; et le groupe dipeptidyle est dérivé d'acides aminés choisis dans le groupe constitué par l'alanine, l'arginine, l'asparagine, l'acide aspartique, la cystéine, l'acide glutamique, la glutamine, la glycine, l'histidine, l'isoleucine, la leucine, la lysine, la méthionine, la phénylalanine, la proline, la sérine, la thréonine, le tryptophane, la tyrosine, la valine et une combinaison de ceux-ci.
 
8. Composé selon la revendication 6, dans lequel
le groupe monopeptidyle est représenté par la formule de structure (d) ou (e) ;

R4a est l'atome d'hydrogène, un atome d'halogène ou un groupe nitro, cyano, alkyle éventuellement substitué, alcényle éventuellement substitué, aryle éventuellement substitué, hétéroalkyle éventuellement substitué, hétérocyclyle éventuellement substitué, hétéroaryle éventuellement substitué, carbocyclyle éventuellement substitué, OR, NR2 ou SR, par exemple R4a est l'atome d'hydrogène, un atome d'halogène ou un groupe cyano, alkyle éventuellement substitué, hétéroalkyle éventuellement substitué, OR, NR2 ou SR ;

chaque R, R7a, R5a et R6a est indépendamment l'atome d'hydrogène ou un groupe alkyle éventuellement substitué ; ou en variante, R4a et NR5aR6a, conjointement avec l'atome de carbone auquel ils sont liés, ou R5a et R6a, conjointement avec l'atome d'azote auquel ils sont liés, forment un cycle azacyclique à quatre à sept chaînons éventuellement substitué qui contient éventuellement un ou plusieurs hétéroatomes supplémentaires choisis parmi les atomes d'oxygène, d'azote et de soufre, par exemple R, R7a, R5a et R6a sont indépendamment l'atome d'hydrogène ou un groupe alkyle en C1-C6 ;

L3 est un groupe alkylène éventuellement substitué, tel qu'un groupe alkylène en C1 à C6 éventuellement substitué ;

et éventuellement le substituant facultatif est choisi dans le groupe constitué par les substituants halogéno, nitro, cyano, hydroxyle, alcoxy, amino, N-alkylamino, N,N-dialkylamino, =O, acyle, carboxyle, ester carboxylique, amide, aryle éventuellement substitué, hétérocyclyle éventuellement substitué, hétéroaryle éventuellement substitué et carbocyclyle éventuellement substitué.


 
9. Composé selon la revendication 6, dans lequel
le groupe dipeptidyle est représenté par la formule de structure (h) ou (i) :

ou

R4a et R5a sont définis comme dans la revendication 8 ;

R12a est l'atome d'hydrogène, un atome d'halogène ou un groupe nitro, cyano, alkyle éventuellement substitué, alcényle éventuellement substitué, aryle éventuellement substitué, hétéroalkyle éventuellement substitué, hétérocyclyle éventuellement substitué, hétéroaryle éventuellement substitué, carbocyclyle éventuellement substitué, =O, OR, NR2 ou SR ;

R13a et R14a sont indépendamment l'atome d'hydrogène ou un groupe alkyle éventuellement substitué ; ou en variante, R12a et NR13aR14a, conjointement avec l'atome de carbone auquel ils sont liés, ou R13a et R14a, conjointement avec l'atome d'azote auquel ils sont liés, forment un cycle azacyclique à quatre à sept chaînons éventuellement substitué qui contient éventuellement un ou plusieurs hétéroatomes supplémentaires choisis parmi les atomes d'oxygène, d'azote et de soufre ;

R15a et R16a sont indépendamment l'atome d'hydrogène ou un groupe alkyle éventuellement substitué ; et

L4 et L5 sont indépendamment un groupe alkylène éventuellement substitué.


 
10. Composé choisi dans le groupe constitué par







et


 
11. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant un composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable ou solvate de celui-ci, et un vecteur pharmaceutiquement acceptable, et éventuellement la composition pharmaceutique étant telle que (i) la libération du composé se fait sur une durée d'environ quatre heures ou plus ; ou (ii) l'effet pharmacologique dû au composé dure environ quatre heures ou plus lors de l'administration de la composition ; ou (iii) la composition, lors de l'administration, fournit une quantité thérapeutiquement efficace du composé pendant environ quatre heures ou plus.
 
12. Composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 11, la composition pharmaceutique :

(i) ayant une matrice qui comprend le composé, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable ou solvate de celui-ci ; et un ou plusieurs polymères contrôlant la vitesse de libération et éventuellement la matrice étant sous la forme d'un noyau ou d'une couche sur un noyau ;

(ii) ayant une membrane contrôlant la vitesse de libération disposée sur une couche d'attraction « pull » comprenant le composé, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable ou solvate de celui-ci, et une couche de poussée osmotique « push » ; la membrane contrôlant la vitesse de libération ayant un orifice immédiatement adjacent à la couche « pull » et éventuellement la couche « pull » comprenant en outre un polymère contrôlant la vitesse de libération ;

(iii) ayant une ou plusieurs particules et chacune des particules comprenant un noyau actif comprenant le composé, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable ou solvate de celui-ci ; et un polymère contrôlant la vitesse de libération disposé sur le noyau ; ou

(iv) ayant une ou plusieurs particules et chacune des particules comprenant un noyau inerte, une couche active comprenant le composé, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable ou solvate de celui-ci, disposée sur le noyau inerte et un polymère contrôlant la vitesse de libération disposé sur la couche active.


 
13. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10, ou sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable ou solvate de celui-ci, ou composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 11, destinés à être utilisés dans une méthode de traitement.
 
14. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10, ou sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable ou solvate de celui-ci, ou composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 11, destinés à être utilisés dans une méthode de traitement d'une maladie associée à un déficit en acide sialique chez un patient.
 
15. Composé ou composition pharmaceutique destinés à être utilisés selon la revendication 14, la maladie associée à un déficit en acide sialique étant une myopathie associée à un déficit en acide sialique.
 
16. Composé ou composition pharmaceutique destinés à être utilisés selon la revendication 15, la myopathie associée à un déficit en acide sialique étant la myopathie héréditaire à corps d'inclusion (HIBM), la myopathie de type Nonaka et/ou la myopathie distale à vacuoles bordées (DMRV).
 




Drawing







































REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description