(19)
(11)EP 2 852 337 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
14.08.2019 Bulletin 2019/33

(21)Application number: 12726740.9

(22)Date of filing:  23.05.2012
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A61B 17/74  (2006.01)
G16H 50/50  (2018.01)
A61B 34/10  (2016.01)
A61B 17/17  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2012/002206
(87)International publication number:
WO 2013/174401 (28.11.2013 Gazette  2013/48)

(54)

ENTRY PORTAL NAVIGATION

EINTRITTSPORTALNAVIGATION

NAVIGATION DE PORTAIL D'ENTRÉE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(43)Date of publication of application:
01.04.2015 Bulletin 2015/14

(73)Proprietor: Stryker European Holdings I, LLC
Kalamazoo, MI 49002 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • SIMON, Bernd
    24107 Kiel (DE)
  • BLAU, Arno
    79219 Staufen im Breisgau (DE)

(74)Representative: Maiwald Patent- und Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH 
Elisenhof Elisenstraße 3
80335 München
80335 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 363 083
US-A1- 2005 251 113
WO-A2-2004/069040
US-A1- 2012 106 819
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The invention relates to the field of computer assisted surgery. Particularly, the invention relates to a computer software based method for identifying an entry point at a bone for assisting an insertion of an implant. Furthermore, the invention relates to a corresponding device.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0002] Usually, an implant is inserted into a bone based on the experience of a physician. In other words, the physician opens the tissue surrounding the bone, tries to identify a known landmark on the bone surface, and introduces an implant through a choosen point on the bone surface. In particular in a case in which a bone nail should be inserted into a tubular bone, there is a significant risk of displacement of the bone nail so that the bone nail itself or a locking screw being introduced through a transverse bore in the bone nail, is finally positioned within the bone with the positioning being far from optimal.

    [0003] US 2011/0213379 A1 discloses a computer assisted surgery system and a method for operating the same, wherein the method includes providing a visualization of a virtual representation of a medical device in the anatomical context to facilitate an application of the medical device.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0004] It is an object of the invention to provide means for identifying a suitable entry point at a bone for assisting an insertion of an implant and for achieving better implantation results. It is a further object to reduce an amount of radiation to which a patient is exposed during an insertion of an implant. These and other objects are achieved by the subject-matter of each of the independent claims. Further embodiments are described in the respective dependent claims.

    [0005] According to a first aspect, a method comprises, in general, the steps of determining a location on a bone surface in a first image generated from a first direction, and performing a simulation of an insertion of an implant based on the determined location. The simulation comprises the steps of identifying an implantation axis in the first image, and aligning a visualization of the implant with the implantation axis, with respect to the determined location. The method comprises further the steps of identifying the point, determined in the first image, in a second image generated based on a bone model showing the bone from a second direction, and performing a second simulation of an insertion of the bone nail based on the identified point. Thereby, the second simulation comprises the steps of identifying the implantation axis of the bone in the second image, and aligning a virtual visualization of the bone nail with the implantation axis with respect to the identified point.

    [0006] Depending on the intended application, the implantation axis may be orientated substantially parallel to a longitudinal shaft axis of a long bone or in a transverse direction to the shaft axis. For example, if the implant is a bone nail adapted for an implantation within the medullary channel of a tubular bone, the implantation axis is substantially the longitudinal shaft axis of the bone. On the other hand, if the implant is a bone screw adapted for fixing parts of a fractured bone, the implantation axis may have any orientation, i.e. may be at least partially transverse or inclined to the longitudinal axis of the bone. Furthermore, if the implant is a locking screw adapted to be inserted through a bore in a bone plate or bone nail, the implantation axis is substantially identical to the bore axis.

    [0007] The data of the first image may be received directly from an imaging device, for example from a 2D C-arm based X-ray device. The image may represent an anatomical structure of interest, in particular a bone. The image may otherwise be received from a database at which previously recorded images are stored. Furthermore, the image may be a 2D visualization of a 3D computer tomography, a 3D ultrasound or a rotational X-ray scan. Based on already existing images, the described method and system may be used for training purposes.

    [0008] According to an embodiment, at least the simulation is performed by a computer program comprising corresponding sets of instructions.

    [0009] It will be understood that the method step of determining a location on a bone surface may be performed manually by means of a suitable pointing device, wherein a suitable pointing device may be a cursor of a computer mouse. Otherwise, the method step of determining a location on a bone surface may be performed automatically, for example by means of a reference object visible in the image, wherein the reference object may be for example a tip of an instrument or an element like an arrow laying under the patient during the imaging.

    [0010] It will be understood that the computer program may therefore further include sets of instructions to identify a bone surface and the reference object in the image.

    [0011] A corresponding computer program may preferably be loaded into a work memory of a data processor. The data processor or processing unit may thus be equipped to carry out at least a part of the method described herein. Further, the invention relates to a computer-readable medium such as a CD-ROM at which the computer program may be stored. However, the computer program may also be presented over a network like the World Wide Web and can be downloaded into the working memory of the data processor from such a network.

    [0012] According to another embodiment, the simulation may further comprise the step of introducing a visualization of a sub-implant which may be implanted in combination with the implant, with respect to a positioning of the implant. Therefore, the positioning of the sub-implant is based on the positioning of the implant and is thus based indirectly on the determined location which represents the entry point of the implant.

    [0013] It is noted that the positioning of the implant includes both a translational and a rotational orientation of the implant relative to for example a bone.

    [0014] According to another embodiment, the method further comprises the steps of determining a deviation of the positioning of the implant and/or of the sub-implant according to the simulated insertion from an optimal positioning. A further step may be, if the deviation is within a predetermined range, identifying the determined location as suitable entry point for an insertion.

    [0015] According to a further embodiment, the determination of a location on a bone surface is performed utilizing a bone model. For example, a 3D model of a bone which corresponds to the bone imaged in the first image may be received from a database. An exemplary utilization of bone models is described in 'Evidence based development of a novel lateral fibula plate (VariAX Fibula) using a real CT bone data based optimization process during device development' of A.P. Schulz et al. (The Open Orthopaedics Journal, 2012, 6, 1-7).

    [0016] According to another embodiment, the method may additionally be performed on the basis of a second image generated from a second direction, wherein the second direction may be substantially perpendicular to the first direction.

    [0017] By way of these embodiments (alone or combination), an entry point may be identified more accurately on the three dimentional surface of a bone model or an imaged bone.

    [0018] According to yet another embodiment, the optimal positioning includes a depth and a rotation of the implant relative to the bone. The optimal positioning may further include a length of a sub-implant.

    [0019] As mentioned above, a criterion for an entry point may be a deviation of the virtual positioning of the implant from an optimal positioning. The optimal positioning may depend on at least one of the aspects from the group consisting of: the implant is located within the bone, the axis of the implant is aligned to the axis of the bone, the implant is located within a medullary cannel of a tubular bone, and the implant is not significantly bended (indicating that only small forces act in a transverse direction).

    [0020] For example, assuming that an optimal positioning of a bone nail (an implant) is such that the axes of the bone nail and a tubular bone like a femur are identical, i.e. congruent, and further assuming that the bone nail is implanted into a medullary channel of the femur so that the longitudinal axis of the bone nail is not congruent but substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the femur, i.e. the bone nail is located within the medullary channel but is slightly shifted to a side, then the actual positioning of the bone nail has a deviation from the optimal positioning which may be determined as small and to be tolerated. However, if the axis is shifted such that a sub-implant like a locking screw if inserted, would be positioned in an inappropriate manner, for example an end or a portion of the sub-implant would be not completely within the bone or with a distance from the outer surface of the bone which may be determined as too small, then the actual positioning of the bone nail together with a sub-implant have a deviation from the optimal positioning which may be determined as too large, i.e. should not be tolerated.

    [0021] A deviation as well as a corresponding predetermined range may be defined by percent, in a case in which the optimal positioning is determined by a length or a diameter, or may be defined by a distance, in a case in which the optimal positioning is determined by a position or axis.

    [0022] It is noted that the steps of the method may be repeated to iteratively achieve a more accurate identification of an entry point.

    [0023] According to a further embodiment, the step of determining a location on a bone surface does not include a positioning of a pointing device at a bone surface in so far as the step constitutes a treatment of a human or animal body by surgery.

    [0024] According to a further aspect, a device for identifying an entry point on a bone surface of a bone for assisting an insertion of an implant, comprises, in general, a processing unit adapted for determining a location on the bone surface which is a possible entry point, based on an image of the bone including the bone surface, and performing a simulation of an insertion of an implant into the bone with respect to the determined location.

    [0025] It will be understood that a virtual implant having a suitable size and shape may be selected out of a group of virtual implants with differing sizes and shapes. Accordingly, the device may further comprise a database for storing a plurality of visualizations of virtual implants. The processing unit may in this case further be adapted for automatically selecting an implant out of the group of implants.

    [0026] On the other hand, the size and shape of one virtual implant may be adapted as needed. Therefore, the processing unit of the device may further be adapted for adapting the virtual visualization of the implant to the imaged bone that is the size and/or shape of the virtual visualization to the imaged bone.

    [0027] It is noted that also the size and/or shape of an implant selected out of a group of implants may be adapted to an imaged bone if necessary.

    [0028] Furthermore, the processing unit may be adapted for registering the virtual visualization of the implant with the received image.

    [0029] The device may further comprise an imaging unit for generating images of the bone from different directions. The imaging unit may be an X-ray imaging device for generating X-ray images.

    [0030] According to a further embodiment, the system further comprises input means for manually determing a location on a bone surface. Such input means may be for example a computer keyboard, a computer mouse or a touch screen, to control a pointing device like a cursor on a monitor screen.

    [0031] According to yet another embodiment, the device further comprises a pointing device visible in the received image. If the image is received from an X-ray imaging device, the pointing device may include a radiolucent shaft and a radiopaque tip adapted to represent a reference object visible in an X-ray image and adapted to point to a location on a bone surface. The tip may be in contact with the location on the bone surface. Additionally, the pointing device may comprise at least one radiopaque element arranged at a predetermined position relative to the tip so that the position of the tip may be clearly identified in an X-ray image.

    [0032] It is noted, that the processing means may be realized by only one processor performing all the steps, or by a group or plurality of processors, for example a system processor for processing the image data including an indetification of anatomical structures like a bone surface, a separate processor specialized on a simulation of a implantation of an implant, and a further processor for controlling a monitor for visualizing the result.

    [0033] Furthermore, the system may comprise storage means providing a database of implants and/or bone models. It will be understood, that such storage means may also be provided in a network to which the system may be connected and information related to the implant, i.e. different types of implants and parameter thereof, may be received over that network.

    [0034] It has to be noted that embodiments are described with reference to different subject-matters. In particular, some embodiments are described with reference to method type claims (computer program) whereas other embodiments are described with reference to apparatus type claims (system). However, a person skilled in the art will gather from the above and the following description that unless other notified in addition to any combination of features belonging to one type of subject-matter also any combination between features relating to different subject-matters is considered to be disclosed with this application.

    [0035] The aspects defined above and further aspects, features and advantages of the described methods and devices can also be derived from the examples of the embodiments to be described hereinafter and are explained with reference to examples of embodiments also shown in the figures, but to which the invention is not limited.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0036] 

    Fig. 1 shows a flow chart of steps perfomed in accordance with an embodiment desrcibed herein.

    Fig. 2 shows a schematical illustration of a system according to an embodiment described herein.

    Fig. 3 shows an exemplary image generated from a first direction including anatomical structures and a pointing device.

    Fig. 4 shows an exemplary image including anatomical structures, a pointing device and a virtual visualization of an implant.

    Fig. 5 shows an exemplary image including anatomical structures and a pointing device shown from a second direction.

    Fig. 6 shows an exemplary image including anatomical structures, a pointing device and a virtual visualization of an implant and a sub-implant axis.

    Fig. 7 shows an exemplary isometrical image including anatomical structures, a pointing device and a virtual visualization of an implant and a sub-implant axis.

    Fig. 8 shows an exemplary isometrical image including anatomical structures, a pointing device and a virtual visualization of an implant and a sub-implant.



    [0037] Throughout the drawings, the same reference numerals and characters, unless otherwise stated, are used to denote like features, elements, components, or portions of the illustrated embodiments. Moreover, while the present disclosure will now be described in detail with reference to the figures, it is done so in connection with the illustrative embodiments and is not limited by the particular embodiments illustrated in the figures.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS



    [0038] The flow-chart in Fig. 1 illustrates the principle of the steps performed in accordance with an embodiment described herein. It will be understood that the steps described, are major steps, wherein these major steps might be differentiated or divided into several sub-steps. Furthermore, there might be also sub-steps between these major steps.

    [0039] Several possibilities of performing a method are provided in accordance with Fig. 1.

    [0040] Starting at arrow A, an image is received for example from an X-ray imaging unit in step S11, the image being generated from a first direction. In step S12, a location on a bone surface is determined.

    [0041] In steps S13, S14, a simulation of an implantation of an implant is performed, based on the location on the bone surface determined in step S11. In other words, an implantation is simulated starting from the previously determined location. As a result, the virtual implant is positioned within the imaged bone, as if it would have been introduced with the determined location as an entry point. The result may be shown on a display or monitor, for example as an overlay of the virtual implant on the image received in step S11.

    [0042] In step S13, a shaft axis of for example a tubular bone is identified. In step S14, an axis of the virtual implant is aligned with the identified implantation axis. Optionally, a sub-implant like a locking screw is introduced in step S15.

    [0043] In step S16, a deviation of the positioning of the virtual implant from an optimal positioning is determined. This may be performed by comparing the positioning of the virtually implanted implant with another implant which is also visualized as an overlay on the image on a theoretically optimal position.

    [0044] Following arrow B as a first alternative, in case in which the deviation is within a predetermined range, the initially determined location is identified as suitable entry point in step S30.

    [0045] Following arrow C as a second alternative, in case in which the deviation is not within a predetermined range, the steps S11 to S16 are performed again, wherein a new image with a new location is now received in step S11. By repeating this part of the method, a result can be iteratively achieved, having a deviation within a predetermined range.

    [0046] Following arrow D as a third alternative, method steps S21 to S26 are performed, wherein these steps are similar to steps S11 to S16. The image received in step S21 is alternatively generated based on image data received from an imaging device or based on bone model data received from a database. The anatomical structures are shown in the resulting visualization from a second direction differing from the first direction in step S11.

    [0047] When step S22 is performed the first time, i.e. following arrow D to step S21, the location determined in step S12 is used as a starting point for the simulation performed in steps S23 to S25.

    [0048] As in step S16, three alternatives exist following step S26.

    [0049] Following arrow E as a first alternative, in case in which a deviation of the positioning of the virtual implant from an optimal positioning based on an image generated from a second direction, as determined in step S26, is within a predetermined range, the location determined in step S22 is identified as suitable 3D entry point in step S30. It is noted that the location identified as suitable entry point in step S16 based on an image generated from a first direction, may be identified as suitable also in step S26 based on an image generated from a second direction.

    [0050] Following arrow F as a second alternative, in case in which a deviation is not within a predetermined range, the part of the method including steps S21 to S26 is repeated, to iteratively determine a location based on an image generated from a second direction, which location leads to a positioning as a result of a simulated implantation with a deviation from an optimal positioning within a predetermined range.

    [0051] It is noted that on the basis of only one X-ray image together with information taken from a bone model, an accurate determination of a three dimensional entry point may be provided in accordance with the alternatives following arrows E and/or F.

    [0052] Following arrow G as a third alternative, the first part of the method, i.e. steps S11 to S16 are repeated. This path may be performed in a case in which the location identified as suitable by steps S21 to S26 differs clearly from that identified as suitable by previously performed steps S11 to S16.

    [0053] Following arrows D and G several times lead to a method of iteratively determining a three dimesional location on a bone surface as an entry point finally identified in step S30 as suitable for an insertion of an implant into the bone.

    [0054] Fig. 2 shows an exemplary embodiment of a device. Substantially necessary for performing the steps described herein, the device comprises a processing unit 100 and a monitor 400.

    [0055] The exemplary imaging device 200 includes an X-ray source 240, and an X-ray detector 260, wherein these two devices are mounted on a C-arm 220. It will be understood that the device may also comprise another non-invasive imaging modality like a computer tomography device, a magnetic resonance device, or an ultrasound device as imaging device instead of or additional to the shown C-arm based X-ray device.

    [0056] Furthermore, the device in fig. 2 includes an input device 300, by means of which for example a manual determination of a location on a bone surface may be performed. Also shown is a connection (as dotted line) to a database 600, located for example in a network.

    [0057] Finally, there is shown a region of interest 500. Within said region, for example a bone of a patient may be located, wherein it is intended to introduce an implant into that bone, but a suitable entry point for the implantation has to be identified.

    [0058] In figures 3 to 8, exemplary visualizations are shown. Each of these visualizations represents for example an X-ray image of a hip joint with a femur 10, including the contour of the hip bone and the femur. Additionally, a pointing device, an implant and/or a sub-implant is shown.

    [0059] Fig. 3 shows a situation in which the method steps S11 and S12 are performed, i.e. an image is received and a location is determined on the bone surface.

    [0060] In fig. 3, the hip bone and femur are shown from an anterior-posterior direction as a first direction. The femur 10 comprises a bone surface 12 and a longitudinal axis 14. By means of the pointing device 40, a location 16 is determined on the bone surface. The pointing device 40 in fig. 3 may be for example a cursor of a computer mouse.

    [0061] Fig. 4 shows a situation in which the steps S11 to S14 are performed, i.e. an implant is virtually implanted based on the previously determined location on the bone surface.

    [0062] In fig. 4, a pointing device 40 is shown, having a tip 42, a shaft 44 and elements 46, wherein the tip 42 and the elements 46 may be radiopaque to be visible in an X-ray image, and the shaft 44 may be radiolucent to be not visible in the X-ray image. Since the X-ray image is a 2D projection of a 3D object, the pointing device may be located in any depth. The tip 42 of the pointing device 40 may be in contact with the bone surface 12 at the location 16 so that the contact point can be determined as the location in the X-ray image.

    [0063] As an overlay, a visualization of an implant 20, i.e. a bone nail, is additionally shown in fig. 4, wherein the implant 20 is aligned with the longitudinal shaft axis 14 of the femur 10.

    [0064] Fig. 5 shows the situation in which steps S21 and S22 are performed, i.e. an image visualizing a femur from a second direction is generated based on a bone model from a database or is received from an imaging device and a location is determined. It is noted that the femur may be also visualized without the surrounding anatomical structures, in particular in a case in which the image is generated based on a bone model.

    [0065] In fig. 5, the femur 10 includes a bone surface 12 and a shaft axis 14. The pointing device 40 is visible with its tip at the location 16 on the bone surface.

    [0066] Fig. 6 shows a situation in which steps S21 to S25 are performed, i.e. not only an implant is virtually implanted but also a sub-implant.

    [0067] In fig. 6, a hip joint with a hip bone and a femur 10 is shown, wherein the hip joint is imaged from a medial-lateral direction as the second direction which is substantially perpendicular to the first direction of figures 3 and 4. The femur 10 comprises a bone surface 12 and a longitudinal shaft axis 14. By means of the pointing device 40, the location 16 is determined. Furthermore, the femur head 18 is identified by a center point and a diameter. Further shown in fig. 6 is an implant 20 together with a sub-implant 30, both substantially including a longitudinal axis and a diameter, wherein the axis of the implant 20 is aligned with the axis 14 of the femur and the axis 34 of the sub-implant extends through the center point of the femur head 18.

    [0068] Fig. 7 shows a situation as in fig. 6, i.e. in which steps S21 to S25 are performed. The situation in fig. 7 differs from that in fig. 6 in that the virtually implanted sub-implant 30 significantly deviates from an optimal positioning. Indicated by the reference sign X is an area of the femur neck at which the sub-implant would protrude out of the bone. Accordingly, the location 16 in fig. 7 is inappropriate as an entry point for an implantation of the implant 20 and the sub-implant 30.

    [0069] In fig. 8, an implant 20 together with a sub-implant 30 is shown, wherein the virtual implantation is based on a new location 17 instead of the previous location 16 from fig. 7. The better positioned sub-implant 30 is visualized in fig. 8 as a locking screw having a screw thread 36 extending into the head 18 of the femur 10.

    [0070] While methods and devices has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and afore-going description, such illustrations and descriptions are to be considered illustrative or exemplary and not restrictive, the invention is not limited to the disclosed embodiments.

    [0071] Other variations to the disclosed embodiments can be understood and effected by those skilled in the art in practising the claimed invention, from a study of the drawings, the disclosure and the appended claims. In the claims, the word "comprising" does not exclude other elements or steps, and the indefinite article "a" or "an" does not exclude a plurality. A single processor or other unit may fulfil the functions of several items recited in the claims.

    [0072] The mere fact that certain measures are recited and mutually different dependent claims does not indicate that a combination of these measures can not be used to advantage. The computer program may be stored/distributed on a suitable medium such as an optical storage medium or a solid-state medium supplied together with or as a part of another hardware, but may also be distributed in other forms, such as via the Internet or other wired or wireless telecommunication systems. Any reference signs in the claims should not be construed as limiting the scope.

    LIST OF REFERENCE SIGNS



    [0073] 
    10
    femur
    12
    bone surface
    14
    shaft axis
    16
    location / entry point
    18
    head of femur
    20
    implant
    30
    sub-implant
    34
    axis of sub-implant
    36
    center point of head of femur
    40
    pointing device
    42
    tip of pointing device
    44
    shaft of pointing device
    46
    element
    100
    processing means
    200
    imaging device
    220
    C-arm
    240
    X-ray source
    260
    X-ray detector
    300
    input device
    400
    monitor
    500
    region of interest
    600
    database



    Claims

    1. A method for identifying an entry point at a bone (10) for assisting an insertion of a bone nail (20), the method comprising the steps of:

    - determining a point (16, 17) on a bone surface (12) in a first image generated from a first direction by means of an imaging unit (120),

    - performing a first simulation of an insertion of a bone nail (20) based on the determined point (16, 17), the first simulation comprising:

    - identifying an implantation axis (14) of the bone (10) in the first image, and

    - aligning a virtual visualization of the bone nail (20) with the implantation axis (14), with respect to the determined point (16, 17)

    characterized in that the method further comprises the steps of:

    - identifying the point (16, 17), determined in the first image, in a second image generated based on a bone model showing the bone (10) from a second direction, and

    - performing a second simulation of an insertion of the bone nail (20) based on the identified point (16, 17), the second simulation comprising:

    - identifying the implantation axis (14) of the bone (10) in the second image, and

    - aligning a virtual visualization of the bone nail (20) with the implantation axis (14), with respect to the identified point (16, 17).


     
    2. The method of claim 1, wherein the first and/or second simulation further comprises the step of:

    - introducing a virtual visualization of a sub-implant (30) which may be implanted in combination with the bone nail (20), with respect to a positioning of the bone nail (20).


     
    3. The method of any one of claims 1 to 2, further comprising the steps of:

    - determining a deviation of a positioning of the bone nail (20) and/or of the sub-implant (30) according to the simulated insertion from an optimal positioning, and

    - if the deviation is within a predetermined range, identifying the determined point (17) as entry point for an insertion.


     
    4. The method of claim 1, wherein the point (17) is automatically determined.
     
    5. The method of claim 1, wherein the second direction is perpendicular to the first direction.
     
    6. The method of claim 3, wherein the optimal positioning includes a depth and a rotation of the bone nail (20) relative to the bone (10).
     
    7. The method of claim 3, wherein the optimal positioning includes a length of a sub-implant (30).
     
    8. The method of claim 1, wherein the first image is an X-ray image.
     
    9. The method of claim 1, wherein the steps of the method are repeated.
     
    10. A device for identifying an entry point on a bone surface of a bone for assisting an insertion of a bone nail, the device comprising:

    a monitor for visualizing an image of a bone,

    a pointing device for determining a point (16, 17) on the bone surface (12) in the image, which location is a possible entry point, and

    a processing unit (100) adapted to perform the method of claim 1 and further adapted for performing a simulation of an insertion of a bone nail (20) into the bone (10) with respect to the determined point (16, 17), wherein a visualization of the bone nail is shown in relation to the bone in the image.


     
    11. The device of claim 10, further comprising a database (110) for storing at least one visualization of a bone nail (20).
     
    12. The device of claim 10 or 11, further comprising an imaging unit (120) for generating images of the bone from different directions.
     
    13. The device of any one of claims 10 to 12, wherein the image is an X-ray image.
     
    14. A computer program including sets of instructions which when executed on the processing unit of the device of claim 10, causes the processing unit to perform the steps of the method of claim 1.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zur Identifizierung einer Eintrittsstelle an einem Knochen (10) zum Unterstützen eines Einführens eines Knochennagels (20), wobei das Verfahren die Schritte umfasst:

    - Bestimmen einer Stelle (16, 17) auf einer Knochenoberfläche (12) in einem ersten Bild, das mittels einer Abbildungseinheit (120) aus einer ersten Richtung erzeugt ist,

    - Durchführen einer ersten Simulation eines Einführens eines Knochennagels (20) basierend auf der bestimmten Stelle (16, 17), wobei die erste Simulation umfasst:

    - Identifizieren einer Implantationsachse (14) des Knochens (10) im ersten Bild, und

    - Ausrichten einer virtuellen Visualisierung des Knochennagels (20) mit der Implantationsachse (14) in Bezug auf die bestimmte Stelle (16, 17)

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verfahren weiterhin die Schritte umfasst:

    - Identifizieren der im ersten Bild bestimmten Stelle (16, 17) in einem zweiten Bild, das basierend auf einem Knochenmodell erzeugt ist und den Knochen (10) aus einer zweiten Richtung zeigt, und

    - Durchführen einer zweiten Simulation eines Einführens des Knochennagels (20) basierend auf der identifizierten Stelle (16, 17), wobei die zweite Simulation umfasst:

    - Identifizieren der Implantationsachse (14) des Knochens (10) im zweiten Bild, und

    - Ausrichten einer virtuellen Visualisierung des Knochennagels (20) mit der Implantationsachse (14) in Bezug auf die identifizierte Stelle (16, 17).


     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die erste und/oder zweite Simulation ferner den Schritt umfasst:

    - Einführen einer virtuellen Visualisierung eines Subimplantats (30), das in Kombination mit dem Knochennagel (20) implantiert werden kann, in Bezug auf eine Positionierung des Knochennagels (20).


     
    3. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 2, ferner umfassend die Schritte:

    - Bestimmen einer Abweichung einer Positionierung des Knochennagels (20) und/oder des Subimplantats (30) nach dem simulierten Einführen von einer optimalen Positionierung, und

    - wenn die Abweichung innerhalb eines vorbestimmten Bereichs liegt, Identifizieren der bestimmten Stelle (17) als Eintrittspunkt für ein Einführen.


     
    4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Stelle (17) automatisch bestimmt wird.
     
    5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die zweite Richtung senkrecht zu der ersten Richtung ist.
     
    6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, wobei die optimale Positionierung eine Tiefe und eine Drehung des Knochennagels (20) relativ zum Knochen (10) umfasst.
     
    7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, wobei die optimale Positionierung eine Länge eines Subimplantats (30) umfasst.
     
    8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das erste Bild ein Röntgenbild ist.
     
    9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Schritte des Verfahrens wiederholt werden.
     
    10. Vorrichtung zur Identifizierung einer Eintrittsstelle auf einer Knochenoberfläche eines Knochens zum Unterstützen eines Einführens eines Knochennagels, wobei die Vorrichtung umfasst:

    einen Monitor zur Visualisierung eines Knochenbildes,

    eine Zeigevorrichtung zum Bestimmen einer Stelle (16, 17) auf der Knochenoberfläche (12) in dem Bild, welcher Ort eine mögliche Eintrittsstelle ist, und

    eine Verarbeitungseinheit (100), die zur Durchführung des Verfahrens nach Anspruch 1 angepasst ist und ferner zur Durchführung einer Simulation eines Einführens eines Knochennagels (20) in den Knochen (10) in Bezug auf die bestimmte Stelle (16, 17) angepasst ist, wobei eine Visualisierung des Knochennagels in Bezug auf den Knochen im Bild gezeigt ist.


     
    11. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 10, ferner umfassend eine Datenbank (110) zum Speichern mindestens einer Visualisierung eines Knochennagels (20).
     
    12. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 10 oder 11, ferner umfassend eine Abbildungseinheit (120) zum Erzeugen von Bildern des Knochens aus verschiedenen Richtungen.
     
    13. Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 10 bis 12, wobei das Bild ein Röntgenbild ist.
     
    14. Computerprogramm mit Anweisungssätzen, die, wenn sie auf der Verarbeitungseinheit der Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 10 ausgeführt werden, die Verarbeitungseinheit veranlassen, die Schritte des Verfahrens nach Anspruch 1 durchzuführen.
     


    Revendications

    1. Un procédé pour identifier un point d'entrée au niveau d'un os (10) pour aider à l'insertion d'un clou (20) à os, le procédé comprenant les étapes consistant à :

    - déterminer un point (16, 17) sur une surface osseuse (12) dans une première image générée à partir d'une première direction au moyen d'une unité d'imagerie (120),

    - réaliser une première simulation d'insertion d'un clou (20) à os à partir du point déterminé (16, 17), la première simulation comprenant :

    - le fait d'identifier un axe d'implantation (14) de l'os (10) dans la première image, et

    le fait d'aligner une visualisation virtuelle du clou (20) à os avec l'axe d'implantation (14), par rapport au point déterminé (16, 17),
    caractérisé en ce que le procédé comprend en outre les étapes consistant à :

    - identifier le point (16, 17), déterminé dans la première image, dans une deuxième image générée à partir d'un modèle osseux montrant l'os (10) à partir d'une deuxième direction, et

    - réaliser une deuxième simulation d'une insertion du clou (20) à os à partir du point identifié (16, 17), la deuxième simulation comprenant :

    - le fait d'identifier l'axe d'implantation (14) de l'os (10) dans la deuxième image, et

    le fait d'aligner une visualisation virtuelle du clou (20) à os avec l'axe d'implantation (14), par rapport au point identifié (16, 17).
     
    2. Le procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la première et/ou la deuxième simulation comprend en outre l'étape consistant à :

    - introduire une visualisation virtuelle d'un sous-implant (30) qui peut être implanté en combinaison avec le clou (20) à os, par rapport à un positionnement du clou (20) à os.


     
    3. Le procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 2, comprenant en outre les étapes consistant à :

    - déterminer une déviation d'un positionnement du clou (20) à os et/ou du sous-implant (30) en fonction de l'insertion simulée par rapport à un positionnement optimal, et

    - si la déviation se situe dans un intervalle prédéterminé, identifier le point déterminé (17) en tant que point d'entrée pour une insertion.


     
    4. Le procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le point (17) est déterminé automatiquement.
     
    5. Le procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la deuxième direction est perpendiculaire à la première direction.
     
    6. Le procédé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le positionnement optimal comprend une profondeur et une rotation du clou (20) à os par rapport à l'os (10).
     
    7. Le procédé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le positionnement optimal comprend une longueur d'un sous-implant (30).
     
    8. Le procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la première image est une image radiographique.
     
    9. Le procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les étapes du procédé sont répétées.
     
    10. Un dispositif pour identifier un point d'entrée sur une surface osseuse d'un os pour aider à l'insertion d'un clou à os, le dispositif comprenant :

    un moniteur pour visualiser une image d'un os,

    un dispositif de pointage pour déterminer un point (16, 17) sur la surface de l'os (12) dans l'image, lequel emplacement est un point d'entrée possible, et

    une unité de traitement (100) adaptée pour mettre en oeuvre le procédé selon la revendication 1 et adaptée en outre pour effectuer une simulation d'une insertion d'un clou (20) à os dans l'os (10) par rapport au point déterminé (16, 17), une visualisation clou à os étant représentée en relation à l'os sur l'image.


     
    11. Le dispositif selon la revendication 10, comprenant en outre une base de données (110) pour stocker au moins une visualisation d'un clou (20) à os.
     
    12. Le dispositif selon la revendication 10 ou la revendication 11, comprenant en outre une unité d'imagerie (120) pour générer des images de l'os dans différentes directions.
     
    13. Le dispositif selon l'une quelconque des revendications 10 à 12, dans lequel l'image est une image radiographique.
     
    14. Un programme d'ordinateur comprenant des ensembles d'instructions qui, lorsqu'elles sont exécutées sur l'unité de traitement du dispositif selon la revendication 10, amènent l'unité de traitement à mettre en oeuvre les étapes du procédé selon la revendication 1.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description