(19)
(11)EP 2 841 916 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 13720720.5

(22)Date of filing:  25.04.2013
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
G01N 17/00(2006.01)
G01N 33/15(2006.01)
G01N 33/02(2006.01)
G01N 21/59(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2013/038205
(87)International publication number:
WO 2013/163421 (31.10.2013 Gazette  2013/44)

(54)

METHOD FOR PREDICTING THE PHOTOPROTECTIVE PERFORMANCE OF A PACKAGE MATERIAL FOR A LIQUID MILK PRODUCT

VERFAHREN ZUR VORHERSAGE DES LICHTSCHUTZES DURCH VERPACKUNGSMATERIALIEN FÜR EIN FLÜSSIGES MILCHPRODUKT

PROCÉDÉ DE PRÉDICTION DE LA PERFORMANCE PHOTOPROTECTRICE PAR DES MATÉRIAUX D'EMBALLAGE POUR UN PRODUIT LAITIER LIQUIDE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 27.04.2012 US 201261639309 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
04.03.2015 Bulletin 2015/10

(73)Proprietor: The Chemours Company FC, LLC
Wilmington, DE 19899 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • JERNAKOFF, Peter
    Wilmington, Delaware 19808 (US)
  • NIEDENZU, Philipp, Martin
    Wilmington, Delaware 19808 (US)
  • STANCIK, Cheryl, Marie
    Diamondhead, Mississippi 39535 (US)
  • MILONE, Michael, Patrick
    Pittsgrove, New Jersey 08318 (US)

(74)Representative: Dehns 
St. Brides House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
  
  • HANNE LARSEN ET AL: "Quality of Sour Cream Packaged in Cups with Different Light Barrier Properties Measured by Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Sensory Analysis", JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, vol. 74, no. 8, 1 October 2009 (2009-10-01), pages S345-S350, XP055070850, ISSN: 0022-1147, DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01303.x
  • LARA MANZOCCO ET AL: "Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) of Oils by Light and Temperature Exploitation", JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS' SOCIETY, SPRINGER-VERLAG, BERLIN/HEIDELBERG, vol. 89, no. 4, 27 October 2011 (2011-10-27), pages 577-583, XP035034254, ISSN: 1558-9331, DOI: 10.1007/S11746-011-1958-X
  • ALLEN C TEMPLETON ET AL: "Implications of Photostability on the Manufacturing, Packaging, Storage, and Testing of Formulated Pharmaceutical Products", PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, 1 March 2005 (2005-03-01), pages 68-86, XP055070877,
  • LARA MANZOCCO ET AL: "Shelf Life Modeling of Photosensitive Food: The Case of Colored Beverages", JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol. 56, no. 13, 1 July 2008 (2008-07-01), pages 5158-5164, XP055071084, ISSN: 0021-8561, DOI: 10.1021/jf800072u
  • LEDA COLTRO ET AL: "Plastic Packages for Personal Care Products - Evaluation of Light Barrier Properties", POLÍMEROS: CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA, vol. 17, no. 1, 1 January 2007 (2007-01-01), pages 56-61, XP055070940,
  • MESTDAGH F ET AL: "Protective Influence of Several Packaging Materials on Light Oxidation of Milk", JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, AMERICAN DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION, US, vol. 88, no. 2, 1 February 2005 (2005-02-01), pages 499-510, XP026964193, ISSN: 0022-0302 [retrieved on 2005-02-01]
  • Anonymous: "Introduction to Solar Radiation", Tutorials, 23 August 2011 (2011-08-23), XP055463427, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:https://web.archive.org/web/2011082311 3545/http://www.newport.com/Introduction-t o-Solar-Radiation/411919/1033/content.aspx [retrieved on 2018-03-28]
  • Luiz Severo Silva Jr ET AL: "Chromatographic determination of riboflavin in the presence of tetracyclines in skimmed and full cream milk using fluorescence detection", JOURNAL OF THE BRAZILIAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 16, no. 7, 1 December 2005 (2005-12-01), pages 1174-1178, XP055522326, São Paulo; BR ISSN: 0103-5053
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] This invention relates to the field of packaging technology, more specifically to a method for testing materials for photoprotective properties.

BACKGROUND



[0002] It is well understood that certain compounds and nutrients contained within packages can be negatively impacted by exposure to light. Many different chemical and physical changes can result to molecular species as either a direct or indirect result of exposure to light, which can collectively be defined as photochemical processes. As described in Atkins, photochemical processes can include primary absorption, physical processes (e.g., fluorescence, collision-induced emission, stimulated emission, intersystem crossing, phosphorescence, internal conversion, singlet electronic energy transfer, energy pooling, triplet electronic energy transfer, triplet-triplet absorption), ionization (e.g., Penning ionization, dissociative ionization, collisional ionization, associative ionization), or chemical processes (e.g., disassociation or degradation, addition or insertion, abstraction or fragmentation, isomerization, dissociative excitation) (Atkins, P.W.; Table 26.1 Photochemical Processes. Physical Chemistry, 5th Edition; Freeman: New York, 1994; 908.). As one example, light can cause excitation of photosensitizer species (e.g., riboflavin in dairy food products) that can then subsequently react with other species present (e.g., oxygen, lipids) to induce changes, including degradation of valuable products (e.g., nutrients in food products) and evolution of species that can adjust the quality of the product (e.g., off-odors in food products).

[0003] Protection of food, including its sensory quality and nutritional value, are of essential importance to society to protect our food supply and minimize food wastage thus ensuring sustainability in our food supply and distribution. Here sustainability considerations primarily include, but are not limited to, the cost, the use of non-renewable and renewable resources, environmental impacts, and water usage. The sustainability impact of food extends to include its production, packaging, distribution, usage, and waste accumulated through these processes. Furthermore, with the growing global population, sustainability also is related to food security and the nutritional value delivered by food.

[0004] As such, there is an art-recognized need to provide packaging with sufficient photoprotective properties to allow the protection of the package content(s). In certain studies, actual packaging systems and photochemical reactors have been used as a means to provide an indication of photoprotective performance of packaging concepts.

[0005] However, generally these studies allow for the evaluation of only a single packaging concept and do not demonstrate sufficiently robust methods to allow for relative comparisons between experiments, nor the capability to produce performance design models based on the results.

[0006] For instance, the work of Kline et al. (Kline, M. A.; Duncan, S. E.; Bianchi, L. M.; Eigel, W. N., III; O'Keefe, S. F.; Light Wavelength Effects on a Lutein-Fortified Model Colloidal Beverage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011, 59, 7203-7210) studying the light effects on a model colloidal beverage acknowledges the challenge to make relative comparisons between experimental conditions with their method due to changes in light intensity; however, they fail to demonstrate a suitable solution. Similarly, Webster et al. (Webster, J. B.; Duncan, S. E.; Marcy, J. E.; O'Keefe, S. F.; Effect of narrow wavelength bands of light on the production of volatile and aroma-active compounds in ultra high temperature treated milk. Int. Dairy Journal. 2011, 21, 305-311), studying the effects of light on milk, acknowledge the inability to make direct comparisons between all experiments due to differences in light energy output as a limitation of their capability (see also Webster, J. B.; Duncan, S. E.; Marcy, J. E.; O'Keefe, S. F.; Controlling Light Oxidation Flavor in Milk by Blocking Riboflavin Excitation Wavelengths by Interference. J. Food Sci. 2009, 74, S390-S398). As another example, in a study by Palanuk (Palanuk, S. L; Warthesen, J. J.; Smith, D. E.; Effect of agitation, sampling location and protective films on light-induced riboflavin loss in skim milk. J. Food Sci. 1988, 53, 436-438), sampling location was shown to influence the results in studies of the effects of light on riboflavin in skim milk.

[0007] Additionally, studies in this field frequently require an extended testing period, such as days or weeks. For instance, Cladman (Cladman, W.; Scheffer, S.; Goodrich, N.; Griffiths, M. W.; Shelf-life of Milk Packaged in Plastic Containers With and Without Treatment to Reduce Light Transmission. Int. Dairy Journal. 1998, 8, 629-636) performed a study on photoprotective properties of materials that required a twenty day period to expose the samples. As another example, while Saffert et al. report two studies (Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.; Effect of Package Light Transmittance on the Vitamin Content of Pasteurized Whole Milk. Packag. Technol. Sci. 2006, 19, 211-218; Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.; Effect of Package Light Transmittance on Vitamin Content of Milk. Part 2: UHT Whole Milk. Packag. Technol. Sci. 2008, 21, 47-55.) that explore package performance related to retaining nutrients in milk, they conducted the study under conditions that required days of exposure.

[0008] There is an art recognized need to make determinations of the shelf life performance of food products contained within packages (Sensory Shelf Life Estimation of Food Products, G. Hough, CRC Press: Florida, 2010). It is desirable to make these determinations in an accelerated format. One current approach to accelerated shelf life determinations involves the use of higher storage temperature to accelerated the reactions within the food that lead to shelf life decline; however, these methods requiring storage temperatures that are different from typical storage conditions are deficient in some cases as they do not allow the food system to be under storage temperatures that are relevant for retail storage. Furthermore, such higher storage temperatures may cause changes to the food (e.g., phase changes in the food system, changes to the conformations of molecules in this food) that limit the utility of such methods to provide accurate predictions in an accelerated time frame.

[0009] In a study by Larsen et al. (Larsen H.; Tellefsen S. B. G.; Dahl, A. V.; Quality of Sour Cream Packaged in Cups with Different Light Barrier Properties Measured by Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Sensory Analysis. J. Food Sci., 2009, 74, S345-S350), photooxidation of sour cream packaged in cups with different light barrier properties was investigated.

[0010] Given the above, a robust scientific method to rapidly quantify photoprotective performance of packaging concepts in a way that allows relative comparisons between the packaging concepts and is relevant to the conditions used for such packaging concepts in their targeted real- world applications is needed. These methods are needed to allow for the creation of performance design models for packaging concepts, and to allow for efficient design of photoprotective packages that achieve the required balance of performance attributes for a given package cost, weight, material usage, or other design requirements.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION



[0011] The present invention relates to a method for predicting the photoprotective performance of a packaging material for a liquid milk product, the method comprising: (a) providing a sample comprising an aqueous solution of riboflavin at about 30ppm and test materials derived from a series of HDPE packages with different loadings of titanium dioxide; (b) providing a cell having controlled optical properties to contain the sample at a controlled temperature between -20°C and 100°C; (c) providing a light source that generates a light beam with a controlled spectral signature between 290 and 1000 nm and a controlled intensity between 0.01 and 5 W/cm2; (d)placing the sample into the cell, rendering a sample cell; (e) placing a first test material between the light source and the sample cell, rendering a shielded sample cell, wherein the light beam impinges upon the first test material and any penetrating light impinges upon the sample cell, and wherein the first test material comprises a known titanium dioxide loading; (f) exposing the shielded sample cell to one or more intensities of said light beam for one or more durations; (g) measuring the changes to the riboflavin contained within the shielded sample cell at one or more durations to generate data points; (h) using the data points to determine a riboflavin degradation rate constant of the first test material; (i) repeating steps (a)-(h) with one or more additional test materials under the same conditions to generate one or more additional riboflavin degradation rate constants; (j) utilizing the two or more riboflavin degradation rate constants to generate a model for the HDPE packages with differing loadings of titanium dioxide that relates the loading of titanium dioxide to the riboflavin degradation rate constant; (k) using the model of step (j) for other HPDE test materials with differing loadings of titanium dioxide, predicting an unknown riboflavin degradation rate constant based upon a known titanium dioxide loading of the material; (l) exposing a liquid milk product in test packages constructed of the test materials described in (a) to retail storage conditions and measuring the riboflavin content of said product for each test package as a function of exposure time; (m) reducing the data from (l) to a riboflavin degradation rate constant for each test package; (n) relating the rate constant values from step (k) to the rate constant values from step (m) to develop a functional correlation; and (o) testing a packaging test material comprised of HDPE and TiO2 using steps (a) and (b)- (k) and applying the obtained data to the model of step (n) to predict the photoprotective performance under retail storage conditions of a package comprised of the test material and containing the given liquid milk product.

[0012] In certain examples, preferred package designs providing efficient delivery of the desired properties (e.g., low cost materials, reduced weight materials) can be identified using the method.

[0013] In additional examples, the predictive models are used to facilitate the design of packages that provide photoprotection specific for the package contents. In other examples, the predictive models are used to assess sustainability metrics for a package design. For example, the methods could be used to allow for quantification, and thus optimization, of the impacts of parameters in package design (e.g., packaging material reduction or selection of alternative material choices) on sustainability impacts.

[0014] In certain examples, the method further comprises correlating the changes to the riboflavin in step (g) with one or more sensory evaluation criteria values and utilizing said predicted photoprotective performance to further predict one or more sensory evaluation criteria values of an untested material. Sensory evaluations comprise human evaluation of one or more of the following criteria: taste, texture, odor, or appearance.

[0015] In additional examples, the library of data of step (l) and (m) can be used to aid in predicting packaging designs that provide desired titanium dioxide loadings.

[0016] In further examples, the sample is maintained under one or both of controlled atmosphere conditions and under agitation, the exterior surface of the sample cell is maintained free from condensate, and/or the light beam is collimated.

[0017] In further examples, the measuring comprises a test method selected from the group consisting of HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), GC (gas chromatography), IR (infrared) spectroscopy, NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, UV-VIS (ultra-violet, visible) spectroscopy, colorimetry, MS (mass spectrometry) coupled with other techniques (e.g., GC-MS and LC-MS), fluorescence spectroscopy, ion chromatography, thin layer chromatography (TLC), analytical wet chemistry, and/or electrochemical analysis (e.g., polarography, voltammetry). In particular examples, the measurement method is HPLC based which involves removal of a test aliquot from the sample cell. In another example, the measurement method is UV-VIS spectroscopy based when sample analysis is performed while it is contained within the sample cell.

[0018] The present disclosure also relates to a device for quantifying the photoprotective performance of a package material, the device comprising: (a) a sample supply and control apparatus comprising: (I) a cell having controlled optical properties, the cell capable of containing a sample comprising an aqueous solution of riboflavin at about 30ppm; (II) a sample temperature sensor for monitoring the temperature of the sample within the cell; (III) a temperature control for maintaining the cell at a specified temperature set point that is chosen from the range between about -20°C and about 100°C with a deviation about the set point of less than 1°C; (IV) a dry air supply for delivering low-humidity air to one or more exposed surfaces of the cell; and (V) an agitator for maintaining sample homogeneity within the cell; (b) a light generation and control apparatus comprising: (I) a light source, wherein the light source generates a light beam with a spectral signature between 290 and 1000 nm and an integrated intensity between 0.01 and 5 W/cm2 as measured at a defined monitoring position; (II) a light beam collimating lens; (III) an infrared filter; (IV) a shutter; and (V) an iris; and (c) a test material holder positioned between the light generation and control apparatus and the sample supply and control apparatus such that, when a test material is placed in the test material holder, the light beam impinges upon the test material and any penetrating light impinges upon the cell.

[0019] In certain examples, the agitator comprises a magnetic stir bar within the cell and a magnetic stirring motor positioned below the cell. In other examples, the sample supply and control apparatus further comprises an atmosphere control and monitoring apparatus within the cell, wherein the atmosphere control and monitoring apparatus comprises a gas supply and metering device and an atmospheric sensor. In still further examples, the light generation and control apparatus further comprises a spectral filter.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



[0020] 

FIG. 1 illustrates an embodiment of an apparatus useful for the method of the present invention.

FIGS. 2A-2C illustrate more detailed views of particular elements of the illustrative embodiment of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 illustrates an embodiment of a sample cell useful in the method of present invention.

FIG. 4 illustrates an embodiment of a dry-air supply apparatus useful in the method of present invention.

FIG. 5 illustrates a plot of the natural log of riboflavin concentration versus light exposure time for one exemplary test material experiment.

FIG. 6 illustrates a plot of mean pseudo-first order rate constant versus mean TAPPI opacity for one exemplary test material experiment.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0021] It is to be understood that this invention is not limited to particular embodiments, which can, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting

[0022] As used in this specification and the appended claims, terms in the singular and the singular forms "a," "an," and "the," for example, include plural referents unless the content clearly dictates otherwise.

[0023] Additionally, as used herein, "comprising" is to be interpreted as specifying the presence of the stated features, integers, steps, or components as referred to, but does not preclude the presence or addition of one or more features, integers, steps, or components, or groups thereof. Thus, for example, a sample comprising a photosensitive entity may contain additional photosensitive entities or other components, such as other non-photosensitive nutrients. Additionally, the term "comprising" is intended to include examples encompassed by the terms "consisting essentially of" and "consisting of." Similarly, the term "consisting essentially of" is intended to include examples encompassed by the term "consisting of."

[0024] The present invention relates to a method useful for predicting the photoprotective properties of a package material, and for making meaningful comparisons between such properties, by quantifying the light-induced change or degradation of riboflavin. The method involves correlating the riboflavin degradation rate with known titanium loadings of a material, to produce a predictive or correlative model. The method further involves using the predictive or correlative model to assign a predicted riboflavin degradation rate to an untested material within the same material class based on the known titanium dioxide loading of the material.

[0025] The present apparatus allows for the accelerated testing of photoprotective properties. In certain examples, a test can be performed in a matter of hours while simulating the light exposure of several weeks under commercial food storage conditions. This method can thus be considered a high throughput screening method, as the testing rates can be accelerated over 100 times. In certain examples, the method and apparatus can be used to determine an optimum amount of light-protective agent, such as TiO2, to include in a packaging material for photo-protection.

[0026] FIGS. 1 and 2A-2C illustrate one possible example of an apparatus of the present invention which is useful in the disclosed methods. The individual components of the overall apparatus are contained within an enclosure 60, which is generally light blocking with regard to the spectra being analyzed during an experiment. To maintain proper atmospheric conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) within the enclosure, the enclosure 60 possesses an exhaust fan and fan trunk 58, which allows the air within enclosure 60 to be cycled at a desired interval and/or rate.

[0027] Within enclosure 60, a light source, such as a lamp (not shown) contained within lamp housing 16, is connected via appropriate electrical connections (not shown) to a light source power supply 14, which in turn is connected via appropriate electrical connections (not shown) to a lamp controller 10.

[0028] The light source can be any suitable light source to produce the desired light intensity, stability, and spectral characteristics. Depending upon the needs of the experiment, light sources employed may include incandescent light sources, fluorescent light sources, arc discharge lamps, LEDs (light emitting diodes), and/or laser light sources. For example, these light sources include but are not limited to carbon arc, mercury vapor, xenon arc, tungsten filament, or halogen bulbs. In one particular example, the light source is a xenon arc lamp.

[0029] In certain examples, the light source is capable of providing an intensity of between 0.01 W/cm2 and 5 W/cm2 as measured at the defined monitoring position. In other examples, the light source is capable of providing an intensity of at least 0.01 W/cm2, 0.05 W/cm2, 0.1 W/cm2, 1 W/cm2, 2.5 W/cm2 or 5 W/cm2, but not more than 5W/cm2, as measured at the defined monitoring position. In further examples, the light source is capable of providing an intensity of not more than 0.01 W/cm2, 0.05 W/cm2, 0.1 W/cm2, 1 W/cm2, 2.5 W/cm2 or 5 W/cm2 but not less than 0.01 W/cm2, as measured at the defined monitoring position. In further examples, the light source is capable of providing an intensity between 0.01 W/cm2 and 4 W/cm2, between 0.01 W/cm2 and 3 W/cm2, between 0.01 W/cm2 and 2.5 W/cm2, between 0.05 W/cm2 and 2 W/cm2, or between 0.1 W/cm2 and 1 W/cm2 as measured at the defined monitoring position.

[0030] In other examples, the light source is capable of producing light with a spectral signature of 290 nm to 1000 nm. In other examples, the light source is capable of providing light at a wavelength of at least 290 nm, 300 nm, 350 nm, 400 nm, 450 nm, 500 nm, 550 nm, 600 nm, 650 nm, 700 nm, 750 nm, 800, nm, 900 nm, 1000 nm but not more than 1000nm.In further examples, the light source is capable of providing light at a wavelength of not more than 290 nm, 300 nm, 350 nm, 400 nm, 450 nm, 500 nm, 550 nm, 600 nm, 650 nm, 700 nm, 750 nm, 800, nm, 900 nm, 1000 nm, but not less than 290nm. In still further examples, the light source is capable of providing a spectral signature of 290 to 1000 nm, 290 to 400 nm, 350 to 750 nm, or above 750 nm, but not more than 1000nm.

[0031] In certain examples, the intensity and/or spectral characteristics of the light source are controlled and/or modified by one or more of a lens, a water-based infrared filter (to reduce the heat signature of the light beam), and a spectral filter. In one particular example, the light from a lamp within lamp housing 16 travels through a collimating lens assembly 20, then through an infrared filter 22, which is a water-based infrared filter attached to water reservoir 34 and water pump 36, the flow volume of which is controlled by a pump flow controller 4 to which water pump 36 is attached via appropriate electrical connections. The collimated and infrared-filtered light then travels through an optical filter holder 24, which can optionally contain an optical filter or filters to attenuate the light beam or portions thereof. Though the lens, infrared filter, and spectral filter(s) are shown in a particular order in FIGS. 1 and 2a, this is not to be taken as an indication that all of these components are required, nor that the indicated order is required. These components could be used in any desired order and/or in any desired combination, including employing none of them in the apparatus and method of the invention.

[0032] In certain examples, within enclosure 60, a light source, such as a lamp (not shown) contained within lamp housing 16, is connected via appropriate electrical connections (not shown) to a light source power supply 14, which in turn is connected via appropriate electrical connections (not shown) to a lamp controller 10. Lamp feedback monitor 18 is electrically connected to the lamp controller 10. The lamp feedback monitor 18 communicates with the lamp controller 10 which in turn communicates with the light source power supply 14 to adjust the amount of power provided to the light source and/or in order to adjust the intensity of the light emanating from the light source.

[0033] In one example, to ensure that the light beam possesses the proper intensity, a light power density sensor 30 can be positioned within the light beam, for instance removably positioned, using one of a plurality of holders 31 located along light path 33. In a preferred example, the light power sensor 30 can be removably positioned within the light beam using holder 72 and a suitably designed support apparatus. The light power density sensor 30 is attached via appropriate connections (not shown) to the optical energy meter 12. Light power density sensor 30 can be inserted into an appropriate holder, so that a discrete intensity reading can be taken, for instance, prior to the initiation of an experiment and again after the termination of an experiment and/or at times during an experiment. This would allow the intensity of the light beam to be tested both before and after an experiment so that the user can ensure that the power intensity was correctly set and did not significantly increase or decrease throughout the experiment.

[0034] In other examples, in order to ensure that the light beam possesses the proper spectral characteristics, a spectrometer sensor 32 can be removably positioned within the light beam using one of a plurality of holders 31 located along light path 33 or by using holder 72 and a suitably designed support apparatus. The spectrometer sensor 32 is attached via appropriate connections (not shown) to a spectrometer 8. Spectrometer sensor 32 can be inserted into an appropriate holder, so that a discrete spectrometry reading can be taken, for instance, prior to the initiation of an experiment and again after the termination of an experiment. This would allow the spectral characteristics of the light beam to be tested before and after an experiment so that the user can ensure that the spectral characteristics were as desired and stable in the time frame of the experiment.

[0035] In another example, part of the light beam can be directed away from light path 33 towards a suitable monitoring position (not shown) so as to allow monitoring of the light beam intensity and/or spectral characteristics during an experiment.

[0036] Light exposure initiation and cessation during operation of the apparatus or method can be controlled, for example, by a shutter mechanism 26, the operation of which is controlled by a shutter controller 6, to which it is attached via appropriate connections (not shown). Further, the cross sectional area of the light beam impinging upon a test material and/or sample can be adjusted by an iris 28 located within one of the plurality of holders 31, which can be opened and closed as needed to produce a light beam of the desired diameter. Again, though these components are illustrated in FIG. 1, this should not be taken as an indication that one or all of them is required. For instance, the apparatus could be operated without a shutter by simply controlling initiation of the light beam through the lamp controller 10 and/or light source power supply 14. Similarly, the size of the light beam could be alternatively controlled, for example, through the collimating lens 20.

[0037] Looking at FIGS. 1, 2b, and 2c, after passing through the iris 28, the light beam will impinge upon a test material 38a, which is held in place by material holder 38b, which is in turn located within one of the plurality of holders 31 or more preferably holder 72. The test material 38a can be any material suitable for use as a packaging material for a liquid milk product. Such materials include plastics (polymeric materials, e.g., low density polyethylene), glass, metal (e.g., cans, foils, or metalized layers), cellulosic materials (e.g., paper, paperboard), or combinations thereof in forms such as laminated structures, films (e.g., plastic wraps), sheets (e.g., papers), bags, sleeves, pouches, or rigid structures (e.g., bottles). These materials may also contain additives (e.g., pigments, printing inks, antioxidants) to provide additional appearance attributes or functionalities to the material. The material also contains titanium dioxide. Materials tested could comprise an actual package, a portion of a packaging material, or a prototype of a portion of a packaging system including films, foils, plaques from rigid parts, papers, and laminated or composite structures of these materials.

[0038] The light transmitted by the test material 38a will in turn impinge upon the sample cell 44, which will be held in place during the experimental run by sample cell holder 42, which optionally can be insulated so that it retains temperature more efficiently and effectively. Sample cell holder 42 is in direct contact with heat transfer block 48, which is attached to thermoelectric device 50, under the control of thermoelectric controller 51. Thermoelectric device 50 can be either a heater or cooler, or a device that is capable of both heating and cooling. During operation, thermoelectric controller 51 directs a temperature set point for thermoelectric device 50. Through heat transfer block 48, the temperature gradient (cold or heat) generated by thermoelectric device 50 is transferred to sample cell holder 42. This allows the temperature within sample cell 44 to be maintained at a fixed temperature throughout an experimental run. Optionally, a heat transfer compound can be used to facilitate heat transfer between the sample cell 44 and the sample cell holder 42. The temperature is set at a temperature between -20° C and 100° C. In other examples, the temperature can be set at a temperature of at least -20° C, - 10° C, -5° C, -2° C, 0° C, 1 ° C, 2° C, 3° C, 4° C, 5° C, 6° C, 7° C, 8° C, 10° C, 25° C, 50° C, or 100° C, but not exceeding 100° C. In further examples, the temperature can be set at a temperature of not more than -20° C, - 10° C, -5° C, -2° C, 0° C, 1 ° C, 2° C, 3° C, 4° C, 5° C, 6° C, 7° C, 8° C, 10° C, 25° C, 50° C, or 100° C, but not less than -20° C. In still further examples, the temperature can be set at between -10° C and 50° C, -5° C and 25° C, -2° C and 10° C, 0° C and 8° C, 1 ° C and 7° C, 2° C and 6° C, 3° C and 5° C. In certain other examples, the temperature is set at about 4° C. In an example, the deviation about the temperature set point is less than 1 °C.

[0039] Sample cell 44 can comprise any suitable material and shape such that it possesses the desired optical characteristics. Preferably, sample cell 44 is optically transparent in the spectral range being investigated during the experiment. In certain examples, sample cell 44 is made of quartz. In certain examples, such as those shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, sample cell 44 can be substantially flat on one end, thereby allowing the light to impinge upon the sample cell at an angle that is substantially perpendicular to the flat end of the sample cell 44, which can be a desirable optical situation. In certain examples, such as those shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, sample cell 44 can also be equipped with one or more access ports 43 to allow test samples, additives, or gases to be added or withdrawn from the cell and/or to allow sample cell thermocouple 56 or other probes or sensors to be inserted into sample cell 44 during an experimental run. Sample cell thermocouple 56 is in turn attached, via appropriate connections, to temperature meter 62. This can allow the temperature of the sample to be monitored and/or controlled throughout an experimental run. In certain examples, thermocouple 56 and/or temperature meter 62 is placed in communication with thermoelectric controller 51 such that the temperature can be automatically adjusted throughout an experimental run to maintain the sample at the desired temperature.

[0040] Further, access ports 43 could allow for an optional gas delivery tube and/or atmospheric sensor (not shown) to be inserted into the sample cell during an experimental run for monitoring and/or controlling the atmospheric conditions within sample cell 44 throughout the experimental run. Additionally, as illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2b, directly below insulated sample cell holder 42 is a magnetic stirring motor 40, which is attached via appropriate connections to a magnetic stirrer speed controller 54. As shown in FIG. 3, this allows a magnetic stir bar 45 to be located within sample cell 44 during an experimental run so that the magnetic stirring motor can effectuate agitation of the sample at a desired speed throughout an experimental run, thereby ensuring substantial sample homogeneity.

[0041] As shown in FIG. 1, in certain examples, dry air, meaning air with relatively low humidity, can be supplied to the front and/or rear faces of sample cell 44 via delivery tubes 46 in order to prevent or reduce condensation forming on the sample cell. As used herein, the term "air" means atmospheric air or any other suitable gas, such as gaseous nitrogen. With reference to FIG. 4, air is supplied from supply 64, via feed line 65, to pressure regulator 66. The air then continues through feed line 65 to flow valve 68 before traveling through drying chamber 70. Drying chamber 70 can be any suitable type of apparatus for reducing humidity in air. For instance, in certain examples, drying chamber 70 can be a polycarbonate tube filled with a desiccant, such as "Drierite" desiccant. The reduced-humidity air then exits the drying chamber and travels via delivery tubes 46 to the faces of sample cell 44, where it is released.

[0042] Any light that passes completely through sample cell 44 will eventually impinge upon beam stop 52, which is constructed in such a way that it captures substantially all remaining light without allowing any significant portion of the light to reflect back toward the sample cell.

[0043] In certain examples, one or more of the components of the overall apparatus may be controlled or monitored by computer 2. This can include one or more of light source power supply 14, lamp controller 10, pump flow controller 4, water pump 36, lamp output feedback detector 18, optical energy meter 12, shutter mechanism 26, shutter controller 6, iris 28, spectrometer 8, thermocouple 56, temperature meter 62, thermoelectric controller 51, magnetic stirrer speed controller 54, gas supply and metering device and atmospheric sensor (not shown), air supply 64, or pressure regulator 66.

[0044] During operation of the apparatus disclosed herein, a test material 38a is placed within the material holder 38b and riboflavin is placed in the sample cell. Examples of test materials that can be investigated using the present invention include plastics (polymeric materials, e.g., low density polyethylene), glass, metal (e.g., cans, foils, or metalized layers), cellulosic materials (e.g., paper, paperboard), or combinations thereof in forms such as films (e.g., plastic wraps), sheets (e.g., papers), laminate structures, bags, sleeves, pouches, or rigid structures (e.g., bottles). These materials may also contain additives (e.g., pigments, printing inks, antioxidants) to provide additional appearance attributes or functionalities to the material. Packaging concepts would be comprised of these same materials and could comprise an actual package, a portion of a packaging material, or a prototype of a portion of a packaging system including films, foils, plaques from rigid parts, papers, and laminated or composite structures of these materials.

[0045] Different modes of light-induced change or degradation could occur in the system based upon the chemical nature of the photosensitive entities present to participate in the changes. For complete food systems, a combination of fats, oxygen, and photosensitive nutrients could be present to allow the interplay between multiple photosensitive entities and associated species to be observed upon light exposure. To allow for targeted and focused study as well as ease of analysis, model systems could be employed where only a single or a few components are included such that effects are isolated to a lesser number of components. Within a model system, a combination of entities that interact with light via different mechanisms could allow for a multidimensional assessment of light protection performance via a single experiment without the complexities of the study of a complete food system. Entities that interact with light via pathways that involve singlet oxygen represent one class of photosensitive entities. Such a list is disclosed by Min et al. (Min, D. B. and Boff, J. M.; Chemistry and Reaction of Singlet Oxygen in Foods. CRFSFS. 2002, 1, 58-72.). Riboflavin may allow for a different learning regarding light protection performance.

[0046] Riboflavin can be present at a concentration of, for example, 0.0000001 wt% to 100 wt%. In certain examples, the riboflavin is present at a concentration of at least 0.0000001 wt%, 0.000001 wt%, 0.00001 wt%, 0.0001 wt%, 0.001 wt%, 0.01 wt%, 0.01 wt%, 0.1 wt%, 1.0 wt%, 2.0 wt%, 3.0 wt%, 4.0 wt%, 5.0 wt%, 10.0 wt%, 20.0 wt%, 30.0 wt%, 40.0 wt%, 50.0 wt%, 60.0 wt%, 70.0 wt%, 80.0 wt%, 90.0 wt%, 95.0 wt%, 99.0 wt%, or 100.0 wt%. In certain examples, riboflavin is present at a concentration of less than 100.0 wt%, 99.0 wt%, 95.0 wt%, 90.0 wt%, 80.0 wt%, 70.0 wt%, 60.0 wt%, 50.0 wt%, 40.0 wt%, 30.0 wt%, 20.0 wt%, 10.0 wt%, 5.0 wt%, 4.0 wt%, 3.0 wt%, 2.0 wt%, 1.0 wt%, 0.1 wt%, 0.01 wt%, 0.001 wt%, 0.0001 wt%, 0.00001 wt%, 0.000001 wt%, or 0.0000001 wt%. The concentrations are dependent upon the species under evaluation and its typical concentration during practical applications and uses.

[0047] The sample cell and sample contained therein are brought to an appropriate temperature for the test, for example a temperature between -20° C and 100° C. Light produced by the light source, which has been optionally collimated, filtered, focused, and/or sized, at a desired intensity (e.g., 0.01 -5 W/cm2 as measured at the defined monitoring position) and wavelength (e.g., 290-1000 nm) is then made to impinge upon the test material. The light that passes through the test material in turn impinges upon sample cell 44 and the sample contained therein.

[0048] Because the one or more entities within sample cell 44 are photosensitive, the light impinging upon them will cause some level of change which can be quantified at desired intervals either by measuring the sample while it is contained within sample cell 44 or by removing a test aliquot for measurement by external methods. Suitable analytical methods for determining the amount of light-induced change or degradation include HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), GC (gas chromatography), IR (infrared) spectroscopy, NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, UV-VIS (ultra-violet, visible) spectroscopy, colorimetry, MS (mass spectrometry) coupled with other techniques (e.g., GC-MS and LC-MS), fluorescence spectroscopy, ion chromatography, thin layer chromatography (TLC), analytical wet chemistry, and/or electrochemical analysis (e.g., polarography, voltammetry). In particular examples, the measurement method is HPLC based which involves removal of a test aliquot from sample cell 44. In another example, the measurement method is UV-VIS spectroscopy based when sample analysis is performed while it is contained within sample cell 44. The experiment is continued for the desired length of time, with measurements performed at the desired intervals. The run time is a function of the nature of riboflavin, environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and gas modification), and the analytical study of its associated rate of change. In certain examples, the experimental run time is less than 12 hours, less than 11 hours, less than 10 hours, less than 9 hours, less than 8 hours, less than 7 hours, less than 6 hours, less than 5 hours, less than 4 hours, less than 3 hours, less than 2 hours, less than 1 hour, less than 45 minutes, or less than 30 minutes.

[0049] The sampling intervals should be selected to obtain a minimum of two data points. In particular examples, the sampling intervals are selected to obtain at least 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, or 50 data points. In certain examples the data points are distributed based on the anticipated sample reaction kinetics. Selected intervals will thus be dependent upon the rate of change of the photosensitive entities. In certain examples, the samples are extracted automatically via syringe pump or other suitable device and are delivered directly to vials or analytical equipment for analysis.

[0050] Once two or more measurements have been performed for an experimental run, the resulting data points tracking the change of the riboflavin can be used to assign a photoprotective performance value to the test material. Such photoprotective values can include, for instance, a pseudo-first order rate constant for light-induced change or degradation of the photosensitive entity being examined which can be converted to a light protection factor (LPF) via a suitable mathematical transformation. For example, LPF could be defined as the half-life of a photosensitive entity which is calculated, for example, for pseudo first order reaction kinetics by dividing In(2) by the obtained pseudo-first order rate constant. Moreover, by regulating the variables of the experimental runs, such as light spectra, light intensity, light focus, duration of light exposure, sample temperature, sample homogeneity, and sample atmospheric conditions, results can be obtained with sufficient accuracy and precision to allow for quality run-to-run comparisons to be made.

[0051] In certain other examples, numerous test materials with known titanium dioxide loadings can be evaluated and a photoprotective performance value assigned to each such test material. Where a correlative behavior is observed and modeled for a class of materials, the model can be used for a material within said class to predict the unknown riboflavin degradation rate of said materials based upon a known titanium dioxide loading. For instance, several test materials with known TiO2 concentrations could be evaluated using method disclosed herein, and a photoprotective performance value assigned to each. The photoprotective performance values TiO2 concentration values of these materials can in turn be used to generate a metric or predictive model that predicts the photoprotective performance value of a material based upon its TiO2 concentration. This metric or model can then be used to predict the photoprotective performance vale of an untested material of the same class with a known TiO2 content.

EXAMPLES


Example 1.



[0052] The ANOVA Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) measurement systems analysis methodology employs an analysis of variance (ANOVA) random effects model to understand the measurement system capability. In a Gage R&R study, the amount of variability observed in measurements by the measurement system is compared to the total variability observed. Gage R&R study methodologies were applied to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of the device of FIG. 1 used with the method disclosed herein. This study was designed and analyzed using Minitab software.

[0053] The Gage R&R study involved replicate evaluation of each of five film samples, or parts, by two different operators. These twenty separate experiments were conducted in random order within operators.

[0054] In this Gage R&R study, the following method conditions were fixed:
  • Photosensitive Entity: Riboflavin dissolved in pH 6.4 aqueous phosphate buffer solution at a target concentration of 30.5 ± 1.5 mg/L
  • Temperature: 4±1°C
  • Atmosphere: Air
  • Light Power Density: 0.375 ± 0.005 W/cm2 as measured at the holder 31 monitoring position that is located along light path 33 and is 6 inches from shutter 26 and 4 inches from iris 28
  • Sampling Times: samples withdrawn after 0, 10, 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 minutes of light exposure
  • Photosensitive Entity Analysis Method: HPLC analysis of removed sample aliquots for their riboflavin concentration


[0055] The test materials used for the study consisted of titanium dioxide pigmented low density polyethylene (LDPE) films prepared by cast film extrusion of approximately 48 µm thickness. Film swatches of about 6 cm by 13 cm were cut from a larger film sample for study. Each swatch was evaluated with light exposure only once. After evaluation, each swatch was set aside for additional measurements including replicate measures of TAPPI opacity and film thickness where average values are reported.

[0056] The output of each run was the pseudo-first order rate constant of riboflavin decomposition. The decomposition of riboflavin in dilute aqueous solution under ambient atmosphere (i.e., excess of O2 available for reaction as a dissolved gas in the solution) has been shown to follow pseudo-first order rate kinetics when said solution is exposed to UV or visible light (e.g., Ahmad, I.; Fasihullah, Q.; Noor, A; Ansari, I. A.; Ali, Q. Nawab Manzar, International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2004), 280(1-2), 199-208). More specifically, under conditions during which the energy distribution of light that is incident upon said solution is held constant, said decomposition can be described by the following integrated rate expression:

where:

[Riboflavin]t = Riboflavin concentration at time = t

[Riboflavin]0 = Initial riboflavin concentration prior to light exposure

t = Light exposure time

k' = Pseudo-first order rate constant



[0057] When such reaction kinetics are observed, a plot of Ln[Riboflavin]t versus exposure time yields a straight line, the slope of which is the desired pseudo-first order rate constant. For this work, the rate constant plot was constructed using Minitab software, and the desired slope data was extracted using the Minitab 'Fitted Line Plot' analysis tool. The correlation coefficient (R2) values indicating the quality of the linear fit derived from the linear regression analyses were all 98.5% or greater, showing excellent agreement of the data to the linear model. A sample of these data is shown in FIG. 5 and the complete set of reduced data from each of the plots generated as such is presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Gage R&R Data
Run OrderTest MaterialOperatorRate Constant (min-1)Average TAPPI Opacity (%)Average Film Thickness (in)
1 O1 1 0.0180 28.04 0.00188
2 O4 1 0.0029 66.47 0.00185
3 O5 1 0.0018 78.82 0.00189
4 O2 1 0.0087 39.87 0.00186
5 O3 1 0.0047 52.88 0.00183
6 O1 2 0.0195 28.17 0.00184
7 O5 2 0.0016 78.71 0.00204
8 O4 2 0.0029 66.28 0.00190
9 O3 2 0.0045 52.17 0.00188
10 O2 2 0.0084 39.88 0.00190
11 O1 1 0.0199 28.22 0.00188
12 O5 1 0.0020 79.11 0.00196
13 O4 1 0.0035 65.55 0.00184
14 O2 1 0.0098 39.20 0.00183
15 O3 1 0.0047 53.10 0.00193
16 O1 2 0.0196 28.42 0.00189
17 O3 2 0.0050 52.77 0.00190
18 O5 2 0.0019 79.20 0.00193
19 O4 2 0.0031 66.02 0.00193
20 O2 2 0.0084 40.08 0.00191


[0058] The Gage R&R ANOVA analysis was conducted on the data presented in Table 1. The analysis outputs are shown in Table 2. This analysis revealed that 0.58% of the total contribution and 7.6% of the total study variability can be attributed to the measurement system with the remainder due to inherent (and by design) part-to-part variations. With a 95% confidence level for the data interpretation, neither operator-to-operator differences nor operator-part interactions were observed in this study (Operator ANOVA 'p' value = 0.661 with operator-part interactions included; Operator * part ANOVA 'p' value = 0.445). Thus, this study demonstrated that the measurement system is capable of producing reproducible and repeatable data.



[0059] The Gage R&R results thus suggest that the measurement system will yield riboflavin degradation rate constant data of adequate quality. This conclusion can be reasonably extended to other riboflavin based exposure studies that involve reasonable deviations away from the exposure conditions utilized in this Gage R&R study. Examples of such deviations include modifications to the following: the light power density and/or spectral distribution that are incident upon the light attenuating test material, the riboflavin solution temperature, the initial riboflavin solution concentration and the test material composition. Additional extensions include other (i.e., non-riboflavin) photosensitive entities that may or may not exhibit pseudo-first order light-induced change or degradation rate kinetics and that may or may not be dissolved in water.

Example 2.



[0060] The rate constant data from Example 1 are analyzed along with additional characterization of the film swatches. The rate constant data in Table 1 are plotted in FIG. 6 along with a fitted data model. This data model was fitted to the data points to yield a photoprotective model as a function of TAPPI Opacity.

[0061] This plot and model demonstrate that the light protection performance (i.e., the ability to protect riboflavin from light-induced degradation) of the titanium dioxide loaded LDPE films utilized in this study can indeed be linked to the TAPPI Opacity values of said films, a relationship that is well described by a power law model. This demonstrates that for this type of material that TAPPI Opacity can be used to predict light protection performance. This method could be applied to other materials.

[0062] These type of data can in turn be used in the method of the present invention to confidently predict the light protection performance for test material comprised of the same or comparable titanium dioxide and LDPE materials in different relative amounts with a known TAPPI opacity.

Example 3.



[0063] The same method conditions were utilized as in Example 1, but the evaluated samples were two pieces (each evaluated in duplicate) derived from the same titanium dioxide pigmented, high density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle (1.8 wt% titanium dioxide, 1380 µm wall thickness, 97.9% TAPPI Opacity) and HPLC analysis was performed after 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 minutes of light exposure. The R2 values obtained from the linear regression analyses were all 98.5% or greater and a mean pseudo-first order rate constant of 0.000691 min-1 for riboflavin decomposition was found.

Example 4.



[0064] The same method conditions were utilized as in Example 3, but the evaluated samples consisted of four film swatches (each evaluated once) derived from the same piece of titanium dioxide pigmented, low density polyethylene film (1.0 wt% titanium dioxide, 47 µm thick, 39% TAPPI Opacity) and two of the swatches were evaluated at 14 ± 1 °C. The R2 values obtained from the linear regression analyses were all 99.3% or greater and the 4 °C and 14 °C mean pseudo-first order rate constants were found to be 0.0112 min-1 and 0.0154 min-1, respectively, indicating the sensitivity of temperature on the riboflavin degradation kinetics as consistent with the theoretical predictions given by the Arrhenius equation.

Example 5.



[0065] The same method conditions were utilized as in Example 3, but the evaluated samples consisted of four film swatches (each evaluated once) derived from the same piece of titanium dioxide pigmented, low density polyethylene film (1.0 wt% titanium dioxide, 47 µm thick, 40% TAPPI Opacity) and two of the swatches were evaluated using a UV light filter attenuated light beam (essentially complete wavelength cutoff at 385 nm and below), said beam possessing a light power density of 0.287 W/cm2. The R2 values obtained from the linear regression analyses were all 99.3% or greater and the mean pseudo-first order rate constants with and without the UV light attenuating filter in the light beam were found to be 0.0062 min-1 and 0.0112 min-1, respectively, indicating the sensitivity of riboflavin degradation kinetics to the presence of UV light.

Example 6.



[0066] The same method conditions were utilized as in Example 3, but the evaluated samples consisted of four film swatches (each evaluated once) derived from the same piece of titanium dioxide pigmented, low density polyethylene film (1.0 wt% titanium dioxide, 47 µm thick, 40% TAPPI Opacity) and two of said swatches were evaluated using a reduced light power density of 0.201 W/cm2. The R2 values obtained from the linear regression analyses were all 99.3% or greater and the mean pseudo-first order rate constants for light power densities of 0.375 W/cm2 and 0.201 W/cm2 were found to be 0.0112 min-1 and 0.0045 min-1, respectively, indicating the sensitivity of riboflavin degradation kinetics to light power density.

Example 7.



[0067] The same method conditions were utilized as in Example 3, but the evaluated samples consisted of four film swatches (each evaluated once) derived from the same piece of titanium dioxide pigmented, low density polyethylene film (2.0 wt% titanium dioxide, 50 µm thick, 53% TAPPI Opacity) and two of the swatches were evaluated under an atmosphere of carbon dioxide (< 0.2 ppm oxygen in the test solution after 15 minutes of CO2 sparging; oxygen levels in test solution were measured with an Ocean Optics - Dunedin, Florida - NeoFox oxygen sensor). The R2 values obtained from the linear regression analyses were all 98.4% or greater. The air atmosphere and carbon dioxide atmosphere mean pseudo-first order rate constants were found to be 0.0057 min-1 and 0.0172 min-1, respectively, indicating the sensitivity of the light induced degradation kinetics of riboflavin to the atmosphere present in the sample cell.

Example 8.



[0068] The light protection performance of an untested material of known TAPPI opacity within the same class of materials of that used to construct the photoprotective model of Example 2 (FIG. 6) is predicted using said model. The TAPPI opacity of the untested material was measured to be 35.95%. The model predicts a k' value 0.0112 min-1. The k' value of the untested material was measured to be 0.0111 min-1 using the method of Example 1 with the HPLC analyses performed after 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 minutes of light exposure. These results demonstrate that the photoprotective model is useful for the prediction of light protection performance based upon TAPPI opacity.

Example 9.



[0069] Each of three injection molded pigmentary titanium dioxide filled, high density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles (bottle dimensions: 7.16" high x 3.29" wide x 2.1" deep; total bottle internal volume: 528 mL), said bottles differentiated by TAPPI opacity value (achieved by adjusting their titanium dioxide loading), were each cut apart to yield one flat, rectangularly shaped plaque per bottle (plaque dimensions: ∼10.9 cm long by ∼6.4 cm wide by ∼1232 microns thick). A fourth bottle of the same dimensions and composition as the first three but unpigmented was similarly cut apart and the resulting plaque then completely covered on one side by a thin (∼15 microns) sheet of aluminum foil. The four plaques, coded X, Y, Z and F (the latter code denoting the foil wrapped, unpigmented plaque), were evaluated in duplicate for their light protection properties using the method conditions described in Example 1 with the exception that the samples for HPLC analyses were withdrawn at 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 minutes of light exposure and the light power density utilized was 0.425 ± 0.005 W/cm2. The average pseudo-first order rate constant (k') value for riboflavin degradation that was obtained for each of the plaques is shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Average Pseudo-First Oder Rate Constant (k') Values
Plaque CodeTAPPI Opacity (%)k' (day-1)
X 81.4 3.19
Y 92.4 1.70
Z 99.2 0.60
F 99.7 0.28

Example 10



[0070] Multiple intact bottles of the same dimensions and compositions as the four studied as excised plaques in Example 9 were sanitized with an aqueous solution of bleach (100 ppm chlorine), thoroughly rinsed with deionized/distilled water and drained. Milk products, specifically 2% milk and 2% milk fortified with omega-3 fatty acids, were separately packaged into said bottles shortly after standard beverage processing with efforts being made to avoid light exposure. The filled bottles were then sealed with sanitized caps. A complete aluminum foil wrap was then applied to each of the filled, unpigmented HDPE bottles. Coding of the filled bottles mirrored that utilized in Example 9. This activity yielded eight separate sample bottle groups each one representing a different bottle code/milk product combination (four different bottle codes x 2 different milk products). Said groups were then simultaneously and randomly placed into a single walk-in, lighted, chilled dairy case (Friedrich Floating Air beverage case, Model # 60-10-1056, San Antonio, TX) for a 5 week long, simulated retail storage exposure study. During said study, the light intensity (sampled at three different interior locations) and temperature inside said case were found to be 1122 ± 439 lux and 2.7 ± 0.8 °C, respectively. Depending on sampling location, the light intensity in the interior of the case ranged from a low of 355 lux to a high of 1942 lux. At pre-determined times, two bottles were randomly selected from each of the eight sample bottle groups and removed from the dairy case. The contents of said bottles were then analyzed in triplicate in a spectrofluorometer (Shimadzo Scientific Instrument, Inc., Columbia, MD)for riboflavin concentration while following a modification of the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) method 960.65 (See also Webster, JB, Duncan, SE, Marcy, JE, O'Keefe, SF. 2009. Controlling light oxidation flavor in milk by blocking riboflavin excitation wavelengths by interference. J. Food Sci. 74:390-398.; Bradley, RL. 2000. Dairy Products. In: William Horwitz W, editor. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC Intl. Vol. II. 17th ed. Gaithersburg, Md.: AOAC Int. 1-83.). The obtained riboflavin concentration versus light exposure time data is reported in Table 4.
Table 4. Riboflavin Concentrations of Milk Products in Dairy Case Storage
Days of StorageMilk ProductBottle CodeRiboflavin Concentration (ug/mL)
0 2% Milk F 23.92
0 2% Milk F 24.51
1 2% Milk F 23.72
1 2% Milk F 23.62
3 2% Milk F 24.00
3 2% Milk F 25.20
8 2% Milk F 24.60
8 2% Milk F 23.60
15 2% Milk F 21.24
15 2% Milk F 22.17
22 2% Milk F 22.83
22 2% Milk F 22.61
29 2% Milk F 23.30
29 2% Milk F 22.91
36 2% Milk F 22.50
36 2% Milk F 21.80
0 2% Milk X 23.92
0 2% Milk X 24.51
1 2% Milk X 23.46
1 2% Milk X 23.57
3 2% Milk X 21.30
3 2% Milk X 21.00
8 2% Milk X 16.80
8 2% Milk X 18.30
15 2% Milk X 15.23
15 2% Milk X 13.85
22 2% Milk X 12.96
22 2% Milk X 13.16
29 2% Milk X 14.28
29 2% Milk X 14.37
36 2% Milk X 5.85
36 2% Milk X 7.58
0 2% Milk Y 23.92
0 2% Milk Y 24.51
1 2% Milk Y 23.44
1 2% Milk Y 23.40
3 2% Milk Y 23.80
3 2% Milk Y 22.50
8 2% Milk Y 20.40
8 2% Milk Y 19.10
15 2% Milk Y 16.75
15 2% Milk Y 20.75
22 2% Milk Y 20.13
22 2% Milk Y 16.07
29 2% Milk Y 16.59
29 2% Milk Y 16.37
36 2% Milk Y 18.02
36 2% Milk Y 18.16
0 2% Milk Z 23.92
0 2% Milk Z 24.51
1 2% Milk Z 23.67
1 2% Milk Z 22.80
3 2% Milk Z 23.20
3 2% Milk Z 24.20
8 2% Milk Z 19.00
8 2% Milk Z 21.30
15 2% Milk Z 20.53
15 2% Milk Z 21.37
22 2% Milk Z 22.55
22 2% Milk Z 22.15
29 2% Milk Z 21.69
29 2% Milk Z 21.27
36 2% Milk Z 13.72
36 2% Milk Z 18.70
0 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 23.75
0 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 23.67
1 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 23.09
1 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 23.27
3 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 22.85
3 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 22.71
8 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 20.78
8 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 19.90
15 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 21.18
15 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 21.48
22 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 21.04
22 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 20.90
29 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 18.28
29 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 17.94
36 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 17.61
36 2% Milk with Omega-3 F 14.88
0 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 23.75
0 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 23.67
1 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 20.97
1 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 20.98
3 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 14.53
3 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 14.03
8 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 11.43
8 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 10.99
15 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 6.27
15 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 6.43
22 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 6.61
22 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 5.80
29 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 5.23
29 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 5.34
36 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 5.58
36 2% Milk with Omega-3 X 4.97
0 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 23.75
0 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 23.67
1 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 21.05
1 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 21.09
3 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 18.77
3 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 19.04
8 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 16.33
8 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 18.88
15 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 10.49
15 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 14.51
22 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 9.53
22 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 9.65
29 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 11.75
29 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 11.87
36 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 8.16
36 2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 9.80
0 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 23.75
0 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 23.67
1 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 21.49
1 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 21.19
3 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 20.88
3 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 21.39
8 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 18.79
8 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 19.05
15 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 16.69
15 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 15.86
22 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 15.84
22 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 14.93
29 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 16.07
29 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 13.87
36 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 13.70
36 2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 13.85


[0071] Utilizing the integrated rate expression provided in Example 1, the pseudo-first order rate constant (k') of riboflavin degradation was calculated from the data in Table 4 for each bottle code/milk product combination. The R2 values obtained from the linear regression analyses ranged from 46% to 91%, values which are notably lower than those obtained from the method of Example 9 most likely due to the complexity of the milk product and the steps required to prepare the milk sample for analysis. The resulting k' and R2 values are provided in Table 5.
Table 5. Riboflavin k' for Milk Products Under Retail Storage Conditions.
Milk ProductBottle Codek' (day-1)R2 (%)
2% Milk X 0.0286 84.4
2% Milk Y 0.0095 67.4
2% Milk Z 0.0074 46.4
2% Milk F 0.0024 44.7
2% Milk with Omega-3 X 0.0419 84.3
2% Milk with Omega-3 Y 0.0255 84.0
2% Milk with Omega-3 Z 0.0140 90.6
2% Milk with Omega-3 F 0.0090 81.2


[0072] The k' data contained within Table 5 of the current Example was compared to those contained within Table 3 of Example 9. Said comparison revealed a linear relationship between the two sets of data for both milk products (2% milk product, R2 = 92%; 2% milk product with omega-3, R2 = 100%).

[0073] Thus, it can be seen that the accelerated light exposure testing method described in Example 9 which makes use of a simple aqueous riboflavin solution and takes only a few hours per sample to complete, can be advantageously used in lieu of the much more involved light exposure testing method described in the current Example to predict the long term (30+ days) light exposure behavior of a riboflavin containing, complex food system (milk) that is kept in a real world packaging environment (HDPE bottle) under real world storage conditions (lighted, refrigerated storage case).

Example 11.



[0074] At pre-determined times during the long term exposure study described in Example 10, for each of the eight sample bottle groups, six bottles were simultaneously and randomly removed from the storage case and their contents combined to form a homogenous mixture. Approximately 3 hours later, the resulting eight mixtures (which were stored until use in one-fluid ounce portions in ice filled coolers that were kept in a 4 °C walk-in refrigerator) were presented to a group of human subjects (individual appraisers) for evaluation of their sensory properties using standard triangle testing methodology (e.g., ASTM E1885-04, Standard Test Method for Sensory Analysis - Triangle Test). Also evaluated at the same light exposure time points were mixtures derived from two additional sample bottle groups. These latter two groups were produced and stored as described in Example 10 (one group was associated with the 2% milk product and the other with the 2% milk product fortified with omega-3 fatty acids) but made use of unpigmented, HDPE bottles that were not wrapped in aluminum foil (40.7% average TAPPI opacity, bottle code 'C'). Table 6 provides the bottle code paired comparisons that were studied for each milk product along with the storage times at which the sensory evaluations were performed and the resulting sensory evaluation response data (total responses and correct responses). Also provided in Table 6 are associated 'Correct Response Proportion' values, denoted in this study as R, which were calculated by dividing the number of correct appraiser responses by the total number of appraiser responses.
Table 6. Aggregated Sensory Evaluation Data
Milk ProductBottle Code Paired ComparisonStorage Time (days)Appraiser Responses
Total (#)Correct (#)Correct Response Proportion Values, R
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:C 1 25 15 0.60
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:X 1 25 12 0.48
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:Y 1 24 13 0.54
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:Z 1 24 17 0.71
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:C 3 28 18 0.64
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:X 3 27 10 0.37
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:Y 3 27 12 0.44
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:Z 3 26 8 0.31
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:C 7 34 24 0.71
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:X 7 35 21 0.60
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:Y 7 36 19 0.53
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:Z 7 36 11 0.31
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:C 14 39 34 0.87
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:X 14 38 21 0.55
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:Y 14 36 22 0.61
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:Z 14 38 21 0.55
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:C 21 35 29 0.83
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:X 21 35 30 0.86
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:Y 21 34 30 0.88
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:Z 21 34 15 0.44
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:C 28 35 28 0.80
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:X 28 35 30 0.86
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:Y 28 35 30 0.86
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:Z 28 34 20 0.59
2% Milk F:C 1 28 11 0.39
2% Milk F:X 1 28 13 0.46
2% Milk F:Y 1 26 12 0.46
2% Milk F:Z 1 25 7 0.28
2% Milk F:C 3 28 19 0.68
2% Milk F:X 3 27 13 0.48
2% Milk F:Y 3 31 18 0.58
2% Milk F:Z 3 29 12 0.41
2% Milk F:C 8 35 28 0.80
2% Milk F:X 8 34 15 0.44
2% Milk F:Y 8 34 18 0.53
2% Milk F:Z 8 35 19 0.54
2% Milk F:C 15 39 30 0.77
2% Milk F:X 15 38 31 0.82
2% Milk F:Y 15 38 20 0.53
2% Milk F:Z 15 38 16 0.42
2% Milk F:C 22 36 30 0.83
2% Milk F:X 22 36 26 0.72
2% Milk F:Y 22 36 22 0.61
2% Milk F:Z 22 35 14 0.40
2% Milk F:C 29 37 29 0.78
2% Milk F:X 29 38 33 0.87
2% Milk F:Y 29 38 30 0.79
2% Milk F:Z 29 38 17 0.45


[0075] Modeling of sensory data can provide a useful means to estimate parameters such as the sensory shelf-life of a food system (e.g., Hough and Garitta (G. Hough, L. Garitta, Journal of Sensory Studies, 27 (2012) 137-147).

[0076] Inspection of Table 6 reveals a time dependence for the calculated R values, denoted as R(t). The R(t) data was modeled (non-linear regression) for all of the milk product/bottle code paired comparison combinations that were evaluated using the logistic growth equation R(t) = A + (B - A)/{1 + exp[(t - C) / D]}, where t represents exposure time and A, B, C and D are constants which can be characterized within the context of this triangle test study as follows:
  1. A: This constant represents the fraction of appraisers who can correctly discriminate among the different sample bottle codes for a given milk product at extended exposure times. It should be noted that not all appraisers are capable of providing such discrimination, and, as such, the value of this constant is typically below its theoretical maximum of 1.00. The value of this constant is generally influenced by the population of appraisers and the product being evaluated for its sensory properties.
  2. B: This constant represents the fraction of appraisers who can correctly discriminate among the different sample bottle codes for a given milk product at early exposure times. It should be noted that during the early stages of an exposure study such as this one, differences among the sample bottle groups being evaluated are usually not evident except to the most highly discriminating appraisers. As such, this constant (using triangle test methodology) is typically not far from the 0.33 value associated with chance guessing. The value of this constant is also generally influenced by the population of appraisers and the product being evaluated for its sensory properties.
  3. C: This constant, the value of which is generally influenced by package type (milk bottle in the case of this study) as well as by product type and package storage time and conditions, represents the exposure time at which the R(t) function inflects or, put differently, transitions from the exposure time discrimination region defined by constant B (early exposure times) to that defined by constant A (extended exposure times). For the purposes of this study, we denote said time (i.e. C) as a Sensory Shelf Life (SSL) and use it as the metric by which the light protection performances of the sample bottles evaluated in this study are quantified. Note that increasing SSL values imply increasing light protection capability for a particular bottle type or, put differently, imply that longer sample bottle storage times are required before a majority of the appraisers participating in this study can correctly distinguish the sensory difference between a given experimental bottle and that of an aluminum foil wrapped control bottle.
  4. D: This constant provides a measure of how sharp the transition is through the R(t) function inflection point. The value of this constant is also generally influenced by package type (milk bottle in the case of this study) as well as package storage time and conditions.


[0077] Table 7 lists the SSL data derived from the logistic growth function modeling of the time dependent 'Correct Response Proportion' data given in Table 6.
Table 7. Sensory Shelf Life (SSL) Data
Milk ProductBottle Codes for Paired ComparisonSSL (days)
2% Milk F:C 3
F:X 13
F:Y 25
F:Z 30+*
2% Milk with Omega-3 F:C 1
F:X 7
F:Y 9
F:Z 28
Notes: *Inspection of the data from this milk product/paired comparison combination showed that the transition to the extended exposure time discrimination region occurred at a light exposure time point that was greater than the 30 days of the exposure study.


[0078] The X, Y, and Z plaque derived k' data contained within Table 3 of Example 9 were converted to their corresponding half-lives (t½ = ln 2 / k'). These were compared to the corresponding SSL data contained within Table 7 of the current Example (plaque ⇔ paired comparison: X ⇔ F:X, Y ⇔ F:Y and Z ⇔ F:Z). Said comparison revealed a linear relationship between the two sets of data for both milk products (2% milk product, R2 = 100%; 2% milk product with omega-3, R2 = 96%).

[0079] Thus, it can be seen that the accelerated light exposure testing method described in Example 9, which makes use of a simple aqueous riboflavin solution and takes only a few hours per sample to complete, can be advantageously used in lieu of the much more involved light exposure testing method described in the current Example to predict the long term (30+ days) sensory performance behavior of a riboflavin containing, complex food system (milk) that is kept in a real world packaging environment (HDPE bottle) under real world storage conditions (lighted, refrigerated storage case).


Claims

1. A method for predicting the photoprotective performance of a package material for a liquid milk product, the method comprising:

(a) providing a sample comprising a homogeneous aqueous solution of riboflavin at about 30 ppm and test materials derived from a series of HDPE packages with differing loadings of titanium dioxide;

(b) providing a cell (44) having controlled optical properties to contain the sample at a controlled temperature between -20°C and 100°C;

(c) providing a light source that generates a light beam with a controlled spectral signature between 290 and 1000 nm and a controlled intensity between 0.01 and 5 W/cm2;

(d) placing the sample into the cell, rendering a sample cell;

(e) placing a first test material (38a) between the light source and the sample cell, rendering a shielded sample cell, wherein the light beam impinges upon the first test material and any penetrating light impinges upon the sample cell, and wherein the first test material comprises a known titanium dioxide loading;

(f) exposing the shielded sample cell to one or more intensities of said light beam for one or more durations;

(g) measuring the changes to the riboflavin contained within the shielded sample cell at one or more durations to generate data points;

(h) using the data points to determine a riboflavin degradation rate constant of the first test material;

(i) repeating steps (a)-(h) with one or more additional test materials under the same conditions to generate one or more additional riboflavin degradation rate constants;

(j) utilizing the two or more riboflavin degradation rate constants to generate a model for the HDPE packages with differing loadings of titanium dioxide that relates the loading of titanium dioxide to the riboflavin degradation rate constant;

(k) using the model of step (j), for other HDPE test materials with differing loadings of titanium dioxide, predicting an unknown riboflavin degradation rate constant based upon a known titanium dioxide loading of the material;

(l) exposing a liquid milk product in test packages constructed of the test materials described in (a) to retail storage conditions and measuring the riboflavin content of said product for each test package as a function of exposure time;

(m) reducing the data from (l) to a riboflavin degradation rate constant for each test package;

(n) relating the rate constant values from step (k) to the rate constant values from step (m) to develop a functional correlation; and

(o) testing a packaging test material comprised of HDPE and TiO2 using steps (a) and (b)- (k) and applying the obtained data to the model of step (n) to predict the photoprotective performance under retail storage conditions of a package comprised of the test material and containing the given liquid milk product.


 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zur Vorhersage der Lichtschutzleistung eines Verpackungsmaterials für ein flüssiges Milchprodukt, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:

(a) das Bereitstellen einer Probe umfassend eine homogene wässrige Lösung von Riboflavin von etwa 30 ppm und Testmaterialien, die von einer Reihe von HDPE-Verpackungen mit verschiedenen Titandioxidbeladungen abgeleitet sind;

(b) das Bereitstellen einer Zelle (44) die unter Kontrolle gehaltene optische Eigenschaften aufweist, um die Probe bei einer unter Kontrolle gehaltenen Temperatur zwischen -20 °C und 100 °C in Schach zu halten;

(c) das Bereitstellen einer Lichtquelle, die einen Lichtstrahl mit einer unter Kontrolle gehaltenen Spektralsignatur zwischen 290 und 1000 nm und einer unter Kontrolle gehaltenen Intensität zwischen 0,01 und 5 W/cm2 erzeugt;

(d) das Positionieren der Probe in die Zelle unter Erbringen einer Probezelle;

(e) Positionieren eines ersten Testmaterials (38a) zwischen die Lichtquelle und die Probezelle unter Erbringen einer abgeschirmten Probezelle, wobei der Lichtstrahl auf das erste Testmaterial auftrifft und irgendein eindringendes Licht auf die Probezelle auftrifft und wobei das erste Testmaterial eine bekannte Titandioxidbeladung umfasst;

(f) das Aussetzen der abgeschirmten Probezelle einer oder mehreren Intensitäten des Lichtstrahls gegenüber für eine oder mehrere Zeitdauern;

(g) das Messen der Änderungen des Riboflavins, das innerhalb der abgeschirmten Probezelle enthalten ist, über eine oder mehrere Zeitdauern, um Datenpunkte zu erzeugen;

(h) das Verwenden der Datenpunkte zum Bestimmen einer Riboflavinabbauratekonstante des ersten Testmaterials;

(i) das Wiederholen der Schritte (a)-(h) mit einem oder mehreren zusätzlichen Testmaterialien unter denselben Bedingungen, um eine oder mehrere zusätzliche Riboflavinabbauratekonstanten zu erzeugen;

(j) das Benutzen der zwei oder mehreren Riboflavinabbauratekonstanten zum Erzeugen eines Modells für die HDPE-Verpackungen mit verschiedenen Titandioxidbeladungen, das die Titandioxidbeladung mit der Riboflavinabbauratekonstante in Bezug setzt;

(k) das Verwenden des Modells aus Schritt (j) für andere HDPE-Testmaterialien mit verschiedenen Titandioxidbeladungen wobei eine unbekannte Riboflavinabbauratekonstanten auf der Basis einer bekannten Titandioxidbeladung des Materials vorausgesagt wird;

(l) das Aussetzen eines flüssigen Milchprodukts in Testverpackungen, die aus den unter (a) beschriebenen Testmaterialien hergestellt sind, Einzelhandelaufbewahrungsbedingungen gegenüber und Messen des Riboflavingehalts des Produkts für jede Testpackung in Abhängigkeit von der Aussetzzeit;

(m) das Reduzieren der Daten von (l) auf eine Riboflavinabbauratekonstante für jede Testpackung;

(n) das Inbezugsetzen der Ratekonstantenwerte aus Schritt (k) zu den Ratekonstantenwerten aus Schritt (m), um eine funktionelle Korrelation zu entwickeln; und

(o) das Testen eines Verpackungstestmaterials, das aus HDPE und TiO2 besteht, unter Anwendung der Schritte (a) und (b)-(k) und Anwenden der erhaltenen Daten auf das Modell von Schritt (n), um die Lichtschutzleistung unter Einzelhandelaufbewahrungsbedingungen einer Verpackung, die aus dem Testmaterial besteht und das vorgegebene flüssige Milchprodukt enthält, vorherzusagen.


 


Revendications

1. Procédé de prédiction de la performance de photoprotection d'un matériau d'emballage pour un produit laitier liquide, le procédé comprenant:

(a) la fourniture d'un échantillon comprenant une solution aqueuse homogène de riboflavine à environ 30 ppm et des matériaux de test dérivés d'une série d'emballages en HDPE ayant des charges différentes de dioxyde de titane;

(b) la fourniture d'une cellule (44) ayant des propriétés optiques contrôlées pour contenir l'échantillon à une température contrôlée entre -20°C et 100°C;

(c) la fourniture d'une source de lumière qui génère un faisceau de lumière avec une signature spectrale contrôlée entre 290 et 1 000 nm et une intensité contrôlée entre 0,01 et 5 W/cm2;

(d) la mise en place de l'échantillon dans la cellule, donnant une cellule d'échantillon;

(e) la mise en place d'un premier matériau de test (38a) entre la source de lumière et la cellule d'échantillon, donnat une cellule d'échantillon protégée, où le faisceau de lumière est incident sur le premier matériau de test et toute lumière de pénétration est incidente sur la cellule d'échantillon, et où le premier matériau de test comprend une charge connue de dioxyde de titane;

(f) l'exposition de la cellule d'échantillon protégée à une ou plusieurs intensités dudit faisceau de lumière durant une ou plusieurs durées;

(g) la mesure des changements survenus à la riboflavine contenue à l'intérieur de la cellule d'échantillon protégée à une ou plusieurs durées pour générer des points de données;

(h) l'utilisation des points de données pour déterminer une constante de taux de dégradation de la riboflavine du premier matériau de test;

(i) la répétition des étapes (a) à (h) avec un ou plusieurs matériaux de test additionnels sous les mêmes conditions pour générer une ou plusieurs constantes de taux de dégradation additionnelles de la riboflavine;

(j) l'utilisation des deux ou plusieurs constantes de taux de dégradation de la riboflavine pour générer un modèle pour les emballages en HDPE avec des charges différentes du dioxyde de titane qui relie la charge du dioxyde de titane à la constante de taux de dégradation de la riboflavine;

(k) l'utilisation du modèle de l'étape (j), pour d'autres matériaux de test HDPE avec des charges différentes de dioxyde de titane, la prédiction d'une constante inconnue de taux de dégradation de la riboflavine sur la base d'une charge connue de dioxyde de titane du matériau;

(l) l'exposition d'un produit laitier liquide dans des emballages de test construits à partir des matériaux de test décrits en (a) pour des conditions de stockage au détail et la mesure de la teneur en riboflavine dudit produit pour chaque emballage de test comme une fonction du temps d'exposition;

(m) la réduction des données depuis (l) jusqu'à une constante de taux de dégradation de la riboflavine pour chaque emballage de test;

(n) la liaison des valeurs de constante de taux depuis l'étape (k) aux valeurs de constante de taux depuis l'étape (m) pour développer une corrélation fonctionnelle; et

(o) le test d'un matériau de test d'emballage composé de HDPE et de TiO2 en utilisant les étapes (a) et (b) à (k) et l'application des données obtenues au modèle de l'étape (n) pour prédire la performance de photoprotection sous les conditions de stockage au détail d'un emballage constitué du matériau de test et contenant le produit laitier liquide donné.


 




Drawing


























Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Non-patent literature cited in the description