(19)
(11)EP 2 817 357 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
04.11.2020 Bulletin 2020/45

(21)Application number: 13706703.9

(22)Date of filing:  25.02.2013
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C08G 61/12(2006.01)
C09D 165/00(2006.01)
H01L 51/00(2006.01)
H01L 51/42(2006.01)
C08K 5/01(2006.01)
H01B 1/12(2006.01)
H01L 51/05(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/GB2013/050463
(87)International publication number:
WO 2013/124688 (29.08.2013 Gazette  2013/35)

(54)

ORGANIC SEMICONDUCTOR COMPOSITIONS

ORGANISCHE HALBLEITERZUSAMMENSETZUNGEN

COMPOSITIONS DE SEMI-CONDUCTEURS ORGANIQUES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 23.02.2012 GB 201203159

(43)Date of publication of application:
31.12.2014 Bulletin 2015/01

(73)Proprietor: Smartkem Limited
St. Asaph Business Park St. Asaph Clwyd LL17 0JD (GB)

(72)Inventor:
  • GRIFFITHS, Russell Jon
    St. Asaph, Clwyd, LL17 OJD (GB)

(74)Representative: Gill Jennings & Every LLP 
The Broadgate Tower 20 Primrose Street
London EC2A 2ES
London EC2A 2ES (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A2-2005/055248
  
  • DATABASE CA [Online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; 10 September 2009 (2009-09-10), GOTO, DAISUKE ET AL: "Polymers having benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene structures with good film forming ability and oxidative stability, and high solubility", XP002697699, retrieved from STN Database accession no. 2009:1103025 -& JP 2009 203447 A (RICOH CO., LTD., JAPAN) 10 September 2009 (2009-09-10)
  • ITARU OSAKA ET AL: "High-Mobility Semiconducting Naphthodithiophene Copolymers", JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 132, no. 14, 14 April 2010 (2010-04-14), pages 5000-5001, XP055011638, ISSN: 0002-7863, DOI: 10.1021/ja101125p
  • ULRIKE WENZEL: "Charakterisierung eines ultrahochmolekularen Polymethacrylats mit flüssigkristalliner Seitengruppe in verdünnter Lösung", DISSERTATION , vol. D83/2000 5 July 2000 (2000-07-05), page 78pp, XP007912815, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://opus.kobv.de/tuberlin/volltexte /2000/171/pdf/wenzel_ulrike.pdf [retrieved on 2010-04-26]
  • Anonymus: "Polymer analysis by GPC-SEC Introduction", , 1 October 2000 (2000-10-01), pages 1-8, XP055396158, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://polymer.ustc.edu.cn/xwxx_20/xw/ 201109/P020110906263097250048.pdf [retrieved on 2017-08-04]
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

Field of the Invention



[0001] The present invention relates to organic copolymers and organic semiconducting compositions comprising these materials, including layers and devices comprising such organic semiconductor compositions. The invention is also concerned with methods of preparing such organic semiconductor compositions and layers and uses thereof. The invention has application in the field of printed electronics and is particularly useful as a semiconducting material for use in formulations for organic field effect transistor (OFET) backplanes for displays, integrated circuits, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photodetectors, organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, sensors, memory elements and logic circuits.

Background of the Invention



[0002] In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in organic semiconducting materials as an alternative to conventional silicon-based semiconductors. Organic semiconducting materials have several advantages over those based on silicon, such as lower cost, easier manufacturing, solution processability at low temperatures as well as increased flexibility, mechanical robustness, good compatibility with a wide variety of flexible substrates and light weight. They thus offer the possibility of producing more convenient high performance electronic devices.

[0003] Polyacene compounds and their analogues in particular have shown promise in this field of technology. WO 2005/055248 for example, discloses an organic semiconducting layer formulation comprising an organic binder which has a permittivity (ε) at 1000 Hz of 3.3 or less, and a polyacene compound. However the method for preparing the OFETs described in WO 2005/055248 in practice is limited and is only useful for producing top gate OFETs having relatively long channel lengths (typically > 50 microns). A further disadvantage of WO 2005/055248 that is overcome by the present invention, is that it frequently uses undesirable chlorinated solvents. The highest performance semiconductor compositions disclosed in WO 2005/055248 having mobilities ≥1.0 cm2V-1s-1, incorporated 1,2-dichlorobenzene as the solvent (page 54, Table 5 and examples 14, 21 and 25). Moreover these solvents are not ones that would be industrially acceptable in a printing process and these are also damaging to the environment. Therefore it would be desirable to use more benign solvents for the manufacture of these semiconductor compositions. Furthermore, it is generally thought that only polymer binders with a permittivity of less than 3.3 could be used since any polymers with a higher permittivity resulted in a very significant reduction in mobility values of the OFET device.

[0004] This reduction in mobility value can further be seen in WO 2007/078993 which discloses the use of 2,3,9,10-substituted pentacene compounds in combination with insulating polymers having a dielectric constant at 1000 Hz of greater than 3.3. These compounds are reported to exhibit mobility values of between 10-2 and 10-7 cm2V-1s-1 which are too low to be industrially useful.

[0005] Therefore, the present invention seeks to provide organic semiconductor compositions, which overcome the above-mentioned problems, by providing solvent soluble, high mobility, high flexibility polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon copolymers, especially benzochalcogenophenobenzochalcogenophene 'BXBX' copolymers and BXBX analogue copolymers having a tunable permittivity value and which exhibit high mobility values.

[0006] JP2009203447 relates to polymers containing benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene structure.

[0007] Osaka, I., et al, "High-Mobility Semiconducting Naphthodithiophene Copolymers", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 5000-5001, relates to semi-conducting polymers including benzothienobenzothiophene.

Summary of the Invention



[0008] The copolymers and compositions of the invention are expected to produce soluble materials that, on deposition, afford flexible, non-brittle layers unlike layers made from solely small molecule compounds. The copolymers of this invention have significantly higher mobilities than typical semiconducting binders used in the field of printable electronics, such as the polytriarylamine class of semiconducting binders that have mobilities in the order of ∼ 10-6 to 10-3 cm2/Vs. The copolymers of the invention will be industrially useful in the fabrication of rollable and flexible electronic devices such as OTFT arrays for displays; large area printed sensors and printed logic. In particular, the semiconducting polymers of this invention will be useful in formulations for organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) having short channel lengths (≤ 30 microns and even ≤ 5 to 10 microns) that may be used as the backplane driver for electrophoretic displays, high resolution LCD and AMOLED displays.

[0009] The copolymers are also soluble in benign, non-chlorinated solvents, such as those typically used in printing.

[0010] The present invention also provides highly flexible, non-brittle, semi-conducting films.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Copolymers (A and B)



[0011] Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Copolymers (hereinafter PAHCs) according to the first aspect of the present invention comprise a mixture of at least one benzochalcogenophenobenzochalcogenophene (hereafter referred to as BXBX) monomer unit having the Formula (A) and at least one triarylamine monomer unit having the Formula (B) and one or more monomer units selected from the group consisting of (C), (D), (D') and/or (E):









wherein

Y1 and Y2 are independently S or Se;

k and I are independently 0 or 1

wherein each of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11 and R12, which may be the same or different, independently represents hydrogen; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C40 alkyl group; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C40 alkenyl group; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C40 alkynyl group; an optionally substituted C3-C40 cycloalkyl group; an optionally substituted C6-C40 aryl group; an optionally substituted C1-C40 heterocyclic group; an optionally substituted C1-C40 heteroaryl group; an optionally substituted C1-C40 alkoxy group; an optionally substituted C6-C40 aryloxy group; an optionally substituted C7-C40 alkylaryloxy group; an optionally substituted C2-C40 alkoxycarbonyl group; an optionally substituted C7-C40 aryloxycarbonyl group; a cyano group (-CN); a carbamoyl group (-C(=O)NR15R16); a carbonyl group (-C(=O)-R17); a carboxyl group (-CO2R18); a cyanate group (-OCN); an isocyano group (-NC); an isocyanate group (-NCO); a thiocyanate group (-SCN) or a thioisocyanate group (-NCS); an optionally substituted amino group; a hydroxy group; a nitro group; a CF3 group; a halo group (Cl, Br, F, I); -SR19; -SO3H; -SO2R20; -SF5; an optionally substituted silyl group; a C2-C10 alkynyl group substituted with a SiH2R22 group, a C2-C10 alkynyl substituted with a SiHR22R23 group, or a C2-C10 alkynyl substituted with a -Si(R22)x(R23)y(R24)z group;

wherein each R22 group is independently selected from the group consisting of a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl group, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C20 cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkenyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 cycloalkylalkylene group;

each R23 group is independently selected from the group consisting of a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl group, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C20 cycloalkyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 cycloalkylalkylene group;

R24 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C20 cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 cycloalkylalkylene group, a substituted C5-C20 aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 arylalkylene group, an acetyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C3-C20 heterocyclic ring comprising at least one of O,N,S and Se in the ring;

wherein x= 1 or 2; y=1 or 2; z=0 or 1; and (x+y+z)=3;

wherein each of R15, R16, R18, R19 and R20 independently represent H or optionally substituted C1-C40 carbyl or hydrocarbyl group optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms;

wherein R17 represents a halogen atom, H or optionally substituted C1-C40 carbyl or C1-C40 hydrocarbyl group optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms;

wherein at least two of R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10, and R12, are a bond, represented by -*, to another monomer unit having the Formula (A) or (B), or to a monomer unit having a Formula selected from the group consisting of (C), (D), (D') and (E);

wherein Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, which may be the same or different, each represent, independently if in different repeat units, an optionally substituted C6-40 aromatic group (mononuclear or polynuclear), wherein preferably at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with at least one polar or polarising groups wherein n' = 1 to 3;

wherein monomer (A) is present in an amount of at least 20 wt. %; monomer (B) is present in an amount of at least 60 wt. % and the remainder is comprised of monomers (C), (D), (D') and/or (E), based on the total weight of all monomer units in the copolymer; and

wherein the one or more polar or polarising group(s) is independently selected from the group consisting of: nitro group, nitrile group, C1-40 alkyl group substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; C1-40 alkoxy group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; C1-40 carboxylic acid group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; C2-40 carboxylic acid ester optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; sulfonic acid optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; sulfonic acid ester optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; cyanate group, isocyanategroup, thiocyanate group, thioisocyanate group; and an amino group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; and combinations thereof. Preferably, k=l = 0 or 1.



[0012] Preferably k and l = 0.

[0013] Preferably, x=2 and y=1.

[0014] Preferably when z=0, R22 and R23 together comprise a combination of (i) branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl group(s) and (ii) branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C8 alkenyl group(s).

[0015] Preferably, any of R22, R23 and R24 may optionally be substituted with a halogen atom.

[0016] PAHCs also disclosed herein are shown in the following table 1:
Table 1
PAHCs
Monomer AMonomer B




Case 1 R'a, R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R4 and R10 are C1 to C14 alkyl groups, most preferably n-octyl groups.
R3 and, R9 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 2  
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R3 and R9 are C1 to C14 alkyl groups, most preferably n-octyl groups.
R4 and R10 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 3
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R 4 and R10 are CF3 groups.
R3 and R9 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 4
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R3 and, R9 are CF3 groups.
R 4 and R10 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 1 R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a and R'c = C1 to C4 alkyl
Case 4
Case 1 R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'a = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3 (i) R'a = methoxy
Case 4 (ii) R'a = ethoxy
Case 1 R'a, R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'c = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3 (i) R'c = methoxy
Case 4 (ii) R'c = ethoxy
Case 1 R'a, R'b, R'c, R'd = H
Case 2 R'e = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3 (i) R'e = methoxy
Case 4 (ii) R'e = ethoxy
Case 1 R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'a = R'c = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3 (i) R'a = R'c = methoxy
Case 4 (ii) R'a = R'c = ethoxy
Case 1 R'b, R'd = H
Case 2 R'a, R'c, R'e = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3 (i) R'a, R'c, R'e = methoxy
Case 4 (ii) R'a, R'c, R'e = ethoxy
Case 1 R'a, R'e = H
Case 2 R'b, R'c, R'd = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3 (i) R'b, R'c, R'd = methoxy
Case 4 (ii) R'b, R'c, R'd = ethoxy
Case 1 R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a = Cyano (CN)
Case 4
Case 1 R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a = Isopropylcyano group
Case 4 Monomer B:


Case 1 R'a, R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'c = Isopropylcyano group
Case 4 Monomer B:




[0017] The organic semiconductors compounds specified in the table are particularly preferred as they combine the beneficial properties of high charge transport mobility (of the binders) with a polarity that is more compatible with benign, non-chlorinated solvents that will be desirable for use in large area printing. In addition, as these compounds are more polar once deposited as the OSC layer, or alternatively as a component in the OSC layer, they are expected to be resistant to being re-dissolved by the hydrophobic solvents used for the organic gate insulators (OGI) such as Cytop. Furthermore, it is expected that the polar binders are useful for both top gate and bottom gate OTFTs, particularly for bottom gate OTFTs.

[0018] The copolymers according to the present invention preferably have a number average molecular weight (Mn) of between 500 and 100,000, more preferably between 1600 and 20000, more preferably between 500 and 10000, even more preferably between 850 and 5000.

[0019] The copolymers according to the present invention preferably have between 1 and 100000 monomer units having the Formula (A) and between 1 and 100000 triarylamine monomer units having the Formula (B). More preferably, the copolymers have between 1 and 1000 monomer units having the Formula (A) and between 1 and 1000 triarylamine monomer units having the Formula (B). More preferably, the copolymers have between 1 and 100 monomer units having the Formula (A) and between 1 and 100 triarylamine monomer units having the Formula (B). Yet even more preferably, the copolymers have between 1 and 10 monomer units having the Formula (A) and between 1 and 10 triarylamine monomer units having the Formula (B).

[0020] Preferably, the organic semiconductor compositions according to the present invention contain less than 10% by weight, more preferably less than 5% by weight, more preferably less than 1%, more preferably, substantially no organic binders which have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of less than 3.4.

[0021] Preferred PAHCs and compositions of the present invention contain at least 20 wt. %, more preferably 20-40 wt. % (of the total of all monomer units (A) and (B) in the copolymer or composition) of a BXBX monomer unit having the Formula (A) and at least 20 wt. %, preferably at least 20-80 wt. %, more preferably at least 50 wt. %, and even more preferably at least 60-80 wt.% of a monomer unit having the Formula (B).

[0022] The BXBX copolymers may be produced according to the following general synthetic regime. For simplicity, a representative BXBX monomer is shown (no further substitutions are shown, the skilled person understanding how this can be genericised to the structures shown above) being coupled to a representative triphenylamine monomer. The coupling reaction is preferably a Yamamoto type coupling (using Nickel chloride, zinc, 2,2'-bipyridyl, triphenylphosphine and dimethyl acetamide). However, Suzuki coupling is also possible, although in this case it is preferable to remove the boronic esters from the resulting semiconducting polymer.

wherein α and β are preferably integers of 1-100000; and R is preferably H or a polar or polarising group as defined below. The halogen end groups are preferentially reacted either by substitution or hydrogentation.

wherein α and β are preferably integers of 1-100000; and R is preferably H or a polar or polarising group as defined below. On completion of the coupling reaction, the halogen and boronic ester end groups are preferably substituted by other groups, for example by hydrogenation and/or hydrolysis respectively.

[0023] Following the polymerization step to form the copolymer of the present invention, the copolymer may be cross-linked. Cross-linking may be achieved by any known technique. Examples include the application of heat and/or moisture, ethylene oxide treatment, UV irradiation, gamma sterilisation, electron beam irradiation, and autoclaving.

[0024] Also disclosed herein, there is provided a process for producing a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Copolymer (PAHC) comprising copolymerising a composition containing at least one BXBX monomer unit selected from the structure A':

and at least one monomer unit selected from the structure B':

wherein each of R groups, and k and l have the same general and preferred meanings as described in relation to the PAHC definitions above; wherein Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, which may be the same or different, each represent an optionally substituted C6-40 aromatic group (mononuclear or polynuclear), wherein preferably at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with at least one polar or more polarising group;

wherein X' is a halogen atom or a cyclic borate group; and

wherein Z' is a halogen atom.



[0025] Alternatively, X' may be a cyclic borate group and then in this case, Z' may be a halogen.

[0026] Preferably, the cyclic borate group is



[0027] Preferably, the process is carried out in a solvent, preferably an organic solvent, preferably an aromatic organic solvent.

[0028] The compositions of the present invention can comprise additional curable monomers, for example, diluent monomers. Examples of suitable materials include radically curable monomer compounds, such as acrylate and methacrylate monomer compounds. Examples of acrylate and methacrylate monomers include isobornyl acrylate, isobornyl methacrylate, lauryl acrylate, lauryl methacrylate, isodecylacrylate, isodecylmethacrylate, caprolactone acrylate, 2-phenoxyethyl acrylate, isooctylacrylate, isooctylmethacrylate, butyl acrylate, alkoxylated lauryl acrylate, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, ethoxylated nonyl phenol methacrylate, ethoxylated hydroxyethyl methacrylate, methoxy polyethylene glycol monoacrylate, methoxy polyethylene glycol monomethacrylate, tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate, as well as mixtures or combinations thereof.

[0029] In addition, multifunctional acrylate and methacrylate monomers and oligomers can be included in the compositions as reactive diluents and as materials that can increase the crosslink density of the cured composition. Examples of suitable multifunctional acrylate and methacrylate monomers and oligomers include pentaerythritol tetraacrylate, pentaerythritol tetramethacrylate, 1,2-ethylene glycol diacrylate, 1,2-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate, 1,6-hexanediol dimethacrylate, 1,12-dodecanol diacrylate, 1,12-dodecanol dimethacrylate, tris(2-hydroxy ethyl) isocyanurate triacrylate, propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate, hexanediol diacrylate, tripropylene glycol diacrylate, dipropylene glycol diacrylate, ethoxylated bisphenol A diacrylate, ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate, alkoxylated hexanediol diacrylate, alkoxylated cyclohexane dimethanol diacrylate, polyethylene glycol diacrylate, polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate, tris (2-hydroxy ethyl) isocyanurate triacrylate, amine modified polyether acrylates (available as PO 83 F®, LR 8869®, and/or LR 8889® (all available from BASF Corporation), trimethylolpropane triacrylate, glycerol propoxylate triacrylate, dipentaerythritol pentaacrylate, dipentaerythritol hexaacrylate, ethoxylated pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (available from Sartomer Co. Inc. as SR 494®), as well as mixtures and combinations thereof. When a reactive diluent is added to the composition of the present invention, the reactive diluent is added in any desired or effective amount, in one embodiment at least about 1 percent by weight of the carrier, at least about 35 percent by weight of the carrier, no more than about 98 percent by weight of the carrier, no more than about 75 percent by weight of the carrier, although the amount of diluent can be outside of these ranges.

[0030] Copolymers according to the present invention may have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of greater than 1.5, preferably greater than 2, preferably greater than 3. Particularly preferably, copolymers according to the present invention are semiconducting copolymers having a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 1.5 and 8, more preferably between 3.4 and 8. In a preferred embodiment, the polyacene copolymers have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 7, more preferably between 3.4 and 6.5, yet more preferably between 3.4 and 4.5 and even more preferably between 3.4 and 4.0. Copolymers according to the present invention are preferably semiconducting copolymers and may have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of greater than 3.4, for example greater than 3.8, greater than 4.0, greater than 4.2 and the like.

[0031] Preferably, the organic semiconductor compositions according to the present invention contain less than 10% by weight, more preferably less than 5% by weight, more preferably less than 1% by weight, more preferably, substantially no copolymers which have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of less than 3.4. In a preferred embodiment, the permittivity is determined by the method disclosed in WO 2004/102690 or by using the method disclosed herein, preferably by using the method disclosed herein.

[0032] Preferably, the copolymers of the present invention are semiconducting copolymers having a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 8. In a preferred embodiment, the copolymers have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 7, more preferably between 3.4 and 6.5, and even more preferably between 3.4 and 4.5. The permittivity of the copolymers can be measured using any standard method known to those skilled in the art. In a preferred embodiment, the permittivity is determined by the method disclosed in WO 2004/102690 or by using the method disclosed herein, preferably by using the method disclosed herein.

Monomer Units of Formula (A)



[0033] The following are some preferred characteristics of the BXBX monomer units defined above as (A).

[0034] In a preferred embodiment, at least one (and more preferably 2) of groups R1, R6, R7, and R12 are tri-C1-20 hydrocarbylsilyl C1-4 alkynyl groups.

[0035] Preferably at least one pair of R1/R6 and/or R7/R12 are trihydrocarbylsilyl ethynyl groups.

[0036] In a preferred embodiment, at least one pair of R1/R6 and/or R7/R12 are (trihydrocarbylsilyl)ethynyl- groups, -C≡C-SiR22R23R24, wherein R22, R23 and R24 independently represent C1-C6 alkyl or C2-C6 alkenyl. In a more preferred embodiment, R22, R23 and R24 are independently selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, t-butyl, 1-propenyl and 2-propenyl.

[0037] In a preferred embodiment, at least one pair of R1/R6 and/or R7/R12 are trialkylsilyl ethynyl groups, -C≡C-SiR22R23R24, wherein R22, R23 and R24 independently represent C1-C6 alkyl or C2-C6 alkenyl. In a more preferred embodiment, R22, R23 and R24 are independently selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, t-butyl; 1-propenyl and 2-propenyl.

[0038] In yet another preferred embodiment, when k = l= 0; R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10 and R12, independently represent H, C1-C14 alkyl or C1-C6 alkoxy. More preferably, R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10 and R12 are the same and represent H, C1-C14 alkyl or C1-C6 alkoxy. In an even more preferred embodiment, R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10 and R12 are the same or different and are selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, propyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, t-butyl, n-octyl, methoxy, ethoxy, propyloxy and butyloxy, provided that at least at least one of each pair of R3/R4 and R9/R10 are a bond, represented by -*, to another monomer unit having the Formula (B)

[0039] Preferably, R22, R23 and R24 are independently selected from the group consisting hydrogen, a C1-C10 alkyl group (preferably C1-C4-alkyl and most preferably methyl, ethyl, n-propyl or isopropyl) which may optionally be substituted for example with a halogen atom.

[0040] R22 and R23 are preferably independently selected from the group consisting optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl group and optionally substituted C2-10 alkenyl, more preferably C1-C6 alkyl or C2-C6 alkenyl. A preferred alkyl group in this case is isopropyl.

[0041] Examples of the silyl group -Si(R22)x(R23)y(R24)z include, without limitation, trimethylsilyl, triethylsilyl, tripropylsilyl, dimethylethylsilyl, diethylmethylsilyl, dimethylpropylsilyl, dimethylisopropylsilyl, dipropylmethylsilyl, diisopropylmethylsilyl, dipropylethylsilyl, diisopropylethylsilyl, diethylisopropylsilyl, triisopropylsilyl, trimethoxysilyl, triethoxysilyl, triphenylsilyl, diphenylisopropylsilyl, diisopropylphenylsilyl, diphenylethylsilyl, diethylphenylsilyl, diphenylmethylsilyl, triphenoxysilyl, dimethylmethoxysilyl,dimethylphenoxysilyl, methylmethoxyphenyl, etc. For each example in the foregoing list, the alkyl, aryl or alkoxy group may optionally be substituted.

[0042] In a preferred embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, PAHCs according to the present invention comprise at least one BXBX monomer unit having the Formula (A1):

wherein each of R2, R5, R8 and R11 are hydrogen;

At least one pair of of R1/R6 and/or R8/R11 are H or trialkylsilyl ethynyl groups, -C=C-SiR22R23R24, wherein R22, R23 and R24 independently represent C1-C4 alkyl or C2-C4 alkenyl;

R3, R4, R9 and R10 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen; a branched or unbranched, unsubstituted C1-C14 alkyl group; C1-C6 alkoxy group and C6-C12 aryloxy group;

Provided that at least one of each pair of R3/R4 and R9/R10 are a bond, represented by -*, to another monomer unit having the Formula (A), (A1) or (B) and wherein k and I are independently 0, or 1, preferably both k and I are 0.



[0043] In monomer units of Formula (A1), wherein k and I are both 0; R1/R6 and/or R8/R11 are (trialkylsilyl)ethynyl groups, -C≡C-SiR22R23R24, wherein R22, R23 and R24 are preferably selected from ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, 1-propenyl or 2-propenyl; R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10, R11 and R12 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, methyl, ethyl and methoxy, provided that at least one of each pair of R3/R4 and R9/R10 are a bond, represented by -*, to another monomer unit having the Formula (A), (A1) or (B).

[0044] In a more preferred embodiment the BXBX moiety in the PAHC copolymer is a substituted BXBX, wherein each R22 group is independently selected from the group consisting of a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 cycloalkyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C12 cycloalkylalkylene group; each R23 group is independently selected from the group consisting of a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C8 alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 cycloalkyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C12 cycloalkylalkylene group; and R24 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C8 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C12 cycloalkylalkylene group, a substituted C5-C12 aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C14 arylalkylene group, an acetyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C5-C12 heterocyclic ring comprising at least one of O,N,S and Se in the ring.

[0045] Preferred PAHCs and compositions of the present invention contain at least 20 wt. % (of the total of all monomer units in the copolymer of a BXBX monomer unit having the Formula (A1).

[0046] Especially preferred BXBX monomer units according to the present invention are those of Formulae (A2)



[0047] Preferably Y1=Y2=S
R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10 and R12 are the same or different and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, propyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, t-butyl, n-octyl, methoxy, ethoxy, propyloxy and butyloxy, more preferably hydrogen, methyl, propyl and methoxy.

[0048] In monomer units of Formula (A2), R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10 and R12 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C14 alkyl and C1-C6 alkoxy, provided that at least one of each pair of R3/R4 and R9/R10 are a bond, represented by -*, to another monomer unit having the Formula (A), (A1), (A2) or (B). In a preferred embodiment, R3, R4, R9 and R10 are the same or different and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, propyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, t-butyl, n-octyl, methoxy, ethoxy, propyloxy and butyloxy, more preferably hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, propyl, n-octyl and methoxy, provided that at least one of each pair of R3/R4 and R9/R10 are a bond, represented by -*, to another monomer unit having the Formula (A), (A1), (A2), or (B).

[0049] In monomer units of Formula (A2), R25, R26 and R27 are independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6 alkyl and C2-C6 alkenyl, preferably R25, R26 and R27 are independently selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, t-butyl, 1-propenyl and 2-propenyl, more preferably ethyl, n-propyl and isopropyl.

[0050] Preferred PAHCs and compositions of the present invention contain at least 20 wt. % (of the total of all monomer units in the copolymer or composition) of a BXBX monomer unit having the Formula (A2).

[0051] The "R" substituents (that is R1, R2, etc) denote the substituents at the positions of the heteroacene according to conventional nomenclature:



[0052] BXBX monomers according to the present invention may be synthesised by any known method within the common general knowledge of a person skilled in the art. In a preferred embodiment, methods disclosed in EP 2098527, EP 2254171, in the journal Heterocycles, 2011, Volume 83, pages 1187 and in Zh. Org. Khim, 1980, Volume 16, pages 384, 425 and 430, can be employed for the synthesis of heteroacene compounds used in the present invention. High permittivity analogues of the PAHCs of the invention may be prepared according to WO2012/160383 and WO2012/164282.

Monomer Units (B)



[0053] The following are some preferred characteristics of the triarylamine monomer unit defined above as (B),

[0054] Preferably, in monomer unit (B), Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, which may be the same or different, each represent, independently if in different repeat units, an optionally substituted C6-20 aromatic group (mononuclear or polynuclear), wherein at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with at least one polar or more polarising group, and n = 1 to 100, preferably 1 to 50, preferably 1 to 20, even more preferably 1 to 10 and more preferably 1 to 5, wherein n refers to the number of monomer units. Preferably, at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4, more preferably 1, 2 or 3, more preferably 1 or 2, preferably 1 polar or more polarising group(s).

[0055] The one or more polar or polarising group(s) is independently selected from the group consisting of nitro group, nitrile group, C1-40 alkyl group substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; C1-40 alkoxy group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; C1-40 carboxylic acid group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; C2-40 carboxylic acid ester optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; sulfonic acid optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; sulfonic acid ester optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; cyanate group, isocyanate group, thiocyanate group, thioisocyanate group; and an amino group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; and combinations thereof.

[0056] In a more preferred embodiment, the one or more polar or polarising group(s) is independently selected from the group consisting of nitro group, nitrile group, C1-10 alkyl group substituted with a nitrile group, a cyanate group, or an isocyanate group; C1-20 alkoxy group, C1-20 carboxylic acid group, C2-20 carboxylic acid ester; sulfonic acid ester; cyanate group, isocyanate group, thiocyanate group, thioisocyanate group, and an amino group; and combinations thereof.

[0057] More preferably the polar or polarizing group is selected from the group consisting of C1-4 cyanoalkyl group, C1-10 alkoxy group, nitrile group and combinations thereof.

[0058] More preferably the polar or polarizing group(s) is selected from the group consisting of cyanomethyl, cyanoethyl, cyanopropyl, cyanobutyl, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, butoxy, nitrile, NH2 and combinations thereof. Preferably at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with 1 or 2 polar or more polarising group, which may be the same or different.

[0059] Yet more preferably, polar or polarizing group(s) is selected from the group consisting of isopropyl cyano, cyclohexylcyano, methoxy, ethoxy, nitrile and combinations thereof. Preferably at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with 1 or 2 polar or more polarising group, which may be the same or different.

[0060] More preferably, polar or polarizing group(s) is selected from the group consisting of methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, butoxy and combinations thereof, wherein at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with 1 or 2 polar or more polarising group, which may be the same or different.

[0061] More preferably, polar or polarizing group(s) is selected from the group consisting of methoxy and ethoxy, wherein at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with 1 or 2 of the same polar or more polarising group.

[0062] In the context of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, a mononuclear aromatic group has only one aromatic ring, for example phenyl or phenylene. A polynuclear aromatic group has two or more aromatic rings which may be fused (for example napthyl or naphthylene), individually covalently linked (for example biphenyl) and/or a combination of both fused and individually linked aromatic rings. Preferably each Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is an aromatic group which is substantially conjugated over substantially the whole group.

[0063] Preferably, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, are independently selected from the group consisting of C6-20 aryl, C7-20 aralkyl and C7-20 alkaryl, any of which may be substituted with 1, 2, or 3 groups independently selected from C1-4 alkoxy, C3-20 cycloalkylcyano, C1-4 cyanoalkyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10, wherein n refers to the number of monomer units.

[0064] Preferably, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, are independently selected from the group consisting of C6-10 aryl, C7-12 aralkyl and C7-12 alkaryl, any of which may be substituted with 1, 2, or 3 groups independently selected from C1-2 alkoxy, C1-3 cyanoalkyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0065] Preferably, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, are independently selected from the group consisting of C6-20 aryl, substituted with 1 or 2 groups independently selected from C1-4 alkoxy, C3-20 cycloalkylcyano, C1-4 cyanoalkyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0066] Preferably, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, are independently selected from the group consisting of C6-10 aryl, wherein Ar3, is substituted with 1 or 2 C1-4 alkoxy, and n = 1 to 10.

[0067] Preferably, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, are independently selected from the group consisting of C6-10 aryl, wherein Ar3 is substituted with 1 C1-4 alkoxy, and n = 1 to 10.

[0068] Preferably, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, are independently selected from the group consisting of phenyl, benzyl, tolyl and naphthyl, any of which may be substituted with 1, 2 or 3 groups independently selected from methoxy, ethoxy, cyanomethyl, cyanoethyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0069] Preferably, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, are all phenyl, wherein Ar3 is substituted with 1 or 2 C1-4 alkoxy, and n = 1 to 10.

[0070] Preferably, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, are all phenyl which may be independently substituted with 1, 2 or 3 groups selected from methoxy, ethoxy, isopropylcyano, cyanomethyl, cyanoethyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0071] Preferably, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, are all phenyl which may be independently substituted with 1 or 2 groups selected from methoxy, ethoxy, cyanomethyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0072] Preferably, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, are all phenyl which may be independently substituted with 1 or 2 groups selected from methoxy, ethoxy and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0073] Preferably, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, are all phenyl which may be independently substituted with 2,4-dimethoxy, 2-cyano, 2-methoxy, 2-ethoxy, 4-methoxy, 4-ethoxy, 4-isopropylcyano and 4-cyclohexylcyano, and n = 1 to 10.

[0074] Preferably, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, are all phenyl which may be independently substituted with 2,4-dimethoxy, 2-methoxy, 2-ethoxy, 4-methoxy and 4-ethoxy, and n = 1 to 10.

[0075] The copolymers of the present invention may be a random or block copolymer of different monomer units. In such a case, any monomer unit defined by Formula (A) or (B), may be combined with a different or same monomer unit of (A) or (B) provided that at least one monomer unit (A) is bonded to at least one monomer unit (B).

[0076] The ratio of the monomers in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon copolymers can be altered to allow for adjustment of the permittivity relative to a homopolymer. Furthermore, preferably the monomer unit of (A) or (B) may be mixed with monomer units which do not meet the definition of (A) or (B), provided that the average permittivity of the binder in the compositions is preferably between 3.4 and 8.0. The PAHC also comprises at least one more monomer units selected from the fluorene monomer C, cis and trans-indenofluorene monomer D, D' and/or spirobifluorene monomer E:





wherein each R1', R2', R3', R4', R3 R6' and R7', each of which may be the same or different, is selected from the same group as R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7, already defined above.

n' = 1 to 3.

PAHC according to the present invention comprises one or more monomers (C), (D), (D') and/or (E), and the PAHC is comprised of monomer (A) in an amount of at least 20 wt. %; monomer (B) in an amount of at least 60 wt. % and the remainder is comprised of monomers (C), (D), (D') and/or (E), based on the total weight of all monomer units in the copolymer.



[0077] In an even more preferred embodiment of the present invention, the monomer unit (B) comprises at least one unit having the structures (F) to (J):






Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Copolymers (A and K)



[0078] Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Copolymers (hereinafter PAHCs) also disclosed herein comprise a mixture of at least one benzochalcogenophenobenzochalcogenophene (hereafter referred to as BXBX) monomer unit having the Formula (A) and at least one fluorene monomer unit having the Formula (K):



wherein

Y1 and Y2 are independently S or Se;

k is 0 or 1

I is 0 or 1

wherein each of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11 and R12, which may be the same or different, independently represents hydrogen; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C40 alkyl group; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C40 alkenyl group; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C40 alkynyl group; an optionally substituted C3-C40 cycloalkyl group; an optionally substituted C6-C40 aryl group; an optionally substituted C1-C40 heterocyclic group; an optionally substituted C1-C40 heteroaryl group; an optionally substituted C1-C40 alkoxy group; an optionally substituted C6-C40 aryloxy group; an optionally substituted C7-C40 alkylaryloxy group; an optionally substituted C2-C40 alkoxycarbonyl group; an optionally substituted C7-C40 aryloxycarbonyl group; a cyano group (-CN); a carbamoyl group (-C(=O)NR15R16); a carbonyl group (-C(=O)-R17); a carboxyl group (-CO2R18); a cyanate group (-OCN); an isocyano group (-NC); an isocyanate group (-NCO); a thiocyanate group (-SCN) or a thioisocyanate group (-NCS); an optionally substituted amino group; a hydroxy group; a nitro group; a CF3 group; a halo group (Cl, Br, F, I); -SR19; -SO3H; -SO2R20; -SF5; an optionally substituted silyl group; a C2-C10 alkynyl group substituted with a SiH2R22 group, a C2-C10 alkynyl substituted with a SiHR22R23 group, or a C2-C10 alkynyl substituted with a -Si(R22)x(R23)y(R24)z group;

wherein each R22 group is independently selected from the group consisting of a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl group, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C20 cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkenyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 cycloalkylalkylene group;

each R23 group is independently selected from the group consisting of a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl group, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C20 cycloalkyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 cycloalkylalkylene group;

R24 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C20 cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 cycloalkylalkylene group, a substituted C5-C20 aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 arylalkylene group, an acetyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C3-C20 heterocyclic ring comprising at least one of O,N,S and Se in the ring;

wherein x= 1 or 2; y=1 or 2; z=0 or 1; and (x+y+z)=3;

wherein each of R15, R16, R18, R19 and R20 independently represent H or optionally substituted C1-C40 carbyl or hydrocarbyl group optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms;

wherein R17 represents a halogen atom, H or optionally substituted C1-C40 carbyl or C1-C40 hydrocarbyl group optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms;

wherein at least two of R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10, and R12, are a bond, represented by -*, to another monomer unit having the Formula (A) or (K);

wherein each R1', R2', R3' and R4', each of which may be the same or different, is selected from the same group as R1, R2, R3, R4; and wherein preferably at least one of the groups R1', R2', R3', R4' is a polar group or polarising group and for the monomer group (K), -* represents a bond to another monomer unit having the Formula (A) or (K); and

n' = 1 to 3.



[0079] Preferably, k=l = 0 or 1.

[0080] Preferably k and I = 0.

[0081] Preferably, x=2 and y=1.

[0082] Preferably when z=0, R22 and R23 together comprise a combination of (i) branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl group(s) and (ii) branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C8 alkenyl group(s).

[0083] Preferably, any of R22, R23 and R24 may optionally be substituted with a halogen atom.

[0084] Particularly preferred PAHCs according to the present invention are shown in the following table 2:
Table 2
Preferred PAHCs
Monomer AMonomer BMonomer C






Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R 4 and R10 are C1 to C14 alkyl groups, most preferably n-octyl groups. R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups.
R3 and, R9 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
     
Case 2
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R 3 and R9 are C1 to C14 alkyl groups, most preferably n-octyl groups.
R4 and R10 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 3
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R4 and R10 are CF3 groups.
R3 and R9 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 4
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R3 and, R9 are CF3 groups.
R4 and R10 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a and R'c = C1 to C4 alkyl
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups.
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'a = methoxy
(ii) R'a= ethoxy
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'c = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'c = methoxy
(ii) R'c = ethoxy
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'c, R'd = H
Case 2 R'e = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'e = methoxy
(ii) R'e = ethoxy
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'a = R'c = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'a = R'c = methoxy
(ii) R'a = R'c = ethoxy
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'd = H
Case 2 R'a, R'c, R'e = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'a, R'c, R'e = methoxy
(ii) R'a, R'c, R'e = ethoxy
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'e = H
Case 2 R'b, R'c, R'd = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'b, R'c, R'd = methoxy
(ii) R'b, R'c, R'd = ethoxy
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a = Cyano (CN)
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups.  
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a = Isopropylcyano group
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups.
Monomer C:


Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'c = Isopropylcyano group
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. Monomer C:




[0085] The organic semiconductors compounds specified in the table are particularly preferred as they combine the beneficial properties of high charge transport mobility (of the binders) with a polarity that is more compatible with benign, non-chlorinated solvents that will be desirable for use in large area printing. In addition, as these compounds are more polar once deposited as the OSC layer, or alternatively as a component in the OSC layer, they are expected to be resistant to being re-dissolved by the hydrophobic solvents used for the organic gate insulators (OGI) such as Cytop. Furthermore, it is expected that the polar binders are useful for both top gate and bottom gate OTFTs, particularly for bottom gate OTFTs.

[0086] The copolymers according to the present invention preferably have a number average molecular weight (Mn) of between 500 and 100,000, more preferably between 1600 and 20000, more preferably between 500 and 10000, even more preferably between 850 and 5000.

[0087] Also disclosed herein, copolymers preferably have between 1 and 100000 monomer units having the Formula (A) and between 1 and 100000 fluorene monomer units having the Formula (K). More preferably, the copolymers have between 1 and 1000 monomer units having the Formula (A) and between 1 and 1000 fluorene monomer units having the Formula (K). More preferably, the copolymers have between 1 and 100 monomer units having the Formula (A) and between 1 and 100 fluorene monomer units having the Formula (K). Yet even more preferably, the copolymers have between 1 and 10 monomer units having the Formula (A) and between 1 and 10 fluorene monomer units having the Formula (K).

[0088] Preferably, the organic semiconductor compositions disclosed herein contain less than 10% by weight, more preferably less than 5% by weight, more preferably less than 1%, more preferably, substantially no organic binders which have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of less than 3.4.

[0089] Preferred PAHCs and compositions also disclosed herein contain at least 20 wt. %, more preferably at least 20-40 wt. % (of the total weight of all monomer units (A) and (K) in the copolymer or composition) of a BXBX monomer unit having the Formula (A) and at least 20 wt. %, preferably at least 20-80 wt. %, more preferably at least 50 wt. %, and even more preferably at least 60-80 wt.% of a monomer unit having the Formula (K).

[0090] The BXBX copolymers may be produced according to the following general synthetic regime. For simplicity, a representative BXBX monomer is shown (no further substitutions are shown, the skilled person understanding how this can be genericised to the structures shown above) being coupled to a representative fluorene monomer. The coupling reaction is preferably a Yamamoto type coupling (using Nickel chloride, zinc, 2,2'-bipyridyl, triphenylphosphine and dimethyl acetamide). However, Suzuki coupling is also possible, although in this case it is preferable to remove the boronic esters from the resulting semiconducting polymer.

wherein α and β are preferably integers of 1-100000; and R' groups have the same definition as R1', R2' groups defined below. The halogen end groups are preferentially reacted either by substitution or hydrogentation.

wherein α and β are preferably integers of 1-100000; and R' groups have the same definition as R1', R2' groups defined below. On completion of the coupling reaction, the halogen and boronic ester end groups are preferably substituted by other groups, for example by hydrogenation and/or hydrolysis respectively.

[0091] Following the polymerization step to form the copolymer, the copolymer may be cross-linked. Cross-linking may be achieved by any known technique. Examples include the application of heat and/or moisture, ethylene oxide treatment, UV irradiation, gamma sterilisation, electron beam irradiation, and autoclaving.

[0092] Thus, also disclosed herein, there is provided a process for producing a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Copolymer (PAHC) comprising copolymerising a composition containing at least one BXBX monomer unit selected from the structure A':

and at least one monomer unit selected from the structure K':

wherein each of R groups, and k and I have the same general and preferred meanings as described in relation to the PAHC definitions above; wherein each R1', R2', R3' and R4', each of which may be the same or different, is selected from the same group as R1, R2, R3, R4; and wherein preferably at least one of the groups R1',

R2', R3', R4' is a polar group or polarising group and for the monomer group (K), -* represents a bond to another monomer unit having the Formula (A) or (K); and

n' = 1 to 3.

wherein X' is a halogen atom or a cyclic borate group; and

wherein Z' is a halogen atom.



[0093] Alternatively, X' may be a cyclic borate group and then in this case, Z' may be a halogen.

[0094] Preferably, the cyclic borate group is



[0095] Preferably, the process is carried out in a solvent, preferably an organic solvent, preferably an aromatic organic solvent.

[0096] The compositions disclosed herein can comprise additional curable monomers, for example, diluent monomers. Examples of suitable materials include radically curable monomer compounds, such as acrylate and methacrylate monomer compounds. Examples of acrylate and methacrylate monomers include isobornyl acrylate, isobornyl methacrylate, lauryl acrylate, lauryl methacrylate, isodecylacrylate, isodecylmethacrylate, caprolactone acrylate, 2-phenoxyethyl acrylate, isooctylacrylate, isooctylmethacrylate, butyl acrylate, alkoxylated lauryl acrylate, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, ethoxylated nonyl phenol methacrylate, ethoxylated hydroxyethyl methacrylate, methoxy polyethylene glycol monoacrylate, methoxy polyethylene glycol monomethacrylate, tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate, as well as mixtures or combinations thereof.

[0097] In addition, multifunctional acrylate and methacrylate monomers and oligomers can be included in the compositions as reactive diluents and as materials that can increase the crosslink density of the cured composition. Examples of suitable multifunctional acrylate and methacrylate monomers and oligomers include pentaerythritol tetraacrylate, pentaerythritol tetramethacrylate, 1,2-ethylene glycol diacrylate, 1,2-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate, 1,6-hexanediol dimethacrylate, 1,12-dodecanol diacrylate, 1,12-dodecanol dimethacrylate, tris(2-hydroxy ethyl) isocyanurate triacrylate, propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate, hexanediol diacrylate, tripropylene glycol diacrylate, dipropylene glycol diacrylate, ethoxylated bisphenol A diacrylate, ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate, alkoxylated hexanediol diacrylate, alkoxylated cyclohexane dimethanol diacrylate, polyethylene glycol diacrylate, polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate, tris (2-hydroxy ethyl) isocyanurate triacrylate, amine modified polyether acrylates (available as PO 83 F®, LR 8869®, and/or LR 8889® (all available from BASF Corporation), trimethylolpropane triacrylate, glycerol propoxylate triacrylate, dipentaerythritol pentaacrylate, dipentaerythritol hexaacrylate, ethoxylated pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (available from Sartomer Co. Inc. as SR 494®), as well as mixtures and combinations thereof. When a reactive diluent is added to the composition, the reactive diluent is added in any desired or effective amount, for example at least about 1 percent by weight of the carrier, at least about 35 percent by weight of the carrier, no more than about 98 percent by weight of the carrier, no more than about 75 percent by weight of the carrier, although the amount of diluent can be outside of these ranges.

[0098] Copolymers disclosed herein may have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of greater than 1.5, preferably greater than 2, preferably greater than 3. Particularly preferably, copolymers disclosed herein are semiconducting copolymers having a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 1.5 and 8, more preferably between 3.4 and 8. The polyacene copolymers may have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 7, more preferably between 3.4 and 6.5, yet more preferably between 3.4 and 4.5 and even more preferably between 3.4 and 4.0. Copolymers are preferably semiconducting copolymers and may have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of greater than 3.4, for example greater than 3.8, greater than 4.0, greater than 4.2 and the like.

[0099] Preferably, the organic semiconductor compositions disclosed herein contain less than 10% by weight, more preferably less than 5% by weight, more preferably less than 1% by weight, more preferably, substantially no copolymers which have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of less than 3.4. Preferably, the permittivity is determined by the method disclosed in WO 2004/102690 or by using the method disclosed herein, preferably by using the method disclosed herein.

[0100] Preferably, the copolymers disclosed herein are semiconducting copolymers having a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 8. Preferably, the copolymers have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 7, more preferably between 3.4 and 6.5, and even more preferably between 3.4 and 4.5. The permittivity of the copolymers can be measured using any standard method known to those skilled in the art. Preferably, the permittivity is determined by the method disclosed in WO 2004/102690 or by using the method disclosed herein, preferably by using the method disclosed herein.

Monomer Units of Formula (A)



[0101] The preferred characteristics of the BXBX monomer units (A) are as defined above, except that any reference to monomer (B) should be considered to be a reference to monomer (K).

Monomer Units (K)



[0102] The following are some preferred characteristics of the fluorene monomer unit defined above as (K).

[0103] In monomer unit (K), preferably each R1', R2', R3', R4', each of which may be the same or different, is selected from hydrogen; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl group; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkenyl group; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group; an optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl group; an optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl group; an optionally substituted C1-C10 heterocyclic group; an optionally substituted C1-C10 heteroaryl group; an optionally substituted C1-C10 alkoxy group; an optionally substituted C6-C10 aryloxy group; an optionally substituted C7-C10 alkylaryloxy group; an optionally substituted C2-C10 alkoxycarbonyl group; an optionally substituted C7-C20 aryloxycarbonyl group; a cyano group (-CN); a carbamoyl group (-C(=O)NR15R16); a carbonyl group (-C(=O)-R17); a carboxyl group (-CO2R18); a cyanate group (-OCN); an isocyano group (-NC); an isocyanate group (-NCO); a thiocyanate group (-SCN) or a thioisocyanate group (-NCS); an optionally substituted amino group; a hydroxy group; a nitro group; a CF3 group; a halo group (Cl, Br, F, I); -SR19; -SO3H; -SO2R20; -SF5; an optionally substituted silyl group; a C2-C10 alkynyl group substituted with a SiH2R22 group, a C2-C10 alkynyl substituted with a SiHR22 R23 group, or a C2-C10 alkynyl substituted with a -Si(R22)x(R23)y(R24)z group, wherein each of x, y and z, and R15, R16, R18, R19 and R20, R22, R23 and R24 are as defined above.

[0104] In monomer unit (K), preferably each R1', R2', R3', R4', each of which may be the same or different, is H, methyl, methoxy, cyano, cyanomethyl, preferably H.

[0105] Preferably, in monomer unit (K), at least one of R1', R2', R3' and R4' is a polar group or more polarising group and n = 1 to 100, preferably 1 to 50, preferably 1 to 20, even more preferably 1 to 10 and more preferably 1 to 5, wherein n refers to the number of monomer units. Preferably, at least one of R1', R2', R3' R4', more preferably at least two of R1', R2', R3' R4' are polar groups or polarising groups.

[0106] Preferably, the one or more polar or polarising group(s) is independently selected from the group consisting of nitro group, nitrile group, C1-40 alkyl group substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; a C1-40 alkoxy group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; a C1-40 carboxylic acid group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; a C2-40 carboxylic acid ester optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; sulfonic acid optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; sulfonic acid ester optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; cyanate group, isocyanate group, thiocyanate group, thioisocyanate group; and an amino group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; and combinations thereof.

[0107] Preferably, the one or more polar or polarising group(s) is independently selected from the group consisting of nitro group, nitrile group, C1-10 alkyl group substituted with a nitrile group, a cyanate group, or an isocyanate group; C1-20 alkoxy group, C1-20 carboxylic acid group, C2-20 carboxylic acid ester; sulfonic acid ester; cyanate group, isocyanate group, thiocyanate group, thioisocyanate group, and an amino group; and combinations thereof.

[0108] More preferably the polar or polarizing group is selected from the group consisting of C1-4 cyanoalkyl group, C1-10 alkoxy group, nitrile group and combinations thereof.

[0109] More preferably the polar or polarizing group(s) is selected from the group consisting of cyanomethyl, cyanoethyl, cyanopropyl, cyanobutyl, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, butoxy, nitrile, NH2 and combinations thereof. Preferably at least one of the R1', R2', R3', R4' groups is a polar group or more polarising group, which may be the same or different.

[0110] Yet more preferably, the polar or polarizing group(s) is selected from the group consisting of isopropyl cyano, cyclohexylcyano, methoxy, ethoxy, nitrile and combinations thereof. Preferably at least one of R1', R2', R3', R4' is a polar or more polarising group, which may be the same or different.

[0111] More preferably, the polar group or polarizing group(s) is selected from the group consisting of methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, butoxy and combinations thereof, wherein at least one of R1', R2', R3' and R4' is 1 or 2 polar or more polarising group, which may be the same or different.

[0112] More preferably, polar or polarizing group(s) is selected from the group consisting of methoxy and ethoxy, wherein at least one of R1', R2', R3', R4' is 1 or 2 of the same polar or more polarising group.

[0113] Preferably, R1', R2', R3', R4', are independently selected from the groups consisting of C1-2 alkoxy, C1-3 cyanoalkyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0114] Preferably, R1', R2', R3', R4', are independently selected from the group consisting of C1-4 alkoxy, C3-20 cycloalkylcyano, C1-4 cyanoalkyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0115] Preferably, R3', is independently selected from the group consisting of 1 C1-4 alkoxy, and n = 1 to 10.

[0116] Preferably, R3' and R4', are independently selected from the group consisting of methoxy, ethoxy, cyanomethyl, cyanoethyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0117] Preferably, R4' is independently selected from the group consisting of 1 C1-4 alkoxy, and n = 1 to 10.

[0118] Preferably, R1', R2', R3', R4' are independently selected from methoxy, ethoxy, isopropylcyano, cyanomethyl, cyanoethyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0119] Preferably, R1', R2', R3', R4' are independently selected from methoxy, ethoxy, cyanomethyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0120] Preferably, R1', R2', R3', R4' are independently selected from methoxy, ethoxy and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0121] The copolymers disclosed herein may be a random or block copolymer of different monomer units. In such a case, any monomer unit defined by Formula (A) or (K), may be combined with a different or same monomer unit of (A) or (K) provided that at least one monomer unit (A) is bonded to at least one monomer unit (K).

[0122] The ratio of the monomers in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon copolymers can be altered to allow for adjustment of the permittivity relative to a homopolymer. The monomer unit of (A) or (K) is mixed with monomer unit (L). Furthermore, preferably the monomer unit of (A) or (K) may be mixed with monomer units which do not meet the definition of (A) or (K), provided that the average permittivity of the binder in the compositions is preferably between 3.4 and 8.0. In this regard, other suitable monomer units include cis and trans-indenofluorene monomers such as (M and M') respectively and spirobifluorene monomers such as (N):







wherein each R1", R2", R3", R4", R5", R6" and R7", each of which may be the same or different, is selected from the same group as R1 to R7, already defined above;

Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, which may be the same or different, each represent, independently an optionally substituted C6-40 aromatic group (mononuclear or polynuclear). Preferably at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with at least one polar or more polarising group, and n = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 10 and more preferably 1 to 5. Preferably, at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4, more preferably 1, 2 or 3, more preferably 1 or 2, preferably 1 polar or more polarising group(s); and

n" = 1 to 3.



[0123] When the PAHC comprises one or more monomers (L), (M), (M') and/or (N), the PAHC is comprised of monomer (A) in an amount of at least 20 wt. %; monomer (K) in an amount of at least 60 wt. % and the remainder is comprised of monomers (L), (M), (M') and/or (N), based on the total weight of all monomer units in the copolymer.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Copolymers (A and O)



[0124] Also disclosed herein, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Copolymers (hereinafter PAHCs) comprise a mixture of at least one benzochalcogenophenobenzochalcogenophene (hereafter referred to as BXBX) monomer unit having the Formula (A) and at least one indenofluroene monomer unit having the Formula (O):





Formula (O/O') -represents cis and/or trans-indenofluorene isomers wherein

Y1 and Y2 are independently S or Se;

k is 0 or 1

I is 0 or 1

wherein each of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11 and R12, which may be the same or different, independently represents hydrogen; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C40 alkyl group; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C40 alkenyl group; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C40 alkynyl group; an optionally substituted C3-C40 cycloalkyl group; an optionally substituted C6-C40 aryl group; an optionally substituted C1-C40 heterocyclic group; an optionally substituted C1-C40 heteroaryl group; an optionally substituted C1-C40 alkoxy group; an optionally substituted C6-C40 aryloxy group; an optionally substituted C7-C40 alkylaryloxy group; an optionally substituted C2-C40 alkoxycarbonyl group; an optionally substituted C7-C40 aryloxycarbonyl group; a cyano group (-CN); a carbamoyl group (-C(=O)NR15R16); a carbonyl group (-C(=O)-R17); a carboxyl group (-CO2R18); a cyanate group (-OCN); an isocyano group (-NC); an isocyanate group (-NCO); a thiocyanate group (-SCN) or a thioisocyanate group (-NCS); an optionally substituted amino group; a hydroxy group; a nitro group; a CF3 group; a halo group (Cl, Br, F, I); -SR19; -SO3H; -SO2R20; -SF5; an optionally substituted silyl group; a C2-C10 alkynyl group substituted with a SiH2R22 group, a C2-C10 alkynyl substituted with a SiHR22R23 group, or a C2-C10 alkynyl substituted with a -Si(R22)x(R23)y(R24)z group;

wherein each R22 group is independently selected from the group consisting of a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl group, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C20 cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkenyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 cycloalkylalkylene group;

each R23 group is independently selected from the group consisting of a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl group, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C20 cycloalkyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 cycloalkylalkylene group;

R24 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C20 cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 cycloalkylalkylene group, a substituted C5-C20 aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 arylalkylene group, an acetyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C3-C20 heterocyclic ring comprising at least one of O,N,S and Se in the ring;

wherein x= 1 or 2; y=1 or 2; z=0 or 1; and (x+y+z)=3;

wherein each of R15, R16, R18, R19 and R20 independently represent H or optionally substituted C1-C40 carbyl or hydrocarbyl group optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms;

wherein R17 represents a halogen atom, H or optionally substituted C1-C40 carbyl or C1-C40 hydrocarbyl group optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms;

wherein at least two of R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10, and R12, are a bond, represented by -*, to another monomer unit having the Formula (A) or (O);

wherein monomer (O/O') is either the cis and/or trans-indenofluorene monomer and each R1', R2', R3' R4', R5', R6', R7', each of which may be the same or different, is selected from the same group as R1, R2, R3, R4, R6, R7 and wherein preferably at least one of the groups ,R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6' and R7' is a polar or polarising group and for the monomer group (O/O') -* represents a bond to another monomer unit having the Formula (A) or (O/O'); and

wherein n' = 1 to 3.



[0125] Preferably, k=l = 0 or 1.

[0126] Preferably k and l = 0

[0127] Preferably, x=2 and y=1.

[0128] Preferably when z=0, R22 and R23 together comprise a combination of (i) branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl group(s) and (ii) branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C8 alkenyl group(s).

[0129] Preferably, any of R22, R23 and R24 may optionally be substituted with a halogen atom.

[0130] Particularly preferred PAHCs according to the present invention are shown in the following table 3:
Table 3
Preferred PAHCs
Monomer AMonomer BMonomer C






Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a R'b R'c R'd R'e= H
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R4 and R10 are C1 to C14 alkyl groups, most preferably n-octyl groups. R5', R6' and R7' are H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups.
R3 and, R9 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 2
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R 3 and R9 are C1 to C14 alkyl groups, most preferably n-octyl groups.
R 4 and R10 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 3
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R4 and R10 are CF3 groups.
R3 and R9 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 4    
Y1 = Y2 are S    
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.    
R3 and, R9 are CF3 groups.    
R4 and R10 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).    
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a and R'c= C1 to C4 alkyl
Case 4 R5', R6' and R7' are H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups.
Case 1    
Case 2 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 3 R'a = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 4 R5', R6' and R7' are H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'a = methoxy
(ii) R'a = ethoxy
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R 4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'c = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3 (i) R'c = methoxy
Case 4 R5', R6' and R7' are H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (ii) R'c = ethoxy
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'c, R'd = H
Case 2 R'e = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3 (i) R'e = methoxy
Case 4 (ii) R'e = ethoxy
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R 4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'a = R'c = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3 R5', R6' and R7' are H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'a = R'c = methoxy
Case 4 (ii) R'a = R'c = ethoxy
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'd = H
Case 2 R'a, R'c, R'e= C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3
Case 4 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups (i) R'a, R'c, R'e = methoxy
(ii) R'a, R'c, R'e = ethoxy
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'e = H
Case 2 R'b, R'c, R'd = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3
Case 4 (i) R'b, R'c, R'd= methoxy
(ii) R'b, R'c, R'd=ethoxy
Case 1   R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a = Cyano (CN)
Case 4
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'a = Isopropylcyano group
Case 3 Monomer C:
Case 4


Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'c = Isopropylcyano group
Case 3 Monomer C:
Case 4 R5', R6' and R7' are H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups.




[0131] The organic semiconductors compounds specified in the table are particularly preferred as they combine the beneficial properties of high charge transport mobility (of the binders) with a polarity that is more compatible with benign, non-chlorinated solvents that will be desirable for use in large area printing. In addition, as these compounds are more polar once deposited as the OSC layer, or alternatively as a component in the OSC layer, they are expected to be resistant to being re-dissolved by the hydrophobic solvents used for the organic gate insulators (OGI) such as Cytop. Furthermore, it is expected that the polar binders are useful for both top gate and bottom gate OTFTs, particularly for bottom gate OTFTs.

[0132] The copolymers according to the present invention preferably have a number average molecular weight (Mn) of between 500 and 100,000, more preferably between 1600 and 20000, more preferably between 500 and 10000, even more preferably between 850 and 5000.

[0133] Also disclosed herein, copolymers preferably have between 1 and 100000 monomer units having the Formula (A) and between 1 and 100000 cis/trans-indenofluorene monomer units having the Formula (O). More preferably, the copolymers have between 1 and 1000 monomer units having the Formula (A) and between 1 and 1000 cis/trans-indenofluorene monomer units having the Formula (O). More preferably, the copolymers have between 1 and 100 monomer units having the Formula (A) and between 1 and 100 cis/trans-indenofluorene units having the Formula (O). Yet even more preferably, the copolymers have between 1 and 10 monomer units having the Formula (A) and between 1 and 10 cis/trans-indenofluorene monomer units having the Formula (O).

[0134] Preferably, the organic semiconductor compositions disclosed herein contain less than 10% by weight, more preferably less than 5% by weight, more preferably less than 1%, more preferably, substantially no organic binders which have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of less than 3.4.

[0135] Preferred PAHCs and compositions disclosed herein contain at least 20 wt. %, more preferably 20-40 wt. % (of the total of all monomer units in the copolymer or composition) of a BXBX monomer unit having the Formula (A).

[0136] The BXBX copolymers may be produced according to the following general synthetic regime. For simplicity, a representative BXBX monomer is shown (no further substitutions are shown, the skilled person understanding how this can be genericised to the structures shown above) being coupled to a representative cis/trans-indenofluorene monomer. The coupling reaction is preferably a Yamamoto type coupling (using Nickel chloride, zinc, 2,2'-bipyridyl, triphenylphosphine and dimethyl acetamide). However, Suzuki coupling is also possible, although in this case it is preferable to remove the boronic esters from the resulting semiconducting polymer.

wherein α and β are preferably integers of 1-100000; R' has the same definition as for R1', R2', R3' and R4' group defined below. The halogen end groups are preferentially reacted either by substitution or hydrogentation.

wherein α and β are preferably integers of 1-100000; R' has the same definition as for R1', R2', R3' and R4' group defined below. On completion of the coupling reaction, the halogen and boronic ester end groups are preferably substituted by other groups, for example by hydrogenation and/or hydrolysis respectively.

[0137] Following the polymerization step to form the copolymer, the copolymer may be cross-linked. Cross-linking may be achieved by any known technique. Examples include the application of heat and/or moisture, ethylene oxide treatment, UV irradiation, gamma sterilisation, electron beam irradiation, and autoclaving.

[0138] Thus, also disclosed herein, there is provided a process for producing a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Copolymer (PAHC) comprising copolymerising a composition containing at least one BXBX monomer unit selected from the structure A':

and at least one monomer unit selected from the structure O':

wherein each of R and R' groups, and k and l have the same general and preferred meanings as described in relation to the PAHC definitions above; wherein preferably at least one of and R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6', R7' is a polar group or more polarising group; and

wherein X' is a halogen atom or a cyclic borate group; and

wherein Z' is a halogen atom.



[0139] Preferably, the cyclic borate group is



[0140] Preferably, the process is carried out in a solvent, preferably an organic solvent, preferably an aromatic organic solvent.

[0141] The compositions also disclosed herein can comprise additional curable monomers, for example, diluent monomers. Examples of suitable materials include radically curable monomer compounds, such as acrylate and methacrylate monomer compounds. Examples of acrylate and methacrylate monomers include isobornyl acrylate, isobornyl methacrylate, lauryl acrylate, lauryl methacrylate, isodecylacrylate, isodecylmethacrylate, caprolactone acrylate, 2-phenoxyethyl acrylate, isooctylacrylate, isooctylmethacrylate, butyl acrylate, alkoxylated lauryl acrylate, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, ethoxylated nonyl phenol methacrylate, ethoxylated hydroxyethyl methacrylate, methoxy polyethylene glycol monoacrylate, methoxy polyethylene glycol monomethacrylate, tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate, as well as mixtures or combinations thereof.

[0142] In addition, multifunctional acrylate and methacrylate monomers and oligomers can be included in the compositions as reactive diluents and as materials that can increase the crosslink density of the cured composition. Examples of suitable multifunctional acrylate and methacrylate monomers and oligomers include pentaerythritol tetraacrylate, pentaerythritol tetramethacrylate, 1,2-ethylene glycol diacrylate, 1,2-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate, 1,6-hexanediol dimethacrylate, 1,12-dodecanol diacrylate, 1,12-dodecanol dimethacrylate, tris(2-hydroxy ethyl) isocyanurate triacrylate, propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate, hexanediol diacrylate, tripropylene glycol diacrylate, dipropylene glycol diacrylate, ethoxylated bisphenol A diacrylate, ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate, alkoxylated hexanediol diacrylate, alkoxylated cyclohexane dimethanol diacrylate, polyethylene glycol diacrylate, polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate, tris (2-hydroxy ethyl) isocyanurate triacrylate, amine modified polyether acrylates (available as PO 83 F®, LR 8869®, and/or LR 8889® (all available from BASF Corporation), trimethylolpropane triacrylate, glycerol propoxylate triacrylate, dipentaerythritol pentaacrylate, dipentaerythritol hexaacrylate, ethoxylated pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (available from Sartomer Co. Inc. as SR 494®), as well as mixtures and combinations thereof. When a reactive diluent is added to the composition, the reactive diluent is added in any desired or effective amount, for example at least about 1 percent by weight of the carrier, at least about 35 percent by weight of the carrier, no more than about 98 percent by weight of the carrier, no more than about 75 percent by weight of the carrier, although the amount of diluent can be outside of these ranges.

[0143] Copolymers disclosed herein may have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of greater than 1.5, preferably greater than 2, preferably greater than 3. Particularly preferably, copolymers are semiconducting copolymers having a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 1.5 and 8, more preferably between 3.4 and 8. Preferably, the polyacene copolymers have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 7, more preferably between 3.4 and 6.5, yet more preferably between 3.4 and 4.5 and even more preferably between 3.4 and 4.0. Copolymers are preferably semiconducting copolymers and may have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of greater than 3.4, for example greater than 3.8, greater than 4.0, greater than 4.2 and the like.

[0144] Preferably, the organic semiconductor compositions disclosed herein contain less than 10% by weight, more preferably less than 5% by weight, more preferably less than 1% by weight, more preferably, substantially no copolymers which have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of less than 3.4. Preferably, the permittivity is determined by the method disclosed in WO 2004/102690 or by using the method disclosed herein, preferably by using the method disclosed herein.

[0145] Preferably, the copolymers disclosed herein are semiconducting copolymers having a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 8. Preferably, the copolymers have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 7, more preferably between 3.4 and 6.5, and even more preferably between 3.4 and 4.5. The permittivity of the copolymers can be measured using any standard method known to those skilled in the art. Preferably, the permittivity is determined by the method disclosed in WO 2004/102690 or by using the method disclosed herein, preferably by using the method disclosed herein.

Monomer Units of Formula (A)



[0146] The preferred characteristics of the BXBX monomer units (A) are as defined above, except that any reference to monomer (B) should be considered to be a reference to monomer (O).

Monomer Units (O)/(O')



[0147] The following are some preferred characteristics of the cis/trans-indenofluorene monomer unit defined above as (O)/(O').

[0148] In monomer unit (O)/(O'), preferably each R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6' and R7', each of which may be the same or different, is selected from hydrogen; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl group; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkenyl group; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group; an optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl group; an optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl group; an optionally substituted C1-C10 heterocyclic group; an optionally substituted C1-C10 heteroaryl group; an optionally substituted C1-C10 alkoxy group; an optionally substituted C6-C10 aryloxy group; an optionally substituted C7-C10 alkylaryloxy group; an optionally substituted C2-C10 alkoxycarbonyl group; an optionally substituted C7-C20 aryloxycarbonyl group; a cyano group (-CN); a carbamoyl group (-C(=O)NR15R16); a carbonyl group (-C(=O)-R17); a carboxyl group (-CO2R18); a cyanate group (-OCN); an isocyano group (-NC); an isocyanate group (-NCO); a thiocyanate group (-SCN) or a thioisocyanate group (-NCS); an optionally substituted amino group; a hydroxy group; a nitro group; a CF3 group; a halo group (Cl, Br, F, I); -SR19; -SO3H; -SO2R20; -SF5; an optionally substituted silyl group; a C2-C10 alkynyl group substituted with a SiH2R22 group, a C2-C10 alkynyl substituted with a SiHR22 R23 group, or a C2-C10 alkynyl substituted with a -Si(R22)x(R23)y(R24)z group, wherein each of x, y and z, and R15, R16, R18, R19 and R20, R22, R23 and R24 are as defined above.

[0149] In monomer unit (O)/(O'), preferably each R1', R2', R3', R4', each of which may be the same or different, is H, methyl, methoxy, cyano, cyanomethyl, preferably H.

[0150] Preferably, in monomer unit (O)/(O'), at least one of R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6' and R7' is a polar or more polarising group and n = 1 to 100, preferably 1 to 50, preferably 1 to 20, even more preferably 1 to 10 and more preferably 1 to 5, wherein n refers to the number of monomer units. Preferably, at least one of R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6' and R7', more preferably at least two of R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6', R7' are polar or polarising groups.

[0151] Preferably, the one or more polar or polarising group(s) is independently selected from the group consisting of nitro group, nitrile group, C1-40 alkyl group substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; a C1-40 alkoxy group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; a C1-40 carboxylic acid group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; a C2-40 carboxylic acid ester optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; sulfonic acid optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; sulfonic acid ester optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; cyanate group, isocyanate group, thiocyanate group, thioisocyanate group; and an amino group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; and combinations thereof.

[0152] Preferably, the one or more polar or polarising group(s) is independently selected from the group consisting of nitro group, nitrile group, C1-10 alkyl group substituted with a nitrile group, a cyanate group, or an isocyanate group; C1-20 alkoxy group, C1-20 carboxylic acid group, C2-20 carboxylic acid ester; sulfonic acid ester; cyanate group, isocyanate group, thiocyanate group, thioisocyanate group, and an amino group; and combinations thereof.

[0153] More preferably the polar or polarizing group is selected from the group consisting of C1-4 cyanoalkyl group, C1-10 alkoxy group, nitrile group and combinations thereof.

[0154] More preferably the polar or polarizing group(s) is selected from the group consisting of cyanomethyl, cyanoethyl, cyanopropyl, cyanobutyl, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, butoxy, nitrile, NH2 and combinations thereof. Preferably at least one of the R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6', R7' groups is a polar or more polarising group, which may be the same or different.

[0155] Yet more preferably, the polar or polarizing group(s) is selected from the group consisting of isopropyl cyano, cyclohexylcyano, methoxy, ethoxy, nitrile and combinations thereof. Preferably at least one of R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6', R7' is a polar or more polarising group, which may be the same or different.

[0156] More preferably, the polar group or polarizing group(s) is selected from the group consisting of methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, butoxy and combinations thereof, wherein at least one of R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6', R7' is a polar or more polarising group, which may be the same or different.

[0157] More preferably, the polar or polarizing group(s) is selected from the group consisting of methoxy and ethoxy, wherein at least one of R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6', R7' is the same polar or more polarising group. Yet more preferably, at least one of R5', R6', R7' is the same polar or more polarising group.

[0158] Preferably, R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6', R7', are independently selected from the groups consisting of C1-2 alkoxy, C1-3 cyanoalkyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0159] Preferably, R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6', R7', are independently selected from the group consisting of C1-4 alkoxy, C3-20 cycloalkylcyano, C1-4 cyanoalkyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0160] Preferably, R6' R6' and R7', is independently selected from the group consisting of 1 C1-4 alkoxy, and n = 1 to 10.

[0161] Preferably, R5', R6' and R7', are independently selected from the group consisting of methoxy, ethoxy, cyanomethyl, cyanoethyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0162] Even more preferably, the monomer unit (O)/(O') comprises at least one substituent that is methoxy, or cyano,

[0163] Preferably, R4' is independently selected from the group consisting of 1 C1-4 alkoxy, and n = 1 to 10.

[0164] Preferably, R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6', R7' are independently selected from methoxy, ethoxy, isopropylcyano, cyanomethyl, cyanoethyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0165] Preferably, R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6', R7' are independently selected from methoxy, ethoxy, cyanomethyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0166] Preferably, R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6', R7' are independently selected from methoxy, ethoxy and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.

[0167] The copolymers disclosed herein may be a random or block copolymer of different monomer units. In such a case, any monomer unit defined by Formula (A) or (O)/(O'), may be combined with a different or same monomer unit of (A) or (O)/(O') provided that at least one monomer unit (A) is bonded to at least one monomer unit (O)/(O').

[0168] The ratio of the monomers in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon copolymers can be altered to allow for adjustment of the permittivity relative to a homopolymer. The monomer unit of (A) or (O)/(O') is mixed with monomer unit (P). Furthermore, optionally the monomer unit of (A) or (O)/(O') may be mixed with monomer units which do not meet the definition of (A) or (O)/(O'), provided that the average permittivity of the binder in the compositions is preferably between 3.4 and 8.0. In this regard, other suitable monomer units include fluorene monomers such as (Q) and spirobifluorene monomers such as (R):





wherein each R1" R2", R3" and R4", each of which may be the same or different, is selected from the same group as R1, R2, R3 and R4, already defined above;

Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, which may be the same or different, each represent, independently an optionally substituted C6-40 aromatic group (mononuclear or polynuclear). Preferably at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with at least one polar or more polarising group, and n = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 10 and more preferably 1 to 5. Preferably, at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4, more preferably 1, 2 or 3, more preferably 1 or 2, preferably 1 polar or more polarising group(s); and

n" = 1 to 3.



[0169] When the PAHC comprises one or more monomers (P), (Q) and/or (R), the PAHC is comprised of monomer (A) in an amount of at least 20 wt. %; monomer (O) in an amount of at least 60 wt. % and the remainder is comprised of monomers (P), (Q) and/or (R), based on the total weight of all monomer units in the copolymer.

Organic Semiconductor Compositions



[0170] The present invention is also concerned with organic semiconductor compositions.

[0171] An organic semiconductor composition according to the present invention comprises a copolymer composition, the composition having a permittivity at 1000 Hz of greater than 1.5, more preferably greater than 3.4, and yet more preferably between 1.5 and 6.5, even more preferably between 3 and 6.5, more preferably between 3.0 to 5.0 and still more preferably between 3.4 to 4.5.

[0172] The organic semiconductor composition according to the present invention can comprise a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon copolymer according to the invention. In a preferred embodiment, an organic semiconductor composition may comprise a copolymer according to the invention, further comprising a polycrystalline polyacene small molecule semiconductor as described in our application WO 2012/164282, wherein the PAHC has a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 8, preferably between 3.4 and 6.5, more preferably between 4 and 6.5, yet more preferably between 3.4 to 4.5. In a preferred embodiment, a copolymer according to the invention may be used in combination with a polyacene small molecule or a benzochalcogenophenobenzochalcogenophene 'BXBX' small molecule, where the 'dried state' composition contains between 10 to 50% of the polyacene small molecule and 10 to 90% of the PAHC.

[0173] The organic semiconductor composition according to the present invention can comprise a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon copolymer according to the invention. In a preferred embodiment, an organic semiconductor composition may comprise a copolymer according to the invention, further comprising an organic binder, wherein the organic binder has a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 8, preferably between 3.4 and 6.5, more preferably between 4 and 6.5, yet more preferably between 3.4 to 4.5.

[0174] In a particularly preferred embodiment, a copolymer according to the invention may be used in combination with an organic binder, wherein the organic binder has a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 8.0, preferably between 3.6 and 6.5, more preferably between 3.4 to 4.5.

[0175] In yet another preferred embodiment, a copolymer of the invention preferably has a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 8.0, preferably between 3.4 and 4.5.

[0176] The concentration of the copolymer and solvent present in the composition will vary depending on the preferred solution coating method, for example ink jet printing compositions require low viscosity, low solids loading compositions, whilst screen printing processes require high viscosity, high solids loading compositions. Following deposition of the copolymer composition, the solvent is preferably evaporated to afford the semiconductor layer having 1-99.9% by weight of the binder and 0.1 to 99% by weight of the copolymer (in the printed or dried state) based on a total weight of the composition; preferably the semiconductor layer having 25 to 75% by weight of the small molecule polyacene and 25 to 75% by weight of the copolymer.

[0177] In the composition prior to deposition, one or more of the PAHCs according to the invention is preferably present at a concentration of at least 0.1 wt%, preferably 0.5 wt% based on a total weight of the composition. The upper limit of the concentration of the PAHC in the composition is often near the solubility limit of that copolymer in the particular solvent at the temperature of the composition during its application to a substrate such as in the fabrication of an electronic device. Typical compositions of the present invention comprise one of the PAHCs at a concentration ranging from about 0.1 wt%, preferably 0.5 wt% to about 20.0 wt% based on a total weight of the composition, more typically, from about 0.5 wt% to about 10.0 wt%, more typically 0.5 to 5.0, more typically 1 to 3 wt%.

[0178] In the printed or dried composition, one or more of the PAHCs according to the invention is preferably present at a concentration of at least 10 wt% based on a total weight of the composition, preferably between 10 and 90 wt%, more preferably between 20 and 80 wt%, more preferably between 30 and 70 wt%, more preferably between 40 and 60 wt%.

[0179] In a preferred embodiment, one or more solvents may be present in the organic semiconductor compositions.

[0180] Suitable solvents include, but are not limited to, tetrahydrofuran, aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, mesitylene, bromomesitylene, anisole, bromoanisole, bromobenzene, tetralin, o-xylene, 1,4-dioxane, methylethylketone, gamma-butyrolactone, cyclohexanone, morpholine, N-methylpyrollidone, ethyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, decalin or mixtures of two or more thereof. Preferably, no chlorinated solvents are used.

[0181] Solvent blends may also be utilised. Suitable solvent blends include, but are not limited to compositions of the above solvents in conjunction with solvents such as dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulfoxide, methyl ethyl ketone, dichloromethane, dichlorobenzene, furfuryl alcohol, dimethoxyethane and ethyl acetate, higher boiling point alkanes such as n-heptane and alcohols such as isopropyl alchohol. Such compositions (prior to deposition) preferably contain a suitable solvent in an amount of greater than 50 wt% based on a total weight of the composition, preferably between 60 and 95 wt% based on a total weight of the composition.

[0182] In yet another preferred embodiment, one or more additional composition components may be present in the organic semiconductor composition. Suitable additional composition components include, but are not limited to, a polymer additive, a rheological modifier, a surfactant, another semiconductor that is a matched hole transfer compound for the copolymer. In some exemplary embodiments, the compositions comprise a polymer additive selected from the group consisting of polystyrene, poly(alpha-methylstyrene), poly(pentafluorostyrene), poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(4-cyanomethyl styrene), poly(4-vinylphenol), or any other suitable polymer disclosed in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2004/0222412 A1 or U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007/0146426 A1. In some desired embodiments, the polymer additive comprises polystyrene, poly(alpha-methylstyrene), poly(pentafluorostyrene) or poly(methyl methacrylate). In some exemplary embodiments, the compositions comprise a surfactant selected from fluorinated surfactants or fluorosurfactants. When present, each additional composition component is independently present in an amount of greater than 0 to about 50 wt% based on a total weight of the composition. Preferably, each additional composition component is independently present in an amount ranging from about 0.0001 to about 10.0 wt% based on a total weight of the composition. For example, when a polymer is present in the composition, the polymer additive is typically present in an amount of greater than 0 to about 5.0 wt%, preferably from about 0.5 to about 3.0 wt% based on a total weight of the composition. For example, when a surfactant is present in the composition, the surfactant is preferably present in an amount of greater than 0 to about 1.0 wt%, more typically, from about 0.001 to about 0.5 wt% based on a total weight of the composition.

[0183] The organic semiconductor composition according to the present invention preferably has a charge mobility value of at least 0.5 cm2V-1s-1, preferably between 0.5 and 8.0 cm2V-1s-1, more preferably between 0.5 and 6.0 cm2V-1s-1, more preferably between 0.8 and 5.0 cm2V-1s-1, more preferably between 1.0 and 5.0 cm2V-1s-1, more preferably between 1.5 and 5.0 cm2V-1s-1, more preferably between 2.0 and 5.0 cm2V-1s-1. The charge mobility value of the semiconductor composition can be measured using any standard method known to those skilled in the art, such as techniques disclosed in J. Appl. Phys., 1994, Volume 75, page 7954 and WO 2005/055248, preferably by those described in WO 2005/055248.

[0184] The organic semiconductor composition according to the present invention may be prepared by any known method within the common general knowledge of a person skilled in the art. In a preferred embodiment, the organic semiconductor composition is prepared by the method disclosed in WO 2005/055248 or by using the method disclosed herein, preferably by using the method disclosed herein.

[0185] Preferably, organic semiconductor compositions according to the present invention are semiconducting compositions having a permittivity at 1000 Hz greater than 1.5, more preferably greater than 3.4, and yet more preferably, between 3.4 and 8. In a preferred embodiment, the compositions have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 4.0 and 7, more preferably between 4.0 and 6.5, even more preferably between 4.0 and 6 and yet more preferably between 3.4 and 4.5.

Organic Semiconductor Layers



[0186] The present invention is also concerned with organic semiconductor layers.

[0187] The organic semiconductor compositions according to the present invention may be deposited onto a variety of substrates, to form organic semiconductor layers.

[0188] The organic semiconductor layer according to the present invention may be prepared using a method comprising the steps of:
  1. (i) Mixing the organic semiconductor composition according to the present invention with a solvent to form a semiconductor layer formulation;
  2. (ii) Depositing said formulation onto a substrate; and
  3. (iii) Optionally removing the solvent to form an organic semiconductor layer.


[0189] Useful substrate materials include, but are not limited to, polymeric films such as polyamides, polycarbonates, polyimides, polyketones, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), and inorganic substrates such as silica, alumina, silicon wafers and glass. The surface of a given substrate may be treated, e.g. by reaction of chemical functionality inherent to the surface with chemical reagents such as silanes or exposure of the surface to plasma, in order to alter the surface characteristics.

[0190] Prior to depositing the organic semiconductor composition onto the substrate, the composition may be combined with one or more solvents in order to facilitate the deposition step. Suitable solvents include any solvent which is able to dissolve both the copolymer, and which upon evaporation from the solution blend, give a coherent, defect-free layer. Suitable solvents for the copolymer can be determined by preparing a contour diagram for the material as described in ASTM Method D 3132 at the concentration at which the mixture will be employed. The material is added to a wide variety of solvents as described in the ASTM method.

[0191] Suitable solvents include, but are not limited to, tetrahydrofuran, aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, mesitylene, bromomesitylene, anisole, bromoanisole, bromobenzene, tetralin, o-xylene, 1,4-dioxane, methylethylketone, gamma-butyrolactone, cyclohexanone, morpholine, N-methylpyrollidone, ethyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, decalin or mixtures of two or more thereof. Preferably, no chlorinated solvents are used.

[0192] In accordance with the present invention it has further been found that the level of the solids content in the organic semiconducting layer formulation is also a factor in achieving improved mobility values for electronic devices such as OFETs. The solids content of the formulation is commonly expressed as follows:

wherein: a = mass of polyacene small molecule, b = mass of PAHC and c = mass of solvent.

[0193] The solids content of the formulation is preferably 0.1 to 10% by weight, more preferably 0.5 to 5% by weight.

[0194] Suitable conventional deposition methods include, but are not limited to, spin coating, spray coating, blade/slot-die coating, flexographic printing, gravure printing, roll-to-roll web-coating, and dip coating, as well as printing processes such as ink-jet printing, screen printing, and offset lithography. In one desired embodiment, the resulting composition is a printable composition, even more desirably, an ink jet printable composition.

[0195] Once the composition is deposited onto a substrate surface, the solvent may be removed to form an organic semiconductor layer. Any suitable method may be used to remove the solvent. For example, the solvent may be removed by evaporation or drying. Typically, at least about 80 percent of the solvent is removed to form the semiconductor layer. For example, at least about 85 weight percent, at least about 90 weight percent, at least about 92 weight percent, at least about 95 weight percent, at least about 97 weight percent, at least about 98 weight percent, at least about 99 weight percent, or at least about 99.5 weight percent of the solvent is removed.

[0196] The solvent often can be evaporated at any suitable temperature. In some methods, the solvent mixture is evaporated at ambient temperature. In other methods, the solvent is evaporated at a temperature higher or lower than ambient temperature. For example, a platen supporting the substrate can be heated or cooled to a temperature higher or lower than ambient temperature. In still other preferred methods, some or most of the solvent can be evaporated at ambient temperature, and any remaining solvent can be evaporated at a temperature higher than ambient temperature. In methods where the solvent evaporates at a temperature higher than ambient temperature, the evaporation can be carried out under an inert atmosphere, such as a nitrogen atmosphere.

[0197] Alternatively, the solvent can be removed by application of reduced pressure (i.e., at a pressure that is less than atmospheric pressure) such as through the use of a vacuum. During application of reduced pressure, the solvent can be removed at any suitable temperature such as those described above.

[0198] The rate of removal of the solvent can affect the resulting semiconductor layer. For example, if the removal process is too rapid, poor packing of the semiconductor molecules can occur during crystallisation. Poor packing of the semiconductor molecules can be detrimental to the charge mobility of the semiconductor layer. The solvent can evaporate entirely on its own in an uncontrolled fashion (i.e., no time constraints), or the conditions can be controlled in order to control the rate of evaporation. In order to minimise poor packing, the solvent can be evaporated while slowing the evaporation rate by covering the deposited layer. Such conditions can lead to a semiconductor layer having a relatively high degree of crystallinity.

[0199] After removal of a desired amount of solvent to form the semiconductor layer, the semiconductor layer can be annealed by exposure to heat or solvent vapours, i.e., by thermal annealing or solvent annealing.

[0200] The organic semiconductor layer according to the present invention preferably has a charge mobility value of at least 0.5 cm2V-1s-1, preferably between 0.5 and 8.0 cm2V-1s-1, more preferably between 0.5 and 6.0 cm2V-1s-1, more preferably between 0.8 and 5.0 cm2V-1s-1, more preferably between 1 and 5.0 cm2V-1s-1, more preferably between 1.5 and 5.0 cm2V-1s-1, more preferably between 2.0 and 5.0 cm2V-1s-1. The charge mobility value of the semiconductor layer can be measured using any standard method known to those skilled in the art, such as techniques disclosed in J. Appl. Phys., 1994, Volume 75, page 7954 and WO 2005/055248, preferably by those described in WO 2005/055248.

[0201] Preferably, the organic semiconductor layer(s) of the present invention are semiconducting layers having a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 8. In a preferred embodiment, the layer(s) have a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 4.0 and 7, more preferably between 4.0 and 6.5, yet more preferably between 4.0 and 6 and even more preferably between 3.4 and 4.5

Electronic Devices



[0202] The invention additionally provides an electronic device comprising the organic semiconductor composition according to the present invention.

[0203] The composition may be used, for example, in the form of a semiconducting layer or film. Additionally, the invention preferably provides an electronic device comprising the organic semiconductor layer according to the present invention.

[0204] The thickness of the layer or film may be between 0.02 and 20 microns, 0.2 and 20 microns, preferably between 0.05 and 10 microns, preferably between 0.5 and 10 microns, between 0.05 and 5 microns, even more preferably between 0.5 and 5 microns, yet more preferably between 0.5 and 2 microns, and more preferably between 0.02 and 1 microns.

[0205] The electronic device may include, without limitation, organic field effect transistors (OFETs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photodetectors, organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, sensors, lasers, memory elements and logic circuits.

[0206] Exemplary electronic devices of the present invention may be fabricated by solution deposition of the above-described organic semiconductor composition onto a substrate.

Detailed Description of the Invention


General



[0207] For the heteroacene monomers used in the invention whilst one isomer is shown the invention applies to pure cis isomer, pure trans isomer and mixtures of cis and trans isomers.

[0208] The term "about" in relation to a numerical value x means, for example, x ±10%. The word "substantially" does not exclude "completely" e.g. a composition which is "substantially free" from Y may be completely free from Y. Where necessary, the word "substantially" may be omitted from the definition of the invention.

[0209] "Molecular weight" of a polymeric material (including monomeric or macromeric materials), as used herein, refers to the number-average molecular weight unless otherwise specifically noted or unless testing conditions indicate otherwise.

[0210] A "polymer" means a material formed by polymerising and/or crosslinking one or more monomers, macromers and/or oligomers and having two or more repeat units.

[0211] As used herein, the term "alkyl" group refers to a straight or branched saturated monovalent hydrocarbon radical, having the number of carbon atoms as indicated. By way of non limiting example, suitable alkyl groups include, methyl, ethyl, propyl, n-butyl, t-butyl, iso-butyl and dodecanyl.

[0212] As used herein, the term "alkoxy" group include without limitation, methoxy, ethoxy, 2-methoxyethoxy, t-butoxy, etc.

[0213] As used herein, the term "amino" group includes, without limitation, dimethylamino, methylamino, methylphenylamino, phenylamino, etc.

[0214] The term "carbyl" refers to any monovalent or multivalent organic radical moiety which comprises at least one carbon atom other without any non-carbon atoms (-C=C), or optionally combined with at least one non-carbon atoms such as N, O, S, P, SI, Se, As, Te or Ge (for example carbonyl etc.).

[0215] The term "hydrocarbon" group denotes a carbyl group that additionally contains one or more H atoms and optionally contains one or more hetero atoms.

[0216] A carbyl or hydrocarbyl group comprising 3 or more carbon atoms may be linear, branched and/or cyclic, including spiro and/or fused rings.

[0217] Preferred carbyl or hydrocarbyl groups include alkyl, alkoxy, alkylcarbonyl, alkylcarbonyloxy, alkoxycarbonyloxy, each of which is optionally substituted and has 1 to 40, preferably 1 to 18 carbon atoms, furthermore optionally substituted aryl, aryl derivative or aryloxy having 6 to 40, preferably 6 to 18 carbon atoms, furthermore alkylaryloxy, arylcarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, arylcarbonyloxy and aryloxycarbonyloxy, each or which is optionally substituted and has 7 to 40, more preferable 7 to 25 carbon atoms.

[0218] The carbyl or hydrocarbyl group may be saturated or unsaturated acyclic group, or a saturated or unsaturated cyclic group. Unsaturated acyclic or cyclic groups are preferred, especially alkenyl and alkynyl groups (especially ethynyl).

[0219] In the polyacenes of the present invention, the optional substituents on the said C1-C40 carbyl or hydrocarbyl groups for R1-R14 etc. preferably are selected from: silyl, sulpho, sulphonyl, formyl, amino, imino, nitrilo, mercapto, cyano, nitro, halo, C1-4 alkyl, C6-12 aryl, C1-4 alkoxy, hydroxy and/or all chemically possible combinations thereof. More preferable among these optional substituents are silyl and C6-12 aryl and most preferable is silyl.

[0220] "Substituted alkyl group" refers to an alkyl group having one or more substituents thereon, wherein each of the one or more substituents comprises a monovalent moiety containing one or more atoms other than carbon and hydrogen either alone (e.g., a halogen such as F) or in combination with carbon (e.g., a cyano group) and/or hydrogen atoms (e.g., a hydroxyl group or a carboxylic acid group).

[0221] "Alkenyl group" refers to a monovalent group that is a radical of an alkene, which is a hydrocarbon with at least one carbon-carbon double bond. The alkenyl can be linear, branched, cyclic, or combinations thereof and typically contains 2 to 30 carbon atoms. In some embodiments, the alkenyl contains 2 to 20, 2 to 14, 2 to 10, 4 to 10, 4 to 8, 2 to 8, 2 to 6, or 2 to 4 carbon atoms. Exemplary alkenyl groups include, but are not limited to, ethenyl, propenyl, and butenyl.

[0222] "Substituted alkenyl group" refers to an alkenyl group having (i) one or more C-C double bonds, and (ii) one or more substituents thereon, wherein each of the one or more substituents comprises a monovalent moiety containing one or more atoms other than carbon and hydrogen either alone (e.g., a halogen such as F) or in combination with carbon (e.g., a cyano group) and/or hydrogen atoms (e.g., a hydroxyl group or a carboxylic acid group).

[0223] "Alkynyl group" refers to a monovalent group that is a radical of an alkyne, a hydrocarbon with at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. The alkynyl can be linear, branched, cyclic, or combinations thereof and typically contains 2 to 30 carbon atoms. In some embodiments, the alkynyl contains 2 to 20, 2 to 14, 2 to 10, 4 to 10, 4 to 8, 2 to 8, 2 to 6, or 2 to 4 carbon atoms. Exemplary alkynyl groups include, but are not limited to, ethynyl, propynyl, and butynyl.

[0224] "Substituted alkynyl group" refers to an alkynyl group having (i) one or more C-C triple bonds, and (ii) one or more substituents thereon, wherein each of the one or more substituents comprises a monovalent moiety containing one or more atoms other than carbon and hydrogen either alone (e.g., a halogen such as F) or in combination with carbon (e.g., a cyano group) and/or hydrogen atoms (e.g., a hydroxyl group or a carboxylic acid group or a silyl group).

[0225] "Cycloalkyl group" refers to a monovalent group that is a radical of a ring structure consisting of 3 or more carbon atoms in the ring structure (i.e., only carbon atoms in the ring structure and one of the carbon atoms of the ring structure is the radical).

[0226] "Substituted cycloalkyl group" refers to a cycloalkyl group having one or more substituents thereon, wherein each of the one or more substituents comprises a monovalent moiety containing one or more atoms (e.g., a halogen such as F, an alkyl group, a cyano group, a hydroxyl group, or a carboxylic acid group).

[0227] "Cycloalkylalkylene group" refers to a monovalent group that is a ring structure consisting of 3 or more carbon atoms in the ring structure (i.e., only carbon atoms in the ring), wherein the ring structure is attached to an acyclic alkyl group (typically, from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, more typically, 1 carbon atom) and one of the carbon atoms of the acyclic alkyl group is the radical. "Substituted cycloalkylalkylene group" refers to a cycloalkylalkylene group having one or more substituents thereon, wherein each of the one or more substituents comprises a monovalent moiety containing one or more atoms (e.g., a halogen such as F, an alkyl group, a cyano group, a hydroxyl group, or a carboxylic acid group).

[0228] "Aryl group" refers to a monovalent group that is a radical of an aromatic carbocyclic compound. The aryl can have one aromatic ring or can include up to 5 carbocyclic ring structures that are connected to or fused to the aromatic ring. The other ring structures can be aromatic, non-aromatic, or combinations thereof. Examples of preferred aryl groups include, but are not limited to, phenyl, 2-tolyl, 3-tolyl, 4-tolyl, biphenyl, 4-phenoxyphenyl, 4-fluorophenyl, 3-carbomethoxyphenyl, 4-carbomethoxyphenyl, terphenyl, anthryl, naphthyl, acenaphthyl, anthraquinonyl, phenanthryl, anthracenyl, pyrenyl, perylenyl, and fluorenyl.

[0229] "Substituted aryl group" refers to an aryl group having one or more substituents on the ring structure, wherein each of the one or more substituents comprises a monovalent moiety containing one or more atoms (e.g., a halogen such as F, an alkyl group, a cyano group, a hydroxyl group, or a carboxylic acid group).

[0230] "Arylalkylene group" refers to a monovalent group that is an aromatic ring structure consisting of 6 to 10 carbon atoms in the ring structure (i.e., only carbon atoms in the ring structure), wherein the aromatic ring structure is attached to an acyclic alkyl group having one or more carbon atoms (typically, from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, more typically, 1 carbon atom) and one of the carbons of the acyclic alkyl group is the radical.

[0231] "Substituted arylalkylene group" refers to an arylalkylene group having one or more substituents thereon, wherein each of the one or more substituents comprises a monovalent moiety containing one or more atoms (e.g., a halogen such as F, an alkyl group, a cyano group, a hydroxyl group, or a carboxylic acid group).

[0232] "Acetyl group" refers to a monovalent radical having the formula -C(O)CH3.

[0233] "Heterocyclic ring" refers to a saturated, partially saturated, or unsaturated ring structure comprising at least one of O, N, S and Se in the ring structure.

[0234] "Substituted heterocyclic ring" refers to a heterocyclic ring having one or more substituents bonded to one or more members of the ring structure, wherein each of the one or more substituents comprises a monovalent moiety containing one or more atoms (e.g., a halogen such as F, an alkyl group, a cyano group, a hydroxyl group, or a carboxylic acid group).

[0235] "Carbocyclic ring" refers to a saturated, partially saturated, or unsaturated ring structure comprising only carbon in the ring structure.

[0236] "Substituted carbocyclic ring" refers to a carbocyclic ring having one or more substituents bonded to one or more members of the ring structure, wherein each of the one or more substituents comprises a monovalent moiety containing one or more atoms (e.g., a halogen such as F, an alkyl group, a cyano group, a hydroxyl group, or a carboxylic acid group).

[0237] "Ether group" refers to a -Ra-O-Rb radical wherein Ra is a branched or unbranched alkylene, arylene, alkylarylene or arylalkylene hydrocarbon and Rb is a branched or unbranched alkyl, aryl, alkylaryl or arylalkyl hydrocarbon.

[0238] "Substituted ether group" refers to an ether group having one or more substituents thereon, wherein each of the one or more substituents comprises a monovalent moiety containing one or more atoms other than carbon and hydrogen either alone (e.g., a halogen such as F) or in combination with carbon (e.g., a cyano group) and/or hydrogen atoms (e.g., a hydroxyl group or a carboxylic acid group).

[0239] Unless otherwise defined, a "substituent" or "optional substituent" is preferably selected from the group consisting of halo (I, Br, Cl, F), CN, NO2, NH2, -COOH and OH.

Brief Description of the Drawings



[0240] Figure 1 is a representation of top contact/bottom gate organic thin film transistor (OTFT)

[0241] Figure 2 is a representation of bottom contact/bottom gate (OTFT)

[0242] Figure 3 is a representation of top contact/top gate (OTFT)

[0243] Figure 4 is a representation of bottom contact/top gate (OTFT)

[0244] Labels- A: Substrate; B: Gate electrode; C: Dielectric layer; D: Semiconductor layer; E: Source electrode; F: Gate electrode

Examples of the Present Invention



[0245] The following examples of the present invention are merely exemplary and should not be viewed as limiting the scope of the invention.

Measurement of the Capacitance of the Polymer Binder



[0246] The polymer binder was diluted with tetralin in order to lower its viscosity and make it possible to obtain a film thickness of ∼1 micron when spin coated for the spin speed range 1000-2000 rpm/s. The polymer binder solution was spin coated at 500rpm for 10 seconds, followed by 1500 rpm for 30 seconds, onto ITO coated and cleaned 1 x 1 inch glass substrates.

[0247] To clean the ITO coated substrates they were submerged in a 3% solution of DECon 90 and put in an ultrasonic bath (water temperature >65 °C), washed with deionised water, submerged in deionised water and put in an ultrasonic bath (water temperature >65 °C), washed a further time with deionised water, submerged in isopropyl alcohol and then put in an ultrasonic bath (water temperature >65 °C), and then spin dried.

[0248] After deposition of the polymer binder the substrate was annealed on a hotplate at 120 °C for 5 minutes.

[0249] The substrate was then covered with a capacitance shadow mask, and top electrodes were deposited by evaporation of gold using a thermal deposition method. In order to determine the exact thickness of the polymer binder layer, the thickness was measured using a Dektak 3030 profilometer (available from Veeco, Plainview NY) at three different positions and averaged; these values were subsequently used to calculate the dielectric constants of the polymer binders.

[0250] Capacitance measurements were then carried out using impedance analyser Agilent 43961A and a probe station. In order to improve the electrical contact between the ITO back electrode and the external probe electrode, a conductive silver paste was applied. The sample being measured was placed in a metal box on the metal plate to ensure minimum influence from the external environment.

[0251] Before each set of measurements was obtained, the analyser was calibrated using the 43961A Impedance Test Kit as a compensation routine was carried out to account for internal capacitance of the analyser and test fixture. The measurement calibration was carried out with open and shorted circuit; the dielectric constant was calculated using the following equation:



[0252] Wherein C is the capacitance (Farads), A is the area (m2), d is the coating thickness (m), ε is the dielectric constant (permittivity), and εο is the permittivity of free space and is taken as 8.8854 x 10-12 F/m.

[0253] As a reference sample, a polystyrene sample (Mw∼350,000) having a thickness of 1 µm was tested. The measured and calculated dielectric constant of the polystyrene reference was ε=2.55 at 10,000 Hz, which is in good agreement with the reported value (ε∼2.5), refer to J. R. Wunsch, Polystyrene-Synthesis, Production and Applications, Rapra Review Reports, 2000, Volume 10, No. 4, page 32.

OTFT fabrication method



[0254] A substrate (either glass or a polymer substrate such as PEN) is patterned with Au source drain electrodes either by a process of thermal evaporation through a shadow mask or by photolithography (an adhesion layer of either Cr or Ti is deposited on the substrate prior to deposition of Au). The Au electrodes can the optionally be cleaned using an O2 plasma cleaning process. A solution of organic semiconductor in binder is then applied by spin coating (the sample is flooded with the solution and the substrate is then spun at 500 rpm for 5 seconds then 1500 rpm for 1 minute). The coated substrate is then dried in air on a hot stage. The dielectric material, for example 3 wt% PTFE-AF 1600 (Sigma-Aldrich cat # 469610) dissolved in FC-43) was then applied to the substrate by spin coating (sample flooded then spun at 500 rpm for 5 seconds then 1500 rpm for 30 seconds). The substrate was then dried in air on a hot stage (100 °C for 1 minute). A gate electrode (Au) is then defined over the channel area by evaporation through a shadow mask.

[0255] The mobility of the OTFT for the binders is characterised by placing on a manual probe station connected to a Keithley SCS 4200 semiconductor analyzer. The source drain voltage (VDS) is set at -2V (linear) or -40V (saturation) and the gate voltage (VG) scanned from +20V to -60V. Drain current is measured and mobility calculated from the transconductance.

[0256] The mobility of the OTFT for the formulations is characterised by placing on a semi-auto probe station connected to a Keithley SCS 4200 semiconductor analyzer. The source drain voltage is set at -2V and the gate voltage scanned from +20V to -40V. Drain current is measured and mobility calculated from the transconductance.

[0257] In linear regime, when |VG| > |VDS|, the source-drain current varies linearly with VG. Thus the field effect mobility (µ) can be calculated from the gradient (S) of IDS vs. VG given by equation 1 (where Ci is the capacitance per unit area, W is the channel width and L is the channel length):



[0258] In the saturation regime, the mobility is determined by finding the slope of IDS1/2 vs. VG and solving for the mobility (Equation 2)


Examples of the Present Invention



[0259] The following examples are intended to explain the invention without restricting it. The methods, structures and properties described herein can also be applied to materials that are claimed in this invention but not explicitly described in the examples.

[0260] PAHCs also disclosed herein are shown in the following table 1 and particularly preferred PAHCs according to the present invention are shown in th following tables 2 and 3:
Table 1
Reference PAHCs
Monomer AMonomer A




Case 1 R'a, R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Y1 = Y2 are S  
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.  
R4 and R10 are C1 to C14 alkyl groups, most preferably n-octyl groups.  
R3 and, R9 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).  
Case 2  
Y1 = Y2 are S  
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.  
R 3 and R9 are C1 to C14 alkyl groups, most preferably n-octyl groups.  
R4 and R10 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).  
Case 3  
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R4 and R10 are CF3 groups.
R 3 and R9 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 4
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R3 and, R9 are CF3 groups.
R4 and R10 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 1 R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a and R'c = C1 to C4 alkyl
Case 4
Case 1 R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'a = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3  
Case 4 (i) R'a = methoxy
(ii) R'a = ethoxy
Case 1 R'a, R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'c = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3  
Case 4 (i) R'c = methoxy
(ii) R'c = ethoxy
Case 1 R'a, R'b, R'c, R'd = H
Case 2 R'e = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3  
Case 4 (i) R'e = methoxy
(ii) R'e = ethoxy
Case 1 R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'a = R'c = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3  
Case 4 (i) R'a = R'c = methoxy
(ii) R'a = R'c = ethoxy
Case 1 R'b, R'd = H
Case 2 R'a, R'c, R'e = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3  
Case 4 (i) R'a, R'c, R'e = methoxy
(ii) R'a, R'c, R'e = ethoxy
Case 1 Ra, R'e = H
Case 2 R'b, R'c, R'd = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3  
Case 4 (i) R'b, R'c, R'd = methoxy
(ii) R'b, R'c, R'd = ethoxy
Case 1 R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2  
Case 3 R'a = Cyano (CN)
Case 4  
Case 1 R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2  
Case 3 R'a = Isopropylcyano group
Case 4 Monomer B:


Case 1 R'a, R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2  
Case 3 R'c = Isopropylcyano group
Case 4 Monomer B:


Table 2
Preferred PAHCs of the Invention
Monomer AMonomer BMonomer C






Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Y1 = Y2 are S  
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H. R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups.  
R4 and R10 are C1 to C14 alkyl groups, most preferably n-octyl groups.  
R3 and, R9 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).  
Case 2    
Y1 = Y2 are S    
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.    
R3 and R9 are C1 to C14 alkyl groups,    
most preferably n-octyl groups.    
R4 and R10 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).    
Case 3    
Y1 = Y2 are S    
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.    
R4 and R10 are CF3 groups.    
R3 and R9 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).    
Case 4    
Y1 = Y2 are S    
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.    
R3 and, R9 are CF3 groups.    
R4 and R10 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).    
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a and R'c = C1 to C4 alkyl
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups.
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups  
Case 2 R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 3 R'a = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 (i) R'a = methoxy
alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (ii) R'a = ethoxy
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'c = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3  
Case 4 (i) R'c = methoxy
R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (ii) R'c = ethoxy
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'c, R'd = H
Case 2 R'e = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3  
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'e = methoxy
(ii) R'e = ethoxy
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'a = R'c = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'a = R'c = methoxy
(ii) R'a = R'c = ethoxy
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'd = H
Case 2 R'a, R'c, R'e = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'a, Rc, R'e = methoxy
(ii) R'a, R'c, R'e = ethoxy
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'e = H
Case 2 R'b, R'c, R'd = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'b, R'c, R'd = methoxy
(ii) R'b, R'c, R'd = ethoxy
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2  
Case 3 R'a = Cyano (CN)
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups.
Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2  
Case 3 R'a = Isopropylcyano group
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. Monomer C:


Case 1 R1'= R2'= C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2  
Case 3 R'c = Isopropylcyano group
Case 4 R3', R4' = H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. Monomer C:


Table 3
Preferred PAHCs of the Invention
Monomer AMonomer BMonomer C






Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R4 and R10 are C1 to C14 alkyl groups, most preferably n-octyl groups. R5', R6' and R7' are H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups.
R3 and, R9 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 2
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R3 and R9 are C1 to C14 alkyl groups, most preferably n-octyl groups.
R4 and R10 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 3
Y1 = Y2 are S
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.
R4 and R10 are CF3 groups.
R3 and R9 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).
Case 4
Y1 = Y2 are S    
R1, R2, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12 are all H.    
R3 and, R9 are CF3 groups.    
R 4 and R10 are bonds to another unit of Monomer (A) or (B).    
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a and R'c= C1 to C4 alkyl
Case 4 R5', R6' and R7' are H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups.
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups  
Case 2  
Case 3 R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 4 R'a = C1 to C6 alkoxy
R5', R6' and R7' are H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'a = methoxy
(ii) R'a = ethoxy
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'c = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3  
Case 4 R5', R6' and R7' are H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'c = methoxy
(ii) R'c = ethoxy
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R 4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'c, R'd = H
Case 2 R'e = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3  
Case 4 (i) R'e = methoxy
(ii) R'e = ethoxy
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R 4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'a = R'c = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3
Case 4 R5', R6' and R7' are H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. (i) R'a = R'c = methoxy
(ii) R'a = R'c = ethoxy
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'd = H
Case 2 R'a, R'c, R'e = C1 to C6 alkoxy
Case 3
Case 4 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups (i) R'a, R'c, R'e = methoxy
  (ii) R'a, R'c, R'e = ethoxy
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'e = H
Case 2 R'b, R'c, R'd = C1 to
Case 3 C6 alkoxy
Case 4 (i) R'b, R'c, R'd= methoxy
(ii) R'b, R'c, R'd=ethoxy
Case 1   R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2 R'a = Cyano (CN)
Case 3
Case 4
Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'b, R'c, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'a = Isopropylcyano group
Case 4 Monomer C:


Case 1 R1', R2', R3' and R4' are C1 to C14 alkyl group, preferably n-octyl groups R'a, R'b, R'd, R'e = H
Case 2
Case 3 R'c = Isopropylcyano group
Case 4 R5', R6' and R7' are H or C1 to C4 alkyl groups; or C1 to C4 alkoxy groups; or cyano groups; or isopropyl cyano groups. Monomer C:




[0261] The organic semiconductors compounds specified in the table are particularly preferred as they combine the beneficial properties of high charge transport mobility (of the binders) with a polarity that is more compatible with benign, non-chlorinated solvents that will be desirable for use in large area printing. In addition, as these compounds are more polar once deposited as the OSC layer, or alternatively as a component in the OSC layer, they are expected to be resistant to being re-dissolved by the hydrophobic solvents used for the organic gate insulators (OGI) such as Cytop. Furthermore, it is expected that the polar binders are useful for both top gate and bottom gate OTFTs, particularly for bottom gate OTFTs.


Claims

1. A Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Copolymer (PAHC) comprising a mixture of at least one BXBX monomer unit having the Formula (A), at least one monomer unit having the Formula (B) and one or more monomer units selected from the group consisting of (C), (D), (D') and/or (E):









wherein

Y1 and Y2 are independently S or Se;

k and I are independently 0 or 1

wherein each of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11 and R12, which may be the same or different, independently represents hydrogen; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C40 alkyl group; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C40 alkenyl group; a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C40 alkynyl group; an optionally substituted C3-C40 cycloalkyl group; an optionally substituted C6-C40 aryl group; an optionally substituted C1-C40 heterocyclic group; an optionally substituted C1-C40 heteroaryl group; an optionally substituted C1-C40 alkoxy group; an optionally substituted C6-C40 aryloxy group; an optionally substituted C7-C40 alkylaryloxy group; an optionally substituted C2-C40 alkoxycarbonyl group; an optionally substituted C7-C40 aryloxycarbonyl group; a cyano group (-CN); a carbamoyl group (-C(=O)NR15R16); a carbonyl group (-C(=O)-R17); a carboxyl group (-CO2R18); a cyanate group (-OCN); an isocyano group (-NC); an isocyanate group (-NCO); a thiocyanate group (-SCN) or a thioisocyanate group (-NCS); an optionally substituted amino group; a hydroxy group; a nitro group; a CF3 group; a halo group (Cl, Br, F, I); -SR19; -SO3H; -SO2R20; -SF5-, an optionally substituted silyl group; a C2-C10 alkynyl group substituted with a SiH2R22 group, a C2-C10 alkynyl substituted with a SiHR22R23 group, or a C2-C10 alkynyl substituted with a -Si(R22)x(R23)y(R24)z group;

wherein each R22 group is independently selected from the group consisting of a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl group, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C20 cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkenyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 cycloalkylalkylene group;

each R23 group is independently selected from the group consisting of a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl group, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C20 cycloalkyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 cycloalkylalkylene group;

R24 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a branched or unbranched, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C10 alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C2-C20 cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 cycloalkylalkylene group, a substituted C5-C20 aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C20 arylalkylene group, an acetyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted C3-C20 heterocyclic ring comprising at least one of O,N,S and Se in the ring;

wherein x= 1 or 2; y=1 or 2; z=0 or 1; and (x+y+z)=3;

wherein each of R15, R16, R18, R19 and R20 independently represent H or optionally substituted C1-C40 carbyl or hydrocarbyl group optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms;

wherein R17 represents a halogen atom, H or optionally substituted C1-C40 carbyl or C1-C40 hydrocarbyl group optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms;

wherein at least two of R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10, and R12, are a bond, represented by -*, to another monomer unit having the Formula (A) or (B), or to a monomer unit having a Formula selected from the group consisting of (C), (D), (D') and (E);

wherein each of R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6' and R7', which may be the same or different, is selected from the same group as R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 as defined above;

wherein Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, which may be the same or different, each represent, independently if in different repeat units, an optionally substituted C6-40 aromatic group (mononuclear or polynuclear), wherein preferably at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with at least one polar or polarising groups;

wherein n' = 1 to 3;

wherein monomer (A) is present in an amount of at least 20 wt. %; monomer (B) is present in an amount of at least 60 wt. % and the remainder is comprised of monomers (C), (D), (D') and/or (E), based on the total weight of all monomer units in the copolymer; and

wherein the one or more polar or polarising group(s) is independently selected from the group consisting of: nitro group, nitrile group, C1-40 alkyl group substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; C1-40 alkoxy group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; C1-40 carboxylic acid group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; C2-40 carboxylic acid ester optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; sulfonic acid optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; sulfonic acid ester optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; cyanate group, isocyanategroup, thiocyanate group, thioisocyanate group; and an amino group optionally substituted with a nitro group, a nitrile group, a cyanate group, an isocyanate group, a thiocyanate group or a thioisocyanate group; and combinations thereof.


 
2. A PAHC according to claim 1, wherein monomer unit (B) having the, Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3, which may be the same or different, each representing, independently if in different repeat units, an optionally substituted C6-20 aromatic group (mononuclear or polynuclear), wherein at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 is substituted with at least one or more polar or polarising group, and n = 1 to 20 wherein n refers to the number of the monomer units (B).
 
3. A PAHC according to claim 2, wherein Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 are all phenyl which may be independently substituted with 1 or 2 groups selected from methoxy, cyanomethyl, CN and mixtures thereof, and n = 1 to 10.
 
4. A PAHC according to any preceding claim, wherein R3 = R10 = a C1 to C14 alkyl group or optionally substituted C1 to C14 alkyl group.
 
5. A PAHC according to any preceding claim, wherein k = I = 0 or 1.
 
6. A PAHC according to claim 5, wherein k = 0 and I = 0.
 
7. A PAHC according to any preceding claim, wherein the copolymers are semiconducting copolymers having a permittivity at 1000 Hz of greater than 1.5 as determined in accordance with the method of the description, preferably between 3.4 and 8.
 
8. A PAHC according to any preceding claim, wherein at least one (and more preferably 2) of groups R1, R6, R7, and R12 are (tri-C1-20 hydrocarbylsilyl) C1-4 alkynyl groups, preferably (trihydrocarbylsilyl)ethynyl- groups. Preferably at least one pair of R1/R6 and/or R7/R12 are trihydrocarbylsilyl ethynyl groups.
 
9. A PAHC according to any preceding claim, wherein R1, R3, R6, R7, R9 and R12 are hydrogen.
 
10. A PAHC according to any preceding claim, wherein -Si(R22)x(R23)y(R24)z is selected from the group consisting of trimethylsilyl, triethylsilyl, tripropylsilyl, dimethylethylsilyl, diethylmethylsilyl, dimethylpropylsilyl, dimethylisopropylsilyl, dipropylmethylsilyl, diisopropylmethylsilyl, dipropylethylsilyl, diisopropylethylsilyl, diethylisopropylsilyl, triisopropylsilyl, trimethoxysilyl, triethoxysilyl, triphenylsilyl, diphenylisopropylsilyl, diisopropylphenylsilyl, diphenylethylsilyl, diethylphenylsilyl, diphenylmethylsilyl, triphenoxysilyl, dimethylmethoxysilyl, dimethylphenoxysilyl, and methylmethoxyphenyl.
 
11. A PAHC according to any preceding claim, wherein the at least one BXBX monomer unit has the Formula (A1) or (A2):

wherein each of R2, R5, R8 and R11 are hydrogen;

wherein k and I are both 0;

R1/R6 and/or R8/R11 are (trialkylsilyl)ethynyl groups, -C≡C-SiR22R23R24, wherein R22, R23 and R24 are preferably selected from ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, 1-propenyl or 2-propenyl;

R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10, R11 and R12 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, methyl, ethyl and methoxy,

provided that at least one of each pair of R3/R4 and R9/R10 are a bond, represented by -*, to another monomer unit having the Formula (A), (A1), (B), or to a monomer unit having a Formula selected from the group consisting of (C), (D), (D') and (E);

In monomer units of Formula (A2), R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10 and R12 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C14 alkyl and C1-C6 alkoxy, provided that at least one of each pair of R3/R4 and R9/R10 are a bond, represented by -*, to another monomer unit having the Formula (A), (A1), (A2), (B), or to a monomer unit having a Formula selected from the group consisting of (C), (D), (D') and (E).


 
12. A PAHC according to any preceding claim, wherein the one or more polar or polarising group(s) is independently selected from the group consisting of: nitro group, nitrile group, C1-10 alkyl group substituted with a nitrile group, a cyanate group, or an isocyanate group; C1-20 alkoxy group, C1-20 carboxylic acid group, C2-20 carboxylic acid ester; sulfonic acid ester; cyanate group, isocyanate group, thiocyanate group, thioisocyanate group, and an amino group; and combinations thereof.
 
13. A PAHC according to claim 12, wherein the one or more polar or polarising group(s) is independently selected from the group consisting of: C1-4 cyanoalkyl group, C1-10 alkoxy group, nitrile group and combinations thereof.
 
14. An organic semiconductor composition comprising a PAHC according to any of claims 1 to 13 and a polyacene small molecule, wherein the PAHC has a permittivity at 1000Hz of between 3.4 and 8.0 as determined in accordance with the method of the description, preferably between 3.4 and 4.5.
 
15. An organic semiconductor composition comprising a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Copolymer (PAHC) according to any of claims 1 to 13, wherein the composition has a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3 and 6.5 as determined in accordance with the method of the description.
 
16. An organic semiconductor composition according to claim 15, comprising an organic binder, wherein the organic binder has a permittivity at 1000 Hz of between 3.4 and 8, preferably between 4 and 6.5 as determined in accordance with the method of the description.
 
17. An electronic device comprising a PAHC, an organic semiconductor composition or a semiconductor layer according to any preceding claim, wherein the electronic device is selected from organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS), photodetectors, organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, sensors, lasers, memory elements and logic circuits.
 


Ansprüche

1. Polycyclisches aromatisches Kohlenwasserstoffcopolymer (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Copolymer- PAHC), das eine Mischung aus wenigstens einer BXBX-Monomereinheit, die die Formel (A) aufweist, wenigstens einer Monomereinheit, die die Formel (B) aufweist, und einer oder mehreren Monomereinheiten umfasst, die aus der Gruppe ausgewählt sind, die aus (C), (D), (D') und/oder (E) besteht:









wobei Y1 und Y2 unabhängig S oder Se sind;

k und l unabhängig 0 oder 1 sind, wobei jedes von R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11 und R12, die gleich oder verschieden sein können, unabhängig Folgendes darstellt: Wasserstoff; eine verzweigte oder unverzweigte, substituierte oder unsubstituierte C1-C40-Alkylgruppe; eine verzweigte oder unverzweigte, substituierte oder unsubstituierte C2-C40-Alkenylgruppe; eine verzweigte oder unverzweigte, substituierte oder unsubstituierte C2-C40-Alkinylgruppe; eine optional substituierte C3-C40-Cycloalkylgruppe; eine optional substituierte C6-C40-Arylgruppe; eine optional substituierte heterocyclische C1-C40-Gruppe; eine optional substituierte C1-C40-Heteroarylgruppe; eine optional substituierte C1-C40-Alkoxygruppe; eine optional substituierte C6-C40-Aryloxygruppe; eine optional substituierte C7-C40-Alkylaryloxygruppe; eine optional substituierte C2-C40-Alkoxycarbonylgruppe; eine optional substituierte C7-C40-Aryloxycarbonylgruppe; eine Cyanogruppe (-CN); eine Carbamoylgruppe (-C(=O)NR15R16); ine Carbonylgruppe (-C(=O)-R17); eine Carboxylgruppe (-CO2R18); eine Cyanatgruppe (-OCN); eine Isocyanogruppe (-NC); eine Isocyanatgruppe (-NCO); eine Thiocyanatgruppe (-SCN) oder eine Thioisocyanatgruppe (-NCS); eine optional substituierte Aminogruppe; eine Hydroxygruppe; eine Nitrogruppe; eine CF3-Gruppe; eine Halogruppe (Cl, Br, F, I); -SR19; -SO3H; -SO2R20; -SF5; eine optional substituierte Silylgruppe; eine C2-C10-Alkinylgruppe, die mit einer SiH2R22-Gruppe substituiert ist, ein C2-C10-Alkinyl, das mit einer SiHR22R23-Gruppe substituiert ist, oder ein C2-C10-Alkinyl, das mit einer - Si(R22)x(R23)y(R24)z-Gruppe substituiert ist;

wobei jede R22-Gruppe unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus einer verzweigten oder unverzweigten, substituierten oder unsubstituierten C1-C10-Alkylgruppe, einer verzweigten oder unverzweigten, substituierten oder unsubstituierten C2-C10-Alkinylgruppe, einer substituierten oder unsubstituierten C2-C20-Cycloalkylgruppe, einer substituierten oder unsubstituierten C2-C10-Alkenylgruppe und einer substituierten oder unsubstituierten C6-C20-Cycloalkylalkylengruppe besteht;

wobei jede R23-Gruppe unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus einer verzweigten oder unverzweigten, substituierten oder unsubstituierten C1-C10-Alkylgruppe, einer verzweigten oder unverzweigten, substituierten oder unsubstituierten C2-C10-Alkinylgruppe, einer substituierten oder unsubstituierten C2-C10-Alkenylgruppe, einer substituierten oder unsubstituierten C2-C20-Cycloalkylgruppe und einer substituierten oder unsubstituierten C6-C20-Cycloalkylalkylengruppe besteht;

wobei R24 unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Wasserstoff, einer verzweigten oder unverzweigten, substituierten oder unsubstituierten C2-C10-Alkinylgruppe, einer substituierten oder unsubstituierten C2-C20-Cycloalkylgruppe, einer substituierten oder unsubstituierten C6-C20-Cycloalkylalkylengruppe, einer substituierten C5-C20-Arylgruppe, einer substituierten oder unsubstituierten C6-C20-Arylalkylengruppe, einer Acetylgruppe, einem substituierten oder unsubstituierten heterocyclischen C3-C20-Ring, der O, N, S und/oder Se in dem Ring umfasst, besteht;

wobei x= 1 oder 2; y=1 oder 2; z=0 oder 1; und (x+y+z)=3;

wobei jedes von R15, R16, R18, R19 und R20 unabhängig H oder eine optional substituierte C1-C40-Carbyl- oder -Hydrocarbylgruppe, die optional ein oder mehrere Heteroatome umfasst, darstellt;

wobei R17 ein Halogenatom, H oder eine optional substituierte C1-C40-Carbyl- oder C1-C40-Hydrocarbylgruppe, die optional ein oder mehrere Heteroatome umfasst, darstellt;

wobei wenigstens zwei von R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10, und R12 eine Bindung, die durch -* dargestellt ist, an eine andere Monomereinheit, die die Formel (A) oder (B) aufweist, oder an eine Monomereinheit, die eine Formel aufweist, die aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus (C), (D), (D') und (E) besteht, sind;

wobei jedes von R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6' und R7', die gleich oder verschieden sein können, aus der gleichen Gruppe wie R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 und R7, wie oben definiert, ausgewählt ist;

wobei Ar1, Ar2 und Ar3, die gleich oder verschieden sein können, jeweils unabhängig, wenn in verschiedenen Wiederholungseinheiten, eine optional substituierte aromatische C6-40-Gruppe (einkernig oder mehrkernig) darstellen, wobei bevorzugt Ar1, Ar2 und/oder Ar3 mit wenigstens einer polaren oder einer polarisierenden Gruppe substituiert ist;

wobei n' = 1 bis 3;

wobei Monomer (A) in einer Menge von wenigstens 20 Gew.-% vorliegt; Monomer (B) in einer Menge von mindestens 60 Gew.-% vorliegt und der Rest aus den Monomeren (C), (D), (D') und/oder (E) besteht, basierend auf dem Gesamtgewicht der gesamten Monomereinheiten in dem Copolymer; und

wobei die eine oder die mehreren polaren oder polarisierenden Gruppen unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Folgendem besteht: Nitrogruppe, Nitrilgruppe, C1-40-Alkylgruppe, die mit einer Nitrogruppe, einer Nitrilgruppe, einer Cyanatgruppe, einer Isocyanatgruppe, einer Thiocyanatgruppe oder einer Thioisocyanatgruppe substituiert ist; C1-40-Alkoxygruppe, die optional mit einer Nitrogruppe, einer Nitrilgruppe, einer Cyanatgruppe, einer Isocyanatgruppe, einer Thiocyanatgruppe oder einer Thioisocyanatgruppe substituiert ist; C1-40-Carbonsäuregruppe, die optional mit einer Nitrogruppe, einer Nitrilgruppe, einer Cyanatgruppe, einer Isocyanatgruppe, einer Thiocyanatgruppe oder einer Thioisocyanatgruppe substituiert ist; C2-40-Carbonsäureester, der optional mit einer Nitrogruppe, einer Nitrilgruppe, einer Cyanatgruppe, einer Isocyanatgruppe, einer Thiocyanatgruppe oder einer Thioisocyanatgruppe substituiert ist; Sulfonsäure, die optional mit einer Nitrogruppe, einer Nitrilgruppe, einer Cyanatgruppe, einer Isocyanatgruppe, einer Thiocyanatgruppe oder einer Thioisocyanatgruppe substituiert ist; Sulfonsäureester, der optional mit einer Nitrogruppe, einer Nitrilgruppe, einer Cyanatgruppe, einer Isocyanatgruppe, einer Thiocyanatgruppe oder einer Thioisocyanatgruppe substituiert ist; Cyanatgruppe, Isocyanogruppe, Thiocyanatgruppe, Thioisocyanatgruppe; und eine Aminogruppe, die optional mit einer Nitrogruppe, einer Nitrilgruppe, einer Cyanatgruppe, einer Isocyanatgruppe, einer Thiocyanatgruppe oder einer Thioisocyanatgruppe substituiert ist; und Kombinationen davon.


 
2. PAHC nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Monomereinheit (B), die Ar1, Ar2 und Ar3 aufweist, gleich oder verschieden sein kann, jedes unabhängig, wenn in verschiedenen Wiederholungseinheiten, eine optional substituierte C6-20 aromatische Gruppe (einkernig oder mehrkernig) darstellt, wobei Ar1, Ar2 und/oder Ar3 mit wenigstens einer oder mehreren polaren oder polarisierenden Gruppen substituiert ist und n = 1 bis 20, wobei n sich auf die Anzahl der Monomereinheiten (B) bezieht.
 
3. PAHC nach Anspruch 2, wobei Ar1, Ar2 und Ar3 insgesamt Phenyl sind, die unabhängig mit 1 oder 2 Gruppen, die aus Methoxy, Cyanomethyl, CN und Gemischen davon ausgewählt sind, substituiert sein können, und n = 1 bis 10.
 
4. PAHC nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei R3 = R10 = eine C1 bis C14-Alkylgruppe oder optional substituierte C1 bis C14-Alkylgruppe.
 
5. PAHC nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei k = I = 0 oder 1.
 
6. PAHC nach Anspruch 5, wobei k = 0 und l = 0.
 
7. PAHC nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Copolymere halbleitende Copolymere sind, die eine Permittivität bei 1000 Hz von über 1,5, gemäß dem Verfahren der Beschreibung bestimmt, bevorzugt zwischen 3,4 und 8, aufweisen.
 
8. PAHC nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei wenigstens eine (und stärker bevorzugt 2) der Gruppen R1, R6, R7 und R12 (Tri-C1-20-Hydrocarbylsilyl)C1-4-Alkinylgruppen, bevorzugt (Trihydrocarbylsilyl)ethinylgruppen, sind. Bevorzugt sind wenigstens ein Paar von R1/R6 und/oder R7/R12 Trihydrocarbylsilylethinylgruppen.
 
9. PAHC nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei R1, R3, R6, R7, R9 und R12 Wasserstoff sind.
 
10. PAHC nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei -Si(R22)x(R23)y(R24)z aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Trimethylsilyl, Triethylsilyl, Tripropylsilyl, Dimethylethylsilyl, Diethylmethylsilyl, Dimethylpropylsilyl, Dimethylisopropylsilyl, Dipropylmethylsilyl, Diisopropylmethylsilyl, Dipropylethylsilyl, Diisopropylethylsilyl, Diethylisopropylsilyl, Triisopropylsilyl, Trimethoxysilyl, Triethoxysilyl, Triphenylsilyl, Diphenylisopropylsilyl, Diisopropylphenylsilyl, Diphenylethylsilyl, Diethylphenylsilyl, Diphenylmethylsilyl, Triphenoxysilyl, Dimethylmethoxysilyl, Dimethylphenoxysilyl und Methylmethoxyphenyl besteht.
 
11. PAHC nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die wenigstens eine BXBX-Monomereinheit die Formel (A1) oder (A2) aufweist:

wobei jeweils R2, R5, R8 und R11 Wasserstoff sind;

wobei k und l beide 0 sind;

wobei R1/R6 und/oder R8/R11 (Trialkylsilyl)ethinylgruppen sind, -C≡C-SiR22R23R24, wobei R22, R23 und R24 bevorzugt aus Ethyl-n-propyl Isopropyl, 1-Propenyl oder 2-Propenyl ausgewählt sind;

wobei R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10, R11 und R12 unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt sind, die aus Wasserstoff, Methyl, Ethyl und Methoxy besteht, vorausgesetzt, dass das Paar R3/R4 und/oder R9/R10 eine Bindung, die durch -* dargestellt ist, an eine andere Monomereinheit, die die Formel (A), (A1), (B) aufweist, oder an eine Monomereinheit, die eine Formel aufweist, die aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus (C), (D), (D') und (E) besteht, sind;

In Monomereinheiten der Formel (A2) sind R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10 und R12 unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt, die aus H, C1-C14-Alkyl und C1-C6-Alkoxy besteht, vorausgesetzt, dass das Paar R3/R4 und/oder R9/R10 eine Bindung, die durch -* dargestellt ist, an eine andere Monomereinheit, die die Formel (A), (A1), (A2), (B) aufweist, oder an eine Monomereinheit, die eine Formel aufweist, die aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus (C), (D), (D') und (E) besteht, sind.


 
12. PAHC nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die eine oder die mehreren polare(n) oder polarisierende(n) Gruppe(n) unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Folgendem besteht: Nitrogruppe, Nitrilgruppe, C1-10-Alkylgruppe, die mit einer Nitrilgruppe, einer Cyanatgruppe oder einer Isocyanatgruppe substituiert ist; C1-20-Alkoxygruppe, C1-20-Carbonsäuregruppe, C2-20-Carbonsäureester; Sulfonsäureester; Cyanatgruppe, Isocyanatgruppe, Thiocyanatgruppe, Thioisocyanatgruppe und eine Aminogruppe; und Kombinationen davon.
 
13. PAHC nach Anspruch 12, wobei die eine oder die mehreren polare(n) oder polarisierende(n) Gruppe(n) unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Folgendem besteht: C1-4 Cyanoalkylgruppe, C1-10 Alkoxygruppe, Nitrilgruppe und Kombinationen davon.
 
14. Organische Halbleiterzusammensetzung, die ein PAHC nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 13 und ein kleines Polyacenmolekül umfasst, wobei das PAHC eine Permittivität bei 1000 Hz zwischen 3,4 und 8,0, gemäß dem Verfahren der Beschreibung bestimmt, bevorzugt zwischen 3,4 und 4,5, aufweist.
 
15. Organische Halbleiterzusammensetzung, die ein polycyclisches aromatisches Kohlenwasserstoffcopolymer (PAHC) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 13 umfasst, wobei die Zusammensetzung eine Permittivität bei 1000 Hz zwischen 3 und 6,5, gemäß dem Verfahren der Beschreibung bestimmt, aufweist.
 
16. Organische Halbleiterzusammensetzung nach Anspruch 15, die ein organisches Bindemittel umfasst, wobei das organische Bindemittel eine Permittivität bei 1000 Hz zwischen 3,4 und 8, gemäß dem Verfahren der Beschreibung bestimmt, bevorzugt zwischen 4 und 6,5, aufweist.
 
17. Elektronische Vorrichtung, die ein PAHC, eine organische Halbleiterzusammensetzung oder eine Halbleiterschicht nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche umfasst, wobei die elektronische Vorrichtung aus organischen Dünnschichttransistoren (organic thin film transistors - OTFTs), organischen Leuchtdioden (organic light emitting diodes - OLEDs), Fotodetektoren, Organische-Photovoltaik-(OPV-) Zellen, Sensoren, Lasern, Speicherelementen und Logikschaltungen ausgewählt ist.
 


Revendications

1. Copolymère d'hydrocarbure aromatique polycyclique (PAHC) comprenant un mélange d'au moins une unité monomère BXBX ayant la formule (A) et d'au moins une unité monomère ayant la formule (B), et d'une ou plusieurs unités monomères choisies dans le groupe constitué par (C), (D), (D') et/ou (E) :









dans laquelle

Y1 et Y2 sont indépendamment S ou Se ;

k et l sont indépendamment 0 ou 1

dans laquelle chacun parmi R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11 et R12, qui peut être identique ou différent, représente indépendamment l'hydrogène ; un groupe alkyle en C1 à C40 ramifié ou non ramifié, substitué ou non substitué ; un groupe alcényle en C2 à C40 ramifié ou non ramifié, substitué ou non substitué ; un groupe alcynyle en C2 à C40 ramifié ou non ramifié, substitué ou non substitué ; un groupe cycloalkyle en C3 à C40 éventuellement substitué ; un groupe aryle en C6 à C40 éventuellement substitué ; un groupe hétérocyclique en C1 à C40 éventuellement substitué ; un groupe hétéroaryle en C1 à C40 éventuellement substitué ; un groupe alcoxy en C1 à C40 éventuellement substitué ; un groupe aryloxy en C6 à C40 éventuellement substitué ; un groupe alkylaryloxy en C7 à C40 éventuellement substitué ; un groupe alcoxycarbonyle en C2 à C40 éventuellement substitué ; un groupe aryloxycarbonyle en C7 à C40 éventuellement substitué ; un groupe cyano (-CN) ; un groupe carbamoyle (-C(=O)NR15R16) ; un groupe carbonyle (-C(=O)-R17) ; un groupe carboxyle (-CO2R18) ; un groupe cyanate (-OCN) ; un groupe isocyano (-NC) ; un groupe isocyanate (-NCO) ; un groupe thiocyanate (-SCN) ou un groupe thioisocyanate (-NCS) ; un groupe amino éventuellement substitué ; un groupe hydroxy ; un groupe nitro ; un groupe CF3 ; un groupe halo (Cl, Br, F, I) ; -SR19 ; -SO3H ; -SO2R20 ; -SF5 ; un groupe silyle éventuellement substitué ; un groupe alcynyle en C2 à C10 substitué par un groupe SiH2R22, un alcynyle en C2 à C10 substitué par un groupe SiHR22R23, ou un alcynyle en C2 à C10 substitué par un groupe -Si(R22)x(R23)y(R24)z ;

dans laquelle chaque groupe R22 est indépendamment choisi dans le groupe constitué par un groupe alkyle en C1 à C10 ramifié ou non ramifié, substitué ou non substitué, un groupe alcynyle en C2 à C10 ramifié ou non ramifié, substitué ou non substitué, un groupe cycloalkyle en C2 à C20 substitué ou non substitué, un groupe alcényle en C2 à C10 substitué ou non substitué et un groupe cycloalkyle-alkylène en C6 à C20 substitué ou non substitué ;

chaque groupe R23 est indépendamment choisi dans le groupe constitué par un groupe alkyle en C1 à C10 ramifié ou non ramifié, substitué ou non substitué, un groupe alcynyle en C2 à C10 ramifié ou non ramifié, substitué ou non substitué, un groupe alcényle en C2 à C10 substitué ou non substitué, un groupe cycloalkyle en C2 à C20 substitué ou non substitué, et un groupe cycloalkyle-alkylène en C6 à C20 substitué ou non substitué ;

R24 est indépendamment choisi dans le groupe constitué par l'hydrogène, un groupe alcynyle en C2 à C10 ramifié ou non ramifié, substitué ou non substitué, un groupe cycloalkyle en C2 à C20 substitué ou non substitué, un groupe cycloalkyle-alkylène en C6 à C20 substitué ou non substitué, un groupe aryle en C5 à C20 substitué, un groupe arylalkylène en C6 à C20 substitué ou non substitué, un groupe acétyle, un anneau hétérocyclique en C3 à C20 substitué ou non substitué comprenant O, et/ou N, et/ou S et/ou Se dans l'anneau ;

dans laquelle x = 1 ou 2 ; y = 1 ou 2 ; z = 0 ou 1 ; et (x + y + z) = 3 ;

dans laquelle chacun parmi R15, R16, R18, R19 et R20 représente indépendamment H ou un groupe carbyle ou hydrocarbyle en C1 à C40 éventuellement substitué comprenant éventuellement un ou plusieurs hétéroatomes ;

dans laquelle R17 représente un atome d'halogène, H, ou un groupe carbyle ou hydrocarbyle en C1 à C40 éventuellement substitué comprenant éventuellement un ou plusieurs hétéroatomes ;

dans laquelle au moins deux parmi R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10 et R12 sont une liaison, représentée par -*, à une autre unité monomère ayant la formule (A) ou (B), ou à une unité monomère ayant une formule choisie dans le groupe constitué par (C), (D), (D') et (E) ;

dans laquelle chacun parmi R1', R2', R3', R4', R5', R6' et R7', qui peut être identique ou différent, est choisi dans le même groupe que R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 et R7 tels que définis ci-dessus ;

dans laquelle Ar1, Ar2 et Ar3, qui peuvent être identiques ou différents, représentent chacun, indépendamment si dans des unités de répétition différentes, un groupe aromatique (mononucléaire ou polynucléaire) en C6 à 40 éventuellement substitué, dans laquelle de préférence au moins l'un parmi Ar1, Ar2 et Ar3 est substitué par au moins un groupe polaire ou polarisant ;

dans laquelle n' = 1 à 3 ;

dans laquelle le monomère (A) est présent en une quantité d'au moins 20 % en poids ; le monomère (B) est présent en une quantité d'au moins 60 % en poids et le reste est composé de monomères (C), (D), (D') et/ou (E), sur la base du poids total de toutes les unités monomères dans le copolymère ; et

dans laquelle le ou les groupe(s) polaire(s) ou polarisant(s) est/sont indépendamment choisis dans le groupe constitué par : un groupe nitro, un groupe nitrile, un groupe alkyle en C1 à 40 substitué par un groupe nitro, un groupe nitrile, un groupe cyanate, un groupe isocyanate, un groupe thiocyanate ou un groupe thioisocyanate ; un groupe alcoxy en C1 à 40 éventuellement substitué par un groupe nitro, un groupe nitrile, un groupe cyanate, un groupe isocyanate, un groupe thiocyanate ou un groupe thioisocyanate ; un groupe acide carboxylique en C1 à 40 éventuellement substitué par un groupe nitro, un groupe nitrile, un groupe cyanate, un groupe isocyanate, un groupe thiocyanate ou un groupe thioisocyanate ; un ester d'acide carboxylique en C2 à 40 éventuellement substitué par un groupe nitro, un groupe nitrile, un groupe cyanate, un groupe isocyanate, un groupe thiocyanate ou un groupe thioisocyanate ; un acide sulfonique éventuellement substitué par un groupe nitro, un groupe nitrile, un groupe cyanate, un groupe isocyanate, un groupe thiocyanate ou un groupe thioisocyanate ; un ester d'acide sulfonique éventuellement substitué par un groupe nitro, un groupe nitrile, un groupe cyanate, un groupe isocyanate, un groupe thiocyanate ou un groupe thioisocyanate ; un groupe cyanate, un groupe isocyanate, un groupe thiocyanate, un groupe thioisocyanate ; et un groupe amino éventuellement substitué par un groupe nitro, un groupe nitrile, un groupe cyanate, un groupe isocyanate, un groupe thiocyanate ou un groupe thioisocyanate ; et leurs combinaisons.


 
2. PAHC selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'unité monomère (B) ayant les Ar1, Ar2 et Ar3, qui peuvent être identiques ou différents, chacun représentant, indépendamment si dans des unités de répétition différents, un groupe aromatique (mononucléaire ou polynucléaire) en C6 à 20 éventuellement substitué, au moins l'un parmi Ar1, Ar2 et Ar3 étant substitué par au moins un ou plusieurs groupe(s) polaire(s) ou polarisant(s), et n = 1 à 20, n se réfèrant au nombre d'unités monomères (B).
 
3. PAHC selon la revendication 2, dans lequel Ar1, Ar2 et Ar3 sont tous un phényle qui peut être indépendamment substitué par 1 ou 2 groupes choisis parmi le méthoxy, le cyanométhyle, CN et leurs mélanges, et n = 1 à 10.
 
4. PAHC selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel R3 = R10 = un groupe alkyle en C1 à C14 ou un groupe alkyle en C1 à C14 éventuellement substitué.
 
5. PAHC selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel k = I = 0 ou 1.
 
6. PAHC selon la revendication 5, dans lequel k = 0 et I = 0.
 
7. PAHC selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel les copolymères sont des copolymères semi-conducteurs ayant une permittivité à 1 000 Hz supérieure à 1,5, telle que déterminée conformément au procédé de la description, de préférence entre 3,4 et 8.
 
8. PAHC selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel au moins un (et plus préférablement 2) des groupes R1, R6, R7 et R12 sont des groupes (tri-hydrocarbylsilyl en C1 à 20) alcynyle en C1 à 4, de préférence des groupes (trihydrocarbylsilyl)éthynyl-. De préférence, au moins une paire de R1/R6 et/ou de R7/R12 sont des groupes trihydrocarbylsilyl éthynyle.
 
9. PAHC selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel R1, R3, R6, R7, R9 et R12 sont hydrogène.
 
10. PAHC selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel - Si(R22)x(R23)y(R24)z est choisi dans le groupe constitué par le triméthylsilyle, triéthylsilyle, tripropylsilyle, diméthyléthylsilyle, diéthylméthylsilyle, diméthylpropylsilyle, diméthylisopropylsilyle, dipropylméthylsilyle, diisopropylméthylsilyle, dipropyléthylsilyle, diisopropyléthylsilyle, diéthylisopropylsilyle, triisopropylsilyle, triméthoxysilyle, triéthoxysilyle, triphénylsilyle, diphénylisopropylsilyle, diisopropylphénylsilyle, diphényléthylsilyle, diéthylphénylsilyle, diphénylméthylsilyle, triphénoxysilyle, diméthylméthoxysilyle, diméthylphénoxysilyle et méthylméthoxyphényle.
 
11. PAHC selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel l'au moins une unité monomère BXBX a la formule (A1) ou (A2) :

dans laquelle chacun parmi R2, R5, R8 et R11 est hydrogène ;

dans laquelle k et I valent tous deux 0 ;

R1/R6 et/ou R8/R11 sont des groupes (trialkylsilyl)éthynyle, -C=C-SiR22R23R24, dans laquelle R22, R23 et R24 sont de préférence choisis parmi l'éthyle, le n-propyle, l'isopropyle, le 1-propényle ou le 2-propényle ;

R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10, R11 et R12 sont choisis indépendamment dans le groupe consistitué par l'hydrogène, le méthyle, l'éthyle et le méthoxy,

à condition qu'au moins une de chaque paire de R3/R4 et de R9/R10 soit une liaison, représentée par -*, à une autre unité monomère ayant la formule (A), (A1), (B), ou à une unité monomère ayant une formule choisie dans le groupe constitué par (C), (D), (D') et (E) ;

Dans les unités monomères de formule (A2), R1, R3, R4, R6, R7, R9, R10 et R12 sont indépendamment choisis dans le groupe consistitué par H, un alkyle en C1 à C14 et un alcoxy en C1 à C6, à condition qu'au moins une de chaque paire de R3/R4 et de R9/R10 soit une liaison, représentée par -*, à une autre unité monomère ayant la formule (A), (A1), (A2), (B), ou à une unité monomère ayant une formule choisie dans le groupe constitué par (C), (D), (D') et (E).


 
12. PAHC selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le ou les groupe(s) polaire(s) ou polarisant(s) est/sont indépendamment choisi(s) dans le groupe constitué par : un groupe nitro, un groupe nitrile, un groupe alkyle en C1 à 10 substitué par un groupe nitrile, un groupe cyanate ou un groupe isocyanate ; un groupe alcoxy en C1 à 20, un groupe acide carboxylique en C1 à 20, un ester d'acide carboxylique en C2 à 20 ; un ester d'acide sulfonique ; un groupe cyanate, un groupe isocyanate, un groupe thiocyanate, un groupe thioisocyanate et un groupe amino ; et leurs combinaisons.
 
13. PAHC selon la revendication 12, dans lequel le ou les groupe(s) polaire(s) ou polarisant(s) est/sont indépendamment choisi(s) dans le groupe constitué par :
un groupe cyanoalkyle en C1 à 4, un groupe alcoxy en C1 à 10, un groupe nitrile et leurs combinaisons.
 
14. Composition semi-conductrice organique comprenant un PAHC selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 13 et une petite molécule de polyacène, le PAHC ayant une permittivité à 1 000 Hz comprise entre 3,4 et 8,0, telle que déterminée conformément au procédé de la description, de préférence entre 3,4 et 4,5.
 
15. Composition semi-conductrice organique comprenant un copolymère d'hydrocarbure aromatique polycyclique (PAHC) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 13, la composition ayant une permittivité à 1 000 Hz comprise entre 3 et 6,5, telle que déterminée conformément au procédé de la description.
 
16. Composition semi-conductrice organique selon la revendication 15, comprenant un liant organique, le liant organique ayant une permittivité à 1 000 Hz comprise entre 3,4 et 8, de préférence entre 4 et 6,5 telle que déterminée conformément au procédé de la description.
 
17. Dispositif électronique comprenant un PAHC, une composition semi-conductrice organique ou une couche semi-conductrice selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, le dispositif électronique étant choisi parmi les transistors organiques couches minces (OTFT), les diodes électroluminescentes organiques (DELO), les photodétecteurs, les cellules photovoltaïques organiques (OPV), les capteurs, les lasers, les éléments de mémoire et les circuits logiques.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description