(19)
(11)EP 2 786 756 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
11.03.2020 Bulletin 2020/11

(21)Application number: 14175282.4

(22)Date of filing:  11.11.2011
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 31/4995(2006.01)
A61K 31/519(2006.01)
A61K 31/7068(2006.01)
A61K 45/06(2006.01)
A61K 31/4745(2006.01)
A61K 31/513(2006.01)
A61K 31/69(2006.01)
A61K 38/15(2006.01)
A61P 35/00(2006.01)
A61K 31/7048(2006.01)

(54)

Combination therapy with a topoisomerase inhibitor

Kombinationstherapie mit einem Topoisomeraseinhibitor

Thérapie de combinaison avec un inhibiteur de topoisomérase


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME

(30)Priority: 12.11.2010 EP 10382300

(43)Date of publication of application:
08.10.2014 Bulletin 2014/41

(60)Divisional application:
20155618.0

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
11781807.0 / 2637663

(73)Proprietor: Pharma Mar, S.A.
28770 Colmenar Viejo, Madrid (ES)

(72)Inventors:
  • Moneo Ocaña, Victoria
    28770 Colmenar Viejo, Madrid (ES)
  • García Fernández, Luis Francisco
    28770 Colmenar Viejo, Madrid (ES)
  • Galmarini, Carlos María
    28770 Colmenar Viejo, Madrid (ES)
  • Guillén Navarro, María José
    28770 Colmenar Viejo, Madrid (ES)
  • Avilés Marín, Pablo Manuel
    28770 Colmenar Viejo, Madrid (ES)
  • Santamaría Nuñez, Gema
    28770 Colmenar Viejo, Madrid (ES)

(74)Representative: ABG Intellectual Property Law, S.L. 
Avenida de Burgos, 16D Edificio Euromor
28036 Madrid
28036 Madrid (ES)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 806 349
WO-A2-2009/140675
  
  • José Guillén ET AL: "In vivo combination studies of PM01183 with alkylating, antimetabolites, DNA-topoisomerase inhibitors and tubulin binding agents", , 5 April 2011 (2011-04-05), XP055021187, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://www.abstractsonline.com/Plan/Vi ewAbstract.aspx?sKey=17ec9ca9-693a-4df8-8e 8c-857ab3e72dc7&cKey=09c40d0f-78d3-44d9-ba c5-c1117328e5c6&mKey={507D311A-B6EC-436A-B D67-6D14ED39622C} [retrieved on 2012-03-07]
  • JFM LEAL ET AL: "PM01183, a new DNA minor groove covalent binder with potent in vitro and in vivo anti-tumour activity", BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 161, no. 5, 2 July 2010 (2010-07-02), pages 1099-1110, XP055013260, ISSN: 0007-1188, DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00945.x
  • POMMIER Y: "Topoisomerase I inhibitors: Camptothecins and beyond", NATURE REVIEWS. CANCER, NATUR PUBLISHING GROUP, LONDON, GB, vol. 6, no. 10, 1 October 2006 (2006-10-01), pages 789-802, XP008111523, ISSN: 1474-175X, DOI: 10.1038/NRC1977
  • HANDE ET AL: "Topoisomerase II inhibitors", UPDATE ON CANCER THERAPEUTICS, ELSEVIER, AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 3, no. 1, 25 March 2008 (2008-03-25), pages 13-26, XP022547503, ISSN: 1872-115X, DOI: 10.1016/J.UCT.2008.02.001
  • Carlos Galmarini: "Lurbinectedin (PM01183) synergizes with topoisomerase I inhibitors in vitro and in vivo", Cancer Research: April 15, 2013; Volume 73, Issue 8, Supplement 1, 15 April 2013 (2013-04-15), XP055140973, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/ content/short/73/8_MeetingAbstracts/5499 [retrieved on 2014-09-17]
  • MARTINO EMANUELA ET AL: "The long story of camptothecin: From traditional medicine to drugs", BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, PERGAMON, AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 27, no. 4, 31 December 2016 (2016-12-31), pages 701-707, XP029906416, ISSN: 0960-894X, DOI: 10.1016/J.BMCL.2016.12.085
  • CANEL C ET AL: "Podophyllotoxin", PHYTOCHEMISTRY, PERGAMON PRESS, GB, vol. 54, no. 2, 1 May 2000 (2000-05-01), pages 115-120, XP027253885, ISSN: 0031-9422 [retrieved on 2000-05-01]
  • HUI XU ET AL: "A Review on Hemisynthesis, Biosynthesis, Biological Activities, Mode of Action, and Structure-Activity Relationship of Podophyllotoxins: 2003- 2007", CURRENT MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 16, no. 3, 1 January 2009 (2009-01-01), pages 327-349, XP055464813, NL ISSN: 0929-8673, DOI: 10.2174/092986709787002682
  • Ahmed Kamal ET AL: "Recent Developments Towards Podophyllotoxin Congeners as Potential Apoptosis Inducers", Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 1 January 2015 (2015-01-01), pages 565-574, XP055464819, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/M ohammed_Ali_Syed/publication/269182814_Rec ent_Developments_Towards_Podophyllotoxin_C ongeners_as_Potential_Apoptosis_Inducers/l inks/55da9bb608aec156b9ae7d8c/Recent-Devel opments-Towards-Podophyllotoxin-Congeners- as-Potential-Apoptosis-Inducers.pdf
  • TF Imbert: "Discovery of podophyllotoxins", Biochimie, 1 January 1998 (1998-01-01), pages 207-222, XP055464815, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:https://ac.els-cdn.com/S03009084988000 47/1-s2.0-S0300908498800047-main.pdf?_tid= 7f3ff6d4-a7b2-4849-87bc-62ad2b8f02df&acdna t=1522922356_86b7682bf61733479afdec0102b93 ae2
  • Mullangi Ramesh ET AL: "Irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38: review of bioanalytical methods and recent update from clinical pharmacology perspectives", BIOMEDICAL CHROMATOGRAPHY., vol. 24, no. 1, 1 January 2010 (2010-01-01), pages 104-123, XP055464812, GB ISSN: 0269-3879, DOI: 10.1002/bmc.1345
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates to the combination of PM01183 with topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitors, and the use of these combinations in the treatment of cancer.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] Cancer develops when cells in a part of the body begin to grow out of control. Although there are many kinds of cancer, they all arise from out-of-control growth of abnormal cells. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body. There are several main types of cancer. Carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm, which is an uncontrolled and progressive abnormal growth, arising from epithelial cells. Epithelial cells cover internal and external surfaces of the body, including organs, lining of vessels, and other small cavities. Sarcoma is cancer arising from cells in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia is cancer that arises in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma are cancers that arise from cells of the immune system.

[0003] In addition, cancer is invasive and tends to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It can spread directly into surrounding tissues and also may be spread through the lymphatic and circulatory systems to other parts of the body.

[0004] Many treatments are available for cancer, including surgery and radiation for localised disease, and chemotherapy. However, the efficacy of available treatments for many cancer types is limited, and new, improved forms of treatment showing clinical benefits are needed. This is especially true for those patients presenting with advanced and/or metastatic disease and for patients relapsing with progressive disease after having been previously treated with established therapies which become ineffective or intolerable due to acquisition of resistance or to limitations in administration of the therapies due to associated toxicities.

[0005] Since the 1950s, significant advances have been made in the chemotherapeutic management of cancer. Unfortunately, more than 50% of all cancer patients either do not respond to initial therapy or experience relapse after an initial response to treatment and ultimately die from progressive metastatic disease. Thus, the ongoing commitment to the design and discovery of new anticancer agents is critically important.

[0006] Chemotherapy, in its classic form, has been focused primarily on killing rapidly proliferating cancer cells by targeting general cellular metabolic processes, including DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis. Chemotherapy drugs are divided into several groups based on how they affect specific chemical substances within cancer cells, which cellular activities or processes the drug interferes with, and which specific phases of the cell cycle the drug affects. The most commonly used types of chemotherapy drugs include: DNA-alkylating drugs (such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, cisplatin, carboplatin, dacarbazine), antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate, gemcitabine, cytarabine, fludarabine), mitotic inhibitors (such as paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinblastine, vincristine), anticancer antibiotics (such as daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin, mitoxantrone), topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitors (such as topotecan, irinotecan, etoposide, teniposide), and hormone therapy (such as tamoxifen, flutamide).

[0007] The ideal antitumor drug would kill cancer cells selectively, with a wide index relative to its toxicity towards non-cancer cells and it would also retain its efficacy against cancer cells, even after prolonged exposure to the drug. Unfortunately, none of the current chemotherapies with these agents posses an ideal profile. Most posses very narrow therapeutic indexes and, in addition, cancerous cells exposed to slightly sublethal concentrations of a chemotherapeutic agent may develop resistance to such an agent, and quite often cross-resistance to several other antitumor agents.

[0008] PM01183, also known as tryptamicidin, is a synthetic alkaloid which is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer, and has the following chemical structure:



[0009] PM01183 has demonstrated a highly potent in vitro activity against solid and non-solid tumour cell lines as well as a significant in vivo activity in several xenografted human tumor cell lines in mice, such as those for breast, kidney and ovarian cancer. PM01183 exerts its anticancer effects through the covalent modification of guanines in the DNA minor groove that eventually give rise to DNA double-strand break, S-phase arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. Further information regarding this compound can be found in WO 03/01427; 100th AACR Annual Meeting, April 18-22, 2009, Denver, CO, Abstract Nr. 2679 and Abstract Nr. 4525; and Leal JFM et al. Br. J. Pharmacol. 2010, 161, 1099-1110.

[0010] Since cancer is a leading cause of death in animals and humans, several efforts have been and are still being undertaken in order to obtain a therapy active and safe to be administered to patients suffering from a cancer. The problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide anticancer therapies that are useful in the treatment of cancer.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0011] The present invention establishes that PM01183 potentiates the antitumor activity of topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitors topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide. Therefore PM01183 and said other anticancer topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitors can be successfully used in combination therapy for the treatment of cancer.

[0012] Thus, pharmaceutical compositions, kits, using these combination therapies and uses of both drugs in the treatment of cancer and in the manufacture of medicaments for combination therapies are herein disclosed.

[0013] Disclosed herein are effective combination therapies for the treatment of cancer based on PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and using another anticancer drug selected from a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitors as defined above.

[0014] In accordance with one aspect of this invention, the invention is directed to PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in the treatment of cancer comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of PM01183, or a pharmaceutical acceptable salt thereof, in synergistic combination with a therapeutically effective amount of a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide.

[0015] In another aspect, the invention is directed to PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in increasing the therapeutic efficacy of a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor in the treatment of cancer, which comprises administering to a patient in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in synergistic combination with said topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor, wherein the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor is selected from topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide.

[0016] The use of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of cancer by combination therapy employing PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, with a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor is disclosed.

[0017] A pharmaceutical composition comprising PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and/or a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor , and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, to be used in combination therapy for the treatment of cancer, is disclosed

[0018] The invention also encompasses a kit for use in the treatment of cancer which comprises a dosage form of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a dosage form of a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide, and instructions for the use of both drugs in synergistic combination.

[0019] Disclosed are synergistic combinations of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, with a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



[0020] 

Fig 1-2. In vitro activity data of PM01183 in combination with topotecan and etoposide, respectively against A549 cells.

Fig 3-4. In vitro activity data of PM01183 in combination with topotecan and etoposide, respectively against A673 cells.

Fig 5-7. In vitro activity data of PM01183 in combination with topotecan, irinotecan and etoposide, respectively against SK-MEL-2 cells.

Fig 8-10. In vitro activity data of PM01183 in combination with topotecan, irinotecan and etoposide, respectively against PC-3 cells.

Fig 11-13. In vitro activity data of PM01183 in combination with, topotecan, irinotecan and etoposide, respectively against PANC-1 cells.

Fig 14-16. In vitro activity data of PM01183 in combination with topotecan, irinotecan and etoposide, respectively against HGC-27 cells.

Fig 17-19. In vitro activity data of PM01183 in combination with topotecan, irinotecan and etoposide, respectively against IGROV-1 cells.

Fig 20-22. In vitro activity data of PM01183 in combination with topotecan, irinotecanand etoposide, respectively against HEP-G2 cells.

Fig 23-25. In vitro activity data of PM01183 in combination with topotecan, irinotecan and etoposide, respectively against MDA-MB-231 cells.

Fig 26-28. In vitro activity data of PM01183 in combination with topotecan, irinotecan and etoposide, respectively against HT-29 cells.

Fig 29-31. In vitro activity data of PM01183 in combination with topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide, respectively against RXF-393 cells.

Fig 32-34. In vitro activity data of PM01183 in combination with topotecan, irinotecan and etoposide, respectively against U87-MG cells.

Fig 35. Tumor volume evaluation of H460 tumors in mice treated with placebo, PM01183, irinotecan and PM01183 plus irinotecan.

Fig 36. Tumor volume evaluation of HT-29 tumors in mice treated with placebo, PM01183, irinotecan and PM01183 plus irinotecan.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0021] The scope of the invention is defined by the claims. Any subject-matter falling outside the scope of the claims is provided for information purposes only. Any references in the description to methods of treatment refer to the compounds, pharmaceutical compositions and medicaments of the present invention for use in a method for treatment of the human (or animal) body by therapy. We surprisingly found that PM01183 greatly enhances the anticancer activity of a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide when these anticancer drugs are combined with PM01183. Thus, the present invention is directed to provide an efficacious treatment of cancer based on the combination of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, with a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide.

[0022] In the present application, by "cancer" it is meant to include tumors, neoplasias, and any other malignant disease having as cause malignant tissue or cells.

[0023] The term "treating", as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, means reversing, alleviating, or inhibiting the progress of the disease or condition to which such term applies, or one or more symptoms of such disorder or condition. The term "treatment", as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, refers to the act of treating as "treating" is defined immediately above.

[0024] The term "combination" as used throughout the specification, is meant to encompass the administration to a patient suffering from cancer of the referred therapeutic agents in the same or separate pharmaceutical formulations, and at the same time or at different times. If the therapeutic agents are administered at different times they should be administered sufficiently close in time to provide for the potentiating or synergistic response to occur.

[0025] As mentioned above, PM01183 is a synthetic alkaloid, having the following structure:



[0026] The term "PM01183" is intended here to cover any pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, prodrug, or any other compound which, upon administration to the patient is capable of providing (directly or indirectly) the compound as described herein. The preparation of salts, solvates, hydrates, and prodrugs can be carried out by methods known in the art.

[0027] Pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be synthesized from the parent compound, which contains a basic or acidic moiety, by conventional chemical methods. Generally, such salts are, for example, prepared by reacting the free acid or base forms of these compounds with a stoichiometric amount of the appropriate base or acid in water or in an organic solvent or in a mixture of the two. Generally, nonaqueous media like ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, isopropanol or acetonitrile are preferred. Examples of the acid addition salts include mineral acid addition salts such as, for example, hydrochloride, hydrobromide, hydroiodide, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, and organic acid addition salts such as, for example, acetate, trifluoroacetate, maleate, fumarate, citrate, oxalate, succinate, tartrate, malate, mandelate, methanesulphonate and p-toluenesulphonate. Examples of the alkali addition salts include inorganic salts such as, for example, sodium, potassium, calcium and ammonium salts, and organic alkali salts such as, for example, ethylenediamine, ethanolamine, N,N-dialkylenethanolamine, triethanolamine and basic aminoacids salts.

[0028] The term "prodrug" is used in its broadest sense and encompasses those derivatives that are converted in vivo to PM01183. The prodrug can hydrolyze, oxidize, or otherwise react under biological conditions to provide PM01183. Examples of prodrugs include, but are not limited to, derivatives and metabolites of PM01183 that include biohydrolyzable moeities such as biohydrolyzable amides, biohydrolyzable esters, biohydrolyzable carbamates, biohydrolyzable carbonates, biohydrolyzable ureides, and biohydrolyzable phosphate analogues. Prodrugs can typically be prepared using well-known methods, such as those described by Burger in "Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery" 6th ed. (Donald J. Abraham ed., 2001, Wiley) and "Design and Applications of Prodrugs" (H. Bundgaard ed., 1985, Harwood Academic Publishers).

[0029] In addition, any drug referred to herein may be in amorphous form or crystalline form either as free compound or as solvates (e.g. hydrates) and it is intended that both forms are within the scope of the present invention. Methods of solvation are generally known within the art.

[0030] Moreover, PM01183 for use in accordance with the present invention may be prepared following the synthetic process such as the one disclosed in WO 03/014127.

[0031] Pharmaceutical compositions of PM01183, or of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, that can be used include solutions, suspensions, emulsions, lyophilised compositions, etc., with suitable excipients for intravenous administration. Preferably, PM01183 may be supplied and stored as a sterile lyophilized product, comprising PM01183 and excipients in a formulation adequate for therapeutic use. For further guidance on pharmaceutical compositions of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, see for example the formulations described in WO 2006/046079.

[0032] Administration of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compound is preferably by intravenous infusion. Infusion times of up to 72 hours can be used, more preferably between 1 and 24 hours, with either about 1 hour or about 3 hours most preferred. Short infusion times which allow treatment to be carried out without an overnight stay in hospital are especially desirable. However, infusion may be around 24 hours or even longer if required.

[0033] Preferably the administration of PM01183 is performed in cycles. In a preferred administration schedule an intravenous infusion of PM01183 is given to the patients the first week of each cycle and the patients are allowed to recover for the remainder of the cycle. The preferred duration of each cycle is of either 3 or 4 weeks. Multiple cycles can be given as needed. Administration of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, by intravenous infusion during about 1 hour once every 3 weeks is the most preferred administration schedule, although other protocols can be devised as variations.

[0034] In the present invention, particularly preferred is the combination of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, with topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitors topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide, in the treatment of cancer.

[0035] Particularly preferred cancer types are those selected from lung cancer, sarcoma, malignant melanoma, bladder carcinoma, prostate cancer, pancreas carcinoma, thyroid cancer, gastric carcinoma, ovarian cancer, hepatoma (also known as liver cancer), breast cancer, colorectal cancer, kidney cancer, esophageal cancer, neuroblastoma, brain cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, testicular cancer, leukemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma.

[0036] In a preferred embodiment, the invention is directed to the combination of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, with a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide in the treatment of cancer, and more particularly in the treatment of lung cancer, sarcoma, malignant melanoma, prostate cancer, pancreas carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, ovarian cancer, hepatoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, kidney cancer, neuroblastoma, brain cancer, cervical cancer, testicular cancer, leukemia and lymphoma. Particularly preferred is the combination of PM00104, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, with topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide, and even more preferred is the combination with topotecan, irinotecan and etoposide in the treatment of cancer, and more particularly in the treatment of lung cancer, sarcoma, malignant melanoma, prostate cancer, pancreas carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, ovarian cancer, hepatoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, kidney cancer, and brain cancer.

[0037] The invention includes any pharmaceutically acceptable salt of any drug referred to herein, which can be synthesized from the parent compound by conventional chemical methods as disclosed before.

[0038] In one embodiment, the invention relates to synergistic combinations employing PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and another anticancer drug selected from the list of drugs given above. An indication of synergism can be obtained by testing the combinations and analyzing the results, for example by the Chou-Talalay method or by any other suitable method, such as those provided in the Examples section.

[0039] The possible favorable outcomes for synergism include 1) increasing the efficacy of the therapeutic effect, 2) decreasing the dosage but increasing or maintaining the same efficacy to avoid toxicity, 3) minimizing or slowing down the development of drug resistance, and 4) providing selective synergism against target (or efficacy synergism) versus host (or toxicity antagonism). Accordingly, in a combination of two chemotherapeutic agents having synergism, the treatment regimen will be different of those in which the combination of the two drugs shows only an additive effect. In this regard, if there is synergism less dosage of one or both of the agents (compared with the amounts used in single therapy) may be required to obtain the same or even a greater efficacy, and the possible toxic side effects may be reduced or even avoided. Alternatively, if the dosage of both drugs in the combination is the same as those when given alone (as single agents), an increase in efficacy of the combination can be expected. Therefore, the existence of synergism in a given drug combination will modify the length of the treatment and/or the treatment regimen.

[0040] The invention discloses a method of increasing or potentiating the therapeutic efficacy of an topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above in the treatment of cancer, which comprises administering to a patient in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in conjunction with this other anticancer drug. An indication of increase or potentiation of the therapeutic efficacy can be obtained by testing the combinations and analyzing the results, for example the tumor growth inhibition. This tumor growth inhibition can be assessed by comparing the mean tumor volume of the treatment combining the two drugs (PM01183 and the other drug) with those of the other drug monotherapy treatment. In this regard, increase or potentiation of the therapeutic efficacy is determined when the response of the combination therapy is greater than the best response of the most active drug administered as single agent (monotherapy) on the same schedule and dose as used in the combination therapy. This aspect of the invention is further illustrated in the Examples section.

[0041] The invention discloses the use of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of cancer by combination therapy employing PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, with a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above.

[0042] In another aspect, the invention is directed to PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in the treatment of cancer comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of PM01183, or a pharmaceutical acceptable salt thereof, in combination with a therapeutically effective amount of a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above.

[0043] According to the present invention, PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor may be provided in the same medicament or as separate medicaments for administration at the same time or at different times. Preferably, PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor are provided as separate medicaments for administration at different times. When administered separately and at different times, either PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor, may be administered first. In addition, both drugs can be administered in the same day or at different days, and they can be administered using the same schedule or at different schedules during the treatment cycle. Additionally, the administration of both drugs can be done by using the same route of administration or different routes. For instance, both drugs can be administered by intravenous administration or, alternatively, one drug can be administered orally and the other one by intravenous administration.

[0044] Thus, the pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may comprise all the components (drugs) in a single pharmaceutically acceptable formulation or, alternatively, the components may be formulated separately and administered in combination with one another. Various pharmaceutically acceptable formulations well known to those of skill in the art can be used in the present invention. Moreover, selection of an appropriate formulation for use in the present invention can be performed by those skilled in the art by taking into account the route of administration and the solubility characteristics of the components of the composition.

[0045] The correct dosage of both drugs in combination will vary according to the particular formulation, the mode of application, and the particular site, patient and tumour being treated. Other factors like age, body weight, sex, diet, time of administration, rate of excretion, condition of the patient, other drug combinations, reaction sensitivities and severity of the disease shall be taken into account. Administration can be carried out continuously or periodically within the maximum tolerated dose.

[0046] The combination of the invention may be used alone or in combination with one or more of a variety of anticancer agents or supportive care agents.

[0047] In addition, depending on the type of tumor and the development stage of the disease, anticancer effects of the treatments of the present invention include, but are not limited to, inhibition of tumor growth, tumor growth delay, regression of tumor, shrinkage of tumor, increased time to regrowth of tumor on cessation of treatment, slowing of disease progression, and prevention of metastasis. It is expected that when a treatment of the present invention is administered to a patient, such as a human patient, in need of such treatment, said treatment will produce an effect, as measured by, for example, the extent of the anticancer effect, the response rate, the time to disease progression, or the survival rate. In particular, the treatments of the invention are suited for human patients, especially those who are relapsing or refractory to previous chemotherapy. First line therapy is also envisaged.

[0048] In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a kit for use in the treatment of cancer, comprising a supply of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in dosage units for at least one cycle, and printed instructions for the use of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, with a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above in combination.

[0049] In a related aspect, the present invention is directed to a kit for use in the treatment of cancer, comprising a supply of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in dosage units for at least one cycle, a supply of a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above in dosage units for at least one cycle, and printed instructions for the use of both drugs in combination.

[0050] In another aspect, the present invention also provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient, for use in combination with a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above in the treatment of cancer.

[0051] In a further aspect, the present invention also provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This pharmaceutical composition is preferable for use in the treatment of cancer.

[0052] In another aspect, the invention further provides for the use of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in the preparation of a composition for use in combination with a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above in the treatment of cancer.

[0053] In another aspect, the invention further provides for the use of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for the treatment of cancer, in combination therapy with a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above.

[0054] In one embodiment, cancer cells are contacted, or otherwise treated, with a combination of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above. The cancer cells are preferably human and include carcinoma cells, sarcoma cells, leukemia cells, lymphoma cells, and myeloma cells. More preferably, the cancer cells are cells of lung cancer, sarcoma, malignant melanoma, bladder carcinoma, prostate cancer, pancreas carcinoma, thyroid cancer, gastric carcinoma, ovarian cancer, hepatoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, kidney cancer, esophageal cancer, neuroblastoma, brain cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, testicular cancer, leukemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma. In addition, the combination provides a synergistic inhibitory effect against the cancer cells, particularly against the human cancer cells mentioned above.

[0055] For example, the combination inhibits proliferation or survival of contacted cancer cells. A lower level of proliferation or survival of the contacted cancer cells compared to the non-contacted cancer cells supports the combination of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above as being effective for treating a patient with cancer.

[0056] The invention discloses a method for inhibiting the growth of cancer cells comprising contacting said cancer cells with an effective amount of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in combination with a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above.

[0057] The invention discloses a method for inhibiting the growth of cancer cells comprising contacting said cancer cells with a synergistic combination of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above, wherein said combination provides improved inhibition against cancer cell growth as compared to (i) PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in the absence of the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor, or (ii) the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor in the absence of PM01183.

[0058] In another aspect, the invention provides for a pharmaceutical composition comprising a synergistic combination of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above for inhibiting the growth of cancer cells, wherein said combination provides improved inhibition against cancer cell growth as compared to (i) PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in the absence of the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor, or (ii) the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor in the absence of PM01183.

[0059] In another disclosure, the combination of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above inhibits tumor growth or reduces the size of a tumor in vivo. In particular, the combination inhibits in vivo growth and/or reduces the size of carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. Preferably, the combination inhibits in vivo tumor growth of lung, sarcoma, malignant melanoma, bladder, prostate, pancreas, thyroid, gastric, ovarian, hepatoma, breast, colorectal, kidney, esophageal, neuroblastoma, brain, cervical, anal, testicular, leukemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma tumours.

[0060] For example, these combinations inhibit tumor growth or reduce the size of human cancer xenografts, particularly human gastric, pancreas, sarcoma, lung, colorectal and ovary tumors xenografts, in animal models. A reduced growth or reduced size of human cancer xenografts in animal models administered with these combinations further supports the combination of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above as being effective for treating a patient with cancer.

[0061] Therefore, the invention discloses a method for reducing the size of a tumor, comprising administering an effective amount of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in combination with a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above.

[0062] The invention discloses a method for inhibiting tumor growth, comprising administering an effective amount of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in combination with a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor selected from the list of drugs given above.

[0063] The following examples further illustrate the invention.

EXAMPLES


EXAMPLE 1. In vitro studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human lung carcinoma cell lines.



[0064] The objective of this study was to determine the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lung carcinoma.

[0065] The following agents were evaluated in combination with PM01183: topotecan, and etoposide (stock solutions of these compounds prepared in pure DMSO and stored at -20°C). Additional serial dilutions were prepared in serum-free culture medium to achieve a final 4X concentration. Aliquots of 50 µL of each diluted compound were added per well.
A549 was the human lung carcinoma cell line selected for this assay. A549 cells were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine and 100 units/mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin, at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity.
The screening was performed in two parts:
a. In the first set of assays, IC50 values were determined for each drug in A549 cells after 72 hours of drug exposure. Briefly, cells were harvested and seeded in 96 well microtiter plates at a density of 5,000 cells in 150 µL of culture medium and incubated for 24 hours in drug-free medium before treatment with vehicle alone or test compounds for 72 h.
The cytotoxic effect was measured by the MTT reduction assay, in which 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a tetrazole, which is reduced to purple formazan in the mitochondria of living cells, was used. MTT (50µL of 1mg/mL stock solution) was added to the wells and incubated for 8 hours at 37°C until formazan crystals were formed. After gently removing the culture medium, DMSO was added to dissolve the insoluble purple formazan product into a colored solution. The absorbance of the wells was quantified by measuring the optical density at 540 nm. Results were expressed as percentage of control cell growth. The IC50 values (concentration of drug that produces a 50% inhibition of cell growth) used for the combination studies were calculated using Prism v5.02 software (GraphPad). The results were expressed as molar concentration and represented the average of 2-4 independent assays.
The IC50 values (72 hours drug exposure) of each individual agent for the A549 tumor cell line are shown in table 1.
Table 1: IC50 values in molar concentration (M) for each of the agent
CompoundIC50 (M)
PM01183 3.60E-09
Topotecan 8.00E-07
Etoposide 7.82E-07

b. In a second set of assays, A549 human tumor cells were incubated with PM01183 in combination with each of the agents mentioned above. The previously obtained IC50 values were used as starting concentrations for each compound (100% concentration). Arbitrary dilutions, as percentage of the initial IC50 value (100%, 75%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 40%, 30%, 25%, and 0%), were performed for each pair of compounds and tested in combined complementary (opposite concentrations) dose-response curves as follows:
IC50 of PM01183IC50 of Agent
100% 0%
75% 25%
70% 30%
60% 40%
50% 50%
40% 60%
30% 70%
25% 75%
0% 100%


[0066] As a visual aid, response values were plotted on a scatter plot with dose ratios given on the x-axis and % response values on the y-axis. A horizontal line was drawn between the two endpoint response values (E.g. between the response values for 100% IC50 PM01183 and 100% IC50 standard chemotherapeutic agent). In cases where response values at the two endpoints were approximately equivalent, points lying above or below this predicted line of additivity could be interpreted as representing antagonistic or synergistic drug interaction, respectively.

[0067] The in vitro combinations of each drug with PM01183 have the potential to be synergistic, additive or antagonistic. Synergistic cytotoxicity to tumor cells is an optimal effect and implies that the combination of PM01183 with another drug is more effective than either drug alone.

[0068] According to this assay, it was found that in A549 human lung carcinoma cell line:
The combination of PM01183 with topotecan showed strong synergism (Figure 1), while the combination of PM01183 with etoposide showed synergism (Figure 2) at the 60/40 and 25/75 dose ratios.

EXAMPLE 2. In vitro studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human sarcoma cell lines.



[0069] The objective of this study was to determine the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of sarcoma.

[0070] The following agents were evaluated in combination with PM01183: topotecan and etoposide (stock solutions of these compounds prepared in pure DMSO and stored at -20°C). Additional serial dilutions were prepared in serum-free culture medium to achieve a final 4X concentration. Aliquots of 50 µL of each diluted compound were added per well.
A673 was the human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line selected for this assay. A673 cells were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine and 100 units/mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin, at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity.

[0071] The screening was performed in two parts as disclosed in example 1:
a. In the first set of assays, IC50 values were determined for each drug after 72 hours of drug exposure in the A673 tumor cell line.
The IC50 values (72 hours drug exposure) of each individual agent for the A673 tumor cell line were calculated by using the same methodology disclosed in example 1 and are shown in table 2.
Table 2: IC50 values in molar concentration (M) for each of the agent
CompoundIC50 (M)
PM01183 2.20E-09
Etoposide 1.55E-06
Topotecan 2.40E-08

b. In a second set of assays, A673 human tumor cells were incubated with PM01183 in combination with each of the agents mentioned above in the same combination of unique IC50 concentrations as those described in example 1. Cell culture and cell plating were performed as described before and the cytotoxic effect was measured by the MTT Assay as disclosed in example 1.

[0072] According to this assay, it was found that in A673 human sarcoma cell line:
The combination of PM01183 with topotecan (Figure 3) and PM01183 with etoposide (Figure 4) exhibited strong synergism at almost all dose ratios.

EXAMPLE 3. In vitro studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human malignant melanoma cell lines.



[0073] The objective of this study was to determine the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of malignant melanoma.

[0074] The following agents were evaluated in combination with PM01183: topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide (stock solutions of these compounds prepared in pure DMSO and stored at -20°C). Additional serial dilutions were prepared in serum-free culture medium to achieve a final 4X concentration. Aliquots of 50 µL of each diluted compound were added per well.
SK-MEL-2 was the human melanoma cell line selected for this assay. SK-MEL-2 cells were maintained in Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEME) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine and 100 units/mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin, at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity.

[0075] The screening was performed in two parts as disclosed in example 1:
a. In the first set of assays, IC50 values were determined for each drug after 72 hours of drug exposure in the SK-MEL-2 tumor cell line.
The IC50 values (72 hours drug exposure) of each individual agent for the SK-MEL-2 tumor cell line were calculated by using the same methodology disclosed in example 1 and are shown in table 3.
Table 3: IC50 values in molar concentration (M) for each of the agent
CompoundIC50 (M)
PM01183 2.00E-09
Irinotecan 1.80E-05
Etoposide 2.89E-06
Topotecan 4.37E-07

b. In a second set of assays, SK-MEL-2 tumor cells were incubated with PM01183 in combination with each of the agents mentioned above in the same combination of unique IC50 concentrations as those described in example 1. Cell culture and cell plating were performed as described before and the cytotoxic effect was measured by the MTT Assay as disclosed in example 1.

[0076] According to this assay, it was found that in SK-MEL-2 human melanoma cell line:
The combination of PM01183 with topotecan (Figure 5), PM01183 with irinotecan (Figure 6), and PM01183 with etoposide (Figure 7) exhibited synergism and even strong synergism in some dose ratios.

EXAMPLE 4. In vitro studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human prostate carcinoma cell lines.



[0077] The objective of this study was to determine the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of prostate cancer.

[0078] The following agents were evaluated in combination with PM01183: topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide (stock solutions of these compounds prepared in pure DMSO and stored at -20°C). Additional serial dilutions were prepared in serum-free culture medium to achieve a final 4X concentration. Aliquots of 50 µL of each diluted compound were added per well.
PC-3 was the human prostate adenocarcinome cell line selected for this assay. PC-3 cells were maintained in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine and 100 units/mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin, at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity.

[0079] The screening was performed in two parts as disclosed in example 1:
a. In the first set of assays, IC50 values were determined for each drug after 72 hours of drug exposure in the PC-3 tumor cell line.
The IC50 values (72 hours drug exposure) of each individual agent for the PC-3 tumor cell line were calculated by using the same methodology disclosed in example 1 and are shown in table 4.
Table 4: IC50 values in molar concentration (M) for each of the agent
CompoundIC50 (M)
PM01183 2.60E-09
Irinotecan 7.00E-05
Etoposide 4.80E-05
Topotecan 6.33E-07

b. In a second set of assays, PC-3 human tumor cells were incubated with PM01183 in combination with each of the agents mentioned above in the same combination of unique IC50 concentrations as those described in example 1. Cell culture and cell plating were performed as described before and the cytotoxic effect was measured by the MTT Assay as disclosed in examples 1.

[0080] According to this assay it was found that in PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line:
The combination of PM01183 with topotecan (Figure 8) and PM01183 with irinotecan (Figure 9) exhibited strong synergism, while the combination of PM01183 with etoposide (Figure 10) showed synergism at almost all dose ratios.

EXAMPLE 5. In vitro studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human pancreas carcinoma cell lines.



[0081] The objective of this study was to determine the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma.

[0082] The following agents were evaluated in combination with PM01183: topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide (stock solutions of these compounds prepared in pure DMSO and stored at -20°C). Additional serial dilutions were prepared in serum-free culture medium to achieve a final 4X concentration. Aliquots of 50 µL of each diluted compound were added per well.
PANC-1 was the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line selected for this assay. PANC-1 cells were maintained in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine and 100 units/mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin, at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity.

[0083] The screening was performed in two parts as disclosed in example 1:
a. In the first set of assays, IC50 values were determined for each drug after 72 hours of drug exposure in the PANC-1 tumor cell line.
The IC50 values (72 hours drug exposure) of each individual agent for the PANC-1 tumor cell line were calculated by using the same methodology disclosed in example 1 and are shown in table 5.
Table 5: IC50 values in molar concentration (M) for each of the agent
CompoundIC50 (M)
PM01183 2.80E-09
Topotecan 4.37E-06
Irinotecan 9.00E-05
Etoposide 1.00E-05

b. In a second set of assays, PANC-1 human tumor cells were incubated with PM01183 in combination with each of the agents mentioned above in the same combination of unique IC50 concentrations as those described in example 1. Cell culture and cell plating were performed as described before and the cytotoxic effect was measured by the MTT Assay as disclosed example 1.

[0084] According to this assay it was found that in PANC-1 human pancreas carcinoma cell line:
  1. a. The combination of PM01183 with topotecan (Figure 11) and PM01183 with irinotecan (Figure 12) exhibited strong synergism, while the combination of PM01183 with etoposide (Figure 13) showed synergism at almost all dose ratios.

EXAMPLE 6. In vitro studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human gastric carcinoma cell lines.



[0085] The objective of this study was to determine the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of gastric cancer.

[0086] The following agents were evaluated in combination with PM01183: topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide (stock solutions of these compounds prepared in pure DMSO and stored at -20°C). Additional serial dilutions were prepared in serum-free culture medium to achieve a final 4X concentration. Aliquots of 50 µL of each diluted compound were added per well.
HGC-27 was the human gastric carcinoma cell line selected for this assay. HGC-27 cells were maintained in Iscove's modified Dulbeco's medium (IDMD) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine and 100 units/mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin, at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity.

[0087] The screening was performed in two parts as disclosed in example 1:
a. In the first set of assays, IC50 values were determined for each drug after 72 hours of drug exposure in the HGC-27 tumor cell line.
The IC50 values (72 hours drug exposure) of each individual agent for the HGC-27 tumor cell line were calculated by using the same methodology disclosed in example 1 and are shown in table 6.
Table 6: IC50 values in molar concentration (M) for each of the agent
CompoundIC50 (M)
PM01183 8.50E-10
Etoposide 2.90E-06
Topotecan 8.08E-07
Irinotecan 4.00E-06

b. In a second set of assays, HGC-27 human tumor cells were incubated with PM01183 in combination with each of the agents mentioned above in the same combination of unique IC50 concentrations as those described in example 1. Cell culture and cell plating were performed, as described before and the cytotoxic effect was measured by the MTT Assay, as disclosed in example 1.

[0088] According to this assay it was found that in HGC-27 human gastric carcinoma cell line:
The combination of PM01183 with topotecan exhibited strong synergism (Figure 14). The combination of PM01183 with irinotecan (Figure 15) showed synergism at the 70/30-60/40 and 40/60 dose ratios, while the combination of PM01183 with etoposide (Figure 16) showed synergism at almost all dose ratios.

EXAMPLE 7. In vitro studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human ovarian carcinoma cell lines.



[0089] The objective of this study was to determine the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

[0090] The following agents were evaluated in combination with PM01183: topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide (stock solutions of these compounds prepared in pure DMSO and stored at -20°C). Additional serial dilutions were prepared in serum-free culture medium to achieve a final 4X concentration. Aliquots of 50 µL of each diluted compound were added per well.
IGROV-1 was the human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line selected for this assay. IGROV-1 cells were maintained in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine and 100 units/mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin, at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity.

[0091] The screening was performed in two parts as disclosed in example 1:
a. In the first set of assays, IC50 values were determined for each drug after 72 hours of drug exposure in the IGROV-1 tumor cell line.
The IC50 values (72 hours drug exposure) of each individual agent for the IGROV-1 tumor cell line were calculated by using the same methodology disclosed in example 1 and are shown in table 7.
Table 7: IC50 values in molar concentration (M) for each of the agent
CompoundIC50 (M)
PM01183 3.20E-09
Topotecan 3.00E-07
Irinotecan 1.00E-05
Etoposide 3.06E-06

b. In a second set of assays, IGROV-1 human tumor cells were incubated with PM01183 in combination with each of the agents mentioned above in the same combination of unique IC50 concentrations as those described in example 1. Cell culture and cell plating were performed as described before and the cytotoxic effect was measured by the MTT Assay as disclosed in example 1.

[0092] According to this assay it was found that in IGROV-1 human ovarian carcinoma cell line:
The combination of PM01183 with topotecan (Figure 17), PM01183 with irinotecan (Figure 18), and PM01183 with etoposide (Figure 19) exhibited synergism.

EXAMPLE 8. In vitro studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.



[0093] The objective of this study was to determine the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of hepatocellular cancer.

[0094] The following agents were evaluated in combination with PM01183: topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide (stock solutions of these compounds prepared in pure DMSO and stored at -20°C). Additional serial dilutions were prepared in serum-free culture medium to achieve a final 4X concentration. Aliquots of 50 µL of each diluted compound were added per well.
HepG2 was the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line selected for this assay. HepG2 cells were maintained in Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEME) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine and 100 units/mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin, at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity.

[0095] The screening was performed in two parts as disclosed in example 1:
a. In the first set of assays, IC50 values were determined for each drug after 72 hours of drug exposure in the HepG2 tumor cell line.
The IC50 values (72 hours drug exposure) of each individual agent for the HepG2 tumor cell line were calculated by using the same methodology disclosed in example 1 and are shown in table 8.
Table 8: IC50 values in molar concentration (M) for each of the agent
CompoundIC50 (M)
PM01183 2.50E-09
Etoposide 1.04E-05
Topotecan 1.00E-06
Irinotecan 1.00E-06

b. In a second set of assays, HepG2 human tumor cells were incubated with PM01183 in combination with each of the agents mentioned above in the same combination of unique IC50 concentrations as those described in example 1. Cell culture and cell plating were performed as described before and the cytotoxic effect was measured by the MTT Assay as disclosed in example 1.

[0096] According to this assay it was found that in HepG2 human hepatocellular cell line:
The combination of PM01183 with topotecan (Figure 20) and PM01183 with etoposide (Figure 22) exhibited strong synergism. The combination of PM01183 with irinotecan (Figure 21) showed synergism at almost all dose ratios.

EXAMPLE 9. In vitro studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human breast carcinoma cell lines.



[0097] The objective of this study was to determine the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of breast cancer.

[0098] The following agents were evaluated in combination with PM01183: topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide (stock solutions of these compounds prepared in pure DMSO and stored at -20°C). Additional serial dilutions were prepared in serum-free culture medium to achieve a final 4X concentration. Aliquots of 50 µL of each diluted compound were added per well.
MDA-MB-231 was the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line selected for this assay. MDA-MB-231 cells were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine and 100 units/mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin, at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity.

[0099] The screening was performed in two parts as disclosed in example 1:
a. In the first set of assays, IC50 values were determined for each drug after 72 hours of drug exposure in the MDA-MB-231 tumor cell line.
The IC50 values (72 hours drug exposure) of each individual agent for the MDA-MB-231 tumor cell line were calculated by using the same methodology disclosed in example 1 and are shown in table 9.
Table 9: IC50 values in molar concentration (M) for each of the agent
CompoundIC50 (M)
PM01183 3.50E-09
Topotecan 1.66E-07
Irinotecan 8.50E-06
Etoposide 4.80E-06

b. In a second set of assays, MDA-MB-231 human tumor cells were incubated with PM01183 in combination with each of the agents mentioned above in the same combination of unique IC50 concentrations as those described in example 1. Cell culture and cell plating were performed as described before and the cytotoxic effect was measured by the MTT Assay as disclosed in example 1.
According to this assay it was found that in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cell line:
The combination of PM01183 with topotecan (Figure 23) showed synergism at almost all dose ratios. The combination of PM01183 with irinotecan (Figure 24) and PM01183 with etoposide (Figure 25) exhibited synergism.

EXAMPLE 10. In vitro studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human colorectal carcinoma cell lines.



[0100] The objective of this study was to determine the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

[0101] The following agents were evaluated in combination with PM01183: topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide (stock solutions of these compounds prepared in pure DMSO and stored at -20°C). Additional serial dilutions were prepared in serum-free culture medium to achieve a final 4X concentration. Aliquots of 50 µL of each diluted compound were added per well.
HT-29 was the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line selected for this assay. HT-29 cells were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine and 100 units/mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin, at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity.

[0102] The screening was performed in two parts as disclosed in example 1:
a. In the first set of assays, IC50 values were determined for each drug after 72 hours of drug exposure in the HT-29 tumor cell line.
The IC50 values (72 hours drug exposure) of each individual agent for the HT-29 tumor cell line were calculated by using the same methodology disclosed in example 1 and are shown in table 10.
Table 10: IC50 values in molar concentration (M) for each of the agent
CompoundIC50 (M)
PM01183 3.70E-09
Topotecan 3.28E-07
Irinotecan 9.00E-06
Etoposide 5.44E-06

b. In a second set of assays, HT-29 human tumor cells were incubated with PM01183 in combination with each of the agents mentioned above in the same combination of unique IC50 concentrations as those described in example 1. Cell culture and cell plating were performed as described before and the cytotoxic effect was measured by the MTT Assay as disclosed in example 1.

[0103] According to this assay it was found that in HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cell line:
The combination of PM01183 with topotecan (Figure 26) and PM01183 with etoposide (Figure 28) exhibited strong synergism. The combination of PM01183 with irinotecan (Figure 27) showed synergism at almost all dose ratios.

EXAMPLE 11. In vitro studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human kidney carcinoma cell lines.



[0104] The objective of this study was to determine the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of kidney cancer.

[0105] The following agents were evaluated in combination with PM01183: topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide (stock solutions of these compounds prepared in pure DMSO and stored at -20°C). Additional serial dilutions were prepared in serum-free culture medium to achieve a final 4X concentration. Aliquots of 50 µL of each diluted compound were added per well.
RXF-393 was the human kidney carcinoma cell line selected for this assay. RXF-393 cells were maintained in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine and 100 units/mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin, at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity.

[0106] The screening was performed in two parts as disclosed in example 1:
a. In the first set of assays, IC50 values were determined for each drug after 72 hours of drug exposure in the RXF-393 tumor cell line.
The IC50 values (72 hours drug exposure) of each individual agent for the RXF-393 tumor cell line were calculated by using the same methodology disclosed in example 1 and are shown in table 11.
Table 11: IC50 values in molar concentration (M) for each of the agent
CompoundIC50 (M)
PM01183 5.00E-09
Etoposide 2.00E-05
Topotecan 3.93E-07
Irinotecan 1.40E-05

b. In a second set of assays, RXF-393 human tumor cells were incubated with PM01183 in combination with each of the agents mentioned above in the same combination of unique IC50 concentrations as those described in example 1. Cell culture and cell plating were performed as described before and the cytotoxic effect was measured by the MTT Assay as disclosed in example 1.

[0107] According to this assay it was found that in RXF-393 human kidney carcinoma cell line:
The combination of PM01183 with topotecan (Figure 29) exhibited strong synergism. The combination of PM01183 with irinotecan (Figure 30) showed synergism at almost all dose ratios, while the combination of PM01183 with etoposide (Figure 31) showed synergism at the 75/25 and 40/60-30/70 dose ratios.

EXAMPLE 12. In vitro studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human glioblastoma cell lines.



[0108] The objective of this study was to determine the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of glioblastoma.

[0109] The following agents were evaluated in combination with PM01183: topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide (stock solutions of these compounds prepared in pure DMSO and stored at -20°C). Additional serial dilutions were prepared in serum-free culture medium to achieve a final 4X concentration. Aliquots of 50 µL of each diluted compound were added per well.
U87-MG was the human glioblastoma cell line selected for this assay. U87-MG cells were maintained in Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEME) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine and 100 units/mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin, at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity.

[0110] The screening was performed in two parts as disclosed in example 1:
a. In the first set of assays, IC50 values were determined for each drug after 72 hours of drug exposure in the U87-MG tumor cell line.
The IC50 values (72 hours drug exposure) of each individual agent for the U87-MG tumor cell line were calculated by using the same methodology disclosed in example 1 and are shown in table 12.
Table 12: IC50 values in molar concentration (M) for each of the agent
CompoundIC50 (M)
PM01183 4.50E-09
Etoposide 1.85E-05
Topotecan 7.50E-07
Irinotecan 7.54E-06

b. In a second set of assays, U87-MG human tumor cells were incubated with PM01183 in combination with each of the agents mentioned above in the same combination of unique IC50 concentrations as those described in example 1. Cell culture and cell plating were performed as described before and the cytotoxic effect was also measured by the MTT Assay as disclosed in example 1.

[0111] According to this assay it was found that in U87-MG human glioblastoma cell line:
The combination of PM01183 with topotecan (Figure 32) and PM01183 with etoposide (Figure 34) showed strong synergism. The combination of PM01183 with irinotecan (Figure 33) showed synergism at almost all dose ratios.

EXAMPLE 13. In vivo studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with irinotecan in human lung tumor xenografts.



[0112] The aim of these studies was to evaluate the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of iriniotecan by using a xenograft model of human lung cancer.

[0113] Female athymic nude mice (Harlan Laboratories Models, S.L. (Barcelona, Spain) were utilized for all experiments. Animals were housed in individually ventilated cages, up to ten per cage in a 12-hour light-dark cycle at 21-23 °C and 40-60 % humidity. The mice were allowed free access to irradiated standard rodent diet and sterilized water. Animals were acclimated for at least 5 days prior to tumor implantation with a tumor cell suspension.

[0114] The tumor model used in these studies was H460 cell line, which was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection of Cell Cultures (ATCC ref. HTB-177™).

[0115] H460 cells were grown at 37 °C with 5 % CO2 in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). Each animal was subcutaneously implanted on the right flank, using 26G needle and a 1 cc syringe, with 5x106 H460 cells, from in vitro passage 10, in 0.05 mL suspension of 50% Matrigel and 50% serum free medium, without antibiotics.

[0116] Tumor measurements were determined by using digital caliper (Fowler Sylvac, S235PAT). The formula to calculate volume for a prolate ellipsoid was used to estimate tumor volume (mm3) from 2-dimensional tumor measurements: Tumor volume (mm3) = [L x W2] ÷ 2, where L is the length and it is the longest diameter in mm, and W is the width and it is the shortest diameter in mm of a tumor. Assuming unit density, volume was converted to weight (i.e., 1 mm3 = 1 mg). Tumor volume and animal body weights were measured 2-3 times per week starting form the first day of treatment (Day 0).

[0117] Treatment tolerability was assesed by monitoring body weight evolution, clinical signs as well as evidences of local damage in the injection site.

[0118] When tumors reached a volume of about 177 mm3, mice were randomly allocated into the treatments and control groups (N = 5-7/group) based on body weight and tumor volumen measurements by using NewLab Oncology Software (version 2.25.06.00).

[0119] PM01183 was provided in the form of vials of lyophilized PM01183 cake which was reconstituted with water for infusion to a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. The PM01183 stock solution was further diluted in 5% glucose solution for injection to the dosing formulation concentrations. Irinotecan was provided in the form of a solution prepared by diluting the product with 5 % glucose solution for injection to the target final concentration.

[0120] In these experiments, PM01183 and irinotecan treatments, as well as placebo, were intravenously administered as follows: PM01183 once per week up to 2 consecutive weeks, on Days 0 and 7, irinotecan was dosed every 4 days, on Days 0, 4 and 8, and placebo was administered following the same schedule as those provided for PM01183 and irinotecan. Dose level groups were administered either as single agents or in combination.

[0121] Comparison of the median tumor volume in the treatment groups (T) to the median tumor volume in the control group (T/C x 100%) was used for evaluation of the antitumor efficacy. In addition, potentiation and combination index (CI) were determined as follows: .

[0122] In addition, potentiation was determined when the response of the combination group was greater than the best response of the most active agent administered as single agent (monotherapy) on the same schedule and dose as those used in the combination therapy.

[0123] Finally, the combination index (CI), that quantitatively measures the degree of drug interactions, was obtained from the fractions affected by the treatment, Fa (defined as 1 -T/C) for each experimental group at the last measurement day (Day 10 for PM01183 and paclitaxel combination study, and PM01183 and doxorubicin study, and Day 9 for PM01183 and vinorelbine study) using the median-effect principle (Chou T.C. Pharmacol. Rev. 2006, 58, 621-681).

[0124] Table 13 reports the % T/C values obtained with PM01183 and irinotecan both administered as single agents and in combination for each dose level, and Figure 35 shows the tumor volume evaluation of H460 tumors in mice treated with placebo, PM01183, irinotecan, and the corresponding combinations for the groups dosed at the two highest ratios.
Table 13
 % T/C on day
GroupDoseTest materials0257912
G01 (Control group) 10 ml/kg Placebo - - - - - -
G02 0.18 mg/kg PM01183 114.4 79.6 74.7 75.0 69.1 64.9
G03 0.135 mg/kg PM01183 117.6 77.4 67.5 71.7 66.7 52.9
G04 0.09 mg/kg PM01183 116.9 83.1 83.9 76.9 80.6 84.9
G05 0.045 mg/kg PM01183 108.3 78.7 61.2 67.2 78.8 87.9
G06 50.0 mg/kg Irinotecan 112.1 54.9 34.7 27.5 24.8 22.9
G07 37.5 mg/kg Irinotecan 114.9 51.9 44.0 36.7 35.6 37.0
G08 25.0 mg/kg Irinotecan 112.0 55.6 54.9 49.6 53.1 51.8
G09 12.5 mg/kg Irinotecan 97.5 50.3 44.4 48.6 50.0 51.5
G10 0.18 mg/kg 50.0 mg/kg PM01183 Irinotecan 117.1 44.3 19.4 13.4 10.9 9.0
G11 0.135 mg/kg 37.5 mg/kg PM01183 Irinotecan 111.2 51.7 23.8 18.4 15.7 15.3
G12 0.09 mg/kg 25.0 mg/kg PM01183 Irinotecan 110.0 53.2 38.1 26.6 28.0 27.1
G13 0.045 mg/kg 12.5 mg/kg PM01183 Irinotecan 109.0 60.4 60.1 56.5 60.0 58.5
Placebo: lyophilised cake containing 100 mg Sucrose + Potassium dihydrogen phosphate 6.8 mg + Phosphoric acid q.s. pH 3.8-4.5, which was reconstituted with 1 mL of water for infusion.


[0125] According to this assay it was found that:
  1. a. The combination treatment of PM01183 and irinotecan was effective in the inhibition of the growth of the H460 lung cells, resulting in a statistically significant (P<0.01) tumor reduction compared to the control group with T/C values of 9.0% and 15.3% (Day 12) in the two highly-dosed groups. Moreover, the combination of PM01183 and irinotecan produced lower T/C values than the more active single agent in this experiment (irinotecan at doses of 50 mg/kg and 37.5 mg/kg). Specifically, the TC (%) values of the combination (50 mg/kg irinotecan + 0.18 mg/kg PM01183) vs irinotecan alone (50 mg/kg irinotecan) were 19.4 vs 34.7 (day 5), 13.4 vs 27.5 (day 7), 10.9 vs 24.8 (day 9), and 9.0 vs 22.9 (day 12), and the TC (%) values of the combination (37.5 mg/kg irinotecan + 0.135 mg/kg PM01183) vs irinotecan alone (37.5 mg/kg irinotecan) were 23.8 vs 44.0 (day 5), 18.4 vs 36.7 (day 7), 15.7 vs 35.6 (day 9), and 15.3 vs 37.0 (day 12). Therefore, when PM01183 is combined with irinotecan a potentiation of the antitumor activity is clearly observed.


[0126] Additionally, based on the median-effect principle, the combination of PM01183 and irinotecan resulted in CI values less than 1 (at Fa higher than 0.8), indicating synergism or strong synergism in mice bearing lung H460 xenografted tumors.

EXAMPLE 14. In vivo studies to determine the effect of PM01183 in combination with irinotecan in human colorectal tumor xenografts.



[0127] The aim of these studies was to evaluate the ability of PM01183 to potentiate the antitumor activity of irinotecan by using a xenograft model of human colorectal carcinoma.

[0128] Female athymic nude mice (Harlan Laboratories Models, S.L. (Barcelona, Spain) were utilized for all experiments. Animals were housed in individually ventilated cages, up to ten per cage in a 12-hour light-dark cycle at 21-23 °C and 40-60 % humidity. The mice were allowed free access to irradiated standard rodent diet and sterilized water. Animals were acclimated for at least 5 days prior to tumor implantation with a tumor cell suspension.

[0129] The tumor model used in these studies was HT-29 cell line, which was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC ref. HTB-38™).

[0130] HT-29 cells were grown at 37 °C with 5 % CO2 in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). Each animal was subcutaneously implanted on the right flank, using 26G needle and a 1 cc syringe, with 5x106 HT-29 cells, from in vitro passage 10, in 0.05 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride for injection.

[0131] Tumor measurements and treatment tolerability were performed and determined as disclosed in Example 13. Treatment tolerability was assesed by monitoring body weight evolution, clinical signs as well as evidences of local damage in the injection site.

[0132] When tumors reached a volume of about 180 mm3, mice were randomly allocated into the treatments and control groups (N = 5-7/group) based on body weight and tumor volumen measurements by using NewLab Oncology Software (version 2.25.06.00).

[0133] PM01183 was provided in the form of vials of lyophilized PM01183 cake which was reconstituted with water for infusion to a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. The PM01183 stock solution was further diluted in 5% glucose solution for injection to the dosing formulation concentrations. Irinotecan was provided in the form of a solution prepared by diluting the product with 5 % glucose solution for injection to the target final concentration.

[0134] In these experiments, PM01183 and irinotecan treatments, as well as placebo, were intravenously administered as follows: PM01183 once per week up to 3 consecutive weeks, on Days 0, 7 and 14, irinotecan was dosed every 4 days, on Days 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16, and placebo was administered following the same schedule as those provided for PM01183 and irinotecan. Dose level groups were administered either as single agents or in combination.

[0135] Comparison of the median tumor volume in the treatment groups (T) to the median tumor volume in the control group (T/C x 100%) was used for evaluation of the antitumor efficacy. In addition, potentiation was determined as disclosed in Example 13.

[0136] Table 14 reports the % T/C values obtained with PM01183 and irinotecan both administered as single agents and in combination for each dose level, and Figure 36 shows the tumor volume evaluation of HT-29 tumors in mice treated with placebo, PM01183, irinotecan, and the corresponding combinations for the groups dosed at the two highest ratios.







[0137] According to this assay it was found that:
  1. a. The combination treatment of PM01183 and irinotecan was effective in the inhibition of the growth of the U87-MG brain tumor cells, resulting in a statistically significant (P<0.01) tumor reduction compared to the control group with T/C values of 15.6% and 28.7% (Day 20) in the two highly-dosed groups. Moreover, the combination of PM01183 and irinotecan produced lower T/C values than the more active single agent in this experiment (irinotecan at doses of 50 mg/kg and 37.5 mg/kg). Specifically, the TC (%) values of the combination (50 mg/kg irinotecan + 0.18 mg/kg PM01183) vs irinotecan alone (50 mg/kg irinotecan) were 30.4 vs 51.7 (day 14), 21.7 vs 41.4 (day 17), and 15.6 vs 33.3 (day 20), and the TC (%) values of the combination (37.5 mg/kg irinotecan + 0.135 mg/kg PM01183) vs irinotecan alone (37.5 mg/kg irinotecan) were 40.1 vs 65.0 (day 14), 39.2 vs 58.4 (day 17), and 28.7 vs 49.4 (day 20). Therefore, when PM01183 is combined with irinotecan a potentiation of the antitumor activity is clearly observed.



Claims

1. PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in the treatment of cancer, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in synergistic combination with a therapeutically effective amount of a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor, wherein the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor is selected from topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide.
 
2. PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in increasing the therapeutic efficacy of a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor in the treatment of cancer, which comprises administering to a patient in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in synergistic combination with said topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor, wherein the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor is selected from topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide.
 
3. PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to claim 1 or 2, wherein PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor form part of the same medicament.
 
4. PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to claim 1 or 2, wherein PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor are provided as separate medicaments for administration at the same time or at different times.
 
5. PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to claim 4, wherein PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor are provided as separate medicaments for administration at different times.
 
6. PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to any preceding claim, wherein the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor is selected from topotecan, irinotecan and etoposide.
 
7. PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to any preceding claim, wherein the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor is irinotecan.
 
8. PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to any preceding claim, wherein the cancer to be treated is selected from lung cancer, sarcoma, malignant melanoma, bladder carcinoma, prostate cancer, pancreas carcinoma, thyroid cancer, gastric carcinoma, ovarian cancer, hepatoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, kidney cancer, esophageal cancer, neuroblastoma, brain cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, testicular cancer, leukemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma.
 
9. PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to claim 8, wherein the cancer to be treated is selected from lung cancer, sarcoma, malignant melanoma, prostate cancer, pancreas carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, ovarian cancer, hepatoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, kidney cancer and brain cancer.
 
10. PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to claim 9, wherein the cancer to be treated is selected from lung cancer, malignant melanoma, prostate cancer, pancreas carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, ovarian cancer, hepatoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, kidney cancer and brain cancer.
 
11. A kit for use in the treatment of cancer which comprises a dosage form of PM01183, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a dosage form of a topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor and instructions for the use of both drugs in synergistic combination as described in any preceding claim, wherein the topoisomerase I and/or II inhibitor is selected from topotecan, SN-38, irinotecan, camptothecin, rubitecan, etoposide and teniposide.
 


Ansprüche

1. PM01183 oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung von Krebs, die das Verabreichen einer therapeutisch wirksamen Menge PM01183 oder eines pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Salzes davon in synergistischer Kombination mit einer therapeutisch wirksamen Menge eines Topoisomerase-I- und/oder -II-Inhibitors umfasst, wobei der Topoisomerase-I- und/oder -II-Inhibitor aus Topotecan, SN-38, Irinotecan, Camptothecin, Rubitecan, Etoposid und Teniposid ausgewählt ist.
 
2. PM01183 oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung bei der Erhöhung der therapeutischen Wirksamkeit eines Topoisomerase-I- und/oder -II-Inhibitors bei der Behandlung von Krebs, die das Verabreichen einer therapeutisch wirksamen Menge PM01183 oder eines pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Salzes davon in synergistischer Kombination mit dem Topoisomerase-I- und/oder -II-Inhibitor an einen Patienten, der die Behandlung benötigt, wobei der Topoisomerase-I- und/oder -II-Inhibitor aus Topotecan, SN-38, Irinotecan, Camptothecin, Rubitecan, Etoposid und Teniposid ausgewählt ist.
 
3. PM01183 oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei PM01183 oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon und der Topoisomerase-I- und/oder -II-Inhibitor Teil desselben Medikaments sind.
 
4. PM01183 oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei PM01183 oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon und der Topoisomerase-I- und/oder -II-Inhibitor als getrennte Medikamente zur Verabreichung zu demselben Zeitpunkt oder zu verschiedenen Zeitpunkten bereitgestellt werden.
 
5. PM01183 oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 4, wobei PM01183 oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon und der Topoisomerase-I- und/oder -II-Inhibitor als getrennte Medikamente zur Verabreichung zu verschiedenen Zeitpunkten bereitgestellt werden.
 
6. PM01183 oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei der Topoisomerase-I- und/oder -II-Inhibitor aus Topotecan, Irinotecan und Etoposid ausgewählt ist.
 
7. PM01183 oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei es sich bei dem Topoisomerase-I- und/oder -II-Inhibitor um Irinotecan handelt.
 
8. PM01183 oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei der zu behandelnde Krebs aus Lungenkrebs, Sarkom, malignem Melanom, Blasenkarzinom, Prostatakrebs, Pankreaskarzinom, Schilddrüsenkrebs, Magenkarzinom, Eierstockkrebs, Hepatom, Brustkrebs, Kolorektalkrebs, Nierenkrebs, Speiseröhrenkrebs, Neuroblastom, Gehirntumor, Gebärmutterhalskrebs, Analkrebs, Hodenkrebs, Leukämie, multiplem Myelom und Lymphom ausgewählt ist.
 
9. PM01183 oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 8, wobei der zu behandelnde Krebs aus Lungenkrebs, Sarkom, malignem Melanom, Prostatakrebs, Pankreaskarzinom, Magenkarzinom, Eierstockkrebs, Hepatom, Brustkrebs, Kolorektalkrebs, Nierenkrebs und Gehirntumor ausgewählt ist.
 
10. PM01183 oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 9, wobei der zu behandelnde Krebs aus Lungenkrebs, malignem Melanom, Prostatakrebs, Pankreaskarzinom, Magenkarzinom, Eierstockkrebs, Hepatom, Brustkrebs, Kolorektalkrebs, Nierenkrebs und Gehirntumor ausgewählt ist.
 
11. Kit zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung von Krebs, umfassend eine Darreichungsform von PM01183 oder eines pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Salzes davon und eine Darreichungsform eines Topoisomerase-I- und/oder -II-Inhibitors sowie Anleitungen für die Verwendung beider Wirkstoffe in synergistischer Kombination, wie es in einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche beschrieben ist, wobei der Topoisomerase-I- und/oder -II-Inhibitor aus Topotecan, SN-38, Irinotecan, Camptothecin, Rubitecan, Etoposid und Teniposid ausgewählt ist.
 


Revendications

1. PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation dans le traitement du cancer, comprenant le fait d'administrer une quantité thérapeutiquement efficace de PM01183, ou d'un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, en combinaison synergique avec une quantité thérapeutiquement efficace d'un inhibiteur de la topoisomérase I et/ou II, l'inhibiteur de la topoisomérase I et/ou II étant choisi parmi le topotécan, le SN-38, l'irinotécan, la camptothécine, le rubitécan, l'étoposide et le téniposide.
 
2. PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation dans l'augmentation de l'efficacité thérapeutique d'un inhibiteur de la topoisomérase I et/ou II dans le traitement du cancer, qui comprend le fait d'administrer à un patient qui en a besoin une quantité thérapeutiquement efficace de PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, en combinaison synergique avec ledit inhibiteur de la topoisomérase I et/ou II, l'inhibiteur de la topoisomérase I et/ou II étant choisi parmi le topotécan, le SN-38, l'irinotécan, la camptothécine, le rubitécan, l'étoposide et le téniposide.
 
3. PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, le PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, et l'inhibiteur de topoisomérase I et/ou II faisant partie du même médicament.
 
4. PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, le PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, et l'inhibiteur de la topoisomérase I et/ou II étant prévus en tant que médicaments séparés pour une administration en même temps ou à des moments différents.
 
5. PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon la revendication 4, dans laquelle le PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, et l'inhibiteur de topoisomérase I et/ou II sont prévus en tant que médicaments séparés pour une administration à des moments différents.
 
6. PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, l'inhibiteur de topoisomérase I et/ou II étant choisi parmi le topotécan, l'irinotécan et l'étoposide.
 
7. PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, l'inhibiteur de la topoisomérase I et/ou II étant l'irinotécan.
 
8. PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, le cancer à traiter étant sélectionné parmi le cancer du poumon, le sarcome, le mélanome malin, le carcinome de la vessie, le cancer de la prostate, le carcinome du pancréas, le cancer de la thyroïde, le carcinome gastrique, le cancer des ovaires, l'hépatome, le cancer du sein, le cancer colorectal, le cancer du rein, le cancer de l'Å“sophage, le neuroblastome, le cancer du cerveau, le cancer du col de l'utérus, le cancer de l'anus, le cancer des testicules, la leucémie, le myélome multiple et le lymphome.
 
9. PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon la revendication 8, dans lequel le cancer à traiter est sélectionné parmi le cancer du poumon, le sarcome, le mélanome malin, le cancer de la prostate, le carcinome du pancréas, le carcinome gastrique, le cancer des ovaires, l'hépatome, le cancer du sein, le cancer colorectal, le cancer du rein et le cancer du cerveau.
 
10. PM01183, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon la revendication 9, dans lequel le cancer à traiter est sélectionné parmi le cancer du poumon, le mélanome malin, le cancer de la prostate, le carcinome du pancréas, le carcinome gastrique, le cancer de l'ovaire, l'hépatome, le cancer du sein, le cancer colorectal, le cancer du rein et le cancer du cerveau.
 
11. Un kit destiné à être utilisé dans le traitement du cancer qui comprend une forme posologique du PM01183, ou d'un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, et une forme posologique d'un inhibiteur de la topoisomérase I et/ou II et des instructions pour l'utilisation des deux médicaments en combinaison synergique comme décrit dans l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, l'inhibiteur de la topoisomérase I et/ou II étant sélectionné parmi le topotécan, le SN-38, l'irinotécan, la camptothécine, le rubitécan, l'étoposide et le téniposide.
 




Drawing





























Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description