(19)
(11)EP 2 867 081 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
20.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/21

(21)Application number: 13808442.1

(22)Date of filing:  26.06.2013
(51)Int. Cl.: 
B60W 10/06  (2006.01)
B60W 10/08  (2006.01)
B60W 20/00  (2016.01)
F02N 11/00  (2006.01)
B60K 6/365  (2007.10)
B60W 10/11  (2012.01)
B60W 30/18  (2012.01)
B60K 6/48  (2007.10)
(86)International application number:
PCT/SE2013/050792
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/003672 (03.01.2014 Gazette  2014/01)

(54)

METHOD FOR DRIVING A HYBRID VEHICLE IN CONNECTION WITH START OF THE COMBUSTION ENGINE OF THE VEHICLE

VERFAHREN ZUM ANTREIBEN EINES HYBRIDFAHRZEUGS IN VERBINDUNG MIT DEM START DES VERBRENNUNGSMOTORS DES FAHRZEUGS

PROCÉDÉ POUR L'ENTRAÎNEMENT D'UN VÉHICULE HYBRIDE EN LIAISON AVEC LE DÉMARRAGE DU MOTEUR À COMBUSTION DU VÉHICULE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 27.06.2012 SE 1250715
25.06.2013 SE 1350768

(43)Date of publication of application:
06.05.2015 Bulletin 2015/19

(73)Proprietor: Scania CV AB
151 87 Södertälje (SE)

(72)Inventors:
  • PETTERSSON, Niklas
    SE-117 27 Stockholm (SE)
  • BERGQUIST, Mikael
    SE-141 69 Huddinge (SE)
  • LINDSTRÖM, Johan
    SE-611 37 Nyköping (SE)
  • KJELL, Anders
    SE-178 38 Ekerö (SE)
  • BJÖRKMAN, Mathias
    SE-146 50 Tullinge (SE)

(74)Representative: Scania CV AB 
Patents, GP 117kv
151 87 Södertälje
151 87 Södertälje (SE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 319 546
WO-A1-2011/102392
DE-A1-102005 040 153
DE-A1-102007 042 949
US-A1- 2003 166 429
US-A1- 2012 004 797
WO-A1-02/47931
DE-A1- 19 903 936
DE-A1-102006 054 405
US-A1- 2003 166 429
US-A1- 2011 053 735
US-B1- 6 558 283
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION AND PRIOR ART



    [0001] The present invention relates to a method for driving a vehicle in connection with start of a combustion engine in a propulsion system of the vehicle according to the preamble of appended claim 1.

    [0002] The invention is especially, but not exclusively, directed to carrying out such a method for motor vehicles in the form of wheeled utility vehicles, especially heavy such vehicles, such as trucks and buses.

    [0003] The inventive method relates to driving of a so-called hybrid vehicle in connection with start of a combustion engine in a propulsion system of this vehicle. A hybrid vehicle is generally a vehicle which may be driven by a primary engine, here a combustion engine, and a secondary engine, here an electric machine. The electric machine is suitably provided with at least one hybrid energy storing means, for example a battery or a capacitor, for storing electric energy and regulating equipment for regulating the flow of electric energy between the energy storing means and the electric machine. The electric machine may thereby alternately operate as motor and generator depending on the state of operation of the vehicle. When a brake is applied to the vehicle, the electric machine generates electric energy which may be stored and/or utilised directly. The stored electric energy may later be utilized for example for driving the vehicle.

    [0004] The utilization of a conventional clutch mechanism connecting the input shaft of the gearbox with the combustion engine upon take-off of the vehicle and disconnecting it during a gear changing process in the gearbox involves disadvantages, such as heating of the discs of the clutch mechanism, which results in an increased fuel consumption and a wear of the clutch discs. This is particularly relevant upon connection of the shafts. Furthermore, a conventional clutch mechanism is relatively heavy and costly. It also occupies a relatively large space in the vehicle. Friction losses also occur upon use of a hydraulic converter/torque transformer commonly used in automatic gearboxes.

    [0005] The conventional clutch mechanism as well as the hydraulic converter and said disadvantages associated therewith may be avoided by providing for that the vehicle has a propulsion system in which the output shaft of the combustion engine, the rotor of the electric machine and the input shaft of the gearbox are interconnected by a planetary gear. A vehicle having a propulsion system of this type is known through EP 1 319 546. There is of course an ongoing attempt to improve the way to drive a vehicle having such a propulsion system with respect to energy efficiency and the way that the electric machine and the combustion engine interact.

    [0006] US2003/0166429 discloses a method for starting a combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle having a propulsion system with two planetary gears and two electric machines, in which the combustion engine is connected to the ring gears of the planetary gears, the electric machines are connected to the sun gears thereof, and an input shaft of a gearbox is connected to the planet wheel carriers of the planetary gears.

    [0007] US 2012/0004797 A1 discloses a method for driving a vehicle having a propulsion system with a planetary gear and an electric machine, in which the engine is connected to the sun gear, the electric machine is connected to the ring gear and an input shaft of a gearbox is connected to the planet wheel carrier of the planetary gear, and a hydraulic pump or other devices such as an electromagnetic clutch can act as component brake on the engine crankshaft. The vehicle can be driven with a gear switched to a direction opposite to the current driving direction.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0008] The object of the present invention is to provide a method of the sort initially defined considering the attempt mentioned above. This object is according to the invention achieved by providing a method according to the appended claim 1.

    [0009] According to the invention, the combustion engine of a vehicle with a propulsion system of the above-mentioned type, which further comprises a component brake designed to, when necessary, brake the rotation of the first component of the planetary gear, is started when the vehicle is in an appropriate initial state. In such a state, the vehicle is driven forward by the electric machine while a reverse gear is engaged in the gearbox, by that the electric machine drives the ring gear of the planetary gear to rotate with a negative rotational speed while the component brake brakes the sun gear, which is connected to the output shaft of the combustion engine. When the component brake is then transferred to its open position, the output shaft of the combustion engine is via the planetary gear brought to rotate with a positive rotational speed, whereby the combustion engine may be started.

    [0010] The method according to the invention exploits the fact that the electric machine in contrast to the combustion engine can rotate with both positive and negative rotational speeds. It is therefor possible to, by means of the electric machine, drive the vehicle forward with a reverse gear engaged in the gearbox. This means that the start of the combustion engine can take place during ongoing acceleration, since the torque of the electric machine is simultaneously used to drive the vehicle and to accelerate the combustion engine. The method is particularly suitable for example for buses in urban traffic, where it is desirable that the bus after stopping at a bus stop moves off silently. The bus may in those cases move off by means of the electric machine and the combustion engine is started during ongoing acceleration.

    [0011] The design of the propulsion system with a single electric machine and a single planetary gear which connects the electric machine, the combustion engine and the gear box simplifies the control of the components of the propulsion system in comparison with so-called power split propulsion systems, or series-parallell propulsion systems, in which two electric machines are used. The inventive method is thereby less complicated to implement compared to methods for starting a combustion engine in such propulsion systems.

    [0012] According to one embodiment of the invention, step (a) is preceded by the step:
    (a1) checking that the present torque of the electric machine is sufficient to give, in step (a), a resulting torque on the output shaft of the combustion engine, which resulting torque is sufficient to start the combustion engine.

    [0013] According to a variety of this embodiment, step (a) is, in the case where the check in step (a1) shows that the present torque of the electric machine at the moment is insufficient, carried out with the drive wheels of the vehicle partly braked and while controlling the torque of the electric machine towards a value which gives a sufficient resulting torque acting on the output shaft of the combustion engine to start the combustion engine. This embodiment has the advantage that the method can be used to start the combustion engine of a vehicle when the driver wishes to drive the vehicle at a very low velocity. The combustion engine of the vehicle can, thanks to the braking of the drive wheels, be started without affecting the velocity of the vehicle.

    [0014] According to one embodiment of the invention step (a) is followed by the steps:

    (b) controlling the electric machine and/or the combustion engine so that a state of a zero torque is reached in the gearbox,

    (c) disengaging the reverse gear engaged in the gearbox,

    (d) controlling the electric machine and/or the combustion engine so that the rotational speed of the ring gear together with the rotational speed of the output shaft of the combustion engine give the input shaft of the gearbox a rotational speed which for the current velocity of the vehicle is synchronized with the shaft rotational speed for a desired forward gear in the gearbox,

    (e) engaging the desired forward gear in the gearbox.

    By means of these steps, a state is reached in which the vehicle can be continuedly driven forward by the combustion engine and the electric machine in combination using a desired forward gear.

    [0015] According to a further embodiment of the invention, step (e) is followed by the steps:

    (f) checking demanded driving torque,

    (g) controlling the torque of the electric machine towards a level which gives the demanded driving torque while simultaneously controlling the rotational speed of the combustion engine towards a value which gives the components comprised in the planetary gear the same rotational speed,

    (h) transferring the locking means to the locking position when said components rotate with the same rotational speed.



    [0016] According to this embodiment, a state in which the vehicle can be driven with the planetary gear locked is reached, so that the power transmission between on the one hand the combustion engine and the electric machine and on the other hand the drive wheels of the vehicle becomes efficient.

    [0017] According the invention, the method is carried out for a propulsion system wherein said first component of the planetary gear is the sun gear, said second component of the planetary gear is the planet wheel carrier and said third component of the planetary gear is the ring gear. Such a propulsion system is previously disclosed in the still unpublished SE 1051384-4. By connecting the electric machine to the ring gear and the output shaft of the combustion engine to the sun gear, a compact construction is achieved, which is easy to fit into already existing spaces for propulsion systems having clutch mechanisms instead of planetary gears. Thereby, a hybridized gearbox may be made size and weight compatible with a standard gearbox and standardized interfaces may be maintained. This means that the weight increase normally associated with hybridization may be reduced considerably. Another advantage is that a connection of the electric machine to the ring gear gives a higher possible brake torque associated with the electric machine than had it instead been connected to the sun gear.

    [0018] According to a further embodiment of the invention, the method is carried out for a vehicle with a propulsion system which comprises a range gear and according to a further development of this embodiment the method is carried out with said reverse gear in combination with a high range gear. The utilisation of the gear combination normally not used in vehicles of this kind of a reverse gear and a high range gear enables carrying out the inventive method at a considerably higher velocity and during a more lengthy acceleration than in the case with the low range gear engaged. It is however entirely possible to carry out the inventive method with the low range gear engaged in such cases where the velocity of the vehicle is sufficiently low at the time when a wish to start the combustion engine arises.

    [0019] According to one embodiment of the invention, the method is carried out for a propulsion system wherein the locking means in the locking position connects the sun gear to the planet wheel carrier.

    [0020] The invention also relates to a computer program having the features listed in claim 9, a computer program product having the features listed in claim 10, an electronic control unit having the features listed in claim 11 and a vehicle having the features listed in claim 12.

    [0021] Other advantageous features and advantages of the invention will appear from the description following below.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0022] The invention will in the following be further described by means of example with reference to the appended drawings, wherein
    Fig. 1
    is a schematic drawing of a propulsion system of a vehicle for which a method according to the invention may be carried out,
    Fig. 2
    is a simplified view of a part of a propulsion system,
    Fig. 3
    shows how the torque of the different components in the propulsion system can vary over time when carrying out the method,
    Fig. 4
    shows how the rotational speed of the components in fig. 3 can vary over time when carrying out the method,
    Fig. 5
    is a schematic drawing of a control unit for implementing a method according to the invention, and
    Fig. 6
    is a flow chart illustrating a method according to the invention.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION



    [0023] Fig. 1 shows a propulsion system 1 for a heavy vehicle. The propulsion system comprises a combustion engine 2, a gearbox 3, a number of drive shafts 4 and drive wheels 5. Between the combustion engine 2 and the gearbox 3 the propulsion system 1 comprises an intermediate portion 6.

    [0024] Fig. 2 shows a more detailed view of the components in the intermediate portion 6. The combustion engine 2 is provided with an output shaft 2a and the gear box 3 with an input shaft 3a in the intermediate portion 6. The output shaft 2a of the combustion engine is coaxially arranged with respect to the input shaft 3a of the gear box. The output shaft 2a of the combustion engine and the input shaft 3a of the gear box are arranged to rotate around a common rotation axis 7. The intermediate portion 6 comprises a housing 8 enclosing an electric machine 9 and a planetary gear. The electric machine 9 comprises as usual a stator 9a and a rotor 9b. The stator 9a comprises a stator core secured in a suitable way on the inside of the housing 8. The stator core comprises the windings of the stator. The electric machine 9 is adapted to, in certain operation situations, utilize stored electric energy for supplying propelling force to the input shaft 3a of the gearbox and, in other operation situations, utilize kinetic energy of the input shaft 3a of the gear box to extract and store electric energy.

    [0025] The planetary gear is arranged essentially radially internally of the stator 9a and the rotor 9b of the electric machine. The planetary gear comprises as usual a first component, a second component and a third component. The first component is a sun gear 10, the second component is a planet wheel carrier 12, and the third component is a ring gear 11. The planet wheel carrier 12 carries a number of gear wheels 13 being rotatably arranged in a radial space between the teeth of the sun gear 10 and the ring gear 11. The sun gear 10 is in this embodiment secured to a circumferential surface of the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine. The sun gear 10 and the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine are here arranged to rotate as a unit with a first rotational speed n1. The planet wheel carrier 12 comprises a fastening portion 12a which in this embodiment is fastened to a circumferential surface of the input shaft 3a of the gearbox by means of a splined connection 14. By means of this connection, the planet wheel carrier 12 and the input shaft 3a of the gearbox may rotate as a unit with a second rotational speed n2. The ring gear 11 comprises an external circumferential surface onto which the rotor 9b in this embodiment is secured. The rotor 9b and the ring gear 11 here form a rotatable unit arranged to rotate with a third rotational speed n3.

    [0026] The propulsion system 1 comprises locking means for interlocking two of the components of the planetary gear. The locking means are in this embodiment arranged on the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine and on the planet wheel carrier 12 by means of a displaceable coupling member 15 provided on the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine, which coupling member 15 via a coupling portion 15a is connectable to a coupling portion 12b of the planet wheel carrier 12. The coupling member 15 is fastened to the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine by means of a splined connection 16. The coupling member 15 is in this case fixed against rotation to the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine and displaceable in an axial direction on the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine. A schematically illustrated displacing member 17 is adapted to displace the coupling member 15 between a first position in which the coupling portions 15a, 12b are not mutually engaged, corresponding to a releasing position of the locking means, and a second position in which the coupling portions 15a, 12b are mutually engaged, corresponding to a locking position of the locking means. When the coupling portions 15a, 12b are mutually engaged, the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine and the input shaft 3a of the gearbox will be interlocked. These two axes 2a, 3a and the rotor 9b of the electric machine will thereby rotate with the same rotational speed.

    [0027] According to another embodiment of the invention, the inventive method is carried out for a propulsion system wherein the locking means comprise a casing provided with a first set of splines. In the releasing position this first set of splines engages with a second set of splines provided on the second component of the planetary gear, which second component is connected to the input shaft of the gearbox. In the locking position, said first set of splines also engages with a third set of splines arranged on the first component of the planetary gear, which first component is connected to the output shaft of the combustion engine, so that said first and second components are interlocked. The casing may for example be a ring shaped casing, which encloses the planet wheel carrier in the case where the second component of the planetary gear consists thereof.

    [0028] The locking means may of course also be arranged in other ways than the above mentioned, for example so that these interlock the ring gear and the output shaft of the combustion engine or the input shaft of the gearbox.

    [0029] In the illustrated embodiment, an electric control unit 18 is adapted to control the displacing member 17. The control unit 18 is also adapted to determine the occasions on which the electric machine 9 shall operate as a motor and on which occasions it shall operate as a generator. In order to make this decision, the control unit 18 may receive current information about suitable operating parameters. The control unit 18 may be a computer with suitable software for this task. The control unit 18 also controls schematically shown a regulating equipment 19 regulating the flow of electric energy between an energy storing means 20, such as a hybrid battery, and the stator 9a of the electric machine. On occasions upon which the electric machine operates as a motor, stored electric energy is supplied from the energy storing means 20 to the stator 9a and/or to other consumers. On occasions upon which the electric machine operates as a generator, electric energy is supplied from the stator 9a to the energy storing means 20. The energy storing means 20 delivers and stores electric energy with a voltage in order of 200-800 Volt. Since the intermediate portion 6 between the combustion engine 2 and the gearbox 3 in a vehicle is restricted, it is required that the electric machine 9 and the planetary gear constitute a compact unit. The components 10-12 of the planetary gear are here arranged substantially radially internally of the stator 9a of the electric machine. The rotor 9b of the electric machine, the ring gear 11 of the planetary gear, the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine and the input shaft 3a of the gearbox are here arranged to rotate around a common axes of rotation 5. Through such a design, the electric machine 9 and the planetary gear occupies a comparatively small space. The vehicle is provided with a motor control function 21 through which the rotational speed n1 of the combustion engine may be regulated. The control unit 18 thereby has a possibility to activate the motor control function 21 upon engagement and disengagement of gears in the gearbox 3 in order to create a state of zero torque in the gearbox 3. The propulsion system may of course, instead of being controlled by one single control unit 18, be controlled by several different control units.

    [0030] The propulsion system 1 further comprises a component brake 28 which is transferable between the braking position and an open position. In the shown embodiment, the sun gear is in the braking position braked by the component brake 28 and is in the open position unaffected by the component brake 28 and may thereby rotate without hindrance therefrom. The component brake 28 can act directly or indirectly on the sun gear and may be for example an adjustable brake which can be torque controlled, a spring loaded brake with a fixed braking torque or a locking pin which can lock the fly wheel of the combustion engine. The component brake can be designed to act on the fly wheel of the combustion engine, on the output shaft of the combustion engine or directly on the sun gear of the planetary gear. The component brake 28 is suitably designed so that it can be controlled by means of the control unit 18.

    [0031] Fig. 3 and 4 show how the torques T1, T2 and T3 and the rotational speeds n1, n2 and n3 for the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine (dashed line), the input shaft 3a of the gearbox (dotted line) and the rotor 9b of the electric machine (solid line), respectively, may vary over time t while carrying out an embodiment of the method according to the invention. By definition, the combustion engine 2, which rotates only in one direction, rotates with a positive rotational speed. Components rotating in the same direction as the combustion engine thereby are defined to rotate with a positive rotational speed and components rotating in an opposite direction are defined to rotate with a negative rotational speed. In Fig. 6 a flow chart is shown, which illustrates the method according to the embodiment shown in Fig. 3 and 4 of the invention. The steps which are associated with the start of the combustion engine are in Fig. 6 marked with solid lines, while steps following the start are marked with dashed lines and other steps are marked with dash-dotted lines. In this embodiment of the method according to the invention, a propulsion system 1 in which the rotor 9b of the electric machine is arranged to rotate as a unit with the ring gear 11, the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine is arranged to rotate as a unit with the sun gear 10 and the input shaft 3a of the gearbox is arranged to rotate as a unit with the planet wheel carrier 12 is used.

    [0032] In order to start the combustion engine 2 by means of the method according to the invention, a vehicle with a propulsion system 1 as described above is put in an appropriate initial state 610. An appropriate initial state is in this case a state wherein the vehicle is driven forward solely by the electric machine 9, which rotates with a negative rotational speed n3. The locking means are in the releasing position so that the components of the planetary gear can rotate with different rotational speeds and the component brake 28 is in the braking position, so that the rotation of the sun gear 10 is hindered. Thereby, the torque T3 of the electric machine via the ring gear 11 and the planet wheel carrier 12 causes a reaction torque T2 on the input shaft 3a of the gearbox, which is therefor by the electric machine 9 brought to rotate with a negative rotational speed n2. To be able to drive the vehicle forward, a reverse gear must in the initial state be engaged in the gearbox 3. In Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, the vehicle is driven forward in the initial state during the time t = to -t1. In the shown embodiment, the vehicle is driven forward at a constant rotational speed, but the initial state can also be a state where the vehicle is accelerated. A reaction torque T1 acts on the sun gear 5, and in this embodiment thereby on the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine. Since the component brake 28 is hindering the rotation of the sun gear 10, the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine remains however still.

    [0033] In step 611, a signal to start the combustion engine 2 is given at the time t = t1. The component brake 28 acting on the sun gear 10 is then in step 612 by means of the control unit 18 transferred to the releasing position so that the sun gear 10 is allowed to rotate. The torque T3 of the electric machine is kept constant. The reaction torque T1 acting on the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine now in step 613 gives rise to a rotation of said shaft 2a, since the sun gear 10 starts to rotate with a positive rotational speed n1 in consequence of the rotation of the ring gear 11. The combustion engine 2 is thereby accelerated so that it may be started and in step 614 reaches its idle rotational speed. Simultaneously, the input shaft 3a of the gearbox continues to rotate with a negative rotational speed n2, so that the vehicle during the start of the combustion engine 2 is still driven forward by the electric machine 9.

    [0034] In order to be able to drive the vehicle forward by means also of the combustion engine 2 after start thereof, shifting to a forward gear with a suitable transmission ratio must take place. In order to prepare the shifting, the electric machine 9 is at the time t = t2 in step 615 controlled by means of the control unit 18 so that the torque T2 acting on the input shaft 3a of the gearbox goes towards zero. Simultaneously, the rotational speed of the combustion engine 2 is controlled so that the output shaft 2a, and thereby also the sun gear 10, is kept at a constant rotational speed n1. At the time t = t3 a state of a zero torque has been reached in the gearbox and the reverse gear is disengaged. In order to be able to engage an appropriate forward gear in step 616, the input shaft 3a of the gearbox must however be driven at a rotational speed n2 which, at the present conditions, corresponds to driving with said appropriate forward gear engaged. The electric machine 9 and the combustion engine 2 are therefor controlled so that they exert a positive torque T3 and T1 respectively on the ring gear 11 and on the sun gear 10, respectively, whereby the rotational speed n1 of the sun gear increases and the ring gear 11 changes its direction of rotation and starts to rotate with a positive rotational speed n3. At the time t = t4, the resulting rotational speed n2 of the input shaft 3a of the gearbox is synchronized with the rotational speed of a desired forward gear for the present conditions, and the gear is engaged.

    [0035] It is now possible to continue the forward driving in different ways depending on the current circumstances. In most cases, it is most fuel efficient to continue driving with the locking means in the locking position, in which the ring gear 11, the sun gear 10 and the planet wheel carrier 12 rotate as a unit with the same rotational speed. This is also the embodiment shown in Fig. 3 and 4. In order to be able to transfer the locking means to the locking position, the torque T3 of the electric machine 9 is in step 617 controlled towards a level which together with the torque T1 of the combustion engine 2 gives a demanded driving torque. At the same time, the rotational speed of the combustion engine 2 is controlled in order to synchronize the components of the planetary gear so that these rotate with the same rotational speed. This state is reached at the time t = t5. The locking means are in step 618 transferred to the locking position, whereafter the torques of the combustion engine 2 and the electric machine 9 are controlled towards the distribution which at the moment is the most favorable for continued driving.

    [0036] Under certain circumstances, it can be more favorable to instead continue driving with the locking means in the releasing position.

    [0037] If the driver of the vehicle during the start of the combustion engine 2 does not demand a sufficient driving torque, for example if the driver wants to drive the vehicle at a very low velocity, it may happen that the resulting torque on the output shaft 2a of the combustion engine is not sufficiently high to be able to start the combustion engine. The method can therefor comprise a step 619 wherein the control unit 18 before start of the combustion engine 2 checks whether the resulting torque reaches a threshold value, which is the smallest possible torque needed to start the combustion engine. If the resulting torque is insufficient, the propulsion system 1 may in a step 620 be controlled so that the drive wheels 5 of the vehicle during the start of the combustion engine 2 are braked, for example using a service brake or a retarder. The torque of the electric machine may thus simultaneously be increased without affecting the velocity of the vehicle.

    [0038] The method according to the invention is suitably carried out for a propulsion system with a range gear, wherein the reverse gear, which in the initial state is engaged in the gearbox, is used in combination with a high range gear. By using the high range gear, the vehicle can be driven at a velocity which for a normal range gear ratio is about four times as high as if instead the low range gear would have been engaged. If the method is carried out at a sufficiently low velocity it is thus possible to instead use a low range gear.

    [0039] Before initiating the inventive method, a check that the available torque of the electric machine is sufficiently high to start the combustion engine at the present rotational speed is preferably performed. If this is not the case and the vehicle has already been accelerated up to a velocity which is too high, an alternative method for starting the combustion engine must be used. However, a gear change must generally take place before the rotational speed has become so high that it is too late to start the combustion engine without slowing down, during which gear change it is suitable for the propulsion system to start the combustion engine and change to a forward gear.

    [0040] Computer program code for implementing a method according to the invention is suitably included in a computer program which is readable into an internal memory of a computer, such as the internal memory of an electronic control unit of a motor vehicle. Such a computer program is suitably provided through a computer program product comprising a data storing medium readable by an electronic control unit, which data storing medium has the computer program stored thereon. Said data storing medium is for example an optical data storing medium in the form of a CD-ROM-disc, a DVD-disc, or similar, a magnetic data storing medium in the form of a hard disc, a diskette, a tape or similar, or a Flash memory or a memory of the type ROM, PROM, EPROM or EEPROM.

    [0041] Fig. 5 illustrates very schematically an electronic control unit 40 comprising an execution means 41, such as a central processor unit (CPU), for executing a computer program. The execution means 41 communicates with a memory 42, for example of the type RAM, through a data bus 43. The control unit 40 comprises also a data storing medium 44, for example in the form of a Flash memory or a memory of the type ROM, PROM, EPROM or EEPROM. The execution means 41 communicates with the data storing medium 44 through a data bus 43. A computer program comprising computer program code for implementing a method according to the invention is stored on the data storing medium 44.

    [0042] The invention is of course not in any way restricted to the embodiments described above, but many possibilities to modifications thereof would be apparent to a person with skill in the art without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.


    Claims

    1. A method for driving a vehicle in connection with start of a combustion engine (2) in a propulsion system (1) of the vehicle, the propulsion system (1) comprising a combustion engine (2) with an output shaft (2a), an electric machine (9) comprising a stator (9a) and a rotor (9b), a gearbox (3) with an input shaft (3a), and a planetary gear comprising three components (10, 11, 12) in the form of a sun gear (10), a ring gear (11) and a planet wheel carrier (12), the output shaft (2a) of the combustion engine being connected to the sun gear (10) of the planetary gear so that a rotation of the output shaft (2a) of the combustion engine results in a rotation of said sun gear (10), the input shaft (3a) of the gearbox being connected to the planet wheel carrier (12) of the planetary gear so that a rotation of the input shaft (3a) of the gearbox results in a rotation of said planet wheel carrier (12) and the rotor (9b) of the electric machine being connected to the ring gear (11) of the planetary gear, so that a rotation of the rotor (9b) results in a rotation of said ring gear (11), the propulsion system (1) further comprising locking means transferable between a locking position in which two of said components are interlocked such that the three components (10, 11, 12) rotate as a unit with the same rotational speed and a releasing position in which the components (10, 11, 12) are allowed to rotate with different rotational speeds, wherein the propulsion system (1) further comprises a component brake (28) which is transferable between a braking position in which the rotation of said sun gear (10) of the planetary gear is braked by the component brake (28), and an open position in which said sun gear (10) of the planetary gear is not affected by the component brake (28), characterized in that the method starts when the vehicle is being driven forward by the electric machine (9) by having a reverse gear engaged in the gearbox (3) while the electric machine (9) drives said ring gear (11) of the planetary gear to rotate with a negative rotational speed (n3) with the locking means in the releasing position and with the component brake (28) in the braking position, the method comprising the step:

    (a) transferring of the component brake (28) to the open position, so that the output shaft (2a) of the combustion engine via said sun gear (10) of the planetary gear is brought to rotate with a positive rotational speed (ni), whereby the combustion engine (2) may be started.


     
    2. The method according to claim 1, characterised in that step (a) is preceded by the step:
    (a1) checking that the present torque of the electric machine (9) is sufficient to give, in step (a), a resulting torque on the output shaft (2a) of the combustion engine, which resulting torque is sufficient to start the combustion engine (2).
     
    3. The method according to claim 2, characterised in that, in the case where the check in step (a1) shows that the present torque of the electric machine is insufficient, step (a) is carried out with the drive wheels (5) of the vehicle partly braked and while controlling the torque of the electric machine (9) towards a value which gives sufficient resulting torque acting on the output shaft (2a) of the combustion engine to start the combustion engine (2).
     
    4. The method according to any of the preceding claims, characterised in that step (a) is followed by the steps:

    (b) controlling the electric machine (9) and/or the combustion engine (2) so that a state of a zero torque is reached in the gearbox (3),

    (c) disengaging the reverse gear engaged in the gearbox (3),

    (d) controlling the electric machine (9) and/or the combustion engine (2) so that the rotational speed (n3) of the ring gear (11) together with the rotational speed (n1) of the output shaft (2a) of the combustion engine give the input shaft (3a) of the gearbox a rotational speed (n2) which for the current velocity of the vehicle is synchronized with the shaft rotational speed for a desired forward gear in the gearbox (3),

    (e) engaging the desired forward gear in the gearbox (3).


     
    5. The method according to claim 4, characterised in that step

    (e) is followed by the steps:

    (f) checking demanded driving torque,

    (g) controlling the torque of the electric machine (9) towards a level which gives the demanded driving torque and simultaneously controlling the rotational speed of the combustion engine (2) towards a value which gives the components (10, 11, 12) comprised in the planetary gear the same rotational speed,

    (h) transferring the locking means to the locking position when said components (10, 11, 12) rotate with the same rotational speed.


     
    6. The method according to any of the preceding claims, characterised in that is carried out for a vehicle with a propulsion system which comprises a range gear.
     
    7. The method according to claim 6, characterised in that it is carried out with said reverse gear in combination with a high range gear.
     
    8. A computer program comprising computer program code for bringing a computer to implement a method according to any of claims 1-7 when the computer program code is executed in the computer.
     
    9. A computer program product comprising a data storing medium readable by a computer, the computer program code of a computer program according to claim 8 being stored on the data storing medium.
     
    10. An electronic control unit (40) comprising an execution means (41), a memory (42) connected to the execution means and a data storing medium (44) connected to the execution means, the computer program code of a computer program according to claim 8 being stored on said data storing medium (44).
     
    11. A vehicle comprising an electronic control unit according to claim 10.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zum Antreiben eines Fahrzeugs in Verbindung mit einem Start eines Verbrennungsmotors (2) in einem Antriebssystem (1) des Fahrzeugs, wobei das Antriebssystem (1) einen Verbrennungsmotor (2) mit einer Ausgangwelle (2a), eine elektrische Maschine (9) mit einem Stator (9a) und einem Rotor (9b), ein Getriebe (3) mit einer Eingangswelle (3a), und ein Planetengetriebe umfasst, welches drei Komponenten (10, 11, 12) in Form eines Sonnenrades (10), eines Hohlrades (11) und eines Planetenradträgers (12) aufweist, wobei die Ausgangswelle (2a) des Verbrennungsmotors mit dem Sonnenrad (10) des Planetengetriebes verbunden ist, sodass eine Drehung der Ausgangswelle (2a) des Verbrennungsmotors zu einer Drehung des Sonnenrades (10) führt, die Eingangswelle (3a) des Getriebes mit dem Planetenradträger (12) des Planetengetriebes verbunden ist, sodass eine Drehung der Eingangswelle (3a) des Getriebes zu einer Drehung des Planetenradträgers (12) führt, und der Rotor (9b) der elektrischen Maschine mit dem Hohlrad (11) des Planetengetriebes verbunden ist, sodass eine Drehung des Rotors (9b) zu einer Drehung des Hohlrades (11) führt, wobei das Antriebssystem (11) ferner eine Arretiereinrichtung umfasst, die zwischen einer Arretierstellung, in der zwei der Komponenten miteinander verblockt sind, sodass die drei Komponenten (10, 11, 12) als eine Einheit mit derselben Drehzahl rotieren, und einer Lösestellung transferierbar ist, in der die Komponenten (10, 11, 12) mit unterschiedlichen Drehzahlen rotieren können, wobei das Antriebssystem (1) ferner eine Komponentenbremse (28) umfasst, die zwischen einer Bremsstellung, in der die Drehung des Sonnenrades (10) des Planetengetriebes durch die Komponentenbremse (28) abgebremst wird, und einer offenen Stellung verlagerbar ist, in der das Sonnenrad (10) des Planetengetriebes durch die Komponentenbremse (28) nicht beeinflusst wird, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verfahren beginnt, wenn das Fahrzeug mittels der elektrischen Maschine (9) vorwärts gefahren wird, indem ein Rückwärtsgang in dem Getriebe (3) eingelegt ist, während die elektrische Maschine (9) das Hohlrad (11) des Planetengetriebes zum Drehen mit einer negativen Drehzahl (n3) mit der Arretiereinrichtung in der Lösestellung und der Komponentenbremse (28) in der Bremsstellung antreibt, wobei das Verfahren den Schritt des

    (a) Verlagerns der Komponentenbremse (28) in die offene Stellung umfasst, sodass die Ausgangswelle (2a) des Verbrennungsmotors mittels des Sonnenrades (10) des Planetengetriebes dazu gebracht wird, mit einer positiven Drehzahl (n1) zu rotieren, wodurch der Verbrennungsmotor (2) gestartet werden kann.


     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass dem Schritt (a) vorausgeht der Schritt:
    (a1) des Überprüfens, dass das derzeitige Drehmoment der elektrischen Maschine (9) dazu ausreicht, im Schritt (a) ein resultierendes Drehmoment auf der Ausgangswelle (2a) des Verbrennungsmotors zu ergeben, wobei das resultierende Drehmoment dazu ausreicht, den Verbrennungsmotor (2) zu starten.
     
    3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass für den Fall, in dem die Überprüfung im Schritt (a1) ergibt, dass das derzeitige Drehmoment der elektrischen Maschine unzureichend ist, der Schritt (a) ausgeführt wird mit teilweise abgebremsten Antriebsrädern (5) des Fahrzeugs und während das Drehmoment der elektrischen Maschine (9) auf einen Wert gesteuert wird, der ein zum Starten des Verbrennungsmotors (2) ausreichendes resultierendes auf die Ausgangswelle (2a) des Verbrennungsmotors wirkendes Drehmoment ergibt.
     
    4. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Schritt (a) gefolgt wird von den Schritten:

    (b) Steuern der elektrischen Maschine (9) und/oder des Verbrennungsmotors (2) derart, dass ein Zustand eines Nulldrehmoments in dem Getriebe (3) erreicht wird,

    (c) Ausrücken des in dem Getriebe (3) eingelegten Rückwärtsgangs,

    (d) Steuern der elektrischen Maschine (9) und/oder des Verbrennungsmotors (2) derart, dass die Drehzahl (n3) des Hohlrades (11) zusammen mit der Drehzahl (n1) der Ausgangswelle (2a) des Verbrennungsmotors der Eingangswelle (3a) des Getriebes eine Drehzahl (n2) verleihen, die für die aktuelle Geschwindigkeit des Fahrzeugs mit der Wellendrehzahl für einen gewünschten Vorwärtsgang in dem Getriebe (3) synchronisiert ist,

    (e) Einrücken des gewünschten Vorwärtsgangs in dem Getriebe (3).


     
    5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Schritt (e) gefolgt wird von den Schritten:

    (f) Überprüfen eines angeforderten Antriebsmoments,

    (g) Steuern des Drehmoments der elektrischen Maschine (9) in Richtung eines Niveaus, welches das angeforderte Antriebsmoment ergibt, und gleichzeitiges Steuern der Drehzahl des Verbrennungsmotors (2) in Richtung auf einen Wert, der den in dem Planetengetriebe enthaltenen Komponenten (10, 11, 12) dieselbe Drehgeschwindigkeit verleiht,

    (h) Transferieren der Arretiereinrichtung in die Arretierstellung, wenn die Komponenten (10, 11, 12) mit derselben Drehgeschwindigkeit rotieren.


     
    6. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es für ein Fahrzeug mit einem Antriebssystem ausgeführt wird, welches ein Untersetzungsgetriebe aufweist.
     
    7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es durchgeführt wird mit dem Rückwärtsgang in Kombination mit einem Schnellfahrgang.
     
    8. Computerprogramm mit Computerprogrammcode, um einen Computer dazu zu bringen, ein Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7 zu implementieren, wenn der Computerprogrammcode in dem Computer ausgeführt wird.
     
    9. Computerprogrammprodukt mit einem von einem Computer lesbaren Datenspeichermedium, wobei der Computerprogrammcode eines Computerprogramms nach Anspruch 8 auf dem Datenspeichermedium gespeichert ist.
     
    10. Elektronische Steuereinheit (40) mit einer Ausführungseinrichtung (41), einem mit der Ausführungseinrichtung verbundenen Speicher (42) und einem mit der Ausführungseinrichtung verbundenen Datenspeichermedium (44), wobei der Computerprogrammcode eines Computerprogramms nach Anspruch 8 auf dem Datenspeichermedium (44) gespeichert ist.
     
    11. Fahrzeug, das eine elektronische Steuereinheit nach Anspruch 10 aufweist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé de conduite d'un véhicule en relation avec le démarrage d'un moteur à combustion (2) dans un système de propulsion (1) du véhicule, le système de propulsion (1) comprenant un moteur à combustion (2) avec un arbre de sortie (2a), une machine électrique (9) comprenant un stator (9a) et un rotor (9b), une boîte de vitesses (3) avec un arbre d'entrée (3a), et un engrenage planétaire comprenant trois composants (10, 11, 12) sous la forme d'un engrenage solaire (10), d'une couronne dentée (11) et d'un porte-satellites (12), l'arbre de sortie (2a) du moteur à combustion étant connecté à l'engrenage solaire (10) de l'engrenage planétaire de sorte qu'une rotation du l'arbre de sortie (2a) du moteur à combustion résulte en une rotation dudit engrenage solaire (10), l'arbre d'entrée (3a) de la boîte de vitesses étant connecté au porte-satellites (12) de l'engrenage planétaire de sorte qu'une rotation du l'arbre d'entrée (3a) de la boîte de vitesses résulte en une rotation dudit porte-satellites (12) et le rotor (9b) de la machine électrique est connecté à la couronne dentée (11) de l'engrenage planétaire, de sorte qu'une rotation du rotor (9b) résulte en une rotation de ladite couronne dentée (11), le système de propulsion (1) comprenant en outre des moyens de verrouillage transférables entre une position de verrouillage dans laquelle deux desdits composants sont verrouillés de telle sorte que les trois composants (10, 11, 12) tournent comme une unité avec la même vitesse de rotation et une position de libération dans laquelle les composants (10, 11, 12) peuvent tourner avec des vitesses de rotation différentes, dans lequel le système de propulsion (1) comprend en outre un élément de frein (28) qui est transférable entre une position de freinage dans laquelle la rotation dudit engrenage solaire (10) de l'engrenage planétaire est freinée par l'élément de frein (28), et une position ouverte dans laquelle ledit engrenage solaire (10) de l'engrenage planétaire n'est pas affecté par l'élément de frein (28), caractérisé en ce que le procédé démarre lorsque le véhicule est entrainé vers l'avant par la machine électrique (9) en ayant une marche arrière engagée dans la boîte de vitesses (3) tandis que la machine électrique (9) entraîne ladite couronne dentée (11) de la roue planétaire pour tourner avec une vitesse de rotation négative (n3) avec les moyens de verrouillage en position de libération et avec l'élément de frein (28) dans la position de freinage, le procédé comprenant l'étape :

    (a) du transfert de l'élément de frein (28) en position ouverte, de sorte que l'arbre de sortie (2a) du moteur à combustion via ledit engrenage solaire (10) de l'engrenage planétaire est amené à tourner avec une vitesse de rotation positive (n1), dans laquelle le moteur à combustion (2) peut être démarré.


     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que l'étape

    (a) est précédée par l'étape :
    (a1) de la vérification que le couple actuel de la machine électrique (9) est suffisant pour donner, dans l'étape (a), un couple résultant sur l'arbre de sortie (2a) du moteur à combustion, lequel couple résultant est suffisant pour démarrer le moteur à combustion (2).


     
    3. Procédé selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que, dans le cas où la vérification dans l'étape (a1) montre que le couple actuel de la machine électrique est insuffisant, l'étape (a) est réalisée avec les roues motrices (5) du véhicule partiellement freinées et tout en contrôlant le couple de la machine électrique (9) vers une valeur qui donne un couple résultant suffisant agissant sur l'arbre de sortie (2a) du moteur à combustion pour démarrer le moteur de combustion (2).
     
    4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que l'étape (a) est suivie par les étapes :

    (b) du contrôle de la machine électrique (9) et/ ou du moteur à combustion (2) afin que l'état d'un couple zéro soit atteint dans la boîte de vitesses (3),

    (c) le désengagement de la marche arrière engagée dans la boîte de vitesses (3),

    (d) le contrôle de la machine électrique (9) et/ ou du moteur à combustion (2) afin que la vitesse de rotation (n3) de la couronne dentée (11) associé à la vitesse de rotation (n1) de l'arbre de sortie (2a) du moteur à combustion donne à l'arbre d'entrée (3a) de la boîte de vitesses une vitesse de rotation (n2) qui, pour la vitesse actuelle du véhicule, est synchronisée avec la vitesse de rotation de l'arbre pour une vitesse avant souhaitée dans la boîte de vitesses (3),

    (e) l'engagement de la vitesse avant souhaitée dans la boîte de vitesses (3).


     
    5. Procédé selon la revendication 4, caractérisé en ce que l'étape

    (e) est suivi par les étapes suivantes :

    (f) la vérification du couple d'entraînement demandé,

    (g) le contrôle du couple de la machine électrique (9) vers un niveau qui donne le couple d'entraînement demandé et le contrôle simultané de la vitesse de rotation du moteur à combustion (2) vers une valeur qui donne aux éléments (10, 11, 12), compris dans l'engrenage planétaire, la même vitesse de rotation,

    (h) le transfert des moyens de verrouillage à la position de verrouillage lorsque lesdits éléments (10, 11, 12) tournent à la même vitesse de rotation.


     
    6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce qu'il est réalisé pour un véhicule équipé d'un système de propulsion qui comprend une gamme de vitesses.
     
    7. Procédé selon la revendication 6, caractérisé en ce qu'il est réalisé avec ladite marche arrière en combinaison avec un rapport de vitesse élevé.
     
    8. Programme informatique comprenant un code de programme informatique pour amener un ordinateur à mettre en Ĺ“uvre un procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1-7, lorsque le code de programme informatique est exécuté sur l'ordinateur.
     
    9. Produit de programme informatique comprenant un support de stockage de données lisible par un ordinateur, dans lequel le code de programme informatique selon la revendication 8 est stocké sur le support de stockage de données.
     
    10. Unité de commande électronique (40) comprenant un moyen d'exécution (41), une mémoire (42) connectée au moyen d'exécution et un support de stockage de données (44), connecté au moyen d'exécution, le code de programme informatique d'un programme informatique selon la revendication 8 étant stocké sur ledit support de stockage de données (44).
     
    11. Véhicule comprenant une unité de commande électronique selon la revendication 10.
     




    Drawing












    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description