(19)
(11)EP 2 797 596 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 12806447.4

(22)Date of filing:  19.12.2012
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 31/433(2006.01)
A61K 33/14(2006.01)
A61P 7/08(2006.01)
A61K 31/718(2006.01)
A61K 45/06(2006.01)
A61P 31/00(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2012/076054
(87)International publication number:
WO 2013/098140 (04.07.2013 Gazette  2013/27)

(54)

PERITONEAL DIALYSIS FLUID COMPRISING A GSK-3 INHIBITOR

PERITONEALDIALYSEFLÜSSIGKEIT ENTHALTEND EINEN GSK-3-INHIBITOREN

FLUIDE DE DIALYSE PÉRITONÉALE COMPRENANT UN INHIBITEUR DE GSK-3


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME

(30)Priority: 27.12.2011 EP 11195786

(43)Date of publication of application:
05.11.2014 Bulletin 2014/45

(73)Proprietor: Zytoprotec GmbH
1090 Wien (AT)

(72)Inventors:
  • RUSAI, Krisztina Szilvia
    A-1230 Wien (AT)
  • AUFRICHT, Christoph
    A-3400 Klosterneuburg-Weidling (AT)

(74)Representative: Schwarz & Partner Patentanwälte OG 
Patentanwälte Wipplingerstraße 30
1010 Wien
1010 Wien (AT)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2008/106702
  
  • KAZEMI ZAHRA ET AL: "O-Linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) Regulates Stress-induced Heat Shock Protein Expression in a GSK-3 beta-dependent Manner", JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 285, no. 50, December 2010 (2010-12), pages 39096-39107, XP002672715, ISSN: 0021-9258
  • CHIU C T ET AL: "Molecular actions and therapeutic potential of lithium in preclinical and clinical studies of CNS disorders", PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS, ELSEVIER, GB, vol. 128, no. 2, 1 November 2010 (2010-11-01), pages 281-304, XP027338766, ISSN: 0163-7258 [retrieved on 2010-08-10]
  • VIGH ET AL: "Can the stress protein response be controlled by 'membrane-lipid therapy'?", TRENDS IN BIOCHEMICAL SCIENCES, ELSEVIER, HAYWARDS, GB, vol. 32, no. 8, 31 July 2007 (2007-07-31), pages 357-363, XP022181830, ISSN: 0968-0004, DOI: 10.1016/J.TIBS.2007.06.009
  • BIJUR GAUTAM N ET AL: "Opposing actions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in the regulation of HSF-1 activity", JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, vol. 75, no. 6, December 2000 (2000-12), pages 2401-2408, XP002672716, ISSN: 0022-3042
  • HU XIAOYU ET AL: "IFN-gamma suppresses IL-10 production and synergizes with TLR2 by regulating GSK3 and CREB/AP-1 proteins", IMMUNITY, vol. 24, no. 5, May 2006 (2006-05), pages 563-574, XP002672717, ISSN: 1074-7613
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The present invention relates to a peritoneal dialysis fluid (in the following also referred to as "PDF").

[0002] Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a safe and cost-effective renal replacement therapy also offering a better quality of life when compared to haemodialysis. Unfortunately, PD treatment frequently results in progressive decline of ultrafiltration capacity of the membrane usually associated with peritoneal histological changes and loss of peritoneal integrity (1).

[0003] Presently, more than two third of patients suffer from a PD related infectious or non-infectious complication (such as peritonitis, peritoneal membran function deterioration or technical failure) during their first two years on therapy.

[0004] Different kinds of fluids are available for PD. The difference between these fluids is the type of osmotic agents, their concentrations and the type of buffer and pH value in the PD fluid.

[0005] Standard fluids that still represent about 80% of all PD fluids in the clinical practice contain non-physiological high concentrations of glucose as their osmotic agent. Pathological changes in the peritoneum mainly result from the hyperosmolar high glucose concentration and also of low pH value (2). More complex and chronic injury is induced by glucose degradation products (GDPs), which are formed during heat sterilization of PD fluids (3). Novel and more bio-compatible glucose-based PD fluids have normal pH and low GDP content due to the usage of a more-chamber system; however, these fluids are highly expensive, therefore their clinical use is still limited in the global setting.

[0006] There are also alternative, non-glucose based PD fluids on the market such as icodextrin- or amino-acid-based PD fluids, however, their use is limited to a single exchange per day and their ultrafiltration capacity is not as good as that of glucose-based solutions. Moreover, they also have a lower pH value potentiating unfavourable cellular changes in the peritoneum.

[0007] Therefore, searching for strategies to reduce toxicity of PD fluids is still an actual field in experimental and clinical nephrology and has immense medical and socio-economic importance.

[0008] It has previously been demonstrated in a number of studies that HSPs have a significant impact on mesothelial cell survival in experimental PD since up-regulation of HSPs either by pharmacological or by plasmid-mediated way protected mesothelial cells from the toxic features of PD fluids (12,13,14).

[0009] Interestingly, however, incubation with standard glucose-based PD fluids resulted in a downregulated HSP expression in mesothelial cells that causes a weakened cell defence mechanism.

[0010] WO 2008/106702 discloses a carbohydrate-based peritoneal dialysis fluid, containing a compound selected from the group consisting of
  • glutamine, preferably L-glutamine,
  • a dipeptide capable of releasing glutamine, L-glutamine in free form, preferably selected from the group consisting of glutaminyl-glycine, glycinyl-glutamine, glutaminyl-alanine, alanyl-glutamine
  • an oligopeptide consisting of two to seven glutamine, preferably L-glutamine residues, and
  • mixtures thereof.


[0011] There is still a need for peritoneal dialysis fluids with which the occurrence of infectious and non-infectious peritoneal complications, such as peritonitis, peritoneal membrane injury, damage and failure, barrier dysfunction and mesothelial cell detachment can be prevented or at least inhibited. By way of preventing such infectious and non-infectious peritoneal complications, technical failure in a patient undergoing a PD-treatment can be inhibited. The term "technical failure" is well-known to the skilled artisan and means the need to terminate peritoneal dialysis, and to switch to alternate renal replacement therapies such as hemodialysis.

[0012] Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide a peritoneal dialysis fluid with which the occurrence of such infectious and non-infectious peritoneal complications can be prevented or inhibited.

[0013] In one aspect, the present invention relates to a peritoneal dialysis fluid comprising a compound inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity, in particular (GSK)-3β activity for use in the prevention of infectious and non-infectious peritoneal complications caused by treatment with a peritoneal dialysis fluid, wherein these complications are selected from peritonitis, peritoneal membrane injury, damage and failure, barrier dysfunction and mesothelial cell detachment.

[0014] In a further aspect, the present invention relates to a peritoneal dialysis fluid based on icodextrin, comprising a compound inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity, in particular (GSK)-3β activity.

[0015] In yet one further aspect, the present invention relates to a compound inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity, in particular (GSK)-3β activity for use in the prevention of infectious and non-infectious peritoneal complications caused by treatment with a peritoneal dialysis fluid, wherein these complications are selected from peritonitis, peritoneal membrane injury, damage and failure, barrier dysfunction and mesothelial cell detachment.

Short description of the figures



[0016] 

Figure 1: p-GSK-3β expression in mesothelial cells treated with different commercially available PD fluids with different osmotic agents and toxic properties

Figure 2: LDH release in mesothelial cells treated with different commercially available PD fluids with different osmotic agents and toxic properties.

Figure 3: Cell viability assessed by neutral red uptake in % compared to control cells.

Figure 4: Heat shock factor-1 activity assessed by Luciferase assay.

Figure 5: Heat shock protein-72 (HSP-72) expression assessed by Western blot.

Figure 6: LDH release into the supernatant.

Figure 7: Heat shock factor (HSF-1) translational activity assessed by Luciferase assay.

Figure 8: Heat shock protein-72 (HSP-72) expression assessed by Western blot.


Detailed description of the invention



[0017] The glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a serine-threonine protein kinase. GSK-3β itself is regulated and inhibited by phosphorylation at the serine-9 residue by different upstream kinases out of which Akt and the serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1 (SGK-1) have gained more attention (4). GSK-3β was originally identified as a key enzyme reacting to different levels of glucose and GDPs regulating thereby the glycogen synthesis (5,6). However, subsequent work demonstrated that GSK-3β has a central role in overall cell survival, cell cycle progression and migration.

[0018] Although GSK-3β was described approximately 30 years back, the interest in it as potential drug target became prominent only in the beginning of the present century as GSK-3β was discovered as a multi-faced kinase involved in several physiological and pathological processes. Studies reported that GSK-3β inhibition either by selective small molecule inhibitors or with lithium has protective properties in various disease models. GSK-3β inhibition was proved to improve insulin resistance in type II diabetes (23,24), to have beneficial effects in neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease (25) and to reduce cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia (26).

[0019] Many GSK-3β targets are transcription factors (HSF-1, β-catenin, C-Jun, CREB) leading to altered stress reaction, increased apoptosis and changes in neurotransmission. GSK-3β is also capable of regulating cytoskeletal elements (7,8) that altogether render GSK-3β a central mediator in cellular signalling with an immense role in cell fate.

[0020] One of the major targets of GSK-3β is the heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), the key inducer of the cell protective heat shock protein (HSP) expression (9,10). Under stress conditions, HSF-1 is activated in a multi-step way including hyperphosphorylation, translocation into the nucleus, binding of HS elements (HSE) followed by transcription of respective genes. HSF-1 is phosphorylated and thereby inhibited by GSK-3β (11) leading to reduced HSP levels. GSK-3β phosphorylates HSF-1 at the serine-303 residue regulating negatively its binding to the DNA and the HSF-1-dependent transcription which lead to suppressed HSP-72 production (21), on the other hand, GSK-3β inhibition increases the heat shock response contributing to improved cell defence. GSK-3 is considered to modulate pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines and GSK3 inhibition was shown to reduce the peritoneal cell number in a murine model for TLR2-mediated peritonitis induced by Pam3Cys (34).

[0021] As GSK-3β is strongly regulated by glucose and GDPs (15), the inventors of the present inventions have considered that it might be a relevant molecular player in PD-associated cellular signalling. However, a direct association between GSK-3β and PD has not yet been described.

[0022] It is hypothesized that an increase in the activity of the anti-survival GSK-3β - as possibly mediated by PD fluid exposure - inhibits the pro-survival HSF-1, the key regulator of HSP transcription during PD. Accordingly, blocking GSK-3β activity might result in enhanced activation of HSF-1, and thus, in higher HSP expression and in less cell toxicity.

[0023] It has now been found that GSK-3 inhibition, in particular GSK-3β inhibition decreased mesothelial cell injury and death rate in cells treated with PD fluids. Mesothelial cell protection was paralleled by higher HSF-1 activity and HSP-72 expression.

[0024] This effect is particularly pronounced with PD fluids selected from the group consisting of carbohydrate-based dialysis fluids and amino-acid based dialysis fluids. The effect is even more pronounced with carbohydrate-based peritoneal dialysis fluids with a pH-value of 7.3 or lower, preferably 7.0 or lower, most preferably 6.0 or lower.

[0025] Carbohydrate-based peritoneal dialysis fluids are especially those based on glucose or icodextrin. Most preferably, the peritoneal dialysis fluid is based on icodextrin.

[0026] Accordingly, a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention is a peritoneal dialysis fluid based on icodextrin, comprising a compound inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity, in particular (GSK)-3β activity.

[0027] As mentioned above, a further aspect of the present invention relates to a compound inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity, in particular (GSK)-3β activity for use in the prevention of infectious and non-infectious peritoneal complications, such as peritonitis, peritoneal membrane injury, damage and failure, barrier dysfunction and mesothelial cell detachment caused by treatment with a peritoneal dialysis fluid.

[0028] The compound is preferably administered together with a peritoneal dialysis fluid in the course of a peritoneal dialysis treatment. The PD fluid is preferably selected from the PD fluids already discussed above.

[0029] The compound inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity, in particular (GSK)-3β activity is preferably selected from the group consisting of lithium, tideglusib, NP-103, GSK-3β Inhibitor I (TDZD-8, 4-Benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione), GSK-3β Inhibitor II (2-Thio(3-iodobenzyl)-5-(1-pyridyl)-[1,3,4]-oxadiazole), GSK-3 Inhibitor IV (SB-216763, 3-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione), GSK-3 Inhibitor IX (BIO, (2'Z,3'E)-6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime), GSK-3β Inhibitor VI (2-Chloro-1-(4,5-dibromo-thiophen-2-yl)-ethanone), GSK-3β Inhibitor VII (2,4'-Dibromoacetophenone), GSK-3β Inhibitor VIII (AR AO14418, N-(4-Methoxybenzyl)-N'-(5-nitro-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)urea), GSK-3 Inhibitor X (BIO-Acetoxime, (2'Z,3'E)-6-Bromoindirubin-3'-acetoxime), GSK-3β Inhibitor XI (3-(1-(3-Hydroxypropyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl]-4-pyrazin-2-yl-pyrrole-2,5-dione, 7AIPM), GSK-3 Inhibitor XIII (5-Methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-(2-phenylquinazolin-4-yl)amine), GSK-3β Inhibitor XII (TWS119, 3-[[6-(3-Aminophenyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]oxyphenol ditrifluoroacetate), GSK-3β Inhibitor XVIII (2-(Chloro-4-(4-thiophen-2-yl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-phenyl)-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-methanone), GSK-3β Inhibitor X (BIO-Acetoxime, (2'Z,3'E)-6-Bromoindirubin-3'-acetoxime), GSK-3β Inhibitor XI (3-(1-(3-Hydroxypropyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl]-4-pyrazin-2-yl-pyrrole-2,5-dione, 7AIPM), GSK-3β Inhibitor XIX (IM-12, C22H20FN3O2, indolylmaleimide-derivate), GSK-3 Inhibitor XVI (6-(2-(4-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino)ethyl-amino)-nicotinonitrile, CHIR99021), GSK-3 Inhibitor XVII (5-Benzylamino-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1,2,4-thiadiazole, TDZD-20), GSK-3 Inhibitor XXII, Compound A (6-Methyl-N-[3-[[3-(1-methylethoxy)propyl]carbamoyl]-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide), GSK-3β Inhibitor XXIII, 3F8 (5-Ethyl-7,8-dimethoxy-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]-isoquinoline-1,3-(2H)-dione), GSK-3β Peptide Inhibitor (L803, H-KEAPPAPPQSpP-NH2), GSK-3β Peptide Inhibitor (L803-mts, Myr-N-GKEAPPAPPQSpP-NH2), GF-109203X (2-[1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)indol-3-yl]-3-(indol-3-yl) maleimide) and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and mixtures thereof.

[0030] In a preferred embodiment, the compound inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity is a lithium salt, in particular lithium chloride or lithium carbonate. The concentration of the lithium salt in the dialysis fluid is preferably from 1 mM to 10 mM, most preferred 2 mM to 5 mM.

[0031] Lithium is a well-known GSK-3β inhibitor inhibiting GSK-3β by competition for magnesium (27). Lithium has been used for the treatment of bipolar mood disorders since the nineteen-fifties without knowing its specific mode of action at that time. In 1996, it was discovered to be a potent inhibitor of GSK-3β and evidence is growing that this may be one of the basis mechanisms for lithium's known and utilized mood stabilizing effects in bipolar disorder (16,17,18,22). In addition to mood disorders, lithium is now in phase II clinical trial for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and for the treatment of intestinal graft versus host disease after donor stem cell transplant.

[0032] There is much less known about whether the downstream actions of GSK-3β inhibition by lithium directly involves the HSPs. However recently, the protective lithium effects were demonstrated to be associated with improved HSP levels in experimental models such as ischemic brain damage (30,31) and lithium's neuroprotective effects were also implicated to be directly due to induced HSF-1 activity (32,33).

[0033] Lithium has been added to glucose-based PD fluids in the clinical setting in order to treat bipolar symptoms of a patient on continuous ambulatory PD; however this application modality was then not introduced as routine administration (28). In this study, lithium was given in Dianeal® 2.5% solution in an end-dose of 0.9 mM in a 2L bag and the solution was changed 3-times a day therefore yielding a continuous lithium exposure.

[0034] Later on, in an experimental rat PD model, lithium-carbonate was administered together with the glucose-based PD fluid to investigate its effects on acute ultrafiltration rate, results, however demonstrated the opposite effect that lithium decreased ultrafiltration rate (29). In this study, 5 mM Li was applied.

[0035] GSK-3β inhibition can also be achieved by alternative, specific pharmacological inhibitors as well (GSK-3 or GSK-3β inhibitors). There are several inhibitors available on the market. Some of these agents are currently under clinical investigations for therapy of special conditions, but none of them has yet been administered either in the PD solution or for the treatment of PD-caused decline of peritoneal function.

[0036] Out of the specific GSK-3 inhibitors, tideglusib ((Zentylor), non-ATP competitive inhibitor) is the only one already approved for clinical use. Zentylor obtained the approval from the FDA in 2010 for the treatment of progressive supranuclear palsy and is in phase II trial for the therapy of Alzheimer's disease. Other specific inhibitors are those named above.

[0037] In case of GSK-3 inhibitors other than lithium or lithium salts, suitable dosages of the respective inhibitor in the PD fluid can be easily determined by the skilled artisan.

Examples


Methods


Cell culture



[0038] The human Met-5a cell line was purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Rockville, MD). All cells were cultured in M199 culture medium supplemented with L-glutamine (0.1 g/L), penicillin (100 U/mL), streptomycin (100 µg/mL), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and propagated at 37°C in a humidified air containing 5% CO2 incubator. Standard chemicals were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA) unless otherwise stated. Falcon™ tissue culture plastics (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) were used for all cell culture procedures.

PDF exposure



[0039] For incubation with PDF, glucose-based, low pH (5.5) 3.86% fluid (Dianeal PD4 solution), icodextrin-based low pH (5.5) fluid (Extraneal); amino-acid-based fluid (pH 6.7) (Nutrineal), glucose-based, neutral pH, lactate/bicarbonate-buffered fluid (Physioneal) from Baxter AG, Vienna, Austria were used. Glucose-based, lactate-buffered, neutral pH solution (Balance) was obtained from Fresenius, Austria.

[0040] The control solution was M199 culture medium supplemented with L-glutamine (0.1 g/L), penicillin (100 U/mL), streptomycin (100 µg/mL) without fetal bovine serum.

[0041] PDF exposure model: confluent cultures on 12-well plates were exposed for the indicated times (30 min or 1h) to the PD fluid solution or kept in parallel in control medium.
For HSF-1 activity assay, cells were harvested and lysed immediately after exposure times, whereas for measurements of LDH and HSP-72, p-GSK-3β Western blot analysis, cells were allowed to recover by incubation with normal culture medium containing 10% FBS for 16h.

LiCl treatment



[0042] Lithium-chloride (LiCl) was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA), and was applied at a dose as indicated.

LDH release



[0043] For LDH analyses, 200 µL aliquots of supernatants were removed after the described experimental setup and kept on -20°C until analyzed within 48 h. Measurements were performed in duplicates with Sigma TOX-7 LDH Kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. LDH efflux was normalized for protein content.

Neutral red uptake



[0044] To assess cell viability by neutral red uptake, cells were seeded out to 96-well plates and exposed to different treatment protocols as described before. Neutral red uptake was measured using a standard reagent (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) according to the manufacturer's protocol.

Luciferase assay



[0045] To determine the specific binding of the heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), a commercially available Luciferase Reporter Vector (LR0038, Panomics, Italy) containing the heat shock element [5'CTGGAATTTTCTAGACTGGAATTTTCTAGACTGGAATTTTCTAGA3'] as well as an empty control vector were transfected into the MeT-5a cells. 24 h prior to transfection, MC were seeded onto 96-well cell culture plates and allowed to reach approximately 80-90% confluence on day of transfection. Before transfection per well 0.15 µl Fugene6 (Roche) transfection reagent and 0.1 µl HSE reporter vector or control vector were each diluted with 5 µl of normal growth medium without FCS and incubated for 5 min. The solutions were mixed incubated for 30 min. Of this mix 10 µl were added to each well incubated for 24 h at 5% CO2 and 37 °C in a humidified atmosphere. Experimental exposures were carried out as described before and the cells were allowed to recover for 6 h in order to facilitate protein synthesis of the luciferase enzyme. Cells were washed and lysed using a commercially available buffer (E1531, Promega). The cell lysates were transferred to white flat bottom microplates (Nunc). The luciferase reagent (E1500, Promega) was added using an automatic pipette in 3 s intervals and the yielded signal was measured after 2 min using a luminometer plate reader (Flx800, BioTek).

Western blot analysis



[0046] For western blotting, protein content is determined by the Bradford assay (Biorad, Vienna, Austria) and equal amounts of protein samples (2 µg/lane) are separated by standard SDS-PAGE using a Pharmacia Multiphore II unit. Size-fractionated proteins are then transferred to PVDF membranes by semi-dry transfer in a Pharmacia Multiphore II Novablot unit. Membranes are blocked in 5% dry milk in TBS-Tween (10 mM Tris, 150 mM NaCl, 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4). Membranes are incubated with the respective primary antibody (HSP-72, p-GSK-3β) for 16h. Detection is accomplished by incubation with secondary, peroxidase-coupled antibodies (anti-mouse or anti-rabbit IgG, both Dako Cytomation, CA, USA) and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) using the ECL western blotting analysis system (Renaissance, NEN-Life Science Products, Boston, MA, USA).

Data analysis



[0047] All statistical analyses were performed using Sigmaplot 11.0 software (Systat Software GmbH, Erkrath, Germany). Values from different groups were compared using t-tests or ANOVA where appropriate. In case of ANOVA, Tukey's HSD was used as post-hoc test. A P-value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. The results are presented as means ± SEM.

Results


Incubation with conventional PD fluid induces mesothelial cell injury and death



[0048] Incubation of mesothelial cells with glucose-based low pH, lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF, Dianeal) and in low pH icodextrin-based PDF (Extraneal) resulted in severe cell injury reflected by shrinkage, detachment and in part, by fragmentation of cells demonstrated by light microscopy and vital-dead staining (data not shown).

[0049] This was paralleled by high LDH release (data not shown), by significantly reduced cell viability and by high rate of dead cells.

Incubation with PD fluids increases the level of activated GSK-3β



[0050] PDF incubation decreased the level of the inactive, Ser-9 phosphorylated GSK-3β (p-GSK-3β) analysed by immunofluorescent staining (data not shown) and by Western blotting (Figure 1), whereas the level of total GSK-3β remained unchanged (Figure 1) leading therefore to a higher net level of kinase-active GSK-3β compared to control cells.

[0051] The cellular expression and in particular, localisation of p-GSK-3β was analyzed by immunofluorescent staining. After incubation with different PD fluids, there was an overall lower expression of the p-GSK-3β especially in glucose-based, low pH PDF and icodextrin-based fluid treated cells, paralleled by a marked condensation around the nucleus (data not shown). However, also in the other treatment groups (lactate-buffered, lactate/bicarbonate buffered and aminoacid based PD fluids), a decrease and condensation when compared to control cells was observed.

[0052] The impact of different commercially available PD fluids on Ser-9 p-GSK-3β showed that low pH icodextrin-based PD fluids (Extraneal) had a similar effect to that of the glucose-based low pH solution, i.e. significantly lower expression of p-GSK-3β. The effect is less pronounced in normal pH glucose-based (lactate- or lactate/bicarbonate-buffered; Balance and Physioneal, respectively) PD fluids and amino-acid-based PD fluid (Nutrineal) with a moderate acidic pH (pH 6.7) (Figure 1). These results are in line with previous observations on glucose and GDPs (19,20). These studies reported that high glucose decreased (19), whereas the end-products of GDPs up-regulated GSK-3β activity (20).

[0053] Description of Figure 1: p-GSK-3β expression in mesothelial cells treated with different commercially available PD fluids with different osmotic agents and toxic properties. Control cells were treated with normal cell culture medium, PDF treated cells were treated with glucose-based, low pH PD fluid with high GDP content (PDF, Dianeal). Icodextrin-based PD fluid (Extraneal), lactate-buffered, low GDP, pH 7.4 (Balance), lactate/bicarbonate-buffered, low GDP, pH 7.4 (Physioneal), Amino-acid based (Nutrineal) PD fluid. (1h exposure without recovery). *P < 0.01 vs. Control.

Lithium inhibits GSK-3β, leading to reduced cell injury and death in mesothelial cells after PD fluid incubation



[0054] Glucose-based low pH, high GDP-containing and low pH icodextrin-based PD fluids caused a marked LDH elevation, paralleled by significant reduction in cell viability compared to controls (Figure 2). Glucose-based normal pH and amino-acid-based PD fluids caused a more moderate significant LDH release (Figure 2) that was not associated with significant cell death (data not shown).

[0055] In these PD fluid exposure systems, inhibition of GSK-3β activity with addition of 10 mM LiCl, reduced cell injury after treatment with all PD fluids observed, as reflected by attenuated LDH release (Figure 2). The most prominent protection was observed after incubation with low pH glucose-based and icodextrin-based solutions (Figure 2).

[0056] Therefore, protective effects of LiCl in these exposure systems were further investigated using live-dead staining and measurement of viable cells by neutral red uptake. Treatment with LiCl resulted in preserved cell structure (data not shown), in reduced rate of dead cells (data not shown) and in increased number of viable cells (Figure 3) after incubation either with low pH glucose-based or icodextrin-based PD fluids.

[0057] Explanation of Figure 2: LDH release in mesothelial cells treated with different commercially available PD fluids with different osmotic agents and toxic properties. Control cells were treated with normal cell culture medium, PDF treated cells were treated with glucose-based, low pH PD fluid with high GDP content (Dianeal). Icodextrin-based PD fluid (Extraneal), lactate-buffered, low GDP, pH 7.4 (Balance), lactate/bicarbonate-buffered, low GDP, pH 7.4 (Physioneal) PD fluid, Amino-acid-based (Nutrineal) PD fluid. LiCl was applied at a dose of 10 mM. # P< 0.05 vs. Control, *P < 0.01 vs. no LiCl treatment. (1h exposure, 16h recovery)

[0058] Explanation of Figure 3: Cell viability assessed by neutral red uptake in % compared to control cells. Cells were treated either with PDF (glucose-based, low pH PD fluid with high GDP content (Dianeal)) or with icodextrin-based PD fluid with low pH (Extraneal). LiCl was applied at a dose of 10 mM. #P< 0.01 vs. Control, *P < 0.01 vs. no LiCl treatment. (1h exposure, 16h recovery). Control cells were treated with normal cell culture medium.

LiCl leads to higher HSF-1 activity



[0059] Luciferase assay showed that LiCl treatment significantly increased HSF-1 transcriptional activity in control cells and both after incubation with glucose-based low pH, high GDP-containing and low pH icodextrin-based PD fluids (Figure 4).

[0060] Explanation of Figure 4: Heat shock factor-1 activity by Luciferase assay. Control cells were treated with normal cell culture medium, PDF treated cells were treated with glucose-based, low pH PD fluid with high GDP content (Dianeal). Icodextrin-based PD fluid with low pH (Extraneal). LiCl was applied at a dose of 10 mM. (30 min exposure, 6h recovery), #P< 0.01 vs. Control, *P < 0.01 vs. no LiCl treatment, respectively.

LiCl treatment results in higher HSP-72 expression



[0061] HSP-72 was assessed in cells treated with glucose-based, low pH PD fluid with high GDP content or with icodextrin-based PD fluid with or without LiCl administration after 30 min or 1h incubation.

[0062] HSP-72 expression slightly increased after 30 min incubation and significantly decreased after 1h incubation with glucose-based low pH, high GDP-containing fluid compared to control cells (Figure 5). Expression of HSP-72 increased after 30 min incubation, but was unchanged after 1h incubation with icodextrin-based PD fluid compared to controls (Figure 5). Treatment with LiCl significantly increased the level of HSP-72 in each incubation setting when compared to the respective untreated cells.

[0063] Explanation of Figure 5: Heat shock protein-72 (HSP-72) expression assessed by Western blot. Control cells were treated with normal cell culture medium, PDF treated cells were treated with glucose-based, low pH PD fluid with high GDP content (Dianeal). Icodextrin-based PD fluid with low pH (Extraneal). LiCl was applied at a dose of 10 mM. (30 min - left diagram - or 1h exposure - right diagram, 16h recovery). *P < 0.05 vs. Control, %P< 0.001 vs. Control, &P< 0.05 vs. no LiCl treatment, respectively.

Dose curve analysis of LiCl administration



[0064] In order to examine in which concentrations lithium effectively ameliorates mesothelial cell injury, a dose curve was analyzed during incubations with either low pH glucose-based (PDF) or icodextrin-based fluids. A dose of 1 mM, 2 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM LiCl was examined.

[0065] In low pH glucose-based (PDF) fluid, LiCl at a dose from 1 mM to 5 mM did not alter the release of LDH into the supernatant (Figure 6), but as detected previously, 10 mM LiCl significantly reduced LDH release when compared to controls (Figure 6). During incubation with the icodextrin-based fluid, there was a dose-dependent LDH response curve: 1 mM LiCl did not change significantly, whereas 2 mM LiCl already decreased LDH levels and the decrease was even more significant administering 5 mM and 10 mM LiCl (Figure 6).

[0066] Explanation of Figure. 6: LDH release into the supernatant. Control cells were treated with normal cell culture medium, PDF treated cells were treated with glucose-based, low pH PD fluid with high GDP content (Dianeal). Icodextrin-based PD fluid with low pH (Extraneal). LiCl was applied at a dose of 1 mM, 2 mM, 5 mM or 10 mM. (30 min exposure, 6h recovery). #P< 0.001 vs. Control, *P < 0.05 vs. no LiCl treatment, respectively.

[0067] HSF-1 activity assessed by Luciferase assay showed that in cells incubated with either low pH glucose-based or with icodextrin-based PDF, there was a dose-dependent upregulation of HSF-1 activity compared to the respective control cells (Figure 7).

[0068] Explanation of Figure 7: Heat shock factor (HSF-1) translational activity assessed by Luciferase assay. Control cells were treated with normal cell culture medium, PDF treated cells were treated with glucose-based, low pH PD fluid with high GDP content (Dianeal). Icodextrin-based PD fluid with low pH (Extraneal). LiCl was applied at a dose of 1 mM, 2 mM, 5 mM or 10 mM. (30 min exposure, 6h recovery). #P< 0.01 vs. Control, *P < 0.01 vs. no LiCl treatment, respectively.

[0069] In cells incubated with glucose-based low pH PDF, HSP-72 expression increased only after administration of either 2 mM or 10 mM LiCl when compared to untreated cells (Figure 8). On the other hand, after incubation with icodextrin-based PD fluid, all the applied LiCl doses increased the HSP-72 protein expression (Figure 8).

[0070] Explanation of Figure 8: Heat shock protein-72 (HSP-72) expression assessed by Western blot. Control cells were treated with normal cell culture medium, PDF treated cells were treated with glucose-based, low pH PD fluid with high GDP content (Dianeal). Icodextrin-based PD fluid with low pH (Extraneal). LiCl was applied at a dose of 1 mM, 2 mM, 5 mM or 10 mM. (30 min exposure, 16h recovery). #P< 0.05 vs. Control, *P < 0.05 vs. no LiCl treatment, respectively.

Summary:



[0071] In the present study, lithium-chloride (LiCl) decreased LDH release, reduced cell death rate and improved cell viability. The effect is most pronounced with mesothelial cells treated with glucose-based low pH and icodextrin-based PD fluids, the commercially available PD fluids with the most significant effects on GSK-3β activation.

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Claims

1. Peritoneal dialysis fluid comprising a compound inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity, in particular (GSK)-3β activity, for use in the prevention of infectious and non-infectious peritoneal complications caused by treatment with a peritoneal dialysis fluid, wherein these complications are selected from peritonitis, peritoneal membrane injury, damage and failure, barrier dysfunction and mesothelial cell detachment.
 
2. Peritoneal dialysis fluid for use according to claim 1, characterized in that the peritoneal dialysis fluid is selected from the group consisting of carbohydrate-based dialysis fluids and amino-acid based dialysis fluids.
 
3. Peritoneal dialysis fluid for use according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the pH-value of the peritoneal dialysis fluid is 7.3 or lower, preferably 7.0 or lower, most preferably 6.0 or lower.
 
4. Peritoneal dialysis fluid for use according to any of the preceding claims, characterized in that the peritoneal dialysis fluid is based on icodextrin.
 
5. Peritoneal dialysis fluid based on icodextrin, comprising a compound inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity, in particular (GSK)-3β activity.
 
6. A compound inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity, in particular (GSK)-3β activity for use in the prevention of infectious and non-infectious peritoneal complications caused by treatment with a peritoneal dialysis fluid, wherein these complications are selected from peritonitis, peritoneal membrane injury, damage and failure, barrier dysfunction and mesothelial cell detachment.
 
7. Compound for use according to claim 6, characterized by being administered together with a peritoneal dialysis fluid in the course of a peritoneal dialysis treatment.
 
8. Compound for use according to claim 6 or 7, characterized in that the peritoneal dialysis fluid is selected from the group consisting of carbohydrate-based dialysis fluids and amino-acid based dialysis fluids.
 
9. Compound for use according to any of claims 6 to 8, characterized in that the pH-value of the peritoneal dialysis fluid is 7.3 or lower, preferably 7.0 or lower, most preferably 6.0 or lower.
 
10. Compound for use according to any of claims 6 to 9, characterized in that the peritoneal dialysis fluid is based on icodextrin.
 
11. Peritoneal dialysis fluid for use according to any one of claims 1 to 4, peritoneal dialysis fluid according to claim 5, or compound for use according to any of claims 6 to 10, characterized in that the compound inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity is selected from the group consisting of lithium, tideglusib, NP-103, GSK-3β Inhibitor I (TDZD-8, 4-Benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione), GSK-3β Inhibitor II (2-Thio(3-iodobenzyl)-5-(1-pyridyl)-[1,3,4]-oxadiazole), GSK-3 Inhibitor IV (SB-216763, 3-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione), GSK-3 Inhibitor IX (BIO, (2'Z,3'E)-6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime), GSK-3β Inhibitor VI (2-Chloro-1-(4,5-dibromo-thiophen-2-yl)-ethanone), GSK-3β Inhibitor VII (2,4'-Dibromoacetophenone), GSK-3β Inhibitor VIII (AR AO14418, N-(4-Methoxybenzyl)-N-(5-nitro-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)urea), GSK-3 Inhibitor X (BIO-Acetoxime, (2'Z,3'E)-6-Bromoindirubin-3'-acetoxime), GSK-3β Inhibitor XI (3-(1-(3-Hydroxypropyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl]-4-pyrazin-2-yl-pyrrole-2,5-dione, 7AIPM), GSK-3 Inhibitor XIII (5-Methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-(2-phenylquinazolin-4-yl)amine), GSK-3β Inhibitor XII (TWS119, 3-[[6-(3-Aminophenyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]oxyphenol ditrifluoroacetate), GSK-3β Inhibitor XVIII (2-(Chloro-4-(4-thiophen-2-yl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-phenyl)-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-methanone), GSK-3β Inhibitor X (BIO-Acetoxime, (2'Z,3'E)-6-Bromoindirubin-3'-acetoxime), GSK-3β Inhibitor XI (3-(1-(3-Hydroxypropyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl]-4-pyrazin-2-yl-pyrrole-2,5-dione, 7AIPM), GSK-3β Inhibitor XIX (IM-12, C22H20FN3O2, indolylmaleimide-derivate), GSK-3 Inhibitor XVI (6-(2-(4-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino)ethyl-amino)-nicotinonitrile, CHIR99021), GSK-3 Inhibitor XVII (5-Benzylamino-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1,2,4-thiadiazole, TDZD-20), GSK-3 Inhibitor XXII, Compound A (6-Methyl-N-[3-[[3-(1-methylethoxy)propyl]carbamoyl]-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide), GSK-3β Inhibitor XXIII, 3F8 (5-Ethyl-7,8-dimethoxy-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]-isoquinoline-1,3-(2H)-dione), GSK-3β Peptide Inhibitor (L803, H-KEAPPAPPQSpP-NH2), GSK-3β Peptide Inhibitor (L803-mts, Myr-N-GKEAPPAPPQSpP-NH2), GF-109203X (2-[1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)indol-3-yl]-3-(indol-3-yl) maleimide) and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and mixtures thereof.
 
12. Peritoneal dialysis fluid for use, peritoneal dialysis fluid or compound for use according to claim 11, characterized in that the compound inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity is a lithium salt, in particular lithium chloride or lithium carbonate.
 
13. Peritoneal dialysis fluid for use, peritoneal dialysis fluid or compound for use according to claim 12, characterized in that the concentration of the lithium salt in the dialysis fluid is from 1 mM to 10 mM, preferably 2 mM to 5 mM.
 


Ansprüche

1. Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit, umfassend eine Verbindung, welche die Glykogensynthase-Kinase (GSK)-3-Aktivität, insbesondere die (GSK)-3β-Aktivität, hemmt, zur Verwendung bei der Prävention von infektiösen und nicht-infektiösen peritonealen Komplikationen, die durch eine Behandlung mit einer Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit hervorgerufen werden, wobei diese Komplikationen aus Peritonitis, Verletzung, Schädigung und Versagen der Bauchfellmembran, Barrieredysfunktion und mesothelialer Zellablösung ausgewählt sind.
 
2. Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe, bestehend aus Dialyseflüssigkeiten auf Kohlenhydratbasis und Dialyseflüssigkeiten auf Aminosäurebasis.
 
3. Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der pH-Wert der Peritonealdialyseflüssigkeit 7,3 oder weniger, vorzugsweise 7,0 oder weniger, am meisten bevorzugt 6,0 oder weniger beträgt.
 
4. Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit zur Verwendung gemäß einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit auf Icodextrin basiert.
 
5. Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit auf Basis von Icodextrin, umfassend eine Verbindung, welche die Glykogensynthase-Kinase (GSK)-3-Aktivität, insbesondere die (GSK)-3β-Aktivität, hemmt.
 
6. Verbindung, welche die Glykogensynthase-Kinase (GSK)-3-Aktivität, insbesondere die (GSK)-3β-Aktivität, hemmt, zur Verwendung bei der Prävention von infektiösen und nicht-infektiösen peritonealen Komplikationen, die durch eine Behandlung mit einer Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit hervorgerufen werden, wobei diese Komplikationen aus Peritonitis, Verletzung, Schädigung und Versagen der Bauchfellmembran, Barrieredysfunktion und mesothelialer Zellablösung ausgewählt sind.
 
7. Verbindung zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie zusammen mit einer Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit im Verlauf einer Peritonealdialysebehandlung verabreicht wird.
 
8. Verbindung zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 6 oder 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe, bestehend aus Dialyseflüssigkeiten auf Kohlenhydratbasis und Dialyseflüssigkeiten auf Aminosäurebasis.
 
9. Verbindung zur Verwendung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 6 bis 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der pH-Wert der Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit 7,3 oder weniger, vorzugsweise 7,0 oder weniger, am meisten bevorzugt 6,0 oder weniger beträgt.
 
10. Verbindung zur Verwendung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 6 bis 9, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit auf Icodextrin basiert.
 
11. Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit zur Verwendung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit gemäß Anspruch 5 oder Verbindung zur Verwendung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 6 bis 10, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Verbindung, welche die Glykogensynthase-Kinase (GSK)-3-Aktivität hemmt, ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe, bestehend aus Lithium, Tideglusib, NP-103, GSK-3β-Inhibitor I (TDZD-8,4-Benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidin-3,5-dion), GSK-3β-Inhibitor II (2-Thio(3-iodbenzyl)-5-(1-pyridyl)-[1,3,4]-oxadiazol), GSK-3-Inhibitor IV (SB-216763, 3-(2,4-Dichlorphenyl)-4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrol-2,5-dion), GSK-3-Inhibitor IX (BIO, (2'Z,3'E)-6-Bromindirubin-3'-oxim), GSK-3β-Inhibitor VI (2-Chlor-1-(4,5-dibromthiophen-2-yl)-ethanon), GSK-3β-Inhibitor VII (2,4'-Dibromacetophenon), GSK-3β-Inhibitor VIII (AR AO14418, N-(4-Methoxybenzyl)-N'-(5-nitro-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)harnstoff), GSK-3-Inhibitor X (BIO-Acetoxim, (2'Z,3'E)-6-bromindirubin-3'-acetoxim), GSK-3β-Inhibitor XI (3-(1-(3-Hydroxypropyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl]-4-pyrazin-2-yl-pyrrol-2,5-dion, 7AIPM), GSK-3-Inhibitor XIII (5-Methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-(2-phenylchinazolin-4-yl)amin), GSK-3β-Inhibitor XII (TWS119, 3-[[6-(3-Aminophenyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]oxyphenol-ditrifluoracetat), GSK-3β-Inhibitor XVIII (2-(Chlor-4-(4-thiophen-2-yl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-phenyl)-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-methanon), GSK-3β-Inhibitor X (BIO-Acetoxim, (2'Z,3'E)-6-Bromindirubin-3'-acetoxim), GSK-3β-Inhibitor XI (3-(1-(3-Hydroxypropyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl]-4-pyrazin-2-yl-pyrrol-2,5-dion, 7AIPM), GSK-3β-Inhibitor XIX (IM-12, C22H20FN3O2, Indolylmaleimid-Derivat), GSK-3-Inhibitor XVI (6-(2-(4-(2,4-Dichlorphenyl)-5-(4-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino)ethylamino)nicotinonitril, CHIR99021), GSK-3-Inhibitor XVII (5-Benzylamino-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1,2,4-thiadiazol, TDZD-20), GSK-3-Inhibitor XXII, Verbindung A (6-Methyl-N-[3-[[3-(1-methylethoxy)propyl]carbamoyl]-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]pyridin-3-carboxamid), GSK-3β-Inhibitor XXIII, 3F8 (5-Ethyl-7,8-dimethoxy-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]-isochinolin-1,3-(2H)-dion), GSK-3β-Peptidinhibitor (L803, H-KEAPPAPPQSpP-NH2), GSK-3β-Peptidinhibitor (L803-mts, Myr-N-GKEAPPAPPQSpP-NH2), GF-109203X (2-[1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)indol-3-yl]-3-(indol-3-yl)maleimid) und pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Salzen und Gemischen davon.
 
12. Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit zur Verwendung, Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit oder Verbindung zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es sich bei der Verbindung, welche die Glykogensynthase-Kinase (GSK)-3-Aktivität hemmt, um ein Lithiumsalz handelt, insbesondere um Lithiumchlorid oder Lithiumcarbonat.
 
13. Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit zur Verwendung, Peritonealdialyse-Flüssigkeit oder Verbindung zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 12, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Konzentration des Lithiumsalzes in der Dialyseflüssigkeit 1 mM bis 10 mM, vorzugsweise 2 mM bis 5 mM beträgt.
 


Revendications

1. Fluide de dialyse péritonéale comprenant un composé inhibant l'activité de la glycogène synthase kinase (GSK)-3, en particulier l'activité de la (GSK)-3β, pour une utilisation dans la prévention des complications péritonéales infectieuses et non infectieuses provoquées par un traitement avec un fluide de dialyse péritonéale, ces complications étant choisies parmi la péritonite, les lésions, les dommages et la défaillance de la membrane péritonéale, le dysfonctionnement de la barrière et le décollement des cellules mésothéliales.
 
2. Fluide de dialyse péritonéale pour une utilisation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que le fluide de dialyse péritonéale est choisi dans le groupe constitué par les fluides de dialyse à base de glucides et les fluides de dialyse à base d'acides aminés.
 
3. Fluide de dialyse péritonéale pour une utilisation selon la revendication 1 ou 2, caractérisé en ce que la valeur de pH du fluide de dialyse péritonéale est de 7,3 ou moins, de préférence de 7,0 ou moins, de manière plus préférée de 6,0 ou moins.
 
4. Fluide de dialyse péritonéale pour une utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que le fluide de dialyse péritonéale est à base d'icodextrine.
 
5. Fluide de dialyse péritonéale à base d'icodextrine, comprenant un composé inhibant l'activité de la glycogène synthase kinase (GSK)-3, en particulier l'activité de la (GSK)-3β.
 
6. Composé inhibant l'activité de la glycogène synthase kinase (GSK)-3, en particulier l'activité de la (GSK)-3β, pour une utilisation dans la prévention des complications péritonéales infectieuses et non infectieuses provoquées par un traitement avec un fluide de dialyse péritonéale, ces complications étant choisies parmi la péritonite, les lésions, les dommages et la défaillance de la membrane péritonéale, le dysfonctionnement de la barrière et le décollement des cellules mésothéliales.
 
7. Composé pour une utilisation selon la revendication 6, caractérisé en ce qu'il est administré conjointement avec un fluide de dialyse péritonéale au cours d'un traitement par dialyse péritonéale.
 
8. Composé pour une utilisation selon la revendication 6 ou 7, caractérisé en ce que le fluide de dialyse péritonéale est choisi dans le groupe constitué par les fluides de dialyse à base de glucides et les fluides de dialyse à base d'acides aminés.
 
9. Composé pour une utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 6 à 8, caractérisé en ce que la valeur de pH du fluide de dialyse péritonéale est de 7,3 ou moins, de préférence de 7,0 ou moins, de manière plus préférée de 6,0 ou moins.
 
10. Composé pour une utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 6 à 9, caractérisé en ce que le fluide de dialyse péritonéale est à base d'icodextrine.
 
11. Fluide de dialyse péritonéale pour une utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, fluide de dialyse péritonéale selon la revendication 5, ou composé pour une utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 6 à 10, caractérisé en ce que le composé inhibant l'activité de la glycogène synthase kinase (GSK)-3 est choisi dans le groupe constitué par le lithium, le tideglusib, le NP-103, l'inhibiteur I de la GSK-3β (TDZD-8, 4-benzyl-2-méthyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione), l'inhibiteur II de la GSK-3β (2-thio(3-iodobenzyl)-5-(1-pyridyl)-[1,3,4]-oxadiazole), l'inhibiteur IV de la GSK-3 (SB-216763, 3-(2,4-dichlorophényl)-4-(1-méthyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione), l'inhibiteur IX de la GSK-3 (BIO, (2'Z,3'E)-6-bromoindirubine-3'-oxime), l'inhibiteur VI de la GSK-3β (2-chloro-1-(4,5-dibromo-thiophén-2-yl)-éthanone), l'inhibiteur VII de la GSK-3β (2,4'-dibromoacétophénone), l'inhibiteur VIII de la GSK-3β (AR AO14418, N(4-méthoxybenzyl)-N'-(5-nitro-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)urée), l'inhibiteur X de la GSK-3 (BIO-acétoxime, (2' Z, 3' E)-6-bromoindirubine-3'-acétoxime), l'inhibiteur XI de la GSK-3β (3-(1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl]-4-pyrazin-2-yl-pyrrole-2,5-dione, 7AIPM), l'inhibiteur XIII de la GSK-3 (5-méthyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-(2-phénylquinazolin-4-yl)amine), l'inhibiteur XII de la GSK-3β (TWS119, ditrifluoroacétate de 3-[[6-(3-aminophényl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]oxyphénol), l'inhibiteur XVIII de la GSK-3β (2-chloro-4-(4-thiophén-2-yl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-phényl)-(4-méthyl-pipérazin-1-yl)-méthanone), l'inhibiteur X de la GSK-3β (BIO-acétoxime, (2'Z,3'E)-6-bromoindirubine-3'-acétoxime), l'inhibiteur XI de la GSK-3β (3-(1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl]-4-pyrazin-2-yl-pyrrole-2,5-dione, 7AIPM), l'inhibiteur XIX de la GSK-3β (IM-12, C22H20FN3O2, dérivé d'indolylmaléimide), l'inhibiteur XVI de la GSK-3 (6-(2-(4-(2,4-dichlorophényl)-5-(4-méthyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino)éthyl-amino)-nicotinonitrile, CHIR99021), l'inhibiteur XVII de la GSK-3 (5-benzylamino-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1,2,4-thiadiazole, TDZD-20), l'inhibiteur XXII de la GSK-3, le composé A (6-méthyl-N-[3-[[3-(1-méthyléthoxy)propyl]carbamoyl]-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide), l'inhibiteur XXIII de la GSK-3β, le 3F8 (5-éthyl-7,8-diméthoxy-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]-isoquinoléine-1,3-(2H)-dione), un inhibiteur peptidique de la GSK-3β (L803, HKEAPPAPPQSpP-NH2), un inhibiteur peptidique de la GSK-3β (L803-mts, Myr-N-GKEAPPAPPQSpP-NH2), le GF-109203X (2-[1-(3-diméthylaminopropyl)indol-3-yl]-3-(indol-3-yl)maléimide) et les sels pharmaceutiquement acceptables et les mélanges de ceux-ci.
 
12. Fluide de dialyse péritonéale pour une utilisation, fluide de dialyse péritonéale ou composé pour une utilisation selon la revendication 11, caractérisé en ce que le composé inhibant l'activité de la glycogène synthase kinase (GSK)-3 est un sel de lithium, en particulier le chlorure de lithium ou le carbonate de lithium.
 
13. Fluide de dialyse péritonéale pour une utilisation, fluide de dialyse péritonéale ou composé pour une utilisation selon la revendication 12, caractérisé en ce que la concentration du sel de lithium dans le fluide de dialyse est comprise entre 1 mM et 10 mM, de préférence entre 2 mM et 5 mM.
 




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