(19)
(11)EP 2 859 095 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
13.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/20

(21)Application number: 13800373.6

(22)Date of filing:  24.05.2013
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C12N 9/24  (2006.01)
C12N 15/52  (2006.01)
C12N 1/21  (2006.01)
D06M 16/00  (2006.01)
C12R 1/19  (2006.01)
D06M 101/06  (2006.01)
C12N 9/42  (2006.01)
C12N 15/56  (2006.01)
C11D 3/386  (2006.01)
A23K 20/168  (2016.01)
C12R 1/885  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/FI2013/050568
(87)International publication number:
WO 2013/182740 (12.12.2013 Gazette  2013/50)

(54)

NOVEL PROTEINS FOR THE TREATMENT OF CELLULOSIC MATERIAL

NEUARTIGE PROTEINE ZUR BEHANDLUNG EINES CELLULOSEMATERIALS

NOUVELLES PROTÉINES POUR LE TRAITEMENT D'UNE MATIÈRE CELLULOSIQUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 07.06.2012 FI 20125623

(43)Date of publication of application:
15.04.2015 Bulletin 2015/16

(73)Proprietor: Roal Oy
05200 Rajamäki (FI)

(72)Inventors:
  • MÄKINEN, Susanna
    FI-05200 Rajamäki (FI)
  • JUNTUNEN, Kari
    FI-05200 Rajamäki (FI)
  • KOMANDER, Alexandra
    64293 Darmstadt (DE)
  • LANGFELDER, Kim
    64293 Darmstadt (DE)
  • VEHMAANPERÄ, Jari
    FI-05200 Rajamäki (FI)
  • PURANEN, Terhi
    FI-05200 Rajamäki (FI)

(74)Representative: Kolster Oy Ab 
(Salmisaarenaukio 1) P.O. Box 204
00181 Helsinki
00181 Helsinki (FI)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2007/071818
WO-A1-2012/024698
WO-A1-2012/061517
WO-A1-2012/068509
WO-A2-2011/126897
WO-A1-2012/021399
WO-A1-2012/058293
WO-A1-2012/068509
WO-A1-2012/138772
WO-A2-2011/126897
  
  • ALEXANDER V GUSAKOV: "Alternatives toin biofuel production", TRENDS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 29, no. 9, 1 September 2011 (2011-09-01), pages 419-425, XP028383328, ISSN: 0167-7799, DOI: 10.1016/J.TIBTECH.2011.04.004 [retrieved on 2011-04-18]
  • VOUTILAINEN SANNI P ET AL: "Cloning, expression, and characterization of novel thermostable family 7 cellobiohydrolases", BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING, WILEY & SONS, HOBOKEN, NJ, US, vol. 101, no. 3, 1 October 2008 (2008-10-01), pages 515-528, XP002557681, ISSN: 0006-3592, DOI: 10.1002/BIT.21940 [retrieved on 2008-04-15]
  • R.C. SUMMERBELL ET AL: "Acremonium phylogenetic overview and revision of Gliomastix, Sarocladium, and Trichothecium", STUDIES IN MYCOLOGY, vol. 68, 1 March 2011 (2011-03-01), pages 139-162, XP055240393, NL ISSN: 0166-0616, DOI: 10.3114/sim.2011.68.06
  • PAUL V HARRIS ET AL: "Stimulation of Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysis by Proteins of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 61: Structure and Function of a Large, Enigmatic Family", BIOCHEMISTRY, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, US, vol. 49, no. 15, 20 April 2010 (2010-04-20), pages 3305-3316, XP002669191, ISSN: 0006-2960, DOI: 10.1021/BI100009P [retrieved on 2010-03-29]
  • XIN LI ET AL: "Structural Basis for Substrate Targeting and Catalysis by Fungal Polysaccharide Monooxygenases", STRUCTURE, CURRENT BIOLOGY LTD., PHILADELPHIA, PA, US, vol. 20, no. 6, 4 April 2012 (2012-04-04), pages 1051-1061, XP028520136, ISSN: 0969-2126, DOI: 10.1016/J.STR.2012.04.002 [retrieved on 2012-04-19]
  • WILLIAM T. BEESON ET AL: "Oxidative Cleavage of Cellulose by Fungal Copper-Dependent Polysaccharide Monooxygenases", JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 134, no. 2, 18 January 2012 (2012-01-18), pages 890-892, XP055027202, ISSN: 0002-7863, DOI: 10.1021/ja210657t
  • RANDY M BERKA ET AL: "Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris", NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 29, no. 10, 1 January 2011 (2011-01-01), pages 922-927, XP055034838, ISSN: 1087-0156, DOI: 10.1038/nbt.1976
  • LANGSTON JAMES A ET AL: "Oxidoreductive Cellulose Depolymerization by the Enzymes Cellobiose Dehydrogenase and Glycoside Hydrolase 61", APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MICROBIOLOGY, US, vol. 77, no. 19, 1 November 2011 (2011-11-01), pages 7007-7015, XP008145192, ISSN: 0099-2240, DOI: 10.1128/AEM.05815-11
  • DAVID B WILSON: "Processive and nonprocessive cellulases for biofuel production-lessons from bacterial genomes and structural analysis", APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, SPRINGER, BERLIN, DE, vol. 93, no. 2, 24 November 2011 (2011-11-24), pages 497-502, XP035001289, ISSN: 1432-0614, DOI: 10.1007/S00253-011-3701-9
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The work leading to this invention has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n° 239341.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0002] The present invention relates to novel polypeptides and enzyme preparations containing them, which enhance the efficiency of cellulosic degradation even at elevated temperatures. The invention also relates to polynucleotides, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing the polypeptides. Furthermore, the present invention relates to a method for treating cellulosic material with the novel polypeptide or enzyme preparation, wherein the hydrolysis of cellulosic material is enhanced. The novel polypeptides are useful in treating cellulosic material. In addition the novel polypeptides may be used in detergent compositions, in machine dishwashing applications or for improving quality of animal feed.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0003] Limited resources of fossil fuels and increasing amounts of CO2 released from them and causing the greenhouse phenomenon have raised a need for using biomass as a renewable and clean source of energy. Biomass resources can be broadly categorized as agricultural or forestry-based, including secondary sources derived from agro- and wood industries, waste sources and municipal solid wastes. One promising, alternative technology is the production of biofuels i.e. (bio)ethanol from lignocellulosic materials.

[0004] Most of the carbohydrates in plants are in the form of lignocellulose, which essentially consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Lignocellulose can be converted into bioethanol and other chemical products via fermentation following hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. In a conventional lignocellulose-to-ethanol process the lignocellulosic material is first pretreated either chemically or physically to make the cellulose fraction more accessible to hydrolysis. The cellulose fraction is then hydrolysed to obtain sugars that can be fermented by yeast or other fermentative organisms into ethanol and distilled to obtain pure ethanol. Lignin is obtained as a main co-product that may be used as a solid fuel.

[0005] One barrier of production of biofuels from cellulosic and lignocellulosic biomass is the robustness of the cell walls and the presence of sugar monomers in the form of inaccessible polymers that require a great amount of processing to make sugar monomers available to the micro-organisms that are typically used to produce alcohol by fermentation. Enzymatic hydrolysis is considered to be the most promising technology for converting cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. However, enzymatic hydrolysis is used only to a limited amount at industrial scale, and especially when using strongly lignified material such as wood or agricultural waste the technology is not satisfactory. The cost of the enzymatic step is one of the major economic factors of the process. Efforts have been made to improve the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic material (Badger 2002).

[0006] In addition to improving characteristics with respect to individual cellulolytic enzymes it would also be beneficial to improve the enzymatic degradation of cellulosic material by influencing on the activity of cellulases on lignocellulose. Optimization of the components in cellulase mixtures and supplementation of other synergistically acting enzymes would improve hydrolytic efficiency.

[0007] WO2005074647 and WO2011035027 disclose isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides thereof from Thielavia terrestris. WO 2005074656 discloses an isolated polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and the polynucleotide thereof from Thermoascus aurantiacus. WO2007089290 discloses an isolated polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and the polynucleotide thereof from Trichoderma reesei. WO2008140749 relates to compositions and methods for degrading or converting a cellulose containing material with a cellulolytic enzyme composition comprising a Trichoderma reesei polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity, and one or more components selected from the group consisting of a CEL7, CEL12 and CEL45 polypeptides having endoglucanase activity or cellobiohydrolase activity. WO2009085868 relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides thereof from Myceliophthora thermophila. WO2009033071 relates to fungal enzymes from Chrysosporium lucknowense (now reidentified as Myceliophthora thermophile; Visser et al. 2011) and methods for using the enzymes and compositions of such enzymes in a variety of other processes, including washing of clothing, detergent processes, biorefining, deinking and biobleaching of paper and pulp, and treatment of waste streams.

[0008] However, there is still a continuous need for new efficient methods of degrading cellulosic substrates, in particular lignocellulosic substrates, and for new cellulase enhancing factors, which can considerably improve the hydrolytic efficiency of cellulase mixtures and also reduce the required enzyme dosage. There is also a need for processes, which are versatile and allow the design of more flexible process configurations. Moreover, there is a need for processes which work not only at moderate temperatures but also at high temperatures, thus increasing the reaction rates and enabling the use of high biomass consistency leading to high sugar and ethanol concentrations. This approach may lead to significant savings in energy and investment costs. The high temperature also decreases the risk of contamination during hydrolysis. The present invention aims to meet at least part of these needs.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0009] It is an object of the present invention to provide novel polypeptides and enzyme preparations containing them, which enhance the efficiency of the cellulosic degradation even at elevated temperatures. Especially the object of the invention is to provide polypeptides to improve hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates in order to produce ethanol. Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for treating cellulosic material, wherein the hydrolysis of cellulosic material is enhanced and wherein versatile process configurations at variable conditions are possible.

[0010] The objects of the invention are achieved by novel polypeptides of GH family 61 obtained from Acremonium thermophilium.

[0011] The present invention provides a GH61 polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 80% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 23 or a fragment thereof capable of enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material, and outperforming the hydrolytic efficiency of GH61 of Thielavia terrestris at a temperature range of 37-55°C.

[0012] The present invention also relates to an isolated polynucleotide selected from the group consisting of:
  1. a) a polynucleotide comprising the coding sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 20;
  2. b) a polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide of claim 1;
  3. c) a polynucleotide encoding a fragment of a polypeptide encoded by a polynucleotide of a) or b), wherein said fragment is capable of enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material; and
  4. d) a polynucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence which is the complementary strand of a polynucleotide sequence of a) or b);


[0013] The invention is also directed to a vector, which comprises said polynucleotide and a host cell comprising said vector. Escherichia coli strains having accession number DSM 25497is also included in the invention.

[0014] A further object of the invention is to provide a method of producing said GH61 polypeptide, the method comprising the steps of transforming a host cell with an expression vector encoding said polypeptide, and culturing said host cell under conditions enabling expression of said polypeptide, and optionally recovering and purifying said polypeptide.

[0015] Other objects of the invention are the enzyme preparations comprising at least one of the novel polypeptides and the use of said enzyme preparations and polypeptides for biomass processing, and in biofuel, starch, textile, detergent, pulp and paper, food, feed or beverage industry. In one aspect of the invention the polypeptides and enzyme preparation containing the polypeptide are used for cleaning the interior of a dishwashing machine. In another aspect the invention provides an animal feed comprising the novel polypeptide.

[0016] The invention also provides a method for treating cellulosic material with a GH61 polypeptide or an enzyme preparation comprising said polypeptide, wherein the method comprises reacting the fibrous/cellulosic material with said polypeptide or enzyme preparation comprising said polypeptide. In a preferred aspect of the invention the method of the invention comprises cleaning the interior of a dishwasher.

[0017] The present invention also provides a detergent composition comprising the GH61 polypeptide. The invention further relates to a method for improving fabric care properties or textile cleaning effect of a detergent composition, comprising adding a polypeptide of the invention to the detergent composition.

[0018] Specific embodiments of the invention are set forth in the dependent claims. Other objects, details and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following drawings, detailed description and examples.

[0019] The present inventors found that the novel GH61 polypeptides and methods of the invention offer considerable potential to increase the overall performance of cellulase enzyme mixtures and reduce the protein loading required to achieve effective hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates. The novel GH61 polypeptides are applicable in hydrolysing different cellulosic materials particularly in combination with enzymes used in hydrolysis of various cellulosic or lignocellulosic materials.

[0020] The present inventors also found that the novel GH61 polypeptides are very effective over a broad range of temperatures, and although they have high cellulolytic enhancing activity at standard hydrolysis temperatures, they are also very efficient at high temperatures. This makes them extremely well suited for varying cellulosic substrate hydrolysis processes carried out both at conventional temperatures and at elevated temperatures. In the conventional separate hydrolysis and fermentation process (SHF) the temperature of enzymatic hydrolysis is typically higher than that of fermentation. The use of thermostable enzymes in the hydrolysis offer potential benefits, such as higher reaction rates at elevated temperatures, reduction of enzyme load due to higher specific activity and stability of the enzymes, increased flexibility with respect to process configuration and decreased contamination risk. The general robustness of the thermostable enzymes compared to mesophilic ones also increases the recyclability of enzymes in the industrial process.

[0021] Furthermore, the inventors surprisingly found that novel GH61 polypeptides of the invention are effective in reducing fibrous/cellulosic fibres typically found in the filter of a dishwashing machine.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0022] In the following the invention will be described in greater detail by means of preferred embodiments with reference to the attached drawings.

Figure 1 schematically shows the cassette used for expressing the cel61 genes in Trichoderma reesei. The cel61 genes were under the control of T. reesei cbh1/cel7A promoter (cbh1 prom) and the termination of the transcription was ensured by using T. reesei cbh1/cel7A terminator sequence (cbh1 term). The amdS gene was included as a transformation marker.

Figure 2 shows results from hydrolysis of steam exploded hardwood performed with enzyme mixtures comprising the GH61 proteins of the invention. The hardwood substrate with 12% dry matter was hydrolyzed using different enzyme mixtures at a dosage of 2 mg of protein per gram of total solids at 37°C, 45°, 50° and 55°C. Enzyme mixtures containing GH61 proteins Thielavia terrestris Tt_GH61E (MIXTURE 1_TT), Acremonium thermophilum At_GH61 (MIXTURE 1_AT) and Melanocarpus albomyces Ma_GH61A (MIXTURE 1_MA) were used. Detailed compositions of the enzyme mixtures MIXTURE 1 and compositions comprising the tested GH61 proteins are described in Example 5. Samples from duplicate tubes were taken after 72 hours hydrolysis time and quantified by HPLC, in which the concentration of glucose was determined.

Figure 3 shows results from hydrolysis of ground apple/orange/- wheat fibre mixture performed with enzyme mixtures comprising the GH61 proteins of the invention. The test was performed in dilute citrate buffer, pH 4.0 containing ca. 0.5% (w/w) propylene glycol with an equal amount of each fiber at final total solids concentration of 4 g per litre. Enzymes were added at a dosage of 25 mg of protein per gram of total solids in 500 ml shake flasks. Basic Trichoderma reesei cellulase mixture (Roal Oy) was used as a control. The blank did not contain any added enzyme. Percentage of fiber weight after 60 min hydrolysis at 50°C is presented for the control and mixtures containing 72% (w/w) T. reesei cellulase mixture and 28% (w/w) of GH61 proteins At_GH61 or Ma_GH61A. Standard deviations are included in the graph.


SEQUENCE LISTING



[0023] 

SEQ ID NO:1 Sequence of a tryptic peptide 1669,824 from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 At_GH61 protein.

SEQ ID NO:2 Sequence of a tryptic peptide 1763,938 from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 At_GH61 protein.

SEQ ID NO:3 Sequence of a tryptic peptide 431.7752 from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 At_GH61 protein.

SEQ ID NO:4 Sequence of a tryptic peptide 882.9711 from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 At_GH61 protein.

SEQ ID NO:5 Sequence of a tryptic peptide 855.9166 from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 At_GH61 protein.

SEQ ID NO:6 Sequence of an aminoterminal peptide #4349 from Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 Ma_GH61B protein.

SEQ ID NO:7 Sequence of a tryptic peptide 2130,813 from Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 Ma_GH61 B protein.

SEQ ID NO:8 Sequence of a tryptic peptide 1283,527 from Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 Ma_GH61 B protein.

SEQ ID NO:9 Sequence of a tryptic peptide 2131,948 from Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 Ma_GH61 B protein.

SEQ ID NO:10 Sequence of a tryptic peptide 4466,106 from Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 Ma_GH61B protein.

SEQ ID NO:11 The sequence of the oligonucleotide primer FIB54 derived from peptide SEQ ID NO:5.

SEQ ID NO:12 The sequence of the oligonucleotide primer FIB57 derived from peptide SEQ ID NO:1.

SEQ ID NO:13 The sequence of the oligonucleotide primer FIB99 derived from peptide SEQ ID NO:6.

SEQ ID NO:14 The sequence of the oligonucleotide primer FIB101 derived from peptide SEQ ID NO:9.

SEQ ID NO:15 The sequence of the oligonucleotide primer FIB35.

SEQ ID NO:16 The sequence of the oligonucleotide primer FIB38.

SEQ ID NO:17 The sequence of the PCR fragment obtained using the primers FIB54 (SEQ ID NO:11) and FIB57 (SEQ ID NO:12) and Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 genomic DNA as a template.

SEQ ID NO:18 The sequence of the PCR fragment obtained using the primers FIB99 (SEQ ID NO:13) and FIB101 (SEQ ID NO:14) and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 genomic DNA as a template.

SEQ ID NO:19 The sequence of the PCR fragment obtained using the primer FIB35 (SEQ ID NO:15) and FIB38 (SEQ ID NO:16) and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 genomic DNA as a template.

SEQ ID NO:20 The nucleotide sequence of the full-length Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 cel61 gene, At_cel61.

SEQ ID NO:21 The nucleotide sequence of the full-length Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 cel61 gene, Ma_cel61a.

SEQ ID NO:22 The nucleotide sequence of the full-length Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 cel61 gene, Ma_cel61b.

SEQ ID NO:23 The deduced amino acid sequence of the full-length Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 GH61 protein (At_GH61) including amino acids from Met1 to Gln328.

SEQ ID NO:24 The deduced amino acid sequence of the full-length Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 GH61 protein (Ma_GH61A) including amino acids from Met1 to Cys246.

SEQ ID NO:25 The deduced amino acid sequence of the full-length Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 GH61 protein (Ma_GH61B) including amino acids from Met1 to Cys225.


DEPOSITIONS



[0024] Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 was deposited at the Centraalbureau Voor Schimmelcultures at Upsalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht, the Netherlands on 20 September 2004 and assigned accession number CBS 116240.

[0025] Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 was deposited at the Centraalbureau Voor Schimmelcultures at Upsalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht, the Netherlands on 2 March 2012 and assigned accession number CBS132099. ALKO4237 strain has also been previously deposited at the Centraalbureau Voor Schimmelcultures at Oosterstraat 1, 3740 AG BAARN, the Netherlands with accession number CBS 685.95 in 1995.

[0026] The E.coli strain RF9002 including the plasmid pALK2992 was deposited at the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ), Inhoffenstrasse 7B, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany on 15 December 2011 and assigned accession number DSM25494.

[0027] The E.coli strain RF9091 including the plasmid pALK2993 was deposited at the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ), Inhoffenstrasse 7B, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany on 15 December 2011 and assigned accession number DSM25495.

[0028] The E.coli strain RF9150 including the plasmid pALK3374 was deposited at the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ), Inhoffenstrasse 7B, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany on 15 December 2011 and assigned accession number DSM25496.

[0029] The E.coli strain RF9319 including the plasmid pALK3375 was deposited at the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ), Inhoffenstrasse 7B, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany on 15 December 2011 and assigned accession number DSM25497.

[0030] The E.coli strain RF9537 including the plasmid pALK3378 was deposited at the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ), Inhoffenstrasse 7B, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany on 15 December 2011 and assigned accession number DSM25498.

[0031] The E.coli strain RF9696 including the plasmid pALK3379 was deposited at the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ), Inhoffenstrasse 7B, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany on 15 December 2011 and assigned accession number DSM25499.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0032] Cellulose is the major structural component of higher plants. It provides plant cells with high tensile strength helping them to resist mechanical stress and osmotic pressure. Cellulose is a β-1,4-glucan composed of linear chains of glucose residues joined by β-1,4-glycosidic linkages. Cellobiose is the smallest repeating unit of cellulose. In cell walls cellulose is packed in variously oriented sheets, which are embedded in a matrix of hemicellulose and lignin. Hemicellulose is a heterogeneous group of carbohydrate polymers containing mainly different glucans, xylans and mannans. Hemicellulose consists of a linear backbone with β-1,4-linked residues substituted with short side chains usually containing acetyl, glucuronyl, arabinosyl and galactosyl. Hemicellulose can be chemically cross-linked to lignin. Lignin is a complex cross-linked polymer of variously substituted p-hydroxyphenylpropane units that provides strength to the cell wall to withstand mechanical stress, and it also protects cellulose from enzymatic hydrolysis.

[0033] "Cellulose" or "cellulosic material" as used herein, relates to any material comprising cellulose, hemicellulose and/or lignocellulose as a significant component. Cellulose is generally found, for example, in the stems, leaves, hulls, husks, and cobs of plants or leaves, branches, and wood of trees. The cellulosic material can be, but is not limited to, herbaceous material, agricultural residue, forestry residue, municipal solid waste, waste paper, and pulp and paper mill residue. Examples of cellulosic material include textile fibers derived e.g. from cotton, flax, hemp, jute and the man-made cellulosic fibers as modal, viscose and lyocel. Examples of cellulosic material also include fibrous or cellulosic type residues like soils found in a filter of automatic dishwashers.

[0034] "Lignocellulose" is a combination of cellulose and hemicellulose and lignin. It is physically hard, dense, and inaccessible and the most abundant biochemical material in the biosphere. "Lignocellulosic material" means any material comprising lignocellulose. Such materials are for example: hardwood and softwood chips, wood pulp, sawdust and forestry and wood industrial waste, agricultural biomass as cereal straws, sugar beet pulp, corn fibre, corn stover and cobs, sugar cane bagasse, stems, leaves, hulls, husks, and the like; waste products as municipal solid waste, newspaper and waste office paper, milling waste of e.g. grains; dedicated energy crops (e.g., willow, poplar, swithcgrass or reed canarygrass, and the like). Preferred examples are corn fibre, corn stover, switchgrass, cereal straw, sugarcane bagasse and wood derived materials.

[0035] Cellulosic material is degraded in nature by a number of various organisms including bacteria and fungi which produce enzymes capable of hydrolyzing carbohydrate polymers. Degradation usually requires different cellulases acting sequentially or simultaneously. Degradation of more complex cellulose containing substrates requires a broad range of various enzymes. For the degradation process the cellulosic material may be used as is or may be subjected to pretreatment, using conventional methods known in the art.

[0036] "Cellulolytic enzymes" or "cellulases" are enzymes having "cellulolytic activity", which means that they are capable of hydrolysing cellulosic substrates or derivatives thereof into smaller saccharides. Cellulolytic enzymes thus include both cellulases and hemicellulases. Hemicellulases, like xylanase and mannanase, are enzymes hydrolysing hemicellulose. Cellulases as used herein include (1) endoglucanases (EG, EC 3.2.1.4) which cut internal beta-1,4-glucosidic bonds; (2) exoglucanases or cellobiohydrolases (CBH, EC 3.2.1.176, EC 3.2.1.91) that cut the dissaccharide cellobiose from the reducing or non-reducing end of the crystalline cellulose polymer chain; (3) beta-1,4-glucosidases (BG, EC 3.2.1.21) which hydrolyze the cellobiose and other short cello-oligosaccharides to glucose. The CAZY (carbohydrate active enzymes) classification system collates glycosyl hydrolase (GH) enzymes into families according to sequence similarity, which have been shown to reflect shared structural features. In addition to this cellulases can be classified into various glycosyl hydrolase families according their primary sequence, supported by analysis of the three dimensional structure of some members of the family (Henrissat 1991, Henrissat and Bairoch 1993, 1996).

[0037] The GH61 polypeptides have cellulolytic enhancing activity, which means that they "enhance the hydrolysis of a cellulosic material" catalyzed by an enzyme having cellulolytic activity. In other words, saccharifying a cellulosic material with cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of a GH61 polypeptide increases the degradation of cellulosic material compared to the presence of only the cellulolytic enzymes. The cellulosic material can be any material containing cellulose. The term "Family 61 glycoside hydrolase" or "Family GH61" or "GH61 polypeptide" means a polypeptide falling into the glycoside hydrolase Family 61 (EC 3.2.1.4) according to Henrissat B., 1991, Biochem. J. 280: 309-316, and Henrissat B., and Bairoch A., 1996, Biochem. J. 316: 695- 696. A GH61 protein is also referred to as a CEL61 protein.

[0038] GH61 proteins contain a core domain without a conventional glycoside hydrolase active site. In addition, GH61 proteins may contain a carbohydrate binding module/domain, also named as cellulose binding domain (CBM/CBD), which can be located either at the N- or C-terminus of the core domain. In general CBM mediates the binding of the protein to crystalline cellulose but has little or no effect on functional activity. These two domains are typically connected via a flexible and highly glycosylated linker region.

[0039] The present invention is based on studies, which attempted to find novel GH61 family polypeptides which would enhance hydrolysis efficiency of cellulosic substrates and which could be used for versatile applications even at elevated temperatures. Three novel GH 61 family polypeptides referred to as At_GH61, Ma_GH61A and Ma_GH61B were obtained (Table 1).
Table 1. The GH61 genes and polypeptides
Genenucleic acid SEQ ID NO:ProteinNo of aasamino acid SEQ ID NO:
At-cel61 20 At_GH61 328 23
Ma_cel61a 21 Ma_GH61A 246 24
Ma_cel61b 22 Ma_GH61B 225 25


[0040] The novel GH61 polypeptides described in the present application are obtainable from Acremonium thermophilum or Melanocarpus albomyces. Preferably the polypeptides are obtainable from A. thermophilium strain having the characteristics of strain ALKO4245 deposited as CBS 116240 or M. albomyces strain having the characteristics of strain ALKO4237 deposited as CBS 132099. "Obtainable from" means that they can be obtained from said species, but it does not exclude the possibility of obtaining them from other sources. In other words they may originate from any organism including plants. Preferably they originate from microorganisms e.g. bacteria or fungi. The bacteria may be for example from a genus selected from Bacillus, Azospirillum and Streptomyces. More preferably the enzyme originates from fungi (including filamentous fungi and yeasts), for example from a genus selected from the group consisting of Thermoascus, Acremonium, Chaetomium, Achaetomium, Thielavia, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Chrysosporium, Collybia, Fomes, Fusarium, Humicola, Hypocrea, Lentinus, Melanocarpus, Myceliophthora, Myriococcum, Neurospo-ra, Penicillium, Phanerochaete, Phlebia, Pleurotus, Podospora, Polyporus, Rhizoctonia, Scytalidium, Pycnoporus, Talaromyces, Trametes and Trichoderma.

[0041] The novel GH61 polypeptides described herein preferably comprise an amino acid sequence having at least 75% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 23, at least 78% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 24 or at least 79% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 25, or a fragment or variant thereof capable of enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material. According to one embodiment of the invention, the polypeptide has at least 80, 85, 90, 95, 98 or 99% identity to SEQ ID NO: 23, SEQ ID NO: 24 or SEQ ID NO: 25 or to a fragment thereof capable of enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material. According to another embodiment of the invention, the polypeptide has at least 90%, preferably 95%, and most preferably at least 98% identity to SEQ ID NO: 23, SEQ ID NO: 24 or SEQ ID NO: 25 or to a fragment thereof capable of enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material.

[0042] By the term "identity" is here meant the global identity between two amino acid sequences compared to each other from the first amino acid encoded by the corresponding gene to the last amino acid. The identity of the full-length sequences is measured by using EMBOSS Needle Needleman-Wunsch global alignment program at EBI (European Bioinformatics Institute) http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/psa/emboss_needle/with the following parameters: BLOSUM50, Gap open 10.0, Gap extend 0.5. The algorithm is described in Needleman and Wunsch (1970). The man skilled in the art is aware of the fact that results using Needleman-Wunsch algorithm are comparable only when aligning corresponding domains of the sequence and using the same parameters in each comparison. Consequently comparison of e.g. cellulase sequences including CBM or signal sequences with sequences lacking those elements cannot be done.

[0043] By the term "fragment enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material" is meant any fragment of a defined sequence that has capability to enhance hydrolysis of cellulosic material catalyzed by an enzyme having cellulolytic activity. In other words a fragment enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material may be the mature protein part of the defined sequence, or it may be only a fragment of the mature protein part, provided that it still has capability to enhance hydrolysis of cellulosic material. For purposes of the present invention, cellulolytic enhancing activity is determined by measuring the increase of the total glucose concentration from the hydrolysis of a cellulosic material by a cellulolytic enzyme mixture containing the GH61 polypeptide compared to equal protein loading of the cellulolytic enzyme mixture without the GH61 polypeptide.

[0044] The novel polypeptides may also be variants of said polypeptides. A "variant" may be a polypeptide that occurs naturally e.g. as an allelic variant within the same strain, species or genus, or it may have been generated by mutagenesis. It may comprise amino acid substitutions, deletions or insertions, but it still functions in a substantially similar manner to the polypeptides defined above i.e. it comprises a fragment enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material.

[0045] The GH61 are usually produced in the cell as prepolypeptides comprising a signal sequence that is cleaved off during secretion of the protein. They may also be further processed during secretion both at the N-terminal and/or C-terminal end to give a mature, enzymatically active protein. "A polypeptide enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material" thus denotes that the polypeptide may be either in immature or mature form, preferably it is in mature form, i.e. the processing has taken place. In addition, the "mature form" means an enzyme which has been cleaved from its carrier protein in fusion constructions.

[0046] The polypeptides of the present invention are preferably recombinant proteins, which may be produced in a generally known manner. A polynucleotide fragment of the GH61 gene is isolated, the gene is inserted under a strong promoter into an expression vector, the vector is transformed into suitable host cells and the host cells are cultivated under conditions provoking production of the enzyme. Methods for protein production by recombinant technology in different host systems are well known in the art (Sambrook et al., 2001; Coen, 2001; Gellissen, 2005). Preferably the polypeptides are produced as extracellular proteins that are secreted into the culture medium, from which they can easily be recovered and isolated.

[0047] The recombinant polypeptide may be a fused polypeptide in which another polypeptide is fused at the N-terminus or the C-terminus of the polypeptide of the present invention. Techniques for producing fusion polypeptides are known in the art, and include ligating the coding sequences encoding the polypeptides so that they are in frame and that expression of the fused polypeptide is under control of the same promoter and terminator.

[0048] The GH61 polypeptides of the invention may be used with a signal sequence included or without a signal sequence and/or CBM or the signal sequence and/or CBM may derive from different enzymes of the above mentioned microorganisms or different microorganism or be synthetically or recombinantly incorporated to the core domain of the above proteins.

[0049] The present application discloses novel polynucleotides which comprise a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 20, 21, or 22, or a sequence encoding a novel polypeptide as defined above, including complementary strands thereof. "Polynucleotide" as used herein refers to both RNA and DNA, and it may be single stranded or double stranded. Further the polynucleotide may be degenerate as a result of the genetic code to any one of the sequences as defined above. This means that different codons may code for the same amino acid.

[0050] The polynucleotide may also be a fragment of said polynucleotides comprising at least 24 nucleotides, e.g. at least 25, 30, 40 or 50 nucleotides. According to one embodiment of the invention the polynucleotide has a sequence set forth as SEQ ID NO 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16.

[0051] Described herein is a GH61 polypeptide, which is encoded by a nucleic acid molecule or polynucleotide sequence hybridizing under stringent conditions to a polynucleotide sequence or a subsequence thereof included in SEQ ID NO: 20, 21, or 22. Hybridization performed at "high stringency" conditions may be hybridization at a temperature, which is 20-25°C below the calculated melting temperature (Tm) of a perfect hybrid, the Tm calculated according to Bolton and McCarthy (1962) and posthybridization washes in low salt concentration. Usually prehybridization and hybridization are performed at least at 65°C in 6xSSC (or 6xSSPE), 5xDenhardt's reagent, 0.5% (w/v) SDS, 100 µg/ml denatured, fragmented salmon sperm DNA. Addition of 50% formamide lowers the prehybridization and hybridization temperatures to 42°C. High stringency washes are performed in low salt concentration, e.g. in 2xSSC-0.1 % SDS (w/v) at RT, and finally in 0.1xSSC-0.1 % SDS (w/v) at least at 65°C, e.g. at 68°C.

[0052] According to an embodiment of the invention, the polynucleotide comprises a gene similar to that included in a microorganism having accession number DSM 25497. Specifically, according to an embodiment of the invention, the polynucleotide is carried by a microorganism having accession number DSM 25497.

[0053] The present invention relates to a recombinant expression "vector" comprising a polynucleotide encoding the GH61 polypeptide as characterized above, operably linked to regulatory sequences, which are capable of directing the expression of a gene encoding said GH61 polypeptide in a suitable host. Said regulatory sequences may be homologous or heterologous to the production organism or they may originate from the organism, from which the gene encoding the GH61 polypeptide of the invention is isolated. The expression vector may further comprise marker genes for selection of the transformant strains or the selection marker may be introduced to the host in another vector construct by co-transformation.

[0054] Still the present invention relates to a production "host", which can be any homologous or heterologous organism capable of expressing the desired polypeptide. Preferably the host is a microbial cell, more preferably a fungus. Most preferably the host is a filamentous fungus. Preferred hosts for producing the polypeptides of the invention are in particular strains from the genus Trichoderma or Aspergillus. Preferably the recombinant host is modified to express and secrete cellulolytic enzymes or polypeptides of the invention as its main activity or one of its main activities. This can be done by deleting genes encoding major homologous secreted enzymes e.g. the four major cellulases of Trichoderma and by integrating heterologous genes to a locus with high expression and production levels.

[0055] The present invention relates also to a method for producing a GH61 polypeptide of the invention, said method comprising the steps of transforming a host cell with an expression vector encoding said polypeptide, and culturing said host cell under conditions enabling expression of said polypeptide, and optionally recovering and purifying said polypeptide. The production medium may be a medium suitable for growing the host organism and containing inducers for efficient expression.

[0056] The polypeptides of the present invention may be isolated, which in the present context may simply mean that the cells and cell debris have been removed from the culture medium containing the polypeptide. Conveniently the polypeptides are isolated e.g. by adding anionic and/or cationic polymers (flocculants) to the spent culture medium to enhance precipitation of cells and cell debris. The medium is then filtrated using an inorganic filtering agent and a filter to remove the precipitants formed. After this the filtrate is further processed using a semi-permeable membrane to remove excess of salts, sugars and metabolic products. The polypeptides can also be purified or concentrated by crystallization.

[0057] The novel GH61 polypeptides which are obtainable by the method of the present invention may be components of an enzyme preparation. The term "enzyme preparation" denotes to a composition comprising at least one of the novel polypeptides described herein. The polypeptide in the enzyme preparation may be a recombinant GH61 protein comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 80% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 23, or a fragment or variant thereof capable of enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material. According to one embodiment of the invention the enzyme preparation comprises a polypeptide having at least 85, 90, 95, 98 or 99% identity to SEQ ID NO: 23.

[0058] The enzyme preparation may further comprise at least one enzyme selected from a group of cellobiohydrolase, endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase, beta-glucanase, xyloglucanase, xylanase, beta-xylosidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, mannanase, beta-mannosidase, α-glucuronidase, acetyl xylan esterase, α-arabinofuranosidase, α-galactosidase, pectinase, involving endo- and exo-α-L-arabinases, endo- and exo-galactoronase, endopectinlyase, pectate lyase, and pectinesterase, phenol esterase, ligninase involving lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase, H2O2-generating enzyme, laminarinase, chitosanase, ferulic acid esterase and laccase with or without mediators. The enzyme preparation may contain any combination of these enzymes and GH61 polypeptide of the invention, but the enzymes are not limited to those described herein. They can for example also be commercially available enzyme preparations.

[0059] Preferably in addition to the GH61 polypeptide the enzyme preparation comprises at least cellobiohydrolase, endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase and optionally xylanase. Different mixtures of GH61 polypeptides and cellulolytic enzymes may be used to suit different process conditions.

[0060] In addition to the GH61 proteins, the enzyme preparation of the invention may contain additives, such as mediators, stabilizers, buffers, preservatives, surfactants and/or culture medium components. Preferred additives are such, which are commonly used in the enzyme preparations intended for a particular application. The enzyme preparations of the invention may also contain metal and/or redox-active cofactors.

[0061] The enzyme preparation may be in the form of liquid, powder or granulate. It may be a filtrate containing one or more cellulolytic enzymes. Preferably the enzyme preparation is a spent culture medium. "Spent culture medium" refers to the culture medium of the host comprising the produced enzymes/polypeptides. Preferably the host cells are separated from the said medium after the production. The enzyme preparation or composition may also be a "whole culture broth" obtained, optionally after inactivating the production host(s) or microorganism(s) without any biomass separation, down-stream processing or purification of the desired cellulolytic enzyme(s). In the consolidated bioprocess the enzyme composition or at least some of the enzymes of the enzyme composition may be produced by the fermentative microorganism.

[0062] The enzyme preparation may contain the polypeptides in at least partially purified and isolated form. It may even essentially consist of the desired polypeptide. The culture medium with or without host cells may be utilized as an enzyme preparation as such without further purification, because the GH61 proteins can be secreted into the culture medium, and they display activity in the ambient conditions of the spent culture medium.

[0063] The present invention provides a method for treating cellulosic material, wherein the cellulosic material is reacted with an effective amount of the GH61 polypeptide or the enzyme preparation comprising said GH61 polypeptide in the presence of cellulolytic enzymes under suitable conditions, such as appropriate pH and temperature, and the reaction is allowed to continue for a time sufficient for the enzymatic reaction to take place. The GH61 polypeptides enhance the activity of cellulolytic enzymes, either in the acid, neutral, or alkaline pH-range.

[0064] The GH61 polypeptides of the invention are capable of enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material at moderate to elevated temperatures. The term "moderate temperature" or "conventional temperature" in context of the present invention means temperatures commonly used in cellulose hydrolysis and corresponding to the optimal temperatures or thermal stabilities of the enzymes used in such processes. Thus, the terms refer to temperature ranges from about 30°C to 45°C. The term "elevated temperature" or "high temperature" refers to temperature ranges from about 45°C to 70°C. Enzymes active or stable at such elevated temperature ranges are also called "thermostable" or "thermophilic" enzymes. The GH61 polypeptides of the invention are used preferably at temperatures between about 35°C and 60°C. More preferably they are used at temperatures between 37°C and 55°C, most preferably at temperatures between 45°C and 55°C. In addition, these temperatures are also applicable to the use of GH61 polypeptides of the invention for improving fabric care properties or textile cleaning effect of a detergent composition and further in biofinishing and biostoning.

[0065] The GH61 polypeptides are especially suitable for producing fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic material. The fermentable sugars may then be fermented by yeast into ethanol, and used as fuel. They can also be used as intermediates or raw materials for the production of various chemicals or building blocks for the processes of chemical industry, e.g. in so called bio-refinery. Any method known in the art comprising pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, or a combination thereof, can be used in the context of the present invention. Current pretreatments include mechanical, chemical or thermal processes and combinations thereof. The material may for example be pretreated by steam explosion or acid hydrolysis.

[0066] According to one embodiment of the present invention the method of treating cellulosic material comprises cleaning the interior of a dishwasher by contacting at least part of the interior of the dishwasher with the GH61 polypeptide of the invention or the enzyme preparation comprising said GH61 polypeptide. The enzyme preparation of the invention may be placed directly into the interior of the machine or alternatively into a dispensing draw or cup of the machine or to areas in the interior of the dishwasher, which require removal of fibrous soils (e. g. the filter). Useful methods for cleaning dishwasher machine are described e.g. in WO2011161459. The enzyme preparation may also be specifically applied to those areas of a dishwasher machine, where fibrous/cellulosic soil is deposited. The method may be applicable manually whilst the dishwasher is not being operated or whilst the dishwasher is undergoing a loaded or unloaded washing and/or rinsing cycle. Moreover, the GH61 polypeptides of the present invention may be used at all wash temperatures of a dishwashing system, even at temperatures greater than 55°C.

[0067] The GH61 polypeptides may be used to degrade tough fibrous/- cellulosic soils which may otherwise be difficult to remove from the interior of the dishwashing machine such as from the filter. Soils which can be broken down by the GH61 polypeptide or the enzyme preparation containing said polypeptide include cereals, fruits and vegetables. Some specific examples include apple and orange peels and wheat fiber.

[0068] The novel GH61 polypeptides, enzyme preparations and the methods of the invention may be applied in any process involving cellulolytic enzymes, such as biomass processing, and in biofuel, starch, textile, detergent, pulp and paper, food, feed or beverage industry. They may be used for treating any cellulosic material, such as textile material, plants used in animal feed, or wood-derived mechanical or chemical pulp or secondary fiber. They may also be added into detergents and other media used for such applications. The GH61 polypeptides can also be added to wastewater to reduce the amount of solids such as sludge.

[0069] The GH61 polypeptides of the present invention may be used as a detergent additive suitable for laundry detergent and dish wash compositions, including automatic dish washing compositions. A detergent means a substance or material intended to assist cleaning or having cleaning properties. Preferably the GH61 polypeptides of the present invention may be used in an automatic dishwasher cleaning composition that works well at all wash temperatures of a dishwashing system, even at temperatures greater than 55°C.

[0070] The present invention relates to a detergent composition comprising a GH61 polypeptide or an enzyme preparation of the invention and optionally one or more surfactants. Preferably a detergent composition contains an enzyme preparation of the invention comprising at least one GH61 polypeptide and other enzymes selected from the group of protease, amylase, cellulase, lipase, xylanase, mannanase, cutinase, pectinase or oxidase with or without a mediator as well as suitable additives selected from the group of stabilizers, buffers, surfactants, bleaching agents, mediators, anti-corrosion agents, builders, antiredeposition agents, optical brighteners, dyes, pigments, caustics, abrasives and preservatives, etc. Cellylolytic enzymes may be used in detergent compositions, for example, for the purpose of improving fabric care properties by antipilling, antigraying, color clarification and softening, and to improve textile cleaning effect, for instance soil removal.

[0071] The enzyme preparations of the invention may contain a surfactant which can be anionic, non-ionic, cationic, amphoteric or a mixture of these types, especially when used as a detergent composition, Useful detergent compositions are described e.g. in WO 94/07998, U.S. Patent No. 5,443,750 and U.S. Patent No. 3,664,961.

[0072] The present invention also relates a method for enhancing the cleaning ability of a detergent composition for a dishwasher, comprising adding a polypeptide or enzyme preparation of the invention to the detergent composition. Furthermore, the invention relates to a method for improving fabric care properties or textile cleaning effect of a detergent composition, comprising adding a polypeptide or enzyme preparation of the invention to the detergent composition.

[0073] The enzyme preparations of the invention are useful in the treatment of textile materials, such as fabrics and garments. The textile material may be manufactured of natural cellulose containing fibers or man-made cellulose containing fibers or mixtures thereof, or a blend of synthetic fibers and cellulose containing fibers. The enzyme preparations of this invention are especially useful in biofinishing. "Biofinishing" refers to the use of enzymes in a controlled hydrolysis of cellulosic fibers in order to modify the fabric or yarn surface in a manner that prevents permanently pilling, improves fabric handle like softness and smoothness, clears the surface structure by reducing fuzzing, which results in clarification of colors, improves the drapability of the fabric, improves moisture absorbability and which may improve also the dyeability. Additional uses further include the use in biostoning of denim. "Biostoning" refers to the enzymatic denim finishing processes in which cellulases have replaced or are being used together with pumice stones to give the fabric its desired "worn" look. Controlled enzyme treatments result in less damage to the garments and machines and eliminate the need for disposal of stones.

[0074] The invention is described by the following non-limiting examples. It will be obvious to a person skilled in the art that, as the technology advances, the inventive concept can be implemented in various ways. The invention and its embodiments are not limited to the examples described but may vary within the scope of the invention.

EXAMPLES


Example 1. Purification of GH61 proteins from Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 and Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245



[0075] Fungal strains Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 (CBS 116240) and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 (CBS 132099) were grown, maintained and sporulated on Potato Dextrose (PD) agar (Difco) at +4°C. The PD slants of the ALKO4237 and ALKO4245 strains were inoculated into a complex culture medium which contained: 18 g/l Solka-Floc® cellulose (International Fiber Europe N.V., Belgium), 18 g/l Distiller's spent grain, 9 g/l Locust bean gum, 9 g/l Oats spelt xylan, 4.5 g/l Soybean meal, 3 g/l Wheat bran, 2 g/l CaCO3, 4.5 g/l (NH4)HPO4, 1.5 g/l KH2PO4, 1.5 g/l MgSO4 x H2O, 0.9 g/l KNO3, 0.5 g/l NaCl and trace elements MnSO4, ZnSO4, CoCl2 and FeSO4. The pH of the medium was adjusted before sterilization with KOH to 6.5-7.5 and the medium was autoclaved for 15 minutes at 121°C. The microbes were cultivated on a shaker (250 rpm) at 42°C for 7-9 days. Cells and solids were removed from the spent culture medium by centrifugation. The spent culture supernatants were analyzed on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

[0076] The culture supernatants were subjected to purification steps to separate proteins to fractions. Culture supernatant of Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 was subjected to cellulose-affinity purification step to identify proteins that are capable to bind cellulose. One gram of cellulose powder AlphaCel™ BH300 (International Fiber Europe N.V., Belgium) was suspended in 40 ml Milli-Q water. The cellulose suspensions was agitated for 5 min and centrifuged 2000 xg for 5 min. The pellet was suspended in pure Milli-Q water and washing steps were repeated 3 times. Cellulose was suspended in 3 ml of Milli-Q water and 0.5 ml of cellulose suspension was added to a mixture of 10 ml of spent culture supernatant and 10 ml of 20 mM Hepes, 75 mM NaCl, pH 7. The sample was agitated on ice for 30 min and centrifuged for 2000 xg for 5 min. The pellet was washed 3 times with 40 ml of cold 20 mM Hepes, 75 mM NaCl, pH 7 -buffer. Proteins were eluted from cellulose by incubating the sample for 10 min at 60°C with 200 µl of SDS-PAGE sample buffer. Eluted proteins were analyzed on SDS-PAGE gel and protein bands were identified by amino acid sequencing (Example 2).

[0077] A 410 ml batch of Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 culture supernatant was filtered through a 0.44 µm filter (MILLEX HV Millipore, MA, USA). 43.6 g of solid ammonium sulfate was dissolved into the sample and incubated on ice for 30 min. Precipitated proteins were collected by centrifugation 15 min, 10000 xg at +4°C. The pellet was dissolved into 10 ml of 20 mM Hepes, pH 7.5. The sample was filtered through a 0.44 µm filter (MILLEX HV Millipore, MA, USA) and applied to a 5 mL Q Sepharose FF column (GE Healthcare, UK) equilibrated with 20 mM Hepes, pH 7.5. Flow through fraction was collected and concentrated to 2 ml using Macrosep 10K centrifugal device (PALL Life Sciences, NY, USA). The sample was further fractionated using Superdex 26/60 75 pg gel-filtration column equilibrated with 20 mM MES, 100 mM NaCl, pH 6.5. Eluted fractions were analyzed on SDS-PAGE gel and protein bands with expected sizes according to calculations basing on published GH61 sequences were identified by amino acid sequencing (Example 2).

Example 2. Amino acid sequencing of the purified proteins from Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 and Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245



[0078] For determination of internal sequences, the Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained band was cut out of the polyacrylamide gel and "in-gel" digested essentially as described by Shevchenko et al. (1996). Proteins were reduced with dithiothreitol and alkylated with iodoacetamide before digestion with trypsin (Sequencing Grade Modified Trypsin, V5111, Promega, WI, USA) and mass determination.

[0079] Electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectra for de novo sequencing were generated using a Q-TOF instrument (Micro-mass, Manchester, UK) connected to an Ultimate nano liquid chromatograph (LC-Packings, The Netherlands) essentially as described previously (Poutanen et al., 2001) but using a 150 µm x 1.0 mm trapping column (3 µm, 120Å, #222403, SGE Ltd, UK) for peptide preconcentration.

[0080] For N-terminal sequence analysis SDS-PAGE separated proteins were transferred by electroblotting into a polyvinylidine difluororide membrane (ProBlott; Perkin Elmer Applied Biosystems Division, CA, USA) After being stained with Coomassie brilliant blue, the protein bands of interest were removed and subjected to N-terminal sequence analysis by Edman degradation on a Procise 494A protein sequencer (Perkin Elmer Applied Biosystems Division, CA, USA).

[0081] The peptide sequences determined from the purified proteins were analyzed. Internal peptides from a 46 kDa purified protein from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 showed similarity to a published unnamed protein product from Sordaria macrospora with Accession number CBI52679. Protein CBI52679 is similar to proteins of the Glycoside Hydrolase family 61. Thus the 46 kDa protein from Acremonium thermophilum is named At_GH61. N-terminal and internal peptides from a 22 kDa purified protein from Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 showed similarity to a published hypothetical protein from Chaetomium globosum with Accession number XP_001225931. The hypothetical protein XP_001225931 is similar to family GH61 proteins. The 22 kDa protein from Melanocarpus albomyces is thus named Ma_GH61B. The internal and N-terminal peptide sequences obtained from proteins At_GH61 (SEQ ID NOs: 1-5) and Ma_GH61B (SEQ ID NOs: 6-10) are shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Internal peptide sequences determined from the purified proteins At_GH61 from Acremonium thermophilum and Ma_GH61B from Melanocarpus albomyces
ProteinPeptideSequenceSEQ ID NO:Comment
At_GH61 1669,824 EDGYNSGNWATSK 1 de novo
  1763, 938 DNALTDSGLGNWFK 2 de novo; L can be L or I
  431.7752 KGPTLAYLKK 3 mass map
  882.9711 KKVDNALTDSGIGGGWFKI 4 mass map
  855.9166 RHTLTSGPDDVMDASHKG 5 mass map
Ma_GH61B #4349 HYTLPRVNSGSDWQHVRRADNWQ 6 N-terminus
  2130,813 NGFVGDVNSPQLR 7 de novo; L can be L or I
  1283,527 VNSGSDWQHVR 8 de novo
  2131, 948 NSWQADGAVWFK 9 de novo
  4466, 106 PSDGQSSFQVP 10 de novo

Example 3. Cloning of the cel61 genes from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237



[0082] Standard molecular biology methods were used in the isolation and enzyme treatments of DNA (e.g. isolation of plasmid DNA, digestion of DNA to produce DNA fragments), in E. coli transformations, sequencing etc. The basic methods used were either as described by the enzyme, reagent or kit manufacturer or as described in the standard molecular biology handbooks, e.g. Sambrook and Russell (2001). Isolation of genomic DNA was performed as described in detail by Raeder and Broda (1985).

[0083] Degenerate oligonucleotides were planned basing on the amino acid sequences of the peptides obtained from the purified At_GH61 and Ma_GH61B proteins (Table 2). The degenerate oligos were used to synthesize probes for the genes encoding the proteins. Sequences of the degenerate oligos used as primers are shown in Table 3 (SEQ ID NOs: 11-14).
Table 3. The oligonucleotides used as PCR primers to amplify probes for cel61 genes from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237
Template, genomic DNA fromPeptide(aOligonucleotideLength (bp)Sequence(bSEQ ID NO:
ALKO4245 855.9166 FIB54 19 GGNCCNGAYGAYGTNATGG (s) 11
  1669,824 FIB57 15 NGTNGCCCARTTNCC (as) 12
ALKO4237 #4349 FIB99 17 GNGCNGAYAAYTGGCAR (s) 13
  2131,948 FIB101 24 YTTRAACCANACNGCNCCRTCNGC (as) 14
ALKO4237   FIB35 18 ACNGAYATHAAYGGNTGG 15
    FIB38 23 GGNARRTTNGGDATNCCRTCRTT 16
(a The peptide sequences are included in Table 1.
(b N = A or G or T or C, Y = T or C, R = A or G, H = A or T or C, D = G or A or T; "s" in the parenthesis = sense strand, "as" in the parenthesis = antisense strand.


[0084] Primer combination of FIB54 and FIB57 (SEQ ID NOs: 11-12) produced a 349 bp PCR product with Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 genomic DNA as template in PCR conditions containing 1x Phusion GC buffer, 0.25 mM dNTPs, 1 µM of primers FIB54 and FIB57 (Table 3), 1-2 units of Phusion DNA polymerase (Finnzymes, Finland) and 0.5-3 µg of the ALKO4245 genomic DNA per 100 µl reaction volume. The conditions for the PCR reactions were the following: 1 min initial denaturation at 98°C, followed by 29 cycles of 10 sec at 98°C, 30 sec annealing at 52°C (±8°C gradient), 30 sec extension at 72°C and a final extension at 72°C for 5 min. The obtained PCR product had the expected size according to calculations basing on published cel61 sequences. The PCR product was isolated and purified from the PCR reaction mixture and cloned to pCR®4Blunt-TOPO® -vector according to the manufacturer's instructions (Invitrogen, USA). The insert was characterized by sequencing.

[0085] Primer combination of FIB99 and FIB101 (SEQ ID NOs: 13-14) produced a 239 bp PCR product with Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 genomic DNA as template in PCR conditions containing 10 mM Tris-HCI, pH 8.8, 50 mM KCI, 0.1 % Triton X-100, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM dNTPs, 1 µM of primers FIB99 and FIB101 (Table 2), 2 units of Dynazyme II DNA polymerase (Finnzymes, Finland) and 0.5-3 µg of the ALKO4237 genomic DNA per 100 µl reaction volume (optional 5% DMSO). The conditions for the PCR reactions were the following: 5 min initial denaturation at 95°C, followed by 31 cycles of 1 min at 95°C, 30 sec annealing at 50°C (±8°C gradient), 1 min extension at 72°C and a final extension at 72°C for 5 min. The obtained PCR product had the expected size according to calculations basing on published cel61 sequences. The PCR product was isolated and purified from the PCR reaction mixture and cloned to pCR®4-TOPO-TA® -vector according to the manufacturer's instructions (Invitrogen, USA). The insert was characterized by sequencing.

[0086] Primer combination of FIB35 and FIB38 (SEQ ID NOs: 15-16) produced a 860 bp PCR product with Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 genomic DNA as template in PCR conditions containing 1x Phusion GC buffer, 5% DMSO, 0.25 mM dNTPs, 1 µM of primers FIB35 and FIB38 (Table 2), 1-2 units of Phusion DNA polymerase (Finnzymes, Finland) and 0.5-3 µg of the ALKO4237 genomic DNA per 100 µl reaction volume. The conditions for the PCR reactions were the following: 1 min initial denaturation at 98°C, followed by 29 cycles of 10 sec at 98°C, 30 sec annealing at 48°C (±8°C gradient), 30 sec extension at 72°C and a final extension at 72°C for 5 min. The PCR product was isolated and purified from the PCR reaction mixture and cloned to pCR®4Blunt-TOPO® -vector according to the manufacturer's instructions (Invitrogen, USA). The insert was characterized by sequencing and the nucleotide sequence contained a partial coding region of an unknown gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the partial gene showed similarity to a published hypothetical protein from Chaetomium globosum with Accession number XP_001219904. The hypothetical protein XP_001219904 is similar to family GH61 proteins. Thus the unknown gene is named Ma_cel61a.

[0087] The obtained PCR fragments chosen to be used as probes for cloning of the full-length genes from the Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 strains are presented in Table 4.
Table 4. Probes chosen for cloning of the full-length cel61 genes from strains Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237. The genomic template DNA, primers used in the PCR reactions, size of the PCR fargments obtained, the name of the plasmid containing the probe fragment and SEQ ID NOs of the probe sequences are shown.
Genomic DNA used as a template in PCR reactionPrimersPCR fragment obtained (bp)Insert in plasmidSEQ ID NO:
ALKO4245 FIB54, FIB57 349 bp pALK3374 17
ALKO4237 FIB99, FIB101 239 bp pALK3378 18
ALKO4237 FIB38, FIB35 860 bp pALK2992 19


[0088] The pCR®4-TOPO® plasmid containing the PCR amplified probe for cloning the full-length gene encoding At_GH61 was named pALK3374 and the E. coli strain including this plasmid, RF9150, was deposited to the DSM collection under the accession number DSM25496. The pCR®4-TOPO® plasmid containing the PCR amplified probe for gene Ma_cel61a was named pALK2992 and the E. coli strain including this plasmid, RF9002, was deposited to the DSM collection under the accession number DSM25494. The pCR®4-TOPO® plasmid containing the PCR amplified probe for cloning the full-length gene encoding Ma_GH61 B was named pALK3378 and the E. coli strain including this plasmid, RF9537 was deposited to the DSM collection under the accession number DSM25498.

[0089] Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 genomic DNAs were digested with several restriction enzymes for Southern blot analysis. The probes for the hybridizations were the PCR fragments having SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 18 and SEQ ID NO: 19 cut with EcoRI digestion or PCR amplified from the plasmids pALK3374, pALK2992 and pALK3378, respectively. The above probes were labeled by using di-goxigenin according to supplier's instructions (Roche, Germany). Hybridizations were performed over night at 65°C. After hybridization the filters were washed 2 x 5 min at RT using 2 x SSC - 0.1 % SDS followed by 2 x 15 min at 65°C using 0.1 x SSC - 0.1% SDS.

[0090] From the genomic DNA of Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245, an approximately 4.5 kb Xbal-digested fragment was obtained. From the genomic DNA of Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237, an approximately 5 kb BamHI-digested fragment was obtained with the dioxigenin-labeled probe fragment from plasmid pALK2992. Correspondingly, about 3.5 kb Xhol-digested fragment was obtained with the dioxigenin-labeled probe fragment from plasmid pALK3378 from the genomic DNA of the Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237. The hybridized genomic DNA fragments were isolated from the pool of the digested genomic fragments based on their size. The genomic fragments were isolated from agarose gel and were cloned to pBluescript II KS+ (Stratagene, CA, USA) vectors cleaved with Xbal, BamHI or Xhol. Ligation mixtures were transformed to Escherichia coli XL10-Gold cells (Stratagene, CA, USA) and plated on LB (Luria-Bertani) plates containing 50-100 µg/ml ampicillin. The E. coli colonies were screened for positive clones using colonial hybridization with the pALK3374, pALK2992 and pALK3378 inserts as probes in the hybridization conditions correspondingly to that described above for Southern blot analyses. Several positive clones were collected from the plates. They were shown by restriction digestion to contain inserts of expected sizes and the inserts were further screened using Southern hybridization with the pALK3374, pALK2992 and pALK3378 inserts as a probe. Southern blot was performed on inserts of the collected clones with hybridization performed at 68°C and washed 2 x 5 min at RT using 2 x SSC - 0.1 % SDS followed by 2 x 15 min at 68°C using 0.1 x SSC - 0.1% SDS.

[0091] The full-length gene encoding the Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 protein At_GH61 was sequenced from the 4.5 kb Xbal insert and the plasmid containing this insert was named pALK3375. The E. coli strain RF9319 including the plasmid pALK3375 was deposited to the DSM collection under the accession number DSM25497. The gene encoding the Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 protein At_GH61 is named as At_cel61 (SEQ ID NO: 20). Correspondigly, the full-length gene encoding the Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 Ma_GH61 B was sequenced from the 3.5 kb Xhol insert and the plasmid containing this insert was named pALK3379. The E. coli strain RF9696 including the plasmid pALK3379 was deposited to the DSM collection under the accession number DSM25499. The gene encoding the Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 protein Ma_GH61 B is named as Ma_cel61b (SEQ ID NO: 22). The full-length gene Ma_cel61a (SEQ ID NO: 21) was sequenced from the Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 5 kb BamHI insert and the plasmid containing this insert was named pALK2993. The partial cel61 sequence found in the pALK2992 insert (SEQ ID NO: 18) was included in the full-length Ma_cel61a gene sequence (SEQ ID NO: 21) obtained from the cloning. The E. coli strain RF9091 including the plasmid pALK2993 was deposited to the DSM collection under the accession number DSM25495. The relevant information on the gene sequences (SEQ ID NOs: 20-22) is summarized in Table 5.
Table 5. The summary on the ce/61 genes isolated from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237. The gene lengths with and without introns and the SEQ ID NOs of the genes are shown.
GeneLength with introns (bp) (aCoding region (bp) (bNo of putative intronsLengths of putative introns (bp)SEQ ID NO:
At_cel61 1472 984 4 202, 140, 41, 102 20
Ma_cel61a 891 738 2 65, 85 21
Ma_cel61b 733 675 1 55 22
(a The STOP codon is included.
(b The STOP codon is not included.


[0092] The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene At_cel61 included the sequences of the At_GH61 peptides 1669,824 (SEQ ID NO: 1), 1763,938 (SEQ ID NO: 2), 431.7752 (SEQ ID NO: 3), 882.9711 (SEQ ID NO: 4) and 855.9166 (SEQ ID NO: 5) (Table 2). This confirms that the gene At_cel61 obtained from the cloning is the gene encoding the purified At_GH61 protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of gene Ma_cel61b included the sequences of the Ma_GH61 B peptides #4349 (SEQ ID NO: 6), 2130,813 (SEQ ID NO: 7), 1283,527 (SEQ ID NO: 8), 2131,948 (SEQ ID NO: 9) and 4466,106 (SEQ ID NO: 10) (Table 2). This confirms that the gene Ma_cel61b obtained from the cloning is the gene encoding the purified Ma_GH61 B protein. The relevant information on the deduced protein sequences (SEQ ID NOs: 23-25) is summarized in Table 6. The protein deduced from the gene sequence Ma_cel61a is named Ma_GH61A.
Table 6. The summary of the amino acid sequences deduced from the cel61 gene sequences from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237.
GeneProteinNo of aasLength of ss(aCBD(bPredicted MW (Da)(cPredicted pI(cSEQ ID NO:
At_cel61 At_GH61 328 18 Q296 to L328 32366 5.69 23
Ma_cel61a Ma_GH61A 246 17 - 24649 4.97 24
Ma_cel61b Ma_GH61B 225 17 - 22865 6.23 25
(a The prediction on the signal sequence was made using the program SignalP V3.0 (Nielsen et al., 1997; Nielsen and Krogh, 1998; Bendtsen et al., 2004).
(b The cellulose-binding domain (CBD), the amino acids of the CBD region are indicated [M1(Met #1) included in numbering].
(c The predicted signal sequence was not included. The prediction was made using the Clone Manager 9 programme.


[0093] The comparison of the deduced GH61 sequences from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 to the sequences found from databases are shown in Table 7.
Table 7. The highest identity sequences to the deduced GH61 amino acid sequences from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237. The full-length amino acid sequences including the signal sequences were aligned. The database search was performed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/sss/fasta/ using FASTA (EMBL-EBI, FASTA - Protein Similarity Search, UniProt Knowledgebase and NRPL 1, BLOSUM50, Gap open -10, Gap extend -2), and EMBOSS Needle (EMBL-EBI, EMBOSS-Needle - Pairwise Sequence Alignment, BLOSUM50, Gap open 10, gap extend 0.5) at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/psa/emboss needle/ was used for determining the degree of identity.
Organism and accession numberIdentity (%)
At_GH61 100
Thielavia terrestris, AEO68023 74.0
Ma_GH61A 100
WO2009085868, SEQ ID NO: 2 77.6
Ma_GH61B 100
Chaetomium globosum, EAQ87022 78.2
Myceliophthora thermophila, AE061304 77.8

Example 4. Production of recombinant GH61 proteins in Trichoderma reesei



[0094] Expression plasmids were constructed for production of recombinant GH61 proteins from Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 and Melanocarpus albomyces ALKO4237 in Trichoderma reesei. The recombinant cel61 genes, including their own signal sequences, were exactly fused to the T. reesei cbh1/cel7A promoter by PCR. A BamHI site was created after the stop codon by PCR to fuse the gene at the 3'-end to the T. reesei cbh1/cel7A terminator. This leaves no original terminator in the constructs prior to the cbh1 terminator sequence. The A. nidulans amdS marker gene was used for selection of the transformants as described in Paloheimo et al. (2003). The linear expression cassettes (Fig. 1) were isolated from the vector backbones after Notl digestion. The expression cassettes of At_cel61 (6.8 kb), Ma_cel61a (6.2 kb) and Ma_cel61b (6.1 kb) were transformed into T. reesei protoplasts. The host strain used does not produce any of the four major T. reesei cellulases (CBHI, CBHII, EGI, EGII). The transformations were performed as in Penttilä et al. (1987) with the modifications described in Karhunen et al. (1993), selecting acetamide as a sole nitrogen source (amdS marker gene). The transformants were purified on selection plates through single conidia prior to sporulating them on PD.

[0095] The GH61 protein production of the transformants was analysed from the culture supernatants of the shake flask cultivations. The transformants were inoculated from the PD slants to shake flasks containing 50 ml of complex lactose-based cellulase inducing medium (Joutsjoki et al., 1993) buffered with 5% KH2PO4. The GH61 protein production was analyzed after cultivation for 7 days at 30°C, 250 rpm. Heterologous production of recombinant proteins was analyzed by SDS-PAGE with subsequent Coomassie staining. The genotypes of the chosen transformants were confirmed by Southern blot analyses in which genomic digests were included and the respective expression cassette was used as a probe.

[0096] The best-producing transformants were chosen to be cultivated in laboratory scale bioreactors at 28°C in the cellulase inducing complex medium for 3-4 days with pH control 5.5 ± 0.2 or 6.0 ± 0.2 (NH3/H3PO4) to obtain material for the application tests. The supernatants were recovered by centrifugation and filtering through Seitz-K 150 and EK filters (Pall SeitzSchenk Filtersystems GmbH, Bad Kreuznach, Germany).

Example 5. Hydrolysis of hardwood substrate with enzyme preparations comprising recombinant GH61 proteins



[0097] Steam exploded hardwood was suspended in 0.05 M sodium citrate buffer, pH 4.8. The final weight of the hydrolysis mixture was 1 g of which the total solids concentration was 12% (w/w). The substrate was hydrolysed using different enzyme mixtures at a dosage of 2 mg of protein per gram of total solids in 2 ml reaction tubes. The protein contents of the enzyme components were determined using the Pierce BCA assay kit, Product number 23227 (Thermo Scientific, MA, USA) with Bovine Serum Albumin, Product number 23209 (Thermo Scientific, MA, USA) as standard. The reaction tubes were agitated in a linear-shaking waterbath 1086 from GFL adjusted in different temperatures. For each sample point, a sample of 0.5 ml was taken from duplicate reaction tubes and centrifuged. The supernatant was boiled for 20 minutes to terminate the enzymatic hydrolysis, and analysed for reaction products from the hydrolysis.

[0098] A basis mixture of different cellulases was prepared using the following components:

CBHI/Cel7A preparation containing recombinant Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 CBHI/Cel7A (WO2007071818),

CBHII/Cel6A preparation containing recombinant Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 CBHII/Cel6A (WO2011080317),

EGII/Cel5A preparation containing recombinant Thermoascus aurantiacus ALKO4242 EGII/Cel5A (WO2007071818) with genetically attached CBM of Trichoderma reesei EGII/Cel5A (WO2007071818),

Mesophilic EGI/Cel7B preparation containing recombinant Trichoderma reesei EGI/Cel7B,

β-glucosidase preparation containing Acremonium thermophilum ALKO4245 β-glucosidase/Cel3A (WO2007071818),

xylanase preparation containing Thermoascus aurantiacus ALKO4242 Xyn10A xylanase (WO2007071818).



[0099] All cellulases were heterologously produced as monocomponents in Trichoderma reesei host strain having cellulase-free background (the genes encoding the four major cellulases CBHI/Cel7A, CBHII/Cel6A, EGI/Cel7B and EGII/Cel5A were deleted). Crude culture supernatants were used in the mixture. The enzyme components were combined as follows to prepare a basis mixture: cellobiohydrolase CBHI/Cel7A preparation 61.1%, cellobiohydrolase CBHII/Cel6A preparation 15.3%, endoglucanase EGII/Cel5A preparation 10.2%, endoglucanase EGI/Cel7B preparation 8.2%, xylanase Xyn10A preparation 3% and β-glucosidase βG/Cel3A preparation 2.2%. This enzyme mixture was designated as MIXTURE 1.

[0100] For testing GH61 molecule performance in the hydrolysis three separate mixture combinations were prepared containing 90% of MIXTURE 1 and 10 % of GH61 components:

GH61 protein preparation containing Acremonium thermophilum At_GH61.

GH61 enzyme preparation containing Melancarpus albomyces Ma_GH61A.

GH61 enzyme preparation containing Thielavia terrestris Tt_GH61E, a GH61 protein known in the art and described in Harris et al. (2010), Accession number ACE10234.



[0101] The mixtures containing GH61 proteins At_GH61, Ma_GH61A and Tt_GH61E were designated as MIXTURE 1_AT, MIXTURE 1_MA and MIXTURE 1_TT, respectively.

[0102] For all mixtures the hydrolysis was performed at 37°C, 45°C, 50°C and 55°C. Samples were taken from the hydrolysis after 72h, quantified by HPLC and the concentration of glucose was determined (Fig. 2).

[0103] The results show better performance of the MIXTURE 1_AT and MIXTURE 1_MA at all tested temperatures (37°C, 45°C, 50°C and 55°C) in comparison to the control MIXTURE 1_TT. At 55°C the MIXTURE 1_MA and MIXTURE 1_AT performed 24% and 16% better than the control mix MIXTURE 1_TT. The amounts of sugars released from the hardwood substrate with the MIXTURE 1_AT and MIXTURE 1_MA were found to increase 27% and 11% in comparison to the control mix MIXTURE 1_TT at 50°C. At 45°C the enzyme MIXTURE 1_AT and MIXTURE 1_MA were found to perform 24 % and 10% better than the control mix MIXTURE 1_TT. At 37°C MIXTURE 1_AT and MIXTURE 1_MA performed 48% and 27% better than the control mix MIXTURE 1_TT.

Example 6. Removal of fibrous residues from automatic dishwasher filters with enzyme preparations comprising recombinant GH61 proteins



[0104] Hydrolysis of fibrous residues building up in automatic dishwashers was measured with ground fibers from apples, oranges and wheat suspended in dilute citrate buffer, pH 4.0 containing ca. 0.5% propylene glycol in 500 ml shake flasks. Equal amount of each fiber was added and the final total solids concentration was 4 g per litre. Enzymes were added at a dosage of 25 mg of protein per gram of total solids. The amount of protein from the enzyme preparations was determined by Bio-Rad protein assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA) using bovine gammaglobulin (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA) as standard. The flasks containing fibers and enzymes in dilute citrate buffer were heated to 50°C in 230 rpm shaking. After 60 min incubation time at 50°C, the solution was filtered through a 200 µm mesh and the fibers left on the sieve dried for at least 20 h at 50°C. The dried fibers were weighed to measure the weight loss of the fibers. Weight loss was calculated as percentage of the weight of a blank. The blank containing fiber alone in the buffer (no enzymes) was prepared identically to the other samples.

[0105] Basic Trichoderma reesei cellulase mixture (Roal Oy, a classical T. reesei enzyme product) was used in the comparison. Enzyme mixtures contained basic T. reesei cellulase mixture alone (control) or a mixture containing 72% (18 mg) of T. reesei cellulase mixture and 28% (7 mg) of At_GH61 or Ma_GH61A for testing GH61 performance in the hydrolysis. The GH61 proteins were heterologously produced as monocomponents in Trichoderma reesei host strain having cellulase-free background (the genes encoding the four major cellulases CBHI, CBHII, EGI and EGII were deleted). Crude culture supernatants were used in the enzyme mixtures.

[0106] The average results from triplicate samples of the control and samples containing the GH61 proteins are shown in Fig. 3. The weight of the fiber residues left in the sieve was found to decrease 11% and 7% by partly replacing the basic T. reesei cellulase mixture with Acremonium thermophilum At_GH61 or Melanocarpus albomyces Ma_GH61A proteins, respectively. The results show, thus, better performance when the T. reesei cellulase mixture is supplemented with GH61 protein At_GH61 or Ma_GH61A.

REFERENCES



[0107] 

Badger PC. (2002) Ethanol from cellulose: a general review. In Trends in new crops and new uses. J. Janick and A. Whipkey (eds.). ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA, USA, p. 17-21.

Bendtsen JD, Nielsen H, von Heijne G, and Brunak S. (2004) Improved prediction of signal peptides: SignalP 3.0. J. Mol.Biol. 340:783-795.

Bolton ET, and McCarthy BJ. (1962) PNAS 84:1390 as presented in Sambrook, Fritsch and Maniatis, Molecular Cloning, p. 11.46 (1989).

Coen DM. (2001) The polymerase chain reaction. In: Ausubel FM., Brent R., Kingston RE., More DD., Seidman JG., Smith K. and Struhl K. (eds.) Current protocols in molecular biology. John Wiley & Sons. Inc., Hoboken, USA.

Gellissen G. (ed.) (2005) Production of recombinant proteins. Novel microbial and eukaryotic expression systems. Wiley-VCH Verlag Gmbh&Co. Weinheim, Germany.

Harris PV, Weiner D, McFarland KC, Re E, Navarro Poulsen J-C, Brown K, Salbo R, Ding H, Vlasenko E, Merino S, Xu F, Cherry J, Larsen SY, and Leggio LL. (2010) Stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis by proteins of glycoside hydrolase family 61: structure and function of a large, enigmatic family. Biochemistry 49 (15): 3305-3316.

Henrissat B. (1991) A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities. Biochem. J. 280: 309-316.

Henrissat B, and Bairoch A. (1993) New families in the classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities. Biochem. J. 293: 781-788.

Henrissat B, and Bairoch A. (1996). Updating the sequence-based classification of glycosyl hydrolases. Biochem. J. 316: 695-696.

Joutsjoki VV, Torkkeli TK, and Nevalainen KMH. (1993) Transformation of Trichoderma reesei with the Hormoconis resinae glucoamylase P (gamP) gene: production of a heterologous glucoamylase by Trichoderma reesei. Curr. Genet. 24: 223-228.

Karhunen T, Mäntylä M, Nevalainen KMH, and Suominen PL. (1993) High frequency one-step gene replacement in Trichoderma reesei. I. Endoglucanase I overproduction. Mol. Gen. Genet. 241: 515-522.

Needleman S. and Wunsch C. (1970) A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of two proteins. Journal of Molecular Biology 48, 443-453.

Nielsen H, Engelbrecht J, Brunak S, and von Heijne G. (1997) Identification of prokaryotic and eykaryotic signal peptides and prediction of their cleavage sites. Protein. Eng. 10: 1-6.

Nielsen H, and Krogh A. (1998) Prediction of signal peptides and signal anchors by a hidden Markov model. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB 6), AAAI Press, Menlo Park, California, p. 122-130.

Paloheimo M, Mäntylä A, Kallio J, and Suominen P. (2003) High-yield production of a bacterial xylanase in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei requires a carrier polypeptide with an intact domain structure. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 69: 7073-7082.

Penttilä M, Nevalainen H, Rättö M, Salminen E, and Knowles J. (1987) A versatile transformation system for the cellulolytic filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Gene 61: 155-164.

Poutanen M, Salusjärvi L, Ruohonen L, Penttilä M, and Kalkkinen N. (2001) Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass mapping and nanospray liquidchromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry sequence tag analysis for high sensitivity identification of yeast proteins separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 15: 1685-1692.

Raeder U, and Broda P. (1985) Rapid preparation of DNA from filamentous fungi. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 1: 17-20.

Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, and Maniatis T. (1989) Molecular cloning, a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, US.

Sambrook J, and Russell DW. (2001) Molecular cloning, a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, US.

Shevchenko A, Wilm M, Vorm O, and Mann M. (1996) Mass spectrometric sequencing of proteins from silver-stained polyacrylamide gels. Anal. Chem. 68: 850-858.

Visser H, Joosten V, Punt PJ, Gusakov AV, Olson PT, Joosten R, Bartels J, Visser J, Sinitsyn AP, Emalfarb MA, Verdoes JC, and Wery J. (2011) Development of a mature fungal technology and production platform for industrial enzymes based on the Myceliphthora thermophile isolate, reviously known as Chrysosporium lucknowense C1. Industrial Biotechology. 7: 214-223.


SEQUENCE LISTING



[0108] 

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<120> Novel proteins in the treatment of cellulosic material

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<221> source
<222> 1..349
<223> /mol_type="DNA" /organism="Acremonium thermophilum"

<400> 17

<210> 18
<211> 239
<212> DNA
<213> Melanocarpus albomyces

<220>
<221> source
<222> 1..239
<223> /mol_type="DNA" /organism="Melanocarpus albomyces"

<400> 18

<210> 19
<211> 860
<212> DNA
<213> Melanocarpus albomyces

<220>
<221> source
<222> 1..860
<223> /mol_type="DNA" /organism="Melanocarpus albomyces"

<400> 19

<210> 20
<211> 1472
<212> DNA
<213> Acremonium thermophilum

<220>
<221> source
<222> 1..1472
<223> /mol_type="DNA" /organism="Acremonium thermophilum"

<400> 20



<210> 21
<211> 891
<212> DNA
<213> Melanocarpus albomyces

<220>
<221> source
<222> 1..891
<223> /mol_type="DNA" /organism="Melanocarpus albomyces"

<400> 21



<210> 22
<211> 733
<212> DNA
<213> Melanocarpus albomyces

<220>
<221> source
<222> 1..733
<223> /mol_type="DNA" /organism="Melanocarpus albomyces"

<400> 22

<210> 23
<211> 328
<212> PRT
<213> Acremonium thermophilum

<220>
<221> SOURCE
<222> 1..328
<223> /mol_type="protein" /organism="Acremonium thermophilum"

<400> 23

<210> 24
<211> 246
<212> PRT
<213> Melanocarpus albomyces

<220>
<221> SOURCE
<222> 1..246
<223> /mol_type="protein" /organism="Melanocarpus albomyces"

<400> 24



<210> 25
<211> 225
<212> PRT
<213> Melanocarpus albomyces

<220>
<221> SOURCE
<222> 1..225
<223> /mol_type="protein" /organism="Melanocarpus albomyces"

<400> 25






Claims

1. A GH61 polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 80% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 23 or a fragment thereof capable of enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material, and outperforming the hydrolytic efficiency of GH61 of Thielavia terrestris at a temperature range of 37-55°C.
 
2. The GH61 polypeptide of claim 1, wherein the polypeptide has at least 90%, preferably at least 95%, and most preferably at least 98% identity to SEQ ID NO: 23, or a fragment thereof capable of enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material.
 
3. The GH61 polypeptide of claim 1, wherein the polypeptide is obtainable from Acremonium thermophilum, preferably from A. thermophilum CBS 116240.
 
4. An isolated polynucleotide selected from the group consisting of:

a) a polynucleotide comprising the coding sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 20,

b) a polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide of claim 1;

c) a polynucleotide encoding a fragment of a polypeptide encoded by a polynucleotide of a) or b), wherein said fragment is capable of enhancing hydrolysis of cellulosic material; and

d) a polynucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence which is the complementary strand of the polynucleotide sequence of a) or b).


 
5. The polynucleotide of claim 4 carried by a microorganism having accession number DSM 25497.
 
6. A vector, which comprises a polynucleotide of claim 4 or 5 operably linked to regulatory sequences capable of directing expression of the GH61 polypeptide of claim 1.
 
7. A host cell comprising the vector of claim 6.
 
8. A method of producing a GH61 polypeptide of claim 1, said method comprising the steps of transforming a host cell with an expression vector encoding said polypeptide, and culturing said host cell under conditions enabling expression of said polypeptide, and optionally recovering and purifying said polypeptide.
 
9. An enzyme preparation comprising the GH61 polypeptide of any one of claims 1 to 3.
 
10. The enzyme preparation of claim 9 further comprising at least one enzyme selected from a group of cellobiohydrolase, endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase, beta-glucanase, xyloglucanase, xylanase, beta-xylosidase, cello-biose dehydrogenase, mannanase, beta-mannosidase, α-glucuronidase, acetyl xylan esterase, α-arabinofuranosidase, α-galactosidase, pectinase, involving endo- and exo-α-L-arabinases, endo- and exo-galactoronase, endopectinlyase, pectate lyase, and pectinesterase, phenol esterase, ligninase involving lignin peroxidase, manganese- dependent peroxidase, H2O2-generating enzyme, laminarinase, chitosanase, ferulic acid esterase and laccase with or without mediators.
 
11. A method for treating cellulosic material, wherein the method comprises reacting the cellulosic material with a GH61 polypeptide of any one of claims 1 to 3 or an enzyme preparation of claim 9 or 10.
 
12. A method according to claim 11, wherein the method comprises cleaning the interior of a dishwasher by contacting at least part of the interior of the dishwasher with the polypeptide of any one of claims 1 to 3 or an enzyme preparation of claim 9 or 10.
 
13. The method of claim 11, wherein the cellulosic material is textile material, plants used in animal feed, or wood-derived pulp or secondary fiber.
 
14. Use of a polypeptide according to any one of claims 1 to 3, or an enzyme preparation according to claim 9 or 10 for processing biomass, and in biofuel, starch, textile, detergent, pulp and paper, food, feed or beverage industry.
 
15. Use according to claim 14 for biofinishing textile materials like fabrics or garments or yarn.
 
16. Use according to claim 14 for biostoning of denim.
 
17. Use according to claim 14 for cleaning the interior of a dishwashing machine.
 
18. An Escherichia coli strain having accession number DSM 25497.
 
19. A detergent composition comprising the polypeptide of any one of claims 1 to 3 or an enzyme preparation of claim 9 or 10.
 
20. A detergent composition according to claim 19, wherein the composition is a dishwashing machine cleaning composition.
 
21. A method for improving fabric care properties or textile cleaning effect of a detergent composition, comprising adding a polypeptide of any one of claims 1 to 3 or enzyme preparation of claim 9 or 10 to the detergent composition.
 
22. Animal feed comprising the polypeptide according to any one of claims 1 to 3 or an enzyme preparation of claim 9 or 10.
 


Ansprüche

1. GH61-Polypeptid, umfassend eine Aminosäuresequenz mit mindestens 80% Sequenzidentität mit SEQ ID NO: 23 oder ein Fragment derselben, das in der Lage ist, die Hydrolyse von Cellulosematerial zu verbessern, und die hydrolytische Effizienz von GH61 von Thielavia terrestris in einem Temperaturbereich von 37 bis 55°C zu übertreffen.
 
2. GH61-Polypeptid nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Polypeptid mindestens 90%, vorzugsweise mindestens 95%, und am meisten bevorzugt mindestens 98% Identität mit SEQ ID NO: 23 aufweist, oder ein Fragment desselben, das in der Lage ist, die Hydrolyse von Cellulosematerial zu verbessern.
 
3. GH61-Polypeptid nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Polypeptid aus Acremonium thermophilum, vorzugsweise aus A. thermophilum CBS 116240, gewonnen werden kann.
 
4. Isoliertes Polynukleotid, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus:

a) einem Polynucleotid, das die in SEQ ID NO: 20 gezeigte kodierende Sequenz umfasst,

b) einem Polynucleotid, das ein Polypeptid nach Anspruch 1 kodiert;

c) einem Polynukleotid, das ein Fragment eines Polypeptids kodiert, das von einem Polynukleotid aus a) oder b) kodiert wird, wobei das Fragment die Hydrolyse von Cellulosematerial verbessern kann; und

d) einem Polynucleotid, umfassend eine Nucleotidsequenz, die der komplementäre Strang der Polynucleotidsequenz von a) oder b) ist.


 
5. Polynukleotid nach Anspruch 4, das von einem Mikroorganismus mit der Zugangsnummer DSM 25497 getragen wird.
 
6. Vektor, der ein Polynukleotid nach Anspruch 4 oder 5 umfasst, das funktionell mit regulatorischen Sequenzen verbunden ist, die in der Lage sind, die Expression des GH61-Polypeptids nach Anspruch 1 zu steuern.
 
7. Wirtszelle, die den Vektor von Anspruch 6 umfasst.
 
8. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines GH61-Polypeptids nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Verfahren die Schritte des Transformierens einer Wirtszelle mit einem Expressionsvektor, der das Polypeptid kodiert, und des Kultivierens der Wirtszelle unter Bedingungen, die die Expression des Polypeptids ermöglichen, und gegebenenfalls des Gewinnens und Reinigens des Polypeptids umfasst.
 
9. Enzymzubereitung, die das Polypeptid GH61 nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 umfasst.
 
10. Enzymzubereitung nach Anspruch 9, umfassend ferner mindestens ein Enzym, ausgewählt aus einer Gruppe von Cellobiohydrolase, Endoglucanase, beta-Glucosidase, beta-Glucanase, Xyloglucanase, Xylanase, beta-Xylosidase, Cello-Biose-Dehydrogenase, Mannanase, beta-Mannosidase, α-Glucuronidase, Acetyl-Xylan-Esterase, α-Arabinofuranosidase, α-Galactosidase, Pektinase, die Endo- und Exo-α-L-Arabinasen, Endo- und Exo-Galactoronase, Endopektin-Lyase, Pektat-Lyase und Pektinesterase, Phenolesterase, Ligninase mit Lignin-Peroxidase, Mangan-abhängige Peroxidase, H2O2-erzeugendes Enzym, Laminarinase, Chitosanase, Ferulasäure-Esterase und Laccase mit oder ohne Mediatoren.
 
11. Verfahren zur Behandlung von Cellulosematerial, wobei das Verfahren die Umsetzung des Cellulosematerials mit einem GH61-Polypeptid nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 oder einer Enzymzubereitung nach Anspruch 9 oder 10 umfasst.
 
12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 11, wobei das Verfahren das Reinigen des Innenraums einer Geschirrspülmaschine durch Inkontaktbringen mindestens eines Teils des Innenraums der Geschirrspülmaschine mit dem Polypeptid nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 oder einer Enzymzubereitung nach Anspruch 9 oder 10 umfasst.
 
13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 11, wobei das Cellulosematerial Textilmaterial, Pflanzen, die in Tierfutter verwendet werden, oder aus Holz gewonnener Zellstoff oder Sekundärfaser ist.
 
14. Verwendung eines Polypeptids nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 oder einer Enzymzubereitung nach Anspruch 9 oder 10 zur Verarbeitung von Biomasse und in der Biokraftstoff-, Stärke-, Textil-, Waschmittel-, Zellstoff- und Papier-, Lebensmittel-, Futtermittel- oder Getränkeindustrie.
 
15. Verwendung nach Anspruch 14 für die Bioausrüstung von Textilmaterialien, wie Stoffen oder Kleidungsstücken oder Garn.
 
16. Verwendung nach Anspruch 14 zum Biostonen von Jeansgewebe.
 
17. Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 14 zur Reinigung des Innenraums einer Geschirrspülmaschine.
 
18. Escherichia coli-Stamm mit der Zugangsnummer DSM 25497.
 
19. Waschmittelzusammensetzung, umfassend das Polypeptid nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 oder eine Enzymzubereitung nach Anspruch 9 oder 10.
 
20. Waschmittelzusammensetzung nach Anspruch 19, wobei die Zusammensetzung eine Geschirrspülmaschinen-Reinigungszusammensetzung ist.
 
21. Verfahren zur Verbesserung der Stoffpflegeeigenschaften oder der Textilreinigungswirkung einer Waschmittelzusammensetzung, die Zugabe eines Polypeptids nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 oder einer Enzymzubereitung nach Anspruch 9 oder 10 zu der Waschmittelzusammensetzung umfassend.
 
22. Tierfutter, das das Polypeptid nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 oder eine Enzymzubereitung nach Anspruch 9 oder 10 umfasst.
 


Revendications

1. Polypeptide GH61 comprenant une séquence d'acides aminés ayant une identité de séquence d'au moins 80 % avec la SEQ ID NO : 23, ou un fragment de celui-ci capable d'amplifier l'hydrolyse d'un matériau cellulosique, et de surpasser l'efficacité hydrolytique de GH61 de Thielavia terrestris dans la plage de températures allant de 37 à 55 °C.
 
2. Polypeptide GH61 selon la revendication 1, lequel polypeptide a une identité d'au moins 90 %, de préférence d'au moins 95 %, et de manière la plus préférée d'au moins 98 % avec la SEQ ID NO : 23, ou un fragment de celui-ci capable d'amplifier l'hydrolyse d'un matériau cellulosique.
 
3. Polypeptide GH61 selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le polypeptide peut être obtenu à partir d'Acremonium thermophilum, de préférence à partir d'A. thermophilum CBS 116240.
 
4. Polynucléotide isolé choisi dans le groupe constitué par :

a) un polynucléotide comprenant la séquence codante telle qu'indiquée dans la SEQ ID NO : 20,

b) un polynucléotide codant un polypeptide selon la revendication 1 ;

c) un polynucléotide codant un fragment d'un polypeptide codé par un polynucléotide de a) ou b), dans lequel ledit fragment est capable d'amplifier l'hydrolyse d'un matériau cellulosique ; et

d) un polynucléotide comprenant une séquence de nucléotides qui est le brin complémentaire de la séquence de polynucléotide de a) ou b).


 
5. Polynucléotide selon la revendication 4, porté par un microorganisme ayant le numéro d'accès DSM 25497.
 
6. Vecteur qui comprend un polynucléotide selon la revendication 4 ou 5 lié de manière fonctionnelle à des séquences régulatrices capables de diriger l'expression du polypeptide GH61 selon la revendication 1.
 
7. Cellule hôte comprenant le vecteur selon la revendication 6.
 
8. Procédé de production d'un polypeptide GH61 selon la revendication 1, ledit procédé comprenant les étapes de transformation d'une cellule hôte avec un vecteur d'expression codant ledit polypeptide, et de culture de ladite cellule hôte dans des conditions permettant l'expression dudit polypeptide, et éventuellement de récupération et de purification dudit polypeptide.
 
9. Préparation enzymatique comprenant le polypeptide GH61 selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3.
 
10. Préparation enzymatique selon la revendication 9, comprenant en outre au moins une enzyme choisie dans le groupe comprenant une cellobiohydrolase, une endoglucanase, une bêta-glucosidase, une bêta-glucanase, une xyloglucanase, une xylanase, une bêta-xylosidase, une cellobiose déshydrogénase, une mannanase, une bêta-mannosidase, une α-glucuronidase, une acétyle xylane estérase, une α-arabinofuranosidase, une α-galactosidase, une pectinase, les endo- et exo-α-L-arabinases associatives, les endo- et exo-galactoronases, une endopectine lyase, une pectate lyase, et une pectine estérase, une phénol estérase, une lignine peroxydase impliquant une ligninase, une peroxydase dépendante du manganèse, une enzyme générant H2O2, une laminarinase, une chitosanase, une acide férulique estérase et une laccase, avec ou sans médiateurs.
 
11. Procédé pour traiter un matériau cellulosique, dans lequel le procédé comprend la réaction du matériau cellulosique avec un polypeptide GH61 selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 ou une préparation enzymatique selon la revendication 9 ou 10.
 
12. Procédé selon la revendication 11, dans lequel le procédé comprend le nettoyage de l'intérieur d'un lave-vaisselle par mise en contact d'au moins une partie de l'intérieur du lave-vaisselle avec le polypeptide selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 ou une préparation enzymatique selon la revendication 9 ou 10.
 
13. Procédé selon la revendication 11, dans lequel le matériau cellulosique est un matériau textile, des plantes utilisées dans des aliments pour animaux, ou des fibres secondaires ou de pâte dérivée de bois.
 
14. Utilisation d'un polypeptide selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 ou d'une préparation enzymatique selon la revendication 9 ou 10 pour le traitement d'une biomasse, et dans l'industrie des biocarburants, de l'amidon, des textiles, des détergents, de la pâte et du papier, des aliments, des aliments pour animaux, ou des boissons.
 
15. Utilisation selon la revendication 14 pour le biofinissage de matériaux tels que des étoffes ou des vêtements ou des fils.
 
16. Utilisation selon la revendication 14 pour le biodélavage du denim.
 
17. Utilisation selon la revendication 14 pour le nettoyage de l'intérieur d'un lave-vaisselle.
 
18. Souche d'Escherichia coli ayant le numéro d'accès DSM 25497.
 
19. Composition détergente comprenant le polypeptide selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 ou une préparation enzymatique selon la revendication 9 ou 10.
 
20. Composition détergente selon la revendication 19, dans laquelle la composition est une composition nettoyante pour lave-vaisselle.
 
21. Procédé pour améliorer les propriétés d'entretien des étoffes ou l'effet de nettoyage des textiles d'une composition détergente, comprenant l'addition à la composition détergente d'un polypeptide selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 ou de la préparation enzymatique selon la revendication 9 ou 10.
 
22. Aliment pour animaux comprenant le polypeptide selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 ou la préparation enzymatique selon la revendication 9 ou 10.
 




Drawing









REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description