(19)
(11)EP 2 804 204 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
29.11.2017 Bulletin 2017/48

(21)Application number: 14178316.7

(22)Date of filing:  11.07.2011
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H01L 21/67  (2006.01)
H01L 31/18  (2006.01)
H01L 31/02  (2006.01)

(54)

Printing device and printing method

Druckvorrichtung und Druckverfahren

Dispositif d'impression et procédé d'impression


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 09.07.2010 JP 2010157344

(43)Date of publication of application:
19.11.2014 Bulletin 2014/47

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
11803705.0 / 2592658

(73)Proprietor: Takanoha Trading Co., Ltd
Osaka 558-0023 (JP)

(72)Inventor:
  • Sakamoto, Koji
    Osaka-shi 558-0023 (JP)

(74)Representative: Dr. Weitzel & Partner 
Patent- und Rechtsanwälte mbB Friedenstrasse 10
89522 Heidenheim
89522 Heidenheim (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
JP-A- 2008 168 578
US-A1- 2009 061 077
US-A1- 2010 132 792
US-A1- 2008 196 757
US-A1- 2010 018 577
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    [TECHNICAL FIELD]



    [0001] The present invention relates to printing apparatuses, and printing methods.

    [BACKGROUND ART]



    [0002] Solar panels can convert clean and inexhaustibly-supplied solar energy directly to electric energy and therefore are expected as novel energy sources. Silicon substrates are used for current mainstream solar panels. A collector electrode containing silver is provided on the surface of a silicon substrate. With the use of silver as a material for the collector electrode, it has been attempted to reduce the contact resistance between the silicon substrate and the collector electrode and to suppress the resistance of the collector electrode itself (for example, see Patent Literature 1).

    [0003] Further, a wide width of the collector electrode provided on a light receiving side of a solar panel reduces the opening area of the silicon substrate to achieve inefficient energy conversion. Accordingly, it has been proposed to form an electrode in which a conductive layer containing silver is layered to reduce the reduction in the opening area and reduce the resistances (for example, see Patent Literature 2). Patent Literature 2 discloses that a conductive layer containing silver is layered by printing to reduce the specific resistance and suppress oxidation.

    [Citation List]


    [Patent Literatures]



    [0004] 

    [PLT 1] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 2009-194013

    [PLT 2] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 2010-090211

    US 2008/196757 A1 discloses a printing apparatus as per the preamble of claim 1. This document discloses formation of a bus-bar electrode and finger electrodes or a solar cell by offset printing. It is quiet about the formation of an electrode having a layered structure.

    US 2010/0018577 A1 discloses fine line electrodes (finger electrodes) for a solar cell formed consecutively one upon the other by offset printing.

    US 2010/0132792 A1 discloses the formation of a first conductive layer or an underlying layer and a second conductive layer by stacking a first electrode and current collectors.


    [SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION]


    [Technical Problem]



    [0005] A printing apparatus comprising a first and a second printing machine. It discloses the formation of a bus-bar electrode and finger electrodes.

    [0006] US 2010/0018577 A1 discloses that fine line electrodes for a solar cell are formed consecutively one upon the other by offset printing using the same metal.

    [0007] US 2010/0132792 A1 discloses the formation of a first conductive layer or an underlying layer and a second conductive layer or an upper layer. It is quiet with regard to the use of different material.

    [0008] US 2009/061077 A1 discloses a printing apparatus imploring aerosol jet printing, which is a non-contact printing type.

    [0009] JP 2008 168578 A discloses "multiple fine lines parallel to one direction of the print pattern 5 formed in the first printing unit". Printing is performed with the same conductive material.

    [0010] The present invention has been made in view of the foregoing problems and has its object of providing a panel, a method for producing a panel, a solar cell module including a panel, a printing apparatus, and a printing method, in which the degree of freedom of electrode design is increased.

    [Solution to Problem]



    [0011] The problem is solved by a printing apparatus according to claim 1 respectively by a printing method according to claim 11.

    [0012] The embodiments described thereafter are considered as aspects of the invention. In one embodiment, the printing apparatus further includes a conveyor configured to convey the substrate.

    [0013] In one embodiment, the printing section includes a first printing machine configured to print the first conductive ink and a second printing machine configured to print the second conductive ink.

    [0014] In one embodiment, the first conductive material contains silver.

    [0015] In one embodiment, the second conductive material contains any of copper, gold, carbon, cobalt, titanium, nickel, and aluminum, or at least two selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, gold, carbon, cobalt, titanium, nickel, and aluminum.

    [0016] In one embodiment, the printing section prints anti-oxidation ink to cover at least part of the first conductive ink and the second conductive ink.

    [0017] In one embodiment, the anti-oxidation ink contains a transparent material.

    [0018] In one embodiment, the anti-oxidation ink contains a conductive material.

    [0019] In one embodiment, the first conductive ink has a width larger than the second conductive ink as viewed in a normal direction of the surface of the substrate.

    [0020] In one embodiment, the first conductive ink has a length larger than the second conductive ink.

    [0021] According to the present invention, a panel, a method for producing a panel, a solar cell module including a panel, a printing apparatus, and a printing method can be provided in which the degree of freedom of electrode design is increased.

    [BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS]



    [0022] 

    [FIG. 1] FIG. 1 is a schematic cross sectional view of a first embodiment of a panel according to the present invention.

    [FIG. 2] FIG. 2 is a top view of the panel shown in FIG. 1.

    [FIG. 3] FIG. 3 is a schematic cross sectional view showing the entirety of the panel shown in FIG. 1.

    [FIG. 4] FIG. 4A and FIG. 4B are schematic diagrams for explaining a method for producing the panel shown in FIG. 1.

    [FIG. 5] FIGS. 5A-5C are schematic diagrams for explaining a printing method used for forming an electrode of the panel shown in FIG. 1.

    [FIG. 6] FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram showing the first embodiment of a printing apparatus according to the present invention.

    [FIG. 7] FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram showing one example of a printing machine of the printing apparatus shown in FIG. 6.

    [FIG. 8] FIG. 8 is a schematic cross sectional view showing a second embodiment of a panel according to the present invention.

    [FIG. 9] FIG. 9A is a schematic cross sectional view of the panel shown in FIG. 1, and FIG. 9B is a schematic cross sectional view of the panel shown in FIG. 8

    [FIG. 10] FIG. 10 is a schematic diagram showing a second embodiment of a printing apparatus according to the present invention.

    [FIG. 11] FIG. 11 is a schematic cross sectional view showing a modified example of the second embodiment of a panel according to the present invention.

    [FIG. 12] FIG. 12A is a schematic top view showing a third embodiment of a panel according to the present invention. FIG. 12B is a partially enlarged view of FIG. 12A.

    FIG. 12C is a schematic cross sectional view thereof.

    [FIG. 13] FIG. 13A is a schematic view showing a modified example of the third embodiment of a panel according to the present invention, and FIG. 13B is a schematic cross sectional view thereof.

    [FIG. 14] FIG. 14A is a schematic diagram showing another modified example of the third embodiment of a panel according to the present invention, and FIG. 14B is a schematic cross sectional view thereof.

    [FIG. 15] FIG. 15A is a schematic diagram showing still another modified example of the third embodiment of a panel according to the present invention, and FIG. 15B is a schematic cross sectional view thereof.

    [FIG. 16] FIG. 16 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of a solar cell module including the panels according to the present invention.


    [DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS]



    [0023] With reference to the accompanying drawings, a panel, a method for producing a panel, a solar cell module, a printing apparatus, and a printing method according to the present invention will be described below. Although a solar panel is described as an example in the embodiments of the present invention, it is understood that the present invention is not limited the embodiments.

    (First Embodiment)



    [0024] The first embodiment of a panel according to the present invention will be described below with referent to the accompanying drawings. FIG. 1 is a schematic cross sectional view of a panel 100. Here, the panel 100 is a solar panel. The vicinity of one of the principal planes of the panel 100 is shown in FIG. 1 on an enlarged scale.

    [0025] The panel 100 includes a substrate 10 and an electrode 20 provided on a surface 12 of the substrate 10. Although the electrode 20 shown in FIG. 1 is separated, the separated electrodes 20 may be electrically connected together through another point to have almost the same potential.

    [0026]  Although not shown, the substrate 10 includes a photoelectric conversion layer. For example, the substrate 10 is a silicon substrate. The substrate 10 includes a p-type silicon layer and an n-type silicon layer. Specifically, the photoelectric conversion layer may contain amorphous silicon or crystalline silicon. For example, the photoelectric conversion layer may contain single crystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, or microcrystalline silicon.

    [0027] Referring to FIG. 1 showing the cross section, the electrode 20 extends in a predetermined direction. The electrode 20 of the panel 100 has a layered structure 20D. Here, the electrode 20 has a two-layer structure and includes a conductive layer 20a in contact with the surface 12 of the substrate 10 and a conductive layer 20b provided on the conductive layer 20a. The conductive layer 20a contains a conductive material Da, while the conductive layer 20b contains a conductive material Db different from the conductive material Da.

    [0028] The conductive material Da is a single substance or a mixture of silver, copper, gold, carbon, cobalt, titanium, nickel, aluminum, etc., for example. Also, the conductive material Db different from the conductive material Da is a single substance or a mixture of silver, copper, gold, carbon, cobalt, titanium, nickel, aluminum, etc., for example. It is appreciated that the conductive materials Da, Db are not exactly the same. If either one of the conductive materials Da, Db is a mixture, one conductive material of the mixture may be or may not be contained in the other conductive material. Further, when both the conductive materials Da, Db are mixtures, a given conductive material in either one of the conductive materials may be or may not be contained in the other conductive material. Preferably, the conductive material Da is silver, while the conductive material Db is any one of copper, gold, carbon, cobalt, titanium, nickel, and aluminum, or a mixture containing at least two selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, gold, carbon, cobalt, titanium, nickel, and aluminum.

    [0029] Here, the conductive layer 20a and the conductive layer 20b contain a single conductive material Da and a single conductive material Db, respectively. For example, the conductive material Da is silver, while the conductive material Db is copper. It is appreciated that the conductive material Da is suitably selected according to the material forming the surface 12 of the substrate 10. For example, when the surface 12 is made of silicon, the use of silver as the conductive material Da can reduce the contact resistance. Typically, metal materials having low resistivity are used as the conductive materials Da, Db. In the present specification, the conductive materials Da, Db may be referred to as a first conductive material Da and a second conductive material Db, respectively. Also, the conductive layers 20a, 20b may be referred to as a first conductive layer 20a and a second conductive layer 20b, respectively. The width of the conductive layer 20a is almost equal to the width of the conductive layer 20b.

    [0030] Since the electrode 20 has the layered structure 20D as described above, the sectional area can be increased even with a comparatively small width of the electrode 20, thereby achieving low resistance. Further, the conductive layer 20b contains the conductive material Db different from the conductive material Da of the conductive layer 20a. This permits selection of the conductive material Db of the conductive layer 20b substantially regardless of what the material of the surface 12 of the substrate 10 is, thereby increasing the degree of freedom of designing the electrode 20. In addition, in the panel 100, the conductive layer 20a containing silver and the conductive layer 20b containing copper are layered, thereby suppressing an increase in resistance of the electrode 20 itself and reducing the used amount of expensive silver.

    [0031] FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram showing a light receiving plane of the panel 100. The electrode 20 includes bus bar electrodes 22 and finger electrodes 24. The electrode 20 may be called a collector electrode. The finger electrodes 24 extend from each bus bar electrode 22. Typically, the finger electrodes 24 are arrayed at regular intervals. In general, the width of the bus bar electrodes 22 is larger than the width of the finger electrodes 24. It should be noted that FIG. 1 is a cross sectional view taken along the line 1-1' in FIG. 2.

    [0032] For example, the panel 100 is in a rectangular shape having a principal plane with a length of 170 mm and a width of 170 mm. Further, for example, the bus bar electrodes 22 have a width of 2 mm or larger and 3 mm or smaller, while the finger electrodes 24 have a width of 15 µm or larger and 70 µm or smaller. Each interval of the finger electrodes 24, that is, the distance between the center of a given finger electrode 24 and the center of an adjacent finger electrode 24 is 2 mm. With too large intervals of the finger electrodes 24, an insufficient amount of carriers generated in the substrate 10 reach the finger electrodes 24, thereby achieving inefficient current extraction. By contrast, with too small intervals of the finger electrodes 24, the number of the finger electrodes 24 increases to reduce the opening area.

    [0033] FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the panel 100. The panel 100 includes not only the electrode 20 provided on the surface 12 of the substrate 10 but also an electrode 110 provided on an opposite surface 14 of the substrate 10. Typically, the electrode 110 is provided so as to cover the entirety of the opposite surface 14 of the substrate 10. For example, the electrode 110 is made of aluminum.

    [0034] A method for suitably producing the panel 100 will be described below with reference to FIG. 4. As shown in FIG. 4A, the substrate 10 having the surface 12 is prepared. As described above, the substrate 10 is a silicon substrate, for example. Next, as shown in FIG. 4B, the electrode 20 is formed on the surface 12 of the substrate 10. The electrode 20 is formed by printing, for example.

    [0035] A method for forming the electrode 20 will be described below with reference to FIG. 5. As shown in FIG. 5A, conductive ink Ka containing the conductive material Da is printed on the substrate 10. For example, the conductive ink Ka contains the conductive material Da in particulate form and a vehicle. The vehicle contains resin and a solvent. The conductive ink Ka has appropriate thixotropy.

    [0036] As described above, the conductive material Da is a single substance or a mixture of silver, copper, gold, carbon, cobalt, titanium, nickel, aluminum, etc. The resin may be called binder resin. Examples of the resin include thermosetting resin, such as polyester/melamine resin, UV curable resin, such as acrylic resin, thermoplastic resin, such as polyester resin, and the like. Further, the solvent is a low-temperature-volatile solvent that volatilizes at room temperature, for example. Specifically, the solvent is a glycol ether solvent.

    [0037] Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 5B, conductive ink Kb containing the conductive material Db different from the conductive material Da is printed on the conductive ink Ka. As described above, the conductive material Db different from the conductive particles Da is a single substance of silver, copper, gold, carbon cobalt, titanium, nickel, aluminum, etc., or a mixture containing at least two selected from the group of them. For example, the conductive ink Kb contains the conductive material Db in particulate form and a vehicle. The vehicle contains resin and a solvent. The vehicle of the conductive ink Ka may be the same as that of the conductive ink Ka, or the vehicle of the conductive ink Ka may be similar to that of the conductive ink Ka. Thus, the conductive ink is printed on the substrate 10. It should be noted that in the present specification, the conductive ink Ka, Kb may be referred to as first conductive ink Ka and second conductive ink Kb, respectively.

    [0038] Thereafter, as shown in FIG. 5C, the first conductive ink Ka and the second conductive ink Kb are heated. The heating temperature is 500 C or higher and 850°C or lower, for example. This bakes the conductive material Da to form the first conductive layer 20a containing the conductive material Da and bakes the conductive material Db to form the second conductive layer 20b containing the conductive material Db. It is appreciated that the first conductive layer 20a is formed according to the shape of the conductive ink Ka, while the second conductive layer 20b is formed according to the shape of the conductive ink Kb.

    [0039] The production method and the printing method described with reference to FIGS. 4 and 5 are performed suitably using a printing apparatus as described below.

    [0040] One embodiment of a printing apparatus according to the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. 6. A printing apparatus 200 of the present embodiment includes a conveyor 210 configured to convey the substrate 10, a printing section 220, and a heater 230. The printing section 220 includes a plurality of printing machines. The number of the printing machines corresponds to the number of layers of the layered structure of the electrode 20. Here, the printing section 220 includes a printing machine 220a configured to print the conductive ink Ka containing the conductive material Da and a printing machine 220b configured to print the conductive ink Kb containing the conductive material Db different from the conductive material Da.

    [0041] First, the substrate 10 is place on the conveyor 210, which is rotating. The conveyor 210 conveys the substrate 10. When the substrate 10 conveyed by the conveyor 210 reaches below the printing machine 220a, the printing machine 220a prints the conductive ink Ka on the substrate 10.

    [0042] Next, when the substrate 10 conveyed by the conveyor 210 reaches below the printing machine 220b, the printing machine 220b prints the conductive ink Kb on the substrate 10. It should be noted that the conveying speed of the conveyor 210 and the printing of the printing machines 220a, 220b are set so that the conductive ink Kb is layered on the conductive ink Ka.

    [0043] Subsequently, the conveyor 210 conveys the substrate 10, on which the conductive ink Ka, Kbe are layered, to the heater 230. The substrate 10 is heated in the heater 230, thereby baking the conductive ink Ka, Kb. This forms the conductive layer 20a containing the conductive material Da from the conductive ink Ka and forms the conductive layer 20b containing the conductive material Db from the conductive ink Kb. Thus, the electrode 20 including the conductive layers 20a, 20b containing the different conductive materials is formed.

    [0044] FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram showing one example of the printing machine 220a. The printing machine 220a includes an ink tray 302, an ink supply roll 304, an intaglio printing roll 306, a transfer roll 308, a scraper 310, and a cleaning roll 312. In the printing machine 220a, the conductive ink Ka in the ink tray 302 is moved from the ink supply roll 304 to the peripheral surface of the intaglio printing roll 306, is moved further to the peripheral surface of the transfer roll 308, and then is transferred to the surface of the substrate 10, which is continuously passing below the transfer roll 308. Such printing may be called offset printing or gravure offset printing.

    [0045] Detailed description will be provided below. The conductive ink Ka to be printed on the substrate 10 is filled in the ink tray 302. When the conductive ink Ka in the ink tray 302 decreases, the conductive ink Ka is filled into the ink tray 302 from a pump (not shown) below. The ink tray 302 is located at the lower part of the printing machine 220a.

    [0046] The lower part of the ink supply roll 304 is dipped in the conductive ink Ka in the ink tray 302. The ink supply roll 304 rotates while being dipped in the conductive ink Ka in the ink tray 302. The conductive ink Ka attached to the ink supply roll 304 is transferred to the intaglio printing roll 306. It should be noted that the scraper 310 is provided in the vicinity of the intaglio printing roll 306. Before the intaglio printing roll 306 gets out from the conductive ink Ka in the ink tray 302 and comes into contact with the transfer roll 308, the scraper 310 removes surplus conductive ink Ka attached to the intaglio printing roll 306.

    [0047] Recesses are formed in the surface portion of the intaglio printing roll 306. The recesses correspond to the lines, figures, patterns, etc., which are to be printed on the substrate 10. For example, the intaglio printing roll 306 has an outer diameter of 100 mm and a width of 145 mm. It is appreciated that the conductive ink Ka is transferred correspondingly to the recesses of the intaglio printing roll 306. For example, in order to form the finger electrodes 24 (FIG. 2) having a width of 30 µm, the corresponding width of the recesses of the intaglio printing roll 306 is 30 µm.

    [0048] The conductive ink Ka attached to the recesses of the intaglio printing roll 306 is attached to the transfer roll 308. The transfer roll 308 rotates while coming in contact with the peripheral surface of the intaglio printing roll 306 and presses the surface of the substrate 10 passing therebelow to transfer the conductive ink Ka to the substrate 10. The transfer roll 308 is made of a material excellent in detachability so that the conductive ink Ka can be smoothly and reliably transferred to the surface of the substrate 10 from the transfer roll 308. For example, the transfer roll 308 is made of a given type of silicone rubber. The transfer roll 308 has an outer diameter of 200 mm and a width of 135 mm. It should be noted that the cleaning roll 312 is provided in the vicinity of the transfer roll 308. The cleaning roll 312 removes surplus conductive ink Ka attached to the transfer roll 308.

    [0049] It is noted that though not shown, the printing machine 220b has a configuration similar to that of the aforementioned printing machine 220a, except that the conductive ink in the ink tray 302 is different. As described above, the printing apparatus 200 prints the conductive ink Ka, Kb by offset printing. Such offset printing can reduce each width of the conductive ink Ka, Kb, thereby enabling formation of an electrode 20 with a small width.

    [0050] Although the electrode 20 has the two-layer structure, and the printing apparatus 200 includes the two printing machines 220a, 220b in the above description, it is appreciated that the present invention is not limited to the description. The electrode 20 may have a three- or more-layer structure, and the printing section 220 may include three or more printing machines.

    [0051] Further, although the number of layer types of the layered structure 20D is equal to the number of the printing machines of the printing section 220 in the above description, it is appreciated that the present invention is not limited to the description. The number of layer types of the layered structure 20D may be smaller than the number of the printing machines in the printing section 220. For example, in the printing section 220, each of two printing machines may print a layer of conductive ink containing silver as a conductive material to form two-layer conducive ink, and then another printing machine may print a layer of conductive ink containing another conductive material (e.g., copper) on the two-layer conductive ink.

    [0052] Further, in the above description, the intaglio printing roll 306 in each printing machine 220a, 220b corresponds to both the bus bar electrodes 22 and the finger electrodes 24, and the printing section 220 prints the conductive ink corresponding to the electrode 20 including the bus bar electrodes 22 and the finger electrodes 24 at one time. However, the present invention is not limited the description. The printing section 220 may form one of the bus bar electrodes 22 and the finger electrodes 24 first, and then form the other thereafter. For example, the intaglio printing roll 306 of each printing machine 220a, 220b can correspond to the finger electrodes 24. The printing sections 220a, 220b may print conductive ink corresponding to the finger electrodes 24, and then, another printing machine (not shown) prints conductive ink corresponding to the bus bar electrodes 22.

    [0053] Although the conveyor 210 of the printing apparatus 200 shown in FIG. 6 conveys the substrate 10 linearly, it is appreciated that the present invention is not limited to the drawing. The conveyor 210 may convey the substrate 10 windingly. For example, the conveyor 210 may convey the substrate 10 in a loop manner. Such a loop conveyor 210 may be called a turntable.

    [0054] Furthermore, although the conveyor 210 of the printing apparatus 200 shown in FIG. 6 conveys the substrate 10 in one direction, the present invention is not limited to the drawing. The conveyor 210 may convey the substrate 10 in a bidirectional manner. For example, the printing section 220 can include only one printing machine 220a. In this case, the conveyor 210 may convey the substrate 10 in one direction while the printing machine 220a is set printable to perform printing. Then, the conveyor 210 can convey the substrate 10 in the opposite direction while the printing machine 220a is set unprintable. Then, the conductive ink is exchanged, and the conveyor 210 can convey the substrate 10 again in the one direction while the printing machine 220a is set printable to perform printing again. Thus, the layered structure 20D is obtained.

    (Second Embodiment)



    [0055] The second embodiment of a panel according to the present invention will be described below with reference to FIG. 8. A panel 100A of the present embodiment has a configuration similar to that of the panel 100 as described above with reference to FIGS. 1-3 except additional inclusion of an anti-oxidation layer. In order to avoid redundancy, duplicated description is omitted. Here, the electrode 20 also includes the conductive layer 20a and the conductive layer 20b, which have almost the same width.

    [0056]  In addition to the substrate 10 and the electrode 20, the panel 100A further includes an anti-oxidation layer 30. The width of the anti-oxidation layer 30 is larger than that of the conductive layers 20a, 20b. The anti-oxidation layer 30 can prevent oxidation of at least part of the electrode 20. For example, as described above, where the conductive layer 20a contains silver, while the conductive layer 20b contains copper, copper tends to be oxidized. The oxidation may accompany an increase in specific resistance. However, provision of the anti-oxidation layer 30 can reduce the oxidation to suppress the increase in specific resistance. Further, although silver is comparatively hard to be oxidized, strictly speaking, even the conductive layer 20a of which main component is silver may be degraded with time. Provision of the anti-oxidation layer 30 can reduce the degradation. As such, the panel 100A including the anti-oxidation layer 30 can prevent oxidation of at least part of the conductive layers 20a, 20b to reduce degradation of the characteristics of the panel 100A.

    [0057] For example, the anti-oxidation layer 30 can be suitably made of a transparent conductive material. Specific examples of the transparent conductive material include indium tin oxide (ITO). Alternatively, the transparent conductive material may be zinc oxide or tin oxide. It is appreciated that the anti-oxidation layer 30 may contain a nonconductive transparent material. Or, the anti-oxidation layer 30 may contain an opaque conductive material. However, it is preferable that the anti-oxidation layer 30 contains a transparent conductive material. This can increase the intervals of the finger electrodes 24. Further, as described above, the electrode 20 is separated so as to be provided in parallel to each other, and the anti-oxidation layer 30 herein is separate to cover the electrode 20.

    [0058] The advantages of the anti-oxidation layer 30 being made of a transparent conductive material will be described below with reference to FIG. 9. FIG. 9A is a schematic cross sectional view of the panel 100 as described above with reference to FIGS. 1-3. FIG. 9A is similar to FIG. 1, except that the electrode 20 provided on the surface 12 of the substrate 10 is separated into four. As described above, the intervals of the finger electrodes 24 are set according to efficiency of extracting carriers generated in the substrate 10.

    [0059]  FIG. 9B is a schematic cross sectional view of the panel 100A. As described above, the anti-oxidation layer 30 convers the electrode 20 in the panel 100A. When the anti-oxidation layer 30 is conductive, the carriers generated in the substrate 10 may reach not only the finger electrodes 24 but also the anti-oxidation layer 30, thereby enabling extraction of the generated carries as an electric current.

    [0060] In the case that the intervals of the finger electrodes of the panel 100 are set at 2 mm, the intervals of the finger electrodes of the panel 100A can be set at 3 mm. For example, in the case that the principal planes of the panels 100, 100A are 170 mm wide and 170 mm long, the number of the finger electrodes is 85 in the panel 100, and the number of the finger electrodes is 56 in the panel 100A. Thus, with this panel 100A, the number of the electrodes 20 can be reduced to reduce the cost and increase the opening area for light. Preferably, the width of the anti-oxidation layer 30 is, for example, twice or more the width of the electrode 20.

    [0061] The panel 100A can be suitably produced using a printing apparatus.

    [0062] A printing apparatus 200A will be described below with reference to FIG. 10. The printing apparatus 200A has a configuration similar to that of the printing apparatus 200 as described above with reference to FIG. 6, except that the printing section 220 includes an additional printing machine. In order to avoid redundancy, duplicated description is omitted. The printing section 220 of the printing apparatus 200A further includes a printing machine 220c between the printing machine 220b configured to print the conductive ink Kb and the heater 230. The printing machine 220c has a configuration similar to that of the printing machine 220a as described above with reference to FIG. 7, except that the ink in the ink tray 302 and the shape of the recesses formed in the intaglio printing roll 306 are different. In order to avoid redundancy, duplicated description is omitted.

    [0063] Next, the printing machine 220c will be described with reference to FIG. 7. Ink Kc is filled in the ink tray 302 of the printing machine 220c. Here, the ink Kc contains particulate ITO and a vehicle. The vehicle contains resin and a solvent. In the present specification, the ink Kc may be referred to as anti-oxidation ink. Further, the printing machines 220a, 220b that print respectively the conductive ink Ka, Kb may be referred to as conductive ink printing machines, and the printing machine 220c that prints the anti-oxidation ink Kc may be referred to as an anti-oxidation ink printing machine in the present specification.

    [0064] The vehicle of the anti-oxidation ink Kc may be the same as that of the conductive ink Ka or Kb. Alternatively, the vehicle of the conductive ink Kc may be similar to that of the conductive ink Ka or Kb. To the substrate 10, the ink Kc is transferred correspondingly to the recesses of the intaglio printing roll 306. For example, in order to form the anti-oxidation layer 30 with a width of 50 µm to cover the finger electrodes 24 with a width of 30 µm and a height of 50 µm, the width of the corresponding recesses of the intaglio printing roll 306 is set at, for example, 150 µm. Where parts of the anti-oxidation layer 30 which directly cover the substrate 10 on the opposite sides of each finger electrode 24 extend 10 µm, the width of the corresponding recesses of the intaglio printing roll 306 is set at 170 µm (e.g., 150 µm plus 10 µm plus 10 µm). Thus, the ink Kc is printed on the conductive ink Ka, Kb on the substrate 10a. Thereafter, the conductive ink Ka, Kb and the anti-oxidation ink Kc are heated by the heater 230 (FIG. 10).

    [0065] Although the electrode 20 covered with the anti-oxidation layer 30 has different conductive layers 20a, 20b in the panel 100A in the above description, it is understood that the present invention is not limited to the description. As shown in FIG. 11, the electrode 20 may be formed of a single conductive layer in a panel 100B of the present embodiment. For example, the surface 12 of the substrate 10 may be made of silicon, and the electrode 20 may be formed of a conductive layer of which main component is silver.

    (Third Embodiment)



    [0066] The third embodiment of a panel according to the present invention will be described below with reference to FIG. 12. A panel 100C according to the present embodiment has a configuration similar to that of the panel 100 as described above with reference to FIGS. 1-3, except that the sectional area of each electrode 24 extending in the predetermined direction (x-direction herein) varies according to its position. In order to avoid redundancy, duplicated description is omitted.

    [0067] FIG. 12A is a schematic top view of the panel 100C. The electrode 20 of the panel 100C includes linear electrodes 22, 24. Here, the linear electrodes 22 extend in the Y-direction, while the linear electrodes 24 extend in the X-direction from the linear electrodes 22. In the following description of the present specification, the linear electrodes 22, 24 may be referred to as first linear electrodes 22 and second linear electrodes 24, respectively. Here, both the linear electrodes 22, 24 have linear shape and orthogonal to each other. However, at least one of the linear electrodes 22, 24 may be bent or curved. It should be noted that in the present specification, first linear electrodes 22 adjacent to each other and extending in parallel in the predetermined direction may be referred to as first and second parallel electrodes 22a, 22b, while the second linear electrodes 24 intersecting the first and second parallel electrodes 22a, 22b may be referred to as crossed electrodes.

    [0068] For example, where the panel 100C is a solar panel, the linear electrodes 22 may be called bus bar electrodes, while the linear electrodes 24 may be called finger electrodes. As shown in FIG. 12A, the plural bus bar electrodes 22 extend in parallel to each other in the Y-direction, and the finger electrodes 24 intersect the bus bar electrodes 22. Here, the finger electrodes 24 extend in parallel to each other in the X-direction, and the bus bar electrodes 22 are arranged so as to be orthogonal to the finger electrodes 24.

    [0069] FIG. 12B is a partially enlarged view of the panel 100C. FIG. 12C is a schematic cross sectional view of the panel 100C. FIG. 12C shows a cross section taken along the line 12c-12c' in FIG. 12B.

    [0070] As described above, the linear electrodes 24 extend from the linear electrodes 22. Each linear electrode 24 of the panel 100C includes sectional area decreasing parts 24x of which the area in section (sectional area) orthogonal to the longitudinal direction of the linear electrode 24 decreases in a direction away from the linear electrodes 22. Although each linear electrode 24 includes two sectional area decreasing parts 24x in FIG. 12B, it is appreciated that each linear electrode 24 may include only one sectional area decreasing part 24x. Further, here, the number of layers at the part having the smallest sectional area in each of the two sectional area decreasing parts 24x is one, while the number of layers at the part having the largest sectional area therein is two. As such, the number of layers at the part having the smallest sectional area may be smaller than that of the layers at the part having the largest sectional area.

    [0071] Here, the electrode 20 has the layered structure 20D including the first conductive layer 20a and the second conductive layer 20b. For example, the first conductive layer 20a contains silver, while the second conductive layer 20b contains copper. In the panel 100C, the first conductive layer 20a is provided in both of the bus bar electrodes 22 and the finger electrodes 24. By contrast, the second conductive layer 20b is selectively provided in at least one of the bus bar electrodes 22 and the finger electrodes 24. Here, the second conductive layer 20b is provided at a part of each finger electrode 24 which is near a bus bar electrode 22 and is not provided at the central part of each finger electrode 24. Accordingly, in each finger electrode 24, the sectional area of a part A near a bus bar electrode 22 is larger than the sectional area of a part B apart from the bus bar electrode 22. The carriers formed in the substrate 10 are extracted through the electrode 20 therearound, thereby increasing the electric current at the part A of each finger electrode 24 which is near a bus bar electrode 22. In each finger electrode 24 electrically connected to two adjacent bus bar electrodes 22, the sectional area of a part near a bus bar electrode 22 is larger than the sectional area of the central part of the finger electrode 24. This can reduce the cost of the material for the finger electrodes 24 without reducing the current extracting efficiency.

    [0072] Moreover, in each finger electrode 24 of the panel 100C, the second conductive layer 20b is shorter than the first conductive layer 20a, and the width of the second conductive layer 20b is smaller than the width of the first conductive layer 20a. Here, each length of the first and second conductive layers 20a, 20b means the distance in the direction where the electric current flows from the finger electrodes 24 to the bus bar electrodes 22, and each width of the first and second conductive layers 20a, 20b means the distance in the direction orthogonal to the direction where the electric current flows from the finger electrodes 24 to the bus bar electrodes 22 as viewed in the normal direction of the surface 12 of the substrate 10. The second conductive layer 20b shorter than the first conductive layer 20a means that in the panel 100C, the second conductive layer 20b is provided in the form of islands on the first conductive layer 20a, and adjacent islands of the second conductive layer 20b are electrically connected together through the first conductive layer 20a.

    [0073] In the panel 100c, when the electrode 20 is viewed in the normal direction of the surface 12 of the substrate 10, the sectional area around the central part of each crossed electrode 24 is smaller than the sectional area of a part of each crossed electrode 24 which is near the first parallel electrode 22a and the sectional area of a part of each crossed electrode 24 which is near the second parallel electrode 22b. Also, when the electrode 20 is viewed in the normal direction of the surface 12 of the substrate 10, the width around the central part of each crossed electrode 24 is smaller than the width of a part of each crossed electrode 24 which is near the first parallel electrode 22a and the width of a part of each crossed electrode 24 which is near the second parallel electrode 22b.

    [0074] The second conductive layer 20b is shorter than the first conductive layer 20a, and the width of the second conductive layer 20b is smaller than the width of the first conductive layer 20a in the above description. However, it is appreciated that the present invention is not limited to the description. Where the width of the second conductive layer 20b is smaller than the width of the first conductive layer 20a, the length of the second conductive layer 20b may be equal to that of the first conductive layer 20a, and adjacent bus bar electrodes 22 may be electrically connected together through not only the first conductive layer 20a but also the second conductive layer 20b. Alternatively, where the second conductive layer 20b is shorter than the first conductive layer 20a, the width of the first conductive layer 20a may be equal to the width of the second conductive layer 20b. As such, it is preferable that at least one of the width and the length of the second conductive layer 20b is smaller than that of the first conductive layer 20a.

    [0075] It should be noted that the electrode 20 of the panel 100C can be produced using, for example, the printing apparatus 200 as described above with reference to FIG. 6. In this case, the shape and size of the first conductive layer 20a shown in FIG. 12B correspond to those of the first conductive ink Ka, and the shape and size of the second conductive layer 20b shown in FIG. 12C correspond to those of the second conductive ink Kb.

    [0076] The width of the finger electrodes 24 is constant in the panel 100C as described with reference to FIG. 12. However, it is appreciated that the present invention is not limited to the above description.

    [0077] FIG. 13A is a partially enlarged view of a panel 100C1. FIG. 13B is a schematic cross sectional view of the panel 100C1. FIG. 13B shows a cross section taken along the line 13b-13b' in FIG. 13A.

    [0078] Referring to the panel 100C1, the width of the respective two sectional area decreasing parts 24x in the electrode 20 continuously decreases in the direction away from the first linear electrodes 22 as viewed in the normal direction of the surface 12 of the substrate 10. As such, the sectional area of each second linear electrode 24 continuously decreases in the direction away from the first linear electrodes 22. This can increase the opening area of the surface 12 of the substrate 10.

    [0079] For example, in the case that the panel 100C1 is used as a solar panel, the width around the central part D of each finger electrode 24 which is between adjacent bus bar electrodes 22 is smaller than the width of parts C thereof which are near the bus bar electrodes 22 as viewed in the normal direction of the surface 12 of the substrate 10. Specifically, of the first conductive layer 20a forming the finger electrodes 24, the width around the central part between adjacent bus bar electrodes 22 is smaller than the width of the parts near the bus bar electrodes 22. Further, the second conductive layer 20b forming the finger electrodes 24 is provided at parts C near the bus bar electrodes 22, but is not provided around the central part D between the adjacent bus bar electrodes 22. Accordingly, the resistance of the parts of finger electrodes 24 which are near the bus bar electrodes 22 can be reduced in the panel 100C1. In this manner, the sectional area of the parts C of the finger electrodes 24 which are near the bus bar electrodes 22 larger than that around the central parts D thereof can lead to reduction in material cost without reducing the current extracting efficiency. In addition, the opening area of the solar panel can be increased, thereby effectively generating the electric current.

    [0080] The conductive layers 20a, 20b of the electrode 20 in the panels 100C and 100C1 are made of the different conductive materials in the above description. However, it is appreciated that the present invention is not limited to the description. The conductive layers 20a, 20b may be made of the same conductive material.

    [0081] A panel 100C2 will be described with reference to FIG. 14. FIG. 14A is a partially enlarged view of the panel 100C2. FIG. 14B is a schematic cross sectional view of the panel 100C2. FIG. 14B shows a cross section taken along the line 14b-14b' in FIG. 14A.

    [0082] The panel 100C2 has a configuration similar to that of the panel 100C as described above with reference to FIG. 12, except that the conductive layers 20a, 20b are made of the same conductive material. Accordingly, in order to avoid redundancy, duplicated description is omitted. For example, both of the conductive layers 20a, 20b contain silver. It is appreciated that the width of the finger electrodes 24 of the panel 100C2, which is constant in FIG. 14, may vary like the panel 100C1 shown in FIG. 13.

    [0083] Furthermore, in the above description, the electrode 20 includes a plurality of conductive layers 20a, 20b in the panel 100C1. However, the present invention is not limited to the above description.

    [0084] FIG. 15A is a partially enlarged view of a panel 100C3. FIG. 15B is a schematic cross sectional view of the panel 100C3. FIG. 15B shows a cross section taken along the line 15b-15b' in FIG. 15B.

    [0085] Referring to the panel 100C3, of the finger electrodes 24, the width around the central parts E between adjacent bus bar electrodes 22 is smaller than the width of the parts F near the bus bar electrodes 22. Accordingly, the resistance of the parts of the finger electrodes 24 which are near the bus bar electrodes 22 can be reduced in the panel 100C3. It is preferable that the sectional area of the parts of the finger electrodes 24 which are near the bus bar electrodes 22 is larger than the sectional area of the parts thereof which are away from the bus bar electrodes 22. Accordingly, of the finger electrodes 24 located between the bus bar electrodes 22, the sectional area of the vicinities of the bus bar electrodes 22 larger than the sectional area around the central parts of the finger electrodes 24 can reduce the material cost without reducing the current extracting efficiency. Further, the opening area of the solar panel can be increased to generate the electric current effectively.

    [0086] The panels 100C-100C3 can also be suitably produced using the above described printing apparatus 200. The printing machines of the printing section 220 have a configuration similar to that of the aforementioned printing machines, except that the ink in the ink tray 302 and the shape of the recesses formed in the intaglio printing roll 306 are different. In order to avoid redundancy, duplicated description is omitted.

    [0087] The photoelectric conversion layer of the substrate 10 in each of the panels 100, 100A, 100B, 100C, 100C1, 100C2 and 100C3 contains silicon in the above description. However, it is appreciated that the present invention is not limited to the description. The photoelectric conversion layer may contain an inorganic compound material. The photoelectric conversion layer may contain InGaAS, GaAs, chalcopyrite, Cu2ZnSnS4, or CdTe-CdS. Alternatively, the photoelectric conversion layer may contain an organic compound.

    [0088] Further, although the electrode 20 is provided on the silicon layer present at the surface 12 of the substrate 10 in each panel 100-100C3 in the above description, the present invention is not limited to the description. The electrodes 20 may be provided on a transparent conductive layer, which is provided on the silicon layer of the substrate 10.

    [0089] Furthermore, in the above description, nothing is provided in the region of the surface 12 of the substrate 10 where the electrode 20 is not provided, except that the anti-oxidation layer 30 is provided as needed at a part of the region. However, the present invention is not limited to the above description. An anti-reflection film may be provided in the region of the surface 12 of the substrate 10 where the electrode 20 is not provided. Alternatively, an anti-reflection film may be provided over the entire surface of the substrate 10, and the electrodes 20 may be provided on the anti-reflection film.

    [0090] It should be appreciated that in the case that any of the panels 100-100C3 is used as a solar panel, a plurality of any of the panels 100-100C3 are arrayed in groups.

    [0091] FIG. 16 shows a solar cell module 300 in which the panels 100, 100A, 100B, 100C, 100C1, 100C2 or 100C3 are arrayed. In the solar cell module 300, the panels 100-100C3 are arrayed in matrix of a plurality of rows and a plurality of columns. The panels 100-100C3 are connected together in series or in parallel.

    [0092] Although the first conductive layer 20 is in contact with the surface 12 of the substrate 10 in the above description, it is appreciated that the present invention is not limited to the above description. The first conductive layer 20 may be layered on the substrate 10 with another layer interposed. In this case, it is possible that after a predetermined layer is printed on the substrate 10, the first conductive ink may be printed thereon.

    [0093] Although the panels 100-100C3 are solar panels in the above description, it is appreciated that the present invention is not limited to the description. The panels 100-100C3 may be touch panels, electromagnetic wave shielding panels, etc.

    [0094] Moreover, in the above description, the electrode 20 is a collector electrode. However, the present invention is not limited to the description. The electrode 20 may be part of a wire. The electrode 20 may be suitably used as a conductive layered structure.

    [INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY]



    [0095] The present invention can increase the degree of freedom of designing an electrode provided on a panel. For example, the present invention can increase the sectional area of the electrode even with a comparatively small width thereof. Further, the present invention is suitably applicable to panels for solar cells, touch panels, electromagnetic wave shielding panels, solar cell modules, etc.

    [0096] In addition to what is comprised in the above description and to what is claimed in claims 1 to 11, the following items and features may be useful and comprised in the scope of the invention, either separate or in combination with any other items and features comprised in the application:

    a printing method for printing ink on a surface of a substrate, comprising:

    printing conductive ink including a first linear part having a layered structure linearly extending in a predetermined direction and a second linear part extending in a direction different from that of the first linear part so as to decrease a sectional area of a section orthogonal to a longitudinal direction of the second linear part in a direction away from the first linear part.

    The printing method may include

    the printing includes:

    printing first conductive ink on the surface of the substrate; and

    printing on the first conductive ink second conductive ink having a width and a length at least one of which is smaller than that of the first conductive ink.



    [0097] A method for producing a panel, comprising:

    preparing a substrate having a surface; and

    forming an electrode on the surface of the substrate,

    wherein the forming an electrode includes:

    printing conductive ink including a first linear part having a layered structure linearly extending in a predetermined direction and a second linear part extending in a direction different from that of the first linear part so as to decrease a sectional area of a section orthogonal to a longitudinal direction of the second linear part in a direction away from the first linear part; and

    heating the conductive ink.



    [0098] Thereby the printing includes:

    printing first conductive ink; and

    printing on the first conductive ink second conductive ink having a width and a length at least one of which is smaller than that of the first conductive ink.



    [0099] A printing apparatus, comprising a printing section configured to print ink on a surface of a substrate,
    wherein the printing section includes:

    a conductive ink printing machine configured to print conductive ink; and

    an anti-oxidation ink printing machine configured to print anti-oxidation ink.



    [0100] Thereby, the conveyor may be configured to convey the substrate.

    [0101] Further, the conductive ink printing machine includes:

    a first printing machine configured to print first conductive ink; and

    a second printing machine configured to print second conductive ink on the first conductive ink.



    [0102] A printing method for printing ink on a surface of a substrate, comprising:

    printing conductive ink on the surface of the substrate; and

    printing anti-oxidation ink to cover the conductive ink.



    [0103] A method for producing a panel, comprising:

    preparing a substrate having a surface;

    printing conductive ink on the surface of the substrate;

    printing anti-oxidation ink to cover the conductive ink; and

    heating the conductive ink and the anti-oxidation ink.


    [REFERENCE SIGNS LIST]



    [0104] 
    10
    substrate
    12
    surface
    14
    opposite surface
    20
    electrode
    20D
    layered structure
    20a
    first conductive layer
    20b
    second conductive layer
    22
    bus bar electrode
    24
    finger electrode
    100
    panel
    200
    printing apparatus
    210
    conveyor
    220
    printing section
    230
    heater
    300
    solar cell module



    Claims

    1. A printing apparatus (200) comprising a printing section (220) configured to print a conductive ink (Ka, Kb) on a surface of a substrate (10),
    wherein the printing section prints first conductive ink (Ka) containing a first conductive material (Da) on the substrate by offset printing and second conductive ink (Kb) containing a second conductive material (Db) that is different from the first conductive material (Da) on the first conductive ink by offset printing to form an electrode (22) extending in a predetermined direction, and
    the printing section includes:

    a first printing machine (220a) configured to perform offset printing with the first conductive ink; and

    a second printing machine (220b) configured to perform offset printing with the second conductive, characterized in that the second conductive material does not contain the first conductive material.


     
    2. The printing apparatus of claim 1, further comprising a conveyor (210) configured to convey the substrate.
     
    3. The printing apparatus of claim 1 or 2, wherein
    the first conductive material contains silver.
     
    4. The printing apparatus of any one of claims 1-3, wherein
    the second conductive material contains any of copper, gold, carbon, cobalt, titanium, nickel and aluminum or at least two selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, gold, carbon, cobalt, titanium, nickel and aluminum.
     
    5. The printing apparatus of any one of claims 1-4, wherein
    the printing section prints anti-oxidation ink (Kc) that covers at least part of the first conductive ink or the second conductive ink.
     
    6. The printing apparatus of claim 5, wherein
    the anti-oxidation ink contains a transparent material.
     
    7. The printing apparatus of claim 5 or 6, wherein
    the anti-oxidation ink contains a conductive material.
     
    8. The printing apparatus of any one of claims 1-7, wherein
    the first conductive ink has a width larger than the second conductive ink as viewed in a normal direction of the surface of the substrate.
     
    9. The printing apparatus of any one of claims 1-8, wherein
    the first conductive ink has a length larger than the second conductive ink.
     
    10. The printing apparatus of any one of claims 1-9, wherein
    the first printing machine includes a first transfer roll (308) configured to transfer the first conductive ink, and
    the second printing machine includes a second transfer roll (308) configured to transfer the second conductive ink.
     
    11. A printing method for printing a conductive ink (Ka and Kb) on a surface of a substrate (10), comprising:

    printing first conductive ink (Ka) containing a first conductive material (Da) on the substrate by offset printing using a first printing machine (220a); and

    printing second conductive ink (Kb) containing a second conducive material (Db) that is different from the first conductive material (Da) and that does not contain the first conductive material (Da) on the first conductive ink by offset printing using a second printing machine (220b),

    wherein an electrode (20) extending in a predetermined direction is formed through the printing the first conductive ink and the printing the second conductive ink.


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Druckvorrichtung (200), umfassend einen Druckabschnitt (220), der dazu eingerichtet ist, eine leitfähige Tinte (Ka, Kb) auf eine Oberfläche eines Substrates (10) zu drucken,
    wobei der Druckabschnitt eine erste leitfähige Tinte (Ka), die ein erstes leitfähiges Material (Da) enthält, mittels Offsetdruck auf das Substrat druckt und eine zweite leitfähige Tinte (Kb), die ein zweites leitfähiges Material (Db) enthält, das sich von dem ersten leitfähigen Material (Da) unterscheidet, mittels Offsetdruck auf die erste leitfähige Tinte druckt, um eine Elektrode (22) zu bilden, die in einer vorbestimmten Richtung verläuft, und
    der Druckabschnitt folgendes umfasst:

    eine erste Druckmaschine (220a), die dazu eingerichtet ist, einen Offsetdruck mit der ersten leitfähigen Tinte durchzuführen, und

    eine zweite Druckmaschine (220b), die dazu eingerichtet ist, einen Offsetdruck mit der zweiten leitfähigen Tinte durchzuführen, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das zweite leitfähige Material nicht das erste leitfähige Material enthält.


     
    2. Druckvorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend eine Fördereinrichtung (210), die dazu eingerichtet ist, das Substrat zu transportieren.
     
    3. Druckvorrichtung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei das erste leitfähige Material Silber enthält.
     
    4. Druckvorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei das zweite leitfähige Material eines der folgenden Materialien: Kupfer, Gold, Kohlenstoff, Kobalt, Titan, Nickel und Aluminium oder wenigstens zwei Materialien, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe, die aus Silber, Kupfer, Gold, Kohlenstoff, Kobalt, Titan, Nickel und Aluminium besteht, enthält.
     
    5. Druckvorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei der Druckabschnitt Antioxidationstinte (Kc) aufdruckt, die wenigstens einen Teil der ersten leitfähigen Tinte und der zweiten leitfähigen Tinte bedeckt.
     
    6. Druckvorrichtung nach Anspruch 5, wobei
    die Antioxidationstinte ein transparentes Material enthält.
     
    7. Druckvorrichtung nach Anspruch 5 oder 6, wobei die Antioxidationstinte ein leitfähiges Material enthält.
     
    8. Druckvorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, wobei die erste leitfähige Tinte, in einer Richtung normal zur Oberfläche des Substrats gesehen, eine größere Breite als die zweite leitfähige Tinte aufweist.
     
    9. Druckvorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, wobei die erste leitfähige Tinte eine größere Länge als die zweite leitfähige Tinte aufweist.
     
    10. Druckvorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, wobei
    die erste Druckmaschine eine erste Transferwalze (308), die dazu eingerichtet ist, die erste leitfähige Tinte zu übertragen, und
    die zweite Druckmaschine eine zweite Transferwalze (308), die dazu eingerichtet ist, die zweite leitfähige Tinte zu übertragen, umfasst.
     
    11. Druckverfahren zum Aufdrucken einer leitfähigen Tinte (Ka und Kb) auf eine Oberfläche eines Substrats (10), umfassend:

    Aufdrucken einer ersten leitfähigen Tinte (Ka), die ein erstes leitfähiges Material (Da) enthält, auf das Substrat durch Offsetdruck mittels einer ersten Druckmaschine (220a), und

    Aufdrucken einer zweiten leitfähigen Tinte (Kb), die ein zweites leitfähiges Material (Db) enthält, das sich von dem ersten leitfähigen Material (Da) unterscheidet und nicht das erste leitfähige Material (Da) enthält, auf die erste leitfähige Tinte durch Offsetdruck mittels einer zweiten Druckmaschine (220b), wobei eine Elektrode (20), die in einer vorbestimmten Richtung verläuft, durch das Aufdrucken der ersten leitfähigen Tinte und der zweiten leitfähigen Tinte gebildet wird.


     


    Revendications

    1. Appareil d'impression (200) comprenant une section d'impression (220) configurée de façon à imprimer avec une encre conductrice (Ka, Kb) sur une surface d'un substrat (10),
    dans lequel la section d'impression imprime par impression offset une première encre conductrice (Ka) contenant un premier matériau conducteur (Da) sur le substrat et par impression offset avec une deuxième encre conductrice (Kb) contenant un deuxième matériau conducteur (Db) différent du premier matériau conducteur (Da) sur la première encre conductrice pour former une électrode (22) qui s'étend dans une direction prédéterminée, et
    la section d'impression comprend :

    une première machine d'impression (220a) configurée de façon à effectuer une impression offset avec la première encre conductrice et

    une deuxième machine d'impression (220b) configurée pour effectuer une impression offset avec la deuxième encre conductrice,

    caractérisé en ce que le deuxième matériau conducteur ne contient pas le premier matériau conducteur.


     
    2. Appareil d'impression selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre un convoyeur (210) configuré de façon à convoyer le substrat.
     
    3. Appareil d'impression selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel le premier matériau conducteur contient de l'argent.
     
    4. Appareil d'impression selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans lequel le deuxième matériau conducteur contient soit du cuivre, soit de l'or, du carbone, du cobalt, du titane, du nickel ou de l'aluminium ou au moins deux matériaux choisis parmi le groupe comprenant l'argent le cuivre, l'or, le carbone, le cobalt, le titane, le nickel et l'aluminium.
     
    5. Appareil d'impression selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel la section d'impression imprime avec une encre anti-oxydation (Kc) qui couvre au moins une partie de la première encre conductrice ou de la deuxième encre conductrice.
     
    6. Appareil d'impression selon la revendication 5, dans lequel l'encre anti-oxydation contient un matériau transparent.
     
    7. Appareil d'impression selon la revendication 5 ou 6, dans lequel l'encre anti-oxydation contient un matériau conducteur.
     
    8. Appareil d'impression selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, dans lequel la première encre conductrice est plus large que la deuxième encre conductrice, vue dans une direction perpendiculaire à la surface du substrat.
     
    9. Appareil d'impression selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, dans lequel la première encre conductrice est plus longue que la deuxième encre conductrice.
     
    10. Appareil d'impression selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, dans lequel
    la première machine d'impression comprend un premier cylindre de transfert (308) configuré pour transférer la première encre conductrice, et
    la deuxième machine d'impression comprend un deuxième cylindre de transfert (308) configuré pour transférer la deuxième encre conductrice.
     
    11. Procédé d'impression pour l'impression avec une encre conductrice (Ka et Kb) d'une surface d'un substrat (10), comprenant :

    l'impression sur le substrat avec la première encre conductrice (Ka) contenant un premier matériau conducteur (Da) par impression offset à l'aide d'une première machine d'impression (220a) et

    l'impression sur la première encre conductrice avec une deuxième encre conductrice (Kb) contenant un deuxième matériau conducteur (Db) différent du premier matériau conducteur (Da) et qui ne contient pas le premier matériau conducteur (Da) par impression offset à l'aide d'une deuxième machine d'impression (220b),

    une électrode (20) qui s'étend dans une direction prédéterminée étant formée par l'impression avec la première encre conductrice et l'impression avec la deuxième encre conductrice.


     




    Drawing



















































    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description