(19)
(11)EP 2 876 668 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION
published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43)Date of publication:
27.05.2015 Bulletin 2015/22

(21)Application number: 13819481.6

(22)Date of filing:  18.07.2013
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01L 21/208(2006.01)
H01L 31/04(2014.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2013/069527
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/014057 (23.01.2014 Gazette  2014/04)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME

(30)Priority: 20.07.2012 JP 2012161771
28.03.2013 JP 2013069880

(71)Applicants:
  • Asahi Kasei Kabushiki Kaisha
    Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101-8101 (JP)
  • Tohoku University
    Sendai-shi, Miyagi 980-8577 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • WATANABE Akira
    Sendai-shi Miyagi 980-8577 (JP)
  • YUMOTO Toru
    Tokyo 101-8101 (JP)

(74)Representative: O'Brien, Simon Warwick 
D Young & Co LLP 120 Holborn
London EC1N 2DY
London EC1N 2DY (GB)

  


(54)SEMICONDUCTOR FILM AND SEMICONDUCTOR ELEMENT


(57) The present invention relates to an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the application liquid comprising: an inorganic semiconductor particle; and a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more or a compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle; a method for producing a semiconductor film comprising a step of applying the application liquid; a semiconductor film and a semiconductor element comprising the semiconductor film; and a method for producing the semiconductor element.




Description

Technical Field



[0001] The present invention relates to an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, a semiconductor film and a method for producing the semiconductor film, and a semiconductor element and a method for producing the semiconductor element.

Background Art



[0002] Currently, development of a solar cell using a substrate comprising a resin, metal foil, or the like as a material has actively been made for the purpose of weight reduction, improving processability, and cost down. As a solar cell that has plasticity and is capable of enduring deformation to some extent, an amorphous silicon solar cell and a CIGS solar cell have become a mainstream of the present time. In addition, vacuum processes such as a plasma CVD method, a sputtering method, and a vapor deposition method have been used for production of solar cells.

[0003] Meanwhile, studies on non-vacuum processes have energetically been made. For example, a method for producing a polycrystalline silicon film using a silicon polymer is described in Patent Literature 1. Moreover, studies on a method for producing a CIGS solar cell by a printing method have also been made. In the method, a precursor of copper and indium is printed to form a thin film, and thereafter the solar cell is manufactured through a reduction step and further a selenization step.

Citation List


Patent Literature



[0004] 

Patent Literature 1: Japanese Patent No. 4016419

Patent Literature 2: Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 9-36399


Summary of Invention


Technical Problem



[0005] However, it is difficult to obtain a solar cell having a large area by the vacuum processes because the area is limited depending on vacuum apparatuses. Furthermore, utilization efficiency of materials in the vacuum processes is poor. Moreover, the power consumption of apparatuses used in the vacuum processes is large, therefore product costs tend to become high, and environmental load on the earth is large. Moreover, since a high temperature process is necessary, usable substrates are limited.

[0006] On the other hand, with respect to the method of Patent Literature 1, although a silicon film can be manufactured, it is not clear whether the film can be used as a solar cell or not, and the performance is unknown. Furthermore, the high temperature process is necessary in the course of manufacturing the silicon film from a silicon polymer. Accordingly, usable substrates are limited.

[0007] Moreover, with respect to the printing method, the reduction step and the selenization step are necessary, and therefore there exist the same problems as those of the vacuum processes in terms of costs and the environmental load. Furthermore, also in the printing method, the high temperature process is necessary in the selenization step, and therefore usable substrates are limited.

[0008] On the other hand, a solar cell in which a third layer comprising a material having a large band gap is provided between a p-type semiconductor layer and an n-type semiconductor layer is described in Patent Literature 2. Owing to the third layer, the amount of a saturated current during the time when the light does not enter is decreased and the conversion efficiency is improved. However, it is described in Patent Literature 2 that it is suitable that the thickness of the third layer is set to an extent so as not to exceed 20 nm in order for tunnel effect to occur and when the layer thickness exceeds 20 nm, electrons and holes generated by light absorption are inhibited from diffusing to the p-type layer and the n-type layer.

[0009] The present invention intends to provide an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film suitably for an application method, with which a semiconductor film having a large area can be manufactured by a low temperature process, and with which cost reduction can be achieved. The present invention also provides a semiconductor film and a method for producing the semiconductor film, each using the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film. The present invention further intends to provide a semiconductor element excellent in power generation efficiency by the layer comprising the above-mentioned film. The present invention further intends to provide a semiconductor element comprising a junction interface layer, the semiconductor element being excellent in power generation efficiency and being low-cost and to provide a method for producing the semiconductor element.

Solution to Problem



[0010] The present inventors have made diligent studies in order to solve the problems and, as a result, have completed the present invention.

[0011] The present invention provides an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the application liquid comprising: an inorganic semiconductor particle; and a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more. The present invention also provides an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the application liquid comprising: an inorganic semiconductor particle; and a compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle.

[0012] The present invention also provides a semiconductor film comprising: an inorganic semiconductor particle; and a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more. The present invention also provides a semiconductor film comprising: an inorganic semiconductor particle; and a compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle. Details of the semiconductor film will be described later.

[0013] It is preferable that the aforementioned compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more be at least one selected from the group consisting of glycerin, thioglycerol, cyano group-containing organic compounds, and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Moreover, it is preferable that the aforementioned compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle be at least one selected from the group consisting of glycerin and thioglycerol.

[0014] In addition, the cyano group-containing organic compound means a compound containing one or more cyano groups. Details of the cyano group-containing organic compound will be described later.

[0015] It is preferable in the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film of the present invention that the content of the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more or the compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle be 0.5 to 90% by mass. Moreover, it is preferable in the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film of the present invention that the content of the inorganic semiconductor particle be 0.5 to 70% by mass.

[0016] It is preferable in the semiconductor film of the present invention that the content of the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more or the compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle be 0.5 to 80 mass%. It is preferable in the semiconductor film of the present invention that the content of the inorganic semiconductor particle be 2.0 to 99.5% by mass.

[0017] It is preferable that the aforementioned inorganic semiconductor particle be a silicon particle, a compound semiconductor particle, or a titanium oxide particle. It is preferable that the average particle size of the aforementioned silicon particle be 0.1 to 400 µm. Moreover, it is preferable that the average particle size of the aforementioned compound semiconductor particle be 0.05 to 50 µm. Moreover, it is preferable that the average particle size of the aforementioned titanium oxide particle be 0.005 to 50 µm.

[0018] The present invention also provides a method for producing a semiconductor film, the method comprising a step of applying the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film to a substrate on which an electrode is formed. The present invention also provides a semiconductor element comprising: a layer comprising the semiconductor film.

[0019] The semiconductor element of the present invention is an element comprising: a semiconductor layer or a layer comprising a semiconductor film; or a semiconductor layer and a layer comprising a semiconductor film. Details of the semiconductor element will be described later.

[0020] The present invention further provides a semiconductor element comprising: the layer comprising a semiconductor film; and another semiconductor film having an opposite charge to a charge of the semiconductor film or another semiconductor layer having an opposite charge to the charge of the semiconductor film.

[0021] In addition, the "semiconductor layer" is different from the "semiconductor film (layer comprising the semiconductor film)" in the present embodiments. The semiconductor film is, as described above, a semiconductor film comprising: an inorganic semiconductor particle; and a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more. On the other hand, the semiconductor layer is formed from a semiconductor such as a silicon wafer, an inorganic semiconductor layer, or an organic semiconductor layer. Details concerning the semiconductor layer, and the "semiconductor film (layer comprising the semiconductor film)" will be described later.

[0022] The present invention further provides a semiconductor element comprising: the layer comprising a semiconductor film; a layer comprising another semiconductor film having an opposite charge to a charge of the semiconductor film; and a junction interface layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more between the layer comprising a semiconductor film and the layer comprising another semiconductor film.

[0023] In addition, the junction interface layer is a layer provided at a junction interface of the semiconductor layer, the layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more. Details thereof will be described later.

[0024] Examples of such a semiconductor element include a semiconductor element in which the layer comprising a semiconductor film is a layer comprising a p-type semiconductor film and the layer comprising another semiconductor film is a layer comprising an n-type semiconductor film.

[0025] The present invention further provides a semiconductor element comprising: the layer comprising a semiconductor film; a semiconductor layer; and a junction interface layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more between the aforementioned two layers.

[0026] Examples of such a semiconductor element include a semiconductor element in which the layer comprising a semiconductor film is a layer comprising a p-type semiconductor film and the semiconductor layer is an n-type semiconductor layer, or the layer comprising a semiconductor film is a layer comprising an n-type semiconductor film and the semiconductor layer is a p-type semiconductor layer.

[0027] In this case, it is preferable that the semiconductor layer is a titanium oxide layer, a silicon wafer, or a compound semiconductor layer.

[0028] The present invention further provides a semiconductor element comprising: a first semiconductor layer; a second semiconductor layer; and a junction interface layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more between the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer. Such a semiconductor element includes a semiconductor element in which the first semiconductor layer is a p-type semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer is an n-type semiconductor layer.

[0029] In this case, it is preferable that at least one of the semiconductor layers be a titanium oxide layer, a silicon wafer, or a compound semiconductor layer.

[0030] It is preferable in the semiconductor element that the compound contained in the junction interface layer, the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more be at least one selected from the group consisting of glycerin, thioglycerol, cyano group-containing organic compounds, and PVDF.

[0031] In addition, it is preferable that the thickness of the junction interface layer be 0.03 to 500 µm. Moreover, it is preferable that the transmittance of the junction interface layer be 35% or more.

[0032] The present invention further provides a method for producing a semiconductor element, the method comprising a step of obtaining a laminate having a layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more on a p-type semiconductor layer or an n-type semiconductor layer. In this case, the method for producing a semiconductor element may comprise: the above-described step; further, a step of obtaining another laminate having another p-type semiconductor layer or another n-type semiconductor layer on a transparent electrode; and a step of sticking the laminate and the other laminate with the layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more and the other p-type or n-type semiconductor layer facing each other.

[0033] The present invention further provides a method for producing a semiconductor element, the method comprising: a step of obtaining a laminate having a p-type or n-type semiconductor layer and a layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more in this order on a transparent electrode; and a step of sticking another p-type or n-type semiconductor layer to the layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more.

[0034] It is preferable in the production method that the layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more be a layer obtained by removing a volatile component from the application liquid comprising the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more.

[0035] It is preferable in the production method that the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more be at least one selected from the group consisting of glycerin, thioglycerol, cyano group-containing organic compounds, and PVDF.

[0036] In addition, it is preferable in the present invention that the semiconductor element be a solar cell.

[0037] The solar cell of the present invention is a cell comprising: a semiconductor layer, a layer comprising a semiconductor film or a semiconductor layer and a layer comprising a semiconductor film; an electrode; a substrate, in which power is generated by light. Details of the solar cell will be described later.

[0038] When the solar cell comprises the layer comprising a semiconductor film, it is preferable that the inorganic semiconductor particle contained in the semiconductor film make contact with the electrode.

Advantageous Effects of Invention



[0039] According to the present invention, an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film can be provided in which the application liquid is suitably used for an application method by which obtaining large-area semiconductor films becomes easy and the production of the large-area semiconductor films at low cost becomes possible; and with the application liquid, a semiconductor film can be made by a low temperature process. Moreover, according to the present invention, a semiconductor film that is suitably used for a semiconductor element (solar cell), and a method for producing the semiconductor film can be provided. Moreover, according to the present invention, a semiconductor element (solar cell) that is excellent in power generation efficiency can be provided by comprising the layer that comprises the semiconductor film. Furthermore, according to the present invention, a semiconductor element (solar cell) comprising a junction interface layer, the semiconductor element being excellent in power generation efficiency and being low-cost and a method for producing the semiconductor element can be provided.

Brief Description of Drawings



[0040] 

[Figure 1] Figure 1 is a sectional view illustrating an embodiment of a solar cell of the present invention.

[Figure 2] Figure 2 is a sectional view illustrating an embodiment of a solar cell of the present invention.

[Figure 3] Figure 3 is a sectional view illustrating an embodiment of a solar cell of the present invention.

[Figure 4] Figure 4 is a sectional view illustrating an embodiment of a solar cell of the present invention.

[Figure 5] Figure 5 is a sectional view illustrating an embodiment of a solar cell of the present invention.

[Figure 6] Figure 6 is a sectional view illustrating an embodiment of a solar cell of the present invention.

[Figure 7] Figure 7 is a sectional view illustrating an embodiment of a solar cell of the present invention.

[Figure 8] Figure 8 is a sectional view illustrating an embodiment of a solar cell of the present invention.

[Figure 9] Figure 9 is a sectional view illustrating a general embodiment of a solar cell.

[Figure 10] Figures 10(A) and 10(B) are graphs showing a property of solar cells comprising semiconductor films of Comparative Example 1 (A) and Example 1 (B), respectively.

[Figure 11] Figures 11(A), 11(B), and 11(C) are graphs showing a property of solar cells comprising semiconductor films of Comparative Example 2 (A), Example 2 (B), and Example 3 (C), respectively.

[Figure 12] Figure 12 is a graph showing a property of a solar cell comprising a semiconductor film of Example 12.

[Figure 13] Figure 13 is a diagram illustrating a specific preparation method of a sample for solar cell evaluation in Examples.


Description of Embodiments



[0041] Suitable embodiments of the present invention will be described below.

[0042] An application liquid for forming a semiconductor film of the present embodiments comprises an inorganic semiconductor particle and a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more, or inorganic semiconductor particle and a compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle.

(Inorganic Semiconductor Particle)



[0043] The inorganic semiconductor particle is a semiconductor particle made of an inorganic substance and in which a current flows in particular conditions. The inorganic semiconductor particles are roughly classified into p-type semiconductor particles and n-type semiconductor particles. The p-type here is a case where a carrier of charge transfer in the semiconductor is a hole. The n-type is a case where the carrier of the charge transfer in the semiconductor is a conduction electron. The hole and conduction electron are together referred to as a carrier. As an inorganic semiconductor particle, a silicon particle, compound semiconductor particles, metal oxide particles, and so on are preferable. The silicon particle is more preferable from the standpoint of carrier transfer and costs.

[0044] The silicon particles include a p-type, an n-type, and an i-type silicon particle.

[0045] Compounds to be used for the compound semiconductor particle include silicon germanium compounds, CIS-based compounds, CIGS-based compounds, CZTS-based compounds, CGS-based compounds, CdTe compounds, InP compounds, GaAs compounds, GaSb compounds, GaP compounds, InSb compounds, InAs compounds, ZnTe compounds, ZnSe compounds, FeS compounds, CuS compounds, tin sulfide, antimony sulfide, and so on. The CIS-based compound is a compound made of Cu, In, and S, or Cu, In, S, and Se, and an aspect in which both compounds are used together is included. The CIGS-based compound is a compound made of Cu, In, Ga, and S, or Cu, In, Ga, S, and Se, and an aspect in which both compounds are used together is included. The CZTS-based compound is a compound made of Cu, Zn, Sn, and S, or Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se, and an aspect in which both compounds are used together is included. The CGS-based compound is a compound made of Cu, Ga, and S, or Cu, Ga, S, and Se, and an aspect in which both compounds are used together is included. In addition, these compounds to be used for the compound semiconductor particle may be used in combination of two or more.

[0046] Oxides to be used for the metal oxide particle include metal oxides such as copper (I) oxide, copper (II) oxide, iron oxide, zinc oxide, silver oxide, copper oxide, titanium oxide (rutile, anatase), zinc oxide, and silver oxide. These oxides to be used for the metal oxide particle may be used in combination of two or more.

[0047] It is preferable that the inorganic semiconductor particle have a high crystallinity and be a high purity. The crystallinity of the particle can be assessed from full width at half maximum obtained by an X-ray analysis in the case of the compound semiconductor particle and the metal oxide particle and from the resistivity in the case of the silicon particle. It is preferable that the purity of the inorganic semiconductor particle be 99.99% by mass, and more preferably 99.999% by mass.

[0048] Description is made in detail on the silicon particle. The method for producing the silicon particle is not particularly limited, and the silicon particle can be produced by, for example, a method using a high crystallinity semiconductor micro particle production apparatus utilizing a pulse pressure addition orifice spraying method, a method of pulverizing a polycrystalline or monocrystalline silicon ingot or wafer, or the like. Moreover, chips during wafer production and so on can also be used as a silicon particle. As a p-type silicon particle, for example, a silicon particle obtained by doping boron, gallium, or the like as an additive is used. As an n-type silicon particle, a silicon particle obtained by doping phosphorus, nitrogen, arsenic, or the like as an additive is used. It is preferable that the concentration of these additives contained in the silicon particle be 1012 atom/cm3 or more, and more preferably 1013 atom/cm3 or more. Moreover, it is preferable that the concentration of these additives be 1021 atom/cm3 or less, and more preferably 1020 atom/cm3 or less. It is preferable from the standpoint of charge transfer in the semiconductor and spread of a depletion layer that the resistivity of the silicon particle be 0.0001 Ωcm or more, and more preferably 0.001 Ωcm. Moreover, it is preferable that the resistivity of the silicon particle be 1000 Ωcm or less, and more preferably 100 Ωcm or less.

[0049] As a method of pulverizing an ingot or wafer, either dry pulverization or wet pulverization may be used, and both methods may be used together. A hummer crusher or the like can be utilized for the dry pulverization. A ball mill, a planetary ball mill, a bead mill, a homogenizer, or the like can be utilized for the wet pulverization. Solvents for the wet pulverization include compounds having a relative permittivity of 2 or more, which will be described later, compounds having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle, and dispersants.

[0050] It is preferable from the standpoint of reducing contact resistance among particles that the average particle size of the silicon particle be 400 µm or less, more preferably 200 µm or less, further more preferably 100 µm or less, and extremely preferably 70 µm or less. Moreover, it is preferable from the standpoint of reducing contact resistance between a particle and an electrode and of diffusion length that the average particle size of the silicon particle be 0.1 µm or more, more preferably 1 µm or more, and further more preferably 10 µm or more.

[0051] In addition, the diameter (particle size) of the inorganic semiconductor particle such as the silicon particle, the compound semiconductor particle, the metal oxide particle, or the like is measured by the following methods.

[0052] With regard to the silicon particle, the particle size is measured by an image processing method using a microscope.

[0053] With regard to a particle other than the silicon particle, a solution in which the particle is dispersed is prepared, and the particle size is measured using a dynamic light scattering method.

[0054] Description is made in detail on the compound semiconductor particle. The method for producing the compound semiconductor particle is not particularly limited, and the compound semiconductor particle can be produced by, for example, a gas phase method, a liquid phase method, or the like. As a method of pulverizing the obtained particle, either dry pulverization or wet pulverization can be used, or both methods can be used together. A hummer crusher or the like can be utilized for the dry pulverization. A ball mill, a bead mill, a homogenizer, or the like can be utilized for the wet pulverization. Solvents for the wet pulverization include compounds having a relative permittivity of 2 or more, which will be described later, compounds having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle, dispersants, and so on can be used.

[0055] It is preferable from the standpoint of reducing contact resistance among particles that the average particle size of the compound semiconductor particle be 50 µm or less, more preferably 20 µm or less, and further more preferably 10 µm or less. Moreover, it is preferable from the standpoint of reducing contact resistance between a particle and an electrode and of diffusion length that the average particle size of the compound semiconductor particle be 0.05 µm or more, more preferably 0.1 µm or more, and further more preferably 0.2 µm or more.

[0056] It is preferable from the standpoint of allowing carrier transfer to become favorable that the full width at half maximum in the X-ray analysis of the compound semiconductor particle be 2 degrees or less, and more preferably 1 degree or less.

[0057] Description is made in detail on the metal oxide particle. The method for producing the metal oxide particle is not particularly limited, and the metal oxide particle can be produced by, for example, a sol-gel method or the like.

[0058] It is preferable from the standpoint of reducing contact resistance among particles and of diffusion length that the average particle size of the metal oxide particle be 0.001 µm or more, more preferably 0.005 µm or more, further more preferably 0.01 µm or more, and extremely preferably 0.05 µm or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the average particle size of the metal oxide particle be 50 µm or less, more preferably 30 µm or less, and further more preferably 20 µm or less.

[0059] It is preferable from the standpoint of allowing carrier transfer to become favorable that the full width at half maximum in the X-ray analysis of the metal oxide particle be 2 degrees or less, and more preferably 1 degree or less.

[0060] It is preferable that the content of the inorganic semiconductor particle contained in the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film be 0.5% by mass or more, more preferably 1% by mass or more, and further more preferably 1.5% by mass or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the standpoint of dispersibility of the inorganic semiconductor particle that the content of the inorganic semiconductor particle be 70% by mass or less, more preferably 50% by mass, and further more preferably 40% by mass.

(Compound Having Relative Permittivity of 2 or More)



[0061] The relative permittivity means a value measured by an impedance method setting a measurement frequency to 1 kHz and a measurement temperature to 23°C. A preferable range of the relative permittivity is 2 or more from the standpoint of photoelectric conversion efficiency, preferably 5 or more, and more preferably 10 or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the relative permittivity be 5000 or less, more preferably 1500 or less, and further more preferably 200 or less.

[0062] In addition, the photoelectric conversion efficiency η can be determined by the following formula.




(Imax is a current when the output of the solar cell becomes maximum, and Vmax is a voltage when the output of the solar cell becomes maximum.)

[0063] The compounds having a relative permittivity of 2 or more are roughly classified into organic compounds and inorganic compounds.

[0064] The organic compounds include, as general resins, polyvinylidene chloride, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acrylic resins, acetyl cellulose, aniline resins, ABS resins, ebonite, vinyl chloride resins, acrylonitrile resins, aniline formaldehyde resins, aminoalkyl resins, urethanes, AS resins, epoxy resins, vinyl butyral resins, 3-fluorinated ethylene resins, silicon resins, vinyl acetate resins, styrene butadiene rubber, silicon rubber, cellulose acetates, styrene resins, dextrin, nylon, soft vinyl butyral resins, fluororesins, furfural resins, polyamides, polyester resins, polycarbonate resins, phenol resins, furan resins, polyacetal resins, melamine resins, urea resins, polysulfide polymers, polyethylenes, and so on. The organic compounds also include acetone, methyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, aniline, methyl isobutyl ketone, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycols, polypropylene glycols, glycerin, cresol glycol, diallyl phthalate, dextrin, pyranol, phenol, bakelite varnish, formalin, thioglycerol, chloropyrene, succinic acid, succinonitrile, nitrocellulose, ethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, starch, hydroxypropyl starch, pullulan, glycidol pullulan, polyvinyl alcohol, sucrose, sorbitol, cyano group-containing organic compounds, and so on.

[0065] In addition, the cyano group-containing organic compound is a compound in which one or more cyano groups are contained. More preferably, the cyano group-containing organic compound is a cyanoethyl group-containing organic compound. Specific examples of the cyano group-containing organic compound include cyanoethyl pullulan, cyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohol, cyanoethyl saccharose (cyanoethyl sucrose), cyanoethyl cellulose, cyanoethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose, cyanoethyl starch, cyanoethyl hydroxypropyl starch, cyanoethyl glycidol pullulan, cyanoethyl sorbitol.

[0066] Particularly in the case of the organic compound, an organic compound containing an atom or functional group having a high polarity is preferable because the dielectric constant is large. The dipole moment that is an index of polarity can be estimated from the sum of the bond moment. As an organic compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more, a compound containing a substituent having a bond moment of 1.4 D (D = 3.33564 x 10-30 Cm) or more is preferable. As a substituent having a bond moment of 1.4 D or more, OH, CF, CCl, C=O, N=O, CN, and so on are present. The organic compounds containing these substituents and having a relative permittivity of 2 or more include polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), glycerin, thioglycerol, and cyano group-containing organic compounds, and so on.

[0067] The inorganic compounds include calcium silicate, glass, aluminum oxide, zinc oxide, titanium oxide, selenium, barium titanate, bismuth silicate, lead niobate, titanium dioxide, urea, bakelite, Pyrex (R), vaseline, mica, copper chloride, copper oxide, copper sulfate, iron oxide, potassium chlorate, potassium chloride, sodium chloride, silver chloride, potassium bromide, lithium fluoride, silicon oxide, magnesium oxide, calcium fluoride, zinc sulfide, NaI, NaF, NaClO3, NaSO4, and so on.

[0068] As an inorganic compound, in addition to the above-described compounds, complex oxides such as lead zirconate titanate, barium titanate, strontium titanate, calcium titanate, and barium strontium titanate, or perovskite-type complex oxides or the like in which these complex oxides are used as a main component and, further, a Ba site is replaced with magnesium, a Ti site is replaced with tin and/or zirconium can also be used. Furthermore, compounds obtained by adding one or two or more trace amount of additives to the perovskite-type complex oxides can also be used.

[0069] Trace amount of additives include tungsten, tantalum, niobium, iron, copper, magnesium, bismuth, yttrium, molybdenum, vanadium, sodium, potassium, aluminum, manganese, nickel, zinc, calcium, strontium, silicon, tin, selenium, neodymium, erbium, thulium, hafnium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, lithium, scandium, barium, lanthanum, actinium, cerium, ruthenium, osmium, cobalt, palladium, silver, cadmium, boron, gallium, germanium, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, fluorine, tellurium, lutetium, ytterbium, and so on.

[0070] As trace amount of additives, in addition to the above-described substances, there are ionic liquids or the like in which imidazolium, pyridium, pyrrolidinium, phosphonium, ammonium, sulfonium, or the like is a cation.

[0071] It is preferable from the standpoint of the stability of application liquid and the photoelectric conversion property that the content of the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more in the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film be 0.5% by mass or more, and more preferably 2% by mass or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the content be 90% by mass or less, and more preferably 50% by mass or less.

(Compound Having Reducing power against Inorganic Semiconductor Particle)



[0072] The compound having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle is a compound that, when mixed with the inorganic semiconductor particle, reduces the surface of the particle.

[0073] The compounds having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle include 3-allyloxy-1,2-propanediol, 1,3-bis(allyloxy)-2-propanol, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, catechol, dipentaerythritol, allitol, talitol, iditol, glycerolethoxylate, 1,4-dithioerythritol, 1,4-disulfanyl-2,3-butanediol, maltotriose, glycolic acid, lactic acid, polycarbonate diols, polyester polyols, glyceraldehyde, glycolaldehyde, invertose, m-erythritol, alkylene glycols, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycols, propylene glycol, polypropylene glycols, butanediol, pentanediol, hexanediol, polyalkylene glycols, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, propylene glycol, ethoxyethanol, butanediol, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, diethylene glycol diethyl ether, octanediol, dodecanediol, glycerin, glyceraldehyde, 3-allyloxy-1,2-propandediol, thioglycerol, 1,5-pentanediol, 1,12-dodecanedioic acid, pyrocatechol, 3-methoxycatechol, 1,2,3-butanethiol, and so on; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, and 2-ethylhexyl alcohol; and amine-based materials such as hexylamine, heptylamine, octylamine, undecylamine, tridecylamine, tetradecylamine, pentadecylamine, cetylamine, dibutylamine, diamylamine, cyclohexylamine, aniline, naphtylamine, and toluidine. Among the above-described compounds, glycerin and thioglycerol are particularly preferable.

[0074] It is preferable from the standpoint of the stability of application liquid and the photoelectric conversion property that the content of the compound having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle in the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film be 0.5% by mass or more, and more preferably 2% by mass or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the content be 90% by mass or less, and more preferably 50% by mass or less.

[0075] When the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film comprises both of the compound having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle and the aforementioned compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more, it is preferable from the standpoint of the stability of application liquid and the photoelectric conversion property that the total content of both compounds be 0.5% by mass or more, and more preferably 2% by mass or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the total content of both compounds be 90% by mass or less, and more preferably 50% by mass or less. In addition, in the present embodiments, a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more and having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle is a particularly preferable compound. Such compounds include glycerin and thioglycerol.

(Dispersant)



[0076] The application liquid for forming a semiconductor film may comprise a dispersant from the standpoint of adjusting the viscosity of application liquid for forming a semiconductor film.

[0077] Examples of the dispersant include alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and hexanol; glycols such as ethylene glycol and propylene glycol; cellosolves such as cellosolve, ethylcellosolve, and butylcellosolve; ketones such as acetone and methyl ethyl ketone; esters such as ethyl acetate, and butyl acetate; ethers such as dioxane and tetrahydrofuran; amides such as N,N-dimethyl formamide; hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, xylene, trimethylbenzene, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane, cyclohexane, decahydronaphthalene (decalin), and tetralin; and water.

[0078] It is preferable from the standpoint of adjusting the viscosity to make the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film easy to handle that the content of the dispersant contained in the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film be 1% by mass or more and 98.5% by mass or less.

[0079] When the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more or the compound having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle is liquid, the compound itself also functions as a dispersant. In this case, the viscosity can be adjusted without further adding a dispersant.

(Surfactant)



[0080] A surfactant may be added to the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film for the purpose of improving dispersion stability. It is preferable from the standpoint of dispersion stability that the addition amount of the surfactant be 0.0001% by mass or more and 10% by mass or less.

[0081] The surfactant is not particularly limited, and, for example, an anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, cationic surfactants, amphoteric surfactants, and polymer surfactants can be used.

[0082] Examples of the above-described surfactants include:

anionic surfactants such as fatty acid salts including sodium lauryl sulfate, sulfuric acid ester salts of higher alcohols, alkyl benzene sulfonate including sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, polyoxyethylene alkyl ether sulfonates, polyoxyethylene polycyclic phenyl ether sulfates, polyoxynonylphenyl ether sulfonates, polyoxyethylene-polyooxypropylene glycol ether sulfonates, so-called reactive surfactants each having a sulfonic or sulfate group and a polymerizable unsaturated double bond in the molecule;

nonionic surfactants such as polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, polyoxyethylene alkylphenyl ethers, sorbitan fatty acid esters, polyoxyethylene fatty acid esters, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymers, reactive nonionic surfactants having a polymerizable unsaturated double bond in the molecule of these "polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, polyoxyethylene alkylphenyl ethers, sorbitan fatty acid esters, or polyoxyethylene fatty acid esters";

cationic surfactants such as alkyl amine salts, quaternary ammonium salts;

(modified) polyvinyl alcohols; and

straight chain alkyl thiols.


(Semiconductor film)



[0083] The semiconductor film of the present embodiments is a semiconductor film comprising an inorganic semiconductor particle and a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more or a compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle. Semiconductor films of the present embodiments include a p-type semiconductor film, an n-type semiconductor film, and a semiconductor film having both properties of a p-type property and an n-type property in one film.

[0084] It is preferable that the semiconductor film be formed from the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film.

[0085] It is preferable from the standpoint of the photoelectric conversion property when the semiconductor film is used for making a solar cell that the content of the inorganic semiconductor particle in the semiconductor film be 20% by mass or more, and more preferably 50% by mass or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the content be 99.5% by mass or less, and more preferably 99% by mass or less.

[0086] It is preferable from the standpoint of the photoelectric conversion property that the content of the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more or the compound having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle be 0.5% by mass or more, and more preferably 1% by mass or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the content be 80% by mass or less, and more preferably 50% by mass or less. Moreover, when the semiconductor film comprises both of the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more and the compound having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle, it is preferable that the total content of both compounds in the semiconductor film be 0.5% by mass or more, and more preferably 1% by mass or more. Moreover, the total content of both compounds be 80% by mass or less, and more preferably 50% by mass or less. Moreover, it is preferable from the standpoint of the photoelectric conversion property that the film thickness of the semiconductor film be 0.1 µm or more, and more preferably 0.5 µm or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the film thickness be 1000 µm or less, and more preferably 500 µm or less. The film thickness of the semiconductor film is measured by a cross section SEM or a cross section TEM observation.

[0087] It is considered that the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more or the compound having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle in the semiconductor film functions as a binder for the inorganic semiconductor particle. It is preferable that such a compound be a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more and having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle.

[0088] With respect to the inorganic semiconductor particle contained in the semiconductor film, two or more of the p-type semiconductor particles listed above may be used together, two or more of the n-type semiconductor particles listed above may be used together, or both of the p-type semiconductor particle and the n-type semiconductor particle may be used together.

[0089] The content of the compound having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle in the semiconductor film here includes the content of a compound in a state where the compound having reducing power is oxidized as a result of reduction of the inorganic semiconductor particle by the compound having reducing power.

[0090] Specifically, description is made taking glycerin as an example of the compounds having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle. When glycerin shown in the following chemical formula (1) and a silicon particle are mixed and a thin film is manufactured, the surface of the silicon particle is reduced to partially form Si-H bonds. On the other hand, it is estimated that glycerin is oxidized to generate compounds described in the following chemical formulas (2) to (13).









[0091] This can be confirmed from an IR spectrum of the semiconductor film. A peak attributable to stretching vibration of a C=O bond cannot be observed; however, when a semiconductor film is formed through a heating process, the peak attributable to the C=O stretching vibration can be observed for the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, but the whole glycerin is not oxidized and some glycerin is left unoxidized.

[0092] An oxidation rate of glycerin can be determined from the following formula (I).



[0093] In the formula (I), αOH denotes peak strength derived from an OH bond in glycerin around 3350 cm-1, and αCO denotes peak strength derived from a CO bond in a compound produced by oxidation of glycerin around 2350 cm-1.

[0094] It is preferable from the standpoint of removing an oxidized layer on the surface of the inorganic semiconductor particle that the oxidation rate of glycerin be 0.09 or more and less than 1. The range is also the same when the silicon particle is replaced with a compound semiconductor particle. Moreover, the range is also the same when the silicon particle is replaced with a metal oxide.

[0095] It can also be confirmed from the IR spectrum of the semiconductor film that the surface of the silicon particle is reduced to partially form Si-H bonds. A reduction rate of the silicon particle can be determined from the following formula (II).



[0096] In the formula (II), βSiH denotes peak strength derived from an SiH bond around 2100 cm-1, and βSiOSi denotes peak strength derived from an SiOSi bond around 1100 cm-1.

[0097] It is preferable from the standpoint of removing an oxidized layer on the surface of the silicon particle that the reduction rate of the silicon particle be 0.01 or more and 0.5 or less.

[0098] Accordingly, in one embodiment, glycerin and oxides of glycerin are present in a semiconductor film produced using glycerin as a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more or a compound having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle. In this case, the content of glycerin in the semiconductor film is defined as the total content of glycerin and compounds produced by oxidation of glycerin.

[0099] In addition, the oxidation rate of the compound having reducing power against an inorganic semiconductor particle can generally be determined by the following formula (III).



[0100] In the formula (III), α'X denotes peak strength derived from a functional group which reacts in oxidation reaction of the compound, and α'Y denotes peak strength derived from a functional group produced by oxidation of the compound.

(Method for Producing Semiconductor Film)



[0101] The present embodiment provides a method for producing a semiconductor film, the method comprising a step of obtaining an applied film by applying the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film to a substrate on which an electrode is formed. In addition, when the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film comprises a dispersant, it is preferable that the method for producing a semiconductor film of the present embodiment comprise a step of obtaining an applied film by applying the application liquid to a substrate on which an electrode is formed and a step of heating the applied film at 20 to 500°C. Namely, with respect to the semiconductor film of the present embodiments, it is preferable to remove the dispersant added for the purpose of adjusting viscosity from the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film. The dispersant here is, as described previously, different from the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more.

[0102] Substrates to which the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film is to be applied in order to manufacture the semiconductor film include every kind of substrates such as: a glass substrate; a substrate of plastics such as PET (polyethylene terephthalate), PC (polycarbonate), PEN (polyethylene naphthalate), PES (polyether sulfone), PI (polyimide), PP (polypropylene), and acrylic resins; a metal substrate such as an aluminum substrate and a stainless steel (SUS) substrate; and a paper substrate.

[0103] As a method for applying the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, methods such as a casting method, a spin coating method, an inkjet method, an dipping method, and a spraying method; and printing methods such as a flexographic printing, a gravure printing, and a screen printing methods can be used.

[0104] When the application liquid comprises a dispersant in the method for producing a semiconductor film using the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, removal of the dispersant and fusion among inorganic semiconductor particles can be promoted by the step of heating the application liquid at 20 to 500°C. It is preferable from the standpoint of removal of the dispersant and operating efficiency that the heating temperature be 40°C or more, and more preferably 60°C or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the heating temperature be 400°C or less, and more preferably 250°C or less. With respect to the heating step, when the boiling point of the dispersant is low, the heating temperature can be set to be low because the dispersant can only be removed in the heating step. In this case, the substrate is not required to have heat resistance, and therefore it becomes possible to select a material for the substrate from a wide range of resin materials. Since general purpose resins such as acrylic resins, PP, PET, and PC can be used as a resin material, a solar cell can be produced at low cost. In addition, when the dispersant is not used, the heating step does not have to be included.

(Semiconductor Element)



[0105] The semiconductor element of the present embodiments is an element comprising: a semiconductor layer, a layer comprising a semiconductor film or a semiconductor layer and a layer comprising a semiconductor film. The specific examples thereof are shown by a light-emitting diode, a semiconductor laser, a photodiode, and a solar cell. The semiconductor element of the present embodiments comprises a junction interface layer or the like as will be described later. It is preferable that the semiconductor element be a solar cell. The present embodiments will be described below taking a solar cell as an example.

(Solar Cell)



[0106] The solar cell of the present invention is a cell comprising: a semiconductor layer or a layer comprising a semiconductor film; or a semiconductor layer and a layer comprising a semiconductor film; an electrode; and a substrate, in which power is generated by light. A semiconductor that constitutes the solar cell may be a p-p junction type or an n-n junction type; however, a p-n junction type is preferable.

[0107] The constitution of the solar cell of the present embodiments is described. With respect to the solar cell, a solar cell having a pn junction-type semiconductor layer, the solar cell comprising: a p-type semiconductor layer or a layer comprising a p-type semiconductor film of the present embodiments; and an n-type semiconductor layer or a layer comprising an n-type semiconductor film of the present embodiments as constituent elements, is general.

[0108] The layer comprising a p-type semiconductor film is a layer formed from the aforementioned application liquid for forming a semiconductor film and is preferable to comprise at least one of the silicon particle and the compound semiconductor particle, and more preferably the silicon particle. The layer comprising an n-type semiconductor film is a layer formed from the aforementioned application liquid for forming a semiconductor film and is preferable to comprise at least one of the silicon particle and the metal oxide particle. The p type in the case where the carrier of charge transfer in the semiconductor is a hole. The n type is the case where the carrier of charge transfer in the semiconductor is a conduction electron. The semiconductor layer apparently has a positive or negative charge by the carrier of charge transfer being the hole or the conductive electron, respectively.

[0109] It is preferable that the inorganic semiconductor particle make contact with an electrode in efficiently taking electrons and holes out to the electrode. Namely, it is preferable that the inorganic semiconductor particle contained in the layer comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments making contact with the electrode make contact with the electrode and thereby the electrode be covered with the inorganic semiconductor particle. However, the whole surface of the electrode does not have to be covered with the inorganic semiconductor particle. In addition, it is preferable from the standpoint of power generation efficiency that the inorganic semiconductor particle cover 30% or more of the electrode, and more preferably 50% or more. The extent of contact, namely, the extent of covering, can be observed and evaluated by, for example, an optical microscope or an electron microscope.

[0110] The thickness between electrodes of the solar cell of the present embodiments is determined depending on semiconductors to be used. A solar cell that has plasticity and is capable of enduring deformation to some extent is obtained by making the thickness between electrodes as thin as 1000 µm or less.

[0111] Particularly when the inorganic semiconductor particle is used, stress generated when the solar cell is bent can be mitigated among particles. Accordingly, it is preferable to use the inorganic semiconductor particle when the solar cell having plasticity is manufactured.

[0112] It is preferable that the solar cell of the present embodiments have plasticity and be a flexible solar cell. The flexible solar cell means a solar cell that is capable of generating power even after the following steps (a) to (d).
  1. (a) Place a solar cell on a horizontal stand.
  2. (b) Hold a half of an area of the solar cell, and bend the solar cell until an angle between the stand and the solar cell becomes 45 degrees. Thereafter, return the solar cell to its original state.
  3. (c) Repeat the step (b) 5 times.
  4. (d) Confirm whether the solar cell can generate power or not.


[0113] Since the flexible solar cell of the present invention can be wound up during production, it becomes possible to improve production speed and achieve cost reduction.

[0114] Moreover, it is preferable that an electrode substrate of the present embodiments have plasticity and is a flexible electrode substrate. The electrode substrate denotes a substrate comprising: an electrode; a semiconductor layer; and a junction interface layer, or a substrate comprising: an electrode; and a layer comprising a semiconductor film. In addition, details of the junction interface layer will be described later.

[0115] The flexible electrode substrate means an electrode substrate that is capable of generating power even after the following steps (a) to (e).
  1. (a) Place an electrode substrate on a horizontal stand.
  2. (b) Hold a half of an area of the electrode substrate, and bend the electrode substrate until an angle between the stand and the electrode substrate becomes 45 degrees. Thereafter, return the electrode substrate to its original state.
  3. (c) Repeat the step (b) 5 times.
  4. (d) Manufacture a solar cell by sticking a semiconductor layer or film to the electrode substrate.
  5. (e) Confirm whether the solar cell can generate power or not.


[0116] Particularly when the junction interface layer is made of an organic compound, occurrence of peeling or cracks of the inorganic semiconductor particles is suppressed because the semiconductor layer is covered with the junction interface layer. Moreover, the layer comprising a semiconductor film is contained in the electrode substrate to thereby suppress the occurrence of peeling or cracks of the inorganic semiconductor particle, which is preferable.

[0117] As specific examples of the solar cell, examples of the solar cell of the present embodiments are shown in Figures 1 to 8 and an example of a solar cell having a general pn junction is shown in Figure 9.

[0118] As example 1, a solar cell 100 illustrated in Figure 1 comprises: a positive electrode layer 120; a layer 130 comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments; an n-type semiconductor layer 140; and a negative electrode layer 150 on a substrate 110. It is also possible to further subdivide the respective layers to provide a plurality of layers. For example, an electron extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 140 and the layer 150. Moreover, a hole extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 130 and the layer 120. Moreover, a light-absorbing layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 130 and the layer 140 separately from the layer comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments. Moreover, the layer 130 and the layer 140 may become a bulk hetero structure in which both layers are mixed with each other. It is preferable that either the layer 120 or the layer 150 be transparent. Moreover, the substrate 110 may be present on the side of the layer 150 or on both sides of the layer 120 and the layer 150. An aspect of example 1 is, namely, a solar cell comprising: a layer comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments; and another semiconductor layer having an opposite charge to the semiconductor film.

[0119] In addition, the "semiconductor layer" is different from the "semiconductor film (layer comprising the semiconductor film)" in the present embodiments. The semiconductor film is, as described above, a semiconductor film comprising: an inorganic semiconductor particle; and a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more or a compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle. On the other hand, the semiconductor layer is formed from a semiconductor such as a silicon wafer, an inorganic semiconductor layer, or an organic semiconductor layer. Namely, the semiconductor layer means: a silicon wafer obtained by slice-cutting a silicon ingot; a silicon wafer obtained by polishing the above-described silicon wafer; an inorganic semiconductor layer formed, on a substrate, from an inorganic semiconductor material using a vacuum apparatus with a vapor deposition method, a CVD method, a sputtering method, or the like; an organic semiconductor layer formed from an organic semiconductor material using an application method or a vapor deposition method; or the like.

[0120] Specifically, examples of the p-type semiconductor layers include a monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon wafer; an amorphous silicon film; a compound semiconductor layer such as CIGS-based or CZTS-based compound semiconductor layer; a layer comprising a metal oxide particle such as copper (I) oxide or a silicon particle; a layer comprising a compound semiconductor particle such as CIGS-based or CZTS-based compound semiconductor particle; and a layer comprising a p-type organic semiconductor. The p-type organic semiconductors include: pentacene, pentacene derivatives such as 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene, tetracene, tetracene derivatives such as 2-hexyl tetracene, and aromatic amine-based materials such as N,N-diphenyl-N,N-bis(1-naphtyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPD), N,N-diphenyl-N,Ni-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD), and 1,3,5-tris(3-methyldiphenylamino)benzene (m-MTDATA). Moreover, the p-type organic semiconductors include, in addition to the above-described p-type organic semiconductors, phthalocyanine-based complexes such as copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), porphyrin-based compounds, perylene-based derivatives, imidazole derivatives, triazole derivatives, pyrazoline derivatives, oxazole derivatives, oxadiazole derivatives, stilbene derivatives, polyaryl alkane derivatives, and so on. The p-type organic semiconductors further include derivatives of thiophene and derivatives of polyphenyl vinylene (PPV), and so on. Derivatives of thiophene specifically include P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)), P3OT (Poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl)), P3DDT (Poly(3-dodecylthiophene-2,5-diyl)), and so on. A monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon wafer is preferable as a p-type semiconductor layer from the standpoint of carrier transfer and costs.

[0121] Examples of the n-type semiconductor layer include: a monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon wafer; an amorphous silicon film; a layer comprising a metal oxide such as titanium oxide and zinc oxide; a layer comprising a metal oxide particle such as a silicon particle, a titanium oxide particle and a zinc oxide particle; and a layer comprising an n-type organic semiconductor. The n-type organic semiconductors include fluorinated acene-based compounds, fullerene-based compounds such as fullerene, 60PCBM ([6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) and 70PCBM ([6,6]-Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester), naphthalene derivatives, anthracene derivatives, phenanthrene derivatives, pyrene derivatives, perylene derivatives, perylene tetracarboxylic acid diimide derivatives, oxadiazole derivatives, triazole derivatives, triazine derivatives, quinoline derivatives. A monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon wafer and a layer comprising a metal oxide or metal oxide particle are preferable as an n-type semiconductor layer from the standpoint of carrier transfer and costs.

[0122] When the p-type semiconductor layer or the n-type semiconductor layer is a silicon wafer, it is preferable the thickness of the silicon wafer be 50 µm or more. Moreover, the thickness of the silicon wafer is preferably 1000 µm or less, more preferably 700 µm or less, and further more preferably 300 µm or less. In the case of the amorphous silicon film, it is preferable that the thickness be 0.1 µm or more and 100 µm or less. In the case of the compound semiconductor layer, it is preferable that the thickness be 0.5 µm or more and 10 µm or less. In the case of a film obtained by solidifying the silicon particle, it is preferable that the thickness be 0.5 µm or more. Moreover, it is preferable that the thickness be 500 µm or less, and more preferably 300 µm or less. In the case of a film obtained by solidifying the compound semiconductor particle, it is preferable that the thickness be 0.5 µm or more and 10 µm or less. In the case of a film comprising the organic semiconductor, it is preferable that the thickness be 10 nm or more and 10 µm or less. Moreover, in the case of adopting a semiconductor layer formed from a plurality of inorganic semiconductor particles, namely, in the case of forming a semiconductor layer in a film state from a plurality of inorganic semiconductor particles, it is preferable from the relationship between light-absorbing capability and carrier transport that the thickness be 0.01 µm or more and 300 µm or less.

[0123] The film thickness of the semiconductor layer is measured by vertscan 2.0 (manufactured by Ryoka Systems Inc.) or cross section TEM observation.

[0124] In addition, when the n-type semiconductor layer is a layer comprising a metal oxide such as titanium oxide or zinc oxide or a metal oxide particle, it is preferable from the relationship between leak prevention and carrier transport that the thickness of the layer be 0.1 µm or more, and more preferably 0.2 µm or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the thickness be 10 µm or less, and more preferably 5 µm or less.

[0125] In addition, examples of the method for forming a semiconductor layer in a film state from a plurality of inorganic semiconductor particles include: a method in which a plurality of materials are subjected to co-vapor deposition and are deposited on a substrate with an electrode; and a method in which a coating liquid comprising a plurality of materials are prepared and then a semiconductor layer is manufactured by various kinds of printing methods using the coating liquid.

[0126] As example 2, a solar cell 200 illustrated in Figure 2 comprises: a positive electrode layer 220; a p-type semiconductor layer 230; a layer 240 comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments; and a negative electrode layer 250 on a substrate 210. It is also possible to further subdivide the respective layers to provide a plurality of layers. For example, a hole extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 230 and the layer 220. Moreover, an electron extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 240 and the layer 250. Moreover, a light-absorbing layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 230 and the layer 240 separately from the layer comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments. Moreover, the layer 230 and the layer 240 may become a bulk hetero structure in which both layers are mixed with each other. It is preferable that either the layer 220 or the layer 250 be transparent. Moreover, the substrate 210 may be present on the side of the layer 250 or on both sides of the layer 220 and the layer 250.

[0127] As example 3, a solar cell 300 illustrated in Figure 3 comprises: a positive electrode layer 320; a layer 330 comprising the p-type semiconductor film of the present embodiments; a layer 340 comprising the n-type semiconductor film of the present embodiments; and a negative electrode layer 350 on a substrate 310. It is also possible to further subdivide the respective layers to provide a plurality of layers. For example, a hole extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 330 and the layer 320. Moreover, an electron extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 340 and the layer 350. Moreover, a light-absorbing layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 330 and the layer 340 separately from the layer comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments. Moreover, the layer 330 and the layer 340 may become a bulk hetero structure in which both layers are mixed with each other. It is preferable that either the layer 320 or the layer 350 be transparent. Moreover, the substrate 310 may be present on the side of the layer 350 or on both sides of the layer 320 and the layer 350. An aspect of example 3 is, namely, a solar cell comprising: a layer comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments; and another semiconductor film having an opposite charge to a charge of the semiconductor film.

[0128] As example 4, a solar cell 400 illustrated in Figure 4 comprises: a positive electrode layer 420; a layer 430 comprising the p-type semiconductor film of the present embodiments; a junction interface layer 440 comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more; a layer 450 comprising the n-type semiconductor film of the present embodiments; and a negative electrode layer 460 on a substrate 410. It is also possible to further subdivide the respective layers to provide a plurality of layers. For example, a hole extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 430 and the layer 420. Moreover, an electron extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 450 and the layer 460. It is preferable that either the layer 420 or the layer 460 be transparent. Moreover, the substrate 410 may be present on the side of the layer 460 or on both sides of the layer 420 and the layer 460. An aspect of example 4 is, namely, a solar cell comprising: a layer comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments; a layer comprising another semiconductor film having an opposite charge to a charge of the semiconductor film; and a junction interface layer comprising a compound having a relative Permittivity of 2 or more between the layer comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments and the layer comprising the another semiconductor film.

[0129] As example 5, a solar cell 500 illustrated in Figure 5 comprises: a positive electrode layer 520; a layer 530 comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments, the layer comprising a p-type semiconductor particle 531, an n-type semiconductor particle 532, and a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more; and a negative electrode layer 540 on a substrate 510. In addition, the substrate 510 may be present on the side of the layer 540 or on both sides of the layer 520 and the layer 540. It is preferable that either the layer 520 or the layer 540 be transparent. Moreover, an electron extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 530 and the layer 540. A hole extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 530 and the layer 520. It is preferable from the standpoint of light absorbing capability and carrier transport that the average particle size of the p-type semiconductor particles and the n-type semiconductor particles be 5 nm or more, and more preferably 10 nm or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the average particle size be 200 µm or less, and more preferably 100 µm or less. Moreover, it is preferable for the purpose of exhibiting a high photoelectric conversion efficiency that the thickness of the layer 530 be 100 nm or more, and more preferably 500 nm or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the thickness be 1000 µm or less, and more preferably 500 µm or less. The layer 530 is an example in which the p-type semiconductor particle and the n-type semiconductor particle are contained in the same layer and make contact with each other to thereby realize P/N junction in one layer.

[0130] As example 6, a solar cell 600 illustrated in Figure 6 comprises: a positive electrode layer 620; a p-type semiconductor layer 630; a junction interface layer 640 comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more; an n-type semiconductor layer 650; and a negative electrode layer 660 on a substrate 610. In addition, the substrate 610 may be present on the side of the layer 660 or on both sides of the layer 620 and the layer 660. It is preferable that either the layer 620 or the layer 660 be transparent. Moreover, an electron extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 650 and the layer 660. A hole extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 630 and the layer 620.

[0131] In addition, an aspect of example 6 is a solar cell comprising: a first semiconductor layer; a second semiconductor layer; and a junction interface layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more between the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer. As described above, a solar cell in which the first semiconductor layer is a p-type semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer is an n-type semiconductor layer is made possible. In addition, it is preferable that at least one of the semiconductor layers be a titanium oxide layer, a silicon wafer, or a compound semiconductor layer.

[0132] As example 7, a solar cell 700 illustrated in Figure 7 comprises: a positive electrode layer 720; a layer 730 comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments; a junction interface layer 740 comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more; an n-type semiconductor layer 750; and a negative electrode layer 760 on a substrate 710. In addition, the substrate 710 may be present on the side of the layer 760 or on both sides of the layer 720 and the layer 760. It is preferable that either the layer 720 or the layer 760 be transparent. Moreover, an electron extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 750 and the layer 760. A hole extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 730 and the layer 720. It is preferable that the layer 703 be a layer comprising a p-type semiconductor film.

[0133] As example 8, a solar cell 800 illustrated in Figure 8 comprises: a positive electrode layer 820; a p-type semiconductor layer 830; a junction interface layer 840 comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more; a layer 850 comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments; and a negative electrode layer 860 on a substrate 810. In addition, the substrate 810 may be present on the side of the layer 860 or on both sides of the layer 820 and the layer 860. It is preferable that either the layer 820 or the layer 860 be transparent. Moreover, an electron extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 850 and the layer 860. A hole extraction layer (not illustrated in the figure) can also be provided between the layer 830 and the layer 820. It is preferable that the layer 850 be a layer comprising an n-type semiconductor film.

[0134] In addition, the aspects of examples 7 and 8 are a solar cell comprising: a layer comprising the semiconductor film of the present embodiments; a semiconductor layer; and a junction interface layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more between the layer comprising a semiconductor film and the semiconductor layer. As described above, a solar cell in which the layer comprising a semiconductor film is a layer comprising a p-type semiconductor film and the semiconductor layer is an n-type semiconductor layer, or the layer comprising a semiconductor film is a layer comprising an n-type semiconductor film and the semiconductor layer is a p-type semiconductor layer is made possible.

[0135] As example 9, a solar cell 900 illustrated in Figure 9 is an example of a general pn junction solar cell. The solar cell comprises: a positive electrode layer 920; a p-type semiconductor layer 930; an n-type semiconductor layer 940; and a negative electrode layer 950 on a substrate 910. In addition, the substrate 910 may be present on the side of the layer 950 or on both sides of the layer 920 and the layer 950. It is preferable that either the layer 920 or the layer 950 be transparent.

[0136] The constitution of the solar cell of the present embodiments may have a tandem structure in which two or more of the structures illustrated in the above-described Figures 1 to 8 and Figure 9 are stacked in series.

[0137] As the above-described substrate, every kind of substrates that are usually used, such as: a glass substrate; a substrate of plastics such as PET (polyethylene terephthalate), PC (polycarbonate), and PP (polypropylene); an aluminum substrate; a stainless steel (SUS) substrate; and a paper substrate can be used.

[0138] As a negative electrode (or, negative electrode layer), metals or metal oxides that are usually used, such as aluminum, SUS, gold, silver, ITO (indium tin oxide), FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide), IZO (indium zinc oxide), zinc oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide can be used. Moreover, conductive polymers, graphenes, and so on can also be used.

[0139] As a positive electrode (or, positive electrode layer), metals or metal oxides that are usually used, such as aluminum, SUS, gold, silver, ITO (indium tin oxide), FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide), IZO (indium zinc oxide), zinc oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide can be used. Moreover, conductive polymers, graphenes, and so on can also be used.

[0140] In addition, the thicknesses of the substrate, the negative electrode, and the positive electrode are not particularly limited; however, the thicknesses can be set to about 0.1 mm to 100 mm, about 0.01 µm to 1000 µm, and about 0.01 µm to about 1000 µm, respectively.

(Junction Interface Layer)



[0141] A solar cell excellent in power generation efficiency can easily be manufactured by providing a junction interface layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more at a junction interface of the semiconductor layer. Particularly, it is preferable to provide a junction interface layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more at a junction interface of the p-type semiconductor layer and the n-type semiconductor layer, a junction interface of the p-type semiconductor film and the n-type semiconductor layer, a junction interface of the p-type semiconductor layer and the n-type semiconductor film, and a junction interface of the p-type semiconductor film and the n-type semiconductor film.

[0142] The compounds having a relative permittivity of 2 or more include the aforementioned compounds. Furthermore, it is preferable from the standpoint of plasticity, film production properties, or the like that the junction interface layer comprise an organic compound. It is preferable that the organic compound have OH, CF, CC1, C=O, N=O, CN, or the like as a substituent group. It is preferable that the specific organic compound be polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), glycerin, thioglycerol, or a cyano group-containing organic compound. The cyano group-containing organic compound means a compound in which one or more cyano groups are contained. It is more preferable that the cyano group-containing organic compound be a cyanoethyl group-containing organic compound. Specific examples of the cyano group-containing compound include cyanoethyl pullulan, cyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohols, cyanoethyl saccharose (cyanoethyl sucrose), cyanoethyl cellulose, cyanoethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose, cyanoethyl starch, cyanoethyl hydroxypropyl starch, cyanoethyl glycidol pullulan, cyanoethyl sorbitol.

[0143] A preferable range of the relative permittivity of the junction interface layer is 2 or more, more preferably 5 or more, and further more preferably 10 or more from the standpoint of photoelectric conversion efficiency. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the relative permittivity be 5000 or less, more preferably 1500 or less, and further more preferably 200 or less.

[0144] It is preferable from the standpoint of photoelectric conversion efficiency that the content of the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more in the junction interface layer be 50% by mass or more, more preferably 80% by mass or more, further more preferably 90% by mass or more, and extremely preferably 95% by mass or more. On the other hand, it is preferable from the standpoint of improving solar cell properties that the upper limit of the content be 100% by mass, namely, it is preferable that the junction interface layer consist of the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more. It is preferable from the standpoint of performance of the solar cell that the junction interface layer be filled without containing air. The junction interface layer may comprise a general versatile resin as a binder component, further, a surfactant, a dispersant, and so on within a range without impairing the properties.

[0145] The junction interface layer does not have to be introduced over the whole face of the junction interface of the p-type semiconductor layer and the n-type semiconductor layer. It is preferable from the standpoint of power generation efficiency that the junction interface layer cover 30% or more of the whole junction interface, more preferably 50% or more, and further more preferably 100%.

[0146] In addition, it is preferable from the standpoint of power generation efficiency and carrier transfer that the average thickness of the junction interface layer be 1 nm or more, more preferably 20 nm or more, further more preferably 30 nm or more, and extremely preferably 50 nm or more. Moreover, it is preferable from the same standpoint that the average thickness be 500 µm or less, more preferably 100 µm or less, further more preferably 50 µm or less, extremely preferably 10 µm or less, and most preferably 5 µm or less. The present junction interface layer has a characteristic of having a high photoelectric conversion property even when the present junction interface layer has a thickness of 30 nm or more that makes a current due to tunneling effect hard to flow. The film thickness of the junction interface layer is measured by vertscan 2.0 (manufactured by Ryoka Systems Inc.) or cross section TEM observation.

[0147] In addition, it is preferable from the standpoint of allowing the semiconductor layer to absorb light that the junction interface layer be transparent to some extent. It is preferable that the transmittance of the junction interface layer for light having a wavelength of 550 nm be 35% or more, more preferably 50% or more, and further more preferably 70% or more. The transmittance can be measured by a spectrophotometer. The upper limit of the transmittance is not particularly limited but is 100% or less. The transmittance can be measured using a spectrophotometer. As a measurement substrate, quartz glass or a resin substrate can be used.

[0148] It is preferable that the resistivity of the junction interface layer be high. It is inferred that a high resistivity can contribute to prevention of a leak current. In addition, it is preferable from such standpoint that the resistivity be 10 Ωcm or more, more preferably 100 Ωcm or more, further more preferably 1000 Ωcm, extremely preferably 10000 Ωcm or more, and most preferably 1000000 Ωcm or more. The upper limit of the resistivity is not particularly limited,; however, it is preferable that the upper limit of the resistivity be 1 x 1019 Ωcm or less.

[0149] The resistivity in the present embodiments is a measure of tendency to conduct electricity and means resistivity per unit volume. The value is a value inherent to a substance and is determined by supplying a constant current I to a cross-sectional area W of a substance and measuring a potential difference V between electrodes arranged with a distance L.



[0150] It is effective to manufacture the junction interface layer using a printing method because cost reduction is made possible. In this case, it is preferable that the substrate be the aforementioned flexible electrode substrate having plasticity. Thereby, since the electrode substrate comprising a junction interface layer can be wound up into a rolled shape, the production speed can be improved.

(Method for Producing Solar Cell)



[0151] The method for producing a solar cell of the present embodiment, for example, comprises: a step of obtaining a substrate with a semiconductor film by applying, on a substrate comprising an electrode, an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film to form a semiconductor film; a step of obtaining a substrate with a semiconductor layer by forming a semiconductor layer on a substrate with an electrode; and a step of sticking these substrates so that the semiconductor film and the semiconductor layer face each other. In this case, a substrate with another semiconductor film may be used in place of the substrate with a semiconductor layer. In addition, the production method of the present embodiment may also comprise a step of further providing a layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more on the semiconductor film or the semiconductor layer.

(Method for Producing Solar Cell Having Junction Interface Layer)



[0152] An example of the method for producing a solar cell having a junction interface layer is shown. The production method of the present embodiment comprises: a step of obtaining a laminate having a p-type semiconductor layer or an n-type semiconductor layer, and a layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more on an electrode in this order; and a step of sticking another p-type semiconductor layer or another n-type semiconductor layer to the layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more in the laminate. Specifically, a solar cell can be obtained, for example, through: step 1 of forming a p-type semiconductor layer on an electrode and thereafter applying an application liquid comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more (forming a layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more); step 2 of forming an n-type semiconductor layer on an electrode; and step 3 of sticking laminated bodies obtained by step 1 and step 2. In this production method, the p-type semiconductor layer and the n-type semiconductor layer may be exchanged. Moreover, it is preferable that one of the electrodes be transparent. In this example, the application liquid is applied in only step 1; however, the application liquid may be applied to the n-type semiconductor layer in step 2 and may be applied in both of step 1 and step 2. Namely, the application liquid may be applied to any of the p-type semiconductor layer and the n-type semiconductor layer and to both layers. Moreover, a step of drying the application liquid may be added after step 1 and step 2. The reason for this is because the layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more may also be a layer obtained by removing a volatile component from the application liquid comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more.

[0153] In addition, in the present embodiment, a solar cell may be manufactured by applying the application liquid comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more on the p-type semiconductor layer, thereafter forming the n-type semiconductor layer thereon, and further forming an electrode thereon. Also in this case, the p-type semiconductor layer and the n-type semiconductor layer may be exchanged. Moreover, a step of conducting drying may be added after the application liquid is applied or the n-type semiconductor layer is formed.

[0154] The solar cell of the present embodiments can also be manufactured by a method comprising a step of obtaining a laminate by forming a layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more on the p-type semiconductor layer or the n-type semiconductor layer. This method can comprise: the step and, furthermore, a step of obtaining another laminate by providing another p-type semiconductor layer or another n-type semiconductor layer on a transparent electrode and a step of sticking the laminate and the other laminate with the layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more and the other p-type semiconductor layer or the other n-type semiconductor layer facing each other.

[0155] The suitable embodiments of the present invention have been described above; however, the present invention is not limited to these embodiments at all.

Examples



[0156] Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in more detail by specific Examples.

[Evaluation Methods]



[0157] Hereinafter, evaluation was conducted under conditions of 25°C and a humidity of 45% unless otherwise specifically noted.

(1) Average Particle Size



[0158] With regard to the silicon particle, 100 particles were selected at random under a microscope, and the arithmetic mean value of the particle sizes each evaluated by an equivalent circle diameter using image analysis was defined as the average particle size. A digital microscope manufactured by Keyence Corporation was used as a microscope.

[0159] With regard to particles other than the silicon particles, a solution in which the particles were dispersed was prepared, and the average particle size was measured using a dynamic light scattering method. Measurement was conducted using a measuring apparatus "ELSZ-2" manufactured by Otsuka Electronics Co., Ltd.

(2) Evaluation of I-V Property



[0160] A photovoltaic property was measured using a DC voltage and current supply (6241A manufactured by ADCMT) controlled by a computer (Solar cell IV measurement software manufactured by Systemhouse Sunrise Corp.) and a simplified solar simulator (XES-40S1 manufactured by San-Ei Electric Co., Ltd.) to conduct evaluation of an I-V property. A BS-500 Si photodiode detector (for crystal Si solar cell, manufactured by Bunkoukeiki Co., Ltd., secondary standard solar cell) was used for examination of quantity of light (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2).

[0161] Measurement was conducted in a state where a solar cell was fixed. A specific preparation method of a measurement sample is described using Figure 13. First of all, a solar cell 4 is placed on a metal jig 5 coated with an insulating treatment material. Silicon rubber 3 having a thickness of 2 mm, a quartz plate 2 having a thickness of 3 mm, and a metal jig 1 (a light transmission hole for transmitting light 10 is provided in the center thereof) coated with the insulating treatment material were stacked on the solar cell in this order, and each of the four corners of the metal jig 1 are fixed together with each of the four corners of the metal jig 5 with a screw 9.

[0162] In the present evaluation, the I-V property, and the Imax and the Vmax were determined. In addition, the Imax means a current when the output of the solar cell becomes maximum, and the Vmax is a voltage when the output of the solar cell becomes maximum.

[0163] And the short-circuit current density, the open-circuit voltage, the FF, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency were calculated out from a graph of the I-V property. In addition, the short-circuit current density (Isc) is current density when a voltage is 0, and the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is a voltage when a current is 0.

[0164] The FF can be determined from the following formula.



[0165] The photoelectric conversion efficiency η can be determined from the following formula.




(3) Relative Permittivity



[0166] The relative permittivity means a value measured by an impedance method setting a measurement frequency to 1 kHz and a measurement temperature to 23°C. Specifically, the relative permittivity can be determined from the following formula using an LCR meter (4284A PRECISION LCR METER manufactured by Agilent Technologies).


(where, the dielectric constant of vacuum is 8.854 × 10-12 (F/m).)

[0167] When the sample is liquid, the dielectric constant is measured by inserting an electrode into the liquid using a jig for measuring liquid (16452A LIQUID TEST FIXTURE manufactured by Agilent Technologies).

[0168] When the sample is solid, the dielectric constant is measured by manufacturing a film on a plate of one electrode using a jig for measuring a film (16451B DIELETRIC TEST FIXTURE manufactured by Agilent Technologies) and holding the film by the other electrode so that the film is held between the electrode and the other electrode.

(4) Transmittance



[0169] Evaluation of transmittance for light having a wavelength of 550 nm was conducted using UV-2500PC (manufactured by Shimadzu Corporation). The transmittance of a sample was determined by the following formula.

A = (transmittance of a laminate comprising a substrate/electrode/semiconductor layer or a layer comprising semiconductor film/sample)

B = (transmittance of a laminate comprising a substrate/electrode/semiconductor layer or a layer comprising semiconductor film)


(5) Resistivity



[0170] The resistivity is a measure of tendency to conduct electricity and means resistivity per unit volume. The value is a value inherent to a substance and is determined by supplying a constant current I to a cross-sectional area W of a substance and measuring a potential difference V between electrodes arranged with a distance L.



[0171] The resistivity was measured using Loresta (Mitsubishi Chemical Analytech Co., Ltd.).

(6) Evaluation of Flexibility


i) Electrode Substrate



[0172] 
  1. (a) Place an electrode substrate on a horizontal stand.
  2. (b) Hold a half of an area of the electrode substrate, and bend the electrode substrate until an angle between the stand and the electrode substrate becomes 45 degrees. Thereafter, return the electrode substrate to its original state.
  3. (c) Repeat the step (b) 5 times.
  4. (d) Manufacture a solar cell by sticking a semiconductor layer or a semiconductor film to the electrode substrate.
  5. (e) Confirm whether the solar cell can generate power or not by the evaluation of the I-V property. When the power generation is confirmed, evaluate the flexibility as "sufficient".

ii) Solar Cell



[0173] 
  1. (a) Place a solar cell on a horizontal stand.
  2. (b) Hold a half of an area of the solar cell, and bend the solar cell until an angle between the stand and the solar cell becomes 45 degrees. Thereafter, return the solar cell to its original state.
  3. (c) Repeat the step (b) 5 times.
  4. (d) Confirm whether the solar cell can generate power or not by the evaluation of the I-V property. When the power generation is confirmed, evaluate the flexibility as "sufficient".

(7) Film Thickness



[0174] The film thickness of the semiconductor layer and the junction interface layer was measured by vertscan 2.0 (manufactured by Ryoka Systems Inc.). The semiconductor layer or the junction interface layer for measurement was manufactured by coating the substrate on the same conditions as in the element production. Film thicknesses at arbitrary 5 points were measured for these layers, the average was calculated, and the average was defined as the average film thickness.

[0175] The film thickness of the semiconductor film was measured by a cross section SEM using a desktop scanning microscope Carry Scope JCM 5100 (manufactured by JEOL Ltd.). With respect to the semiconductor film, the cross section of the semiconductor element was measured. Cross section SEM measurement was conducted at 2 positions, and the film thicknesses were measured at 5 points with equal intervals for each position. The film thicknesses of a total of 10 points were measured, and the average was defined as the average film thickness.

[0176] The film thicknesses of the semiconductor layer, the junction interface layer, and the semiconductor film after manufacturing a solar cell were measured by cross section TEM observation. The measurement was conducted after cutting the cross section of the solar cell by an FIB method.

[0177] In the FIB method, Ga ions accelerated at 30 to 40 kV were focused to 0.01 to 0.1 µm, and sputtering was conducted while scanning the cross section of the solar cell. A carbon film or a tungsten film was vapor-deposited as a protection film of the outermost surface of the sputtering. Moreover, cross section TEM observation was conducted at 2 positions, and the film thicknesses were measured at 5 points with equal intervals for each position. The average value of the film thicknesses of a total of 10 points was calculated, and the average was defined as the average film thickness. It was confirmed that the average film thickness obtained by the cross section TEM observation had almost the same value as the results of the above-described film thickness measurement.

[Example 1]


(1) Preparation of Silicon Particle-containing Application Liquid for Forming Semiconductor Film



[0178] A p-type silicon crystal wafer having a resistivity of 1 Ωcm was pulverized under the presence of methanol by a ball mill method. A large excess of methanol was added after pulverization, and silicon particles having a particle size of 37 µm or more were classified by filtering with a nylon mesh having a sieve opening of 37 µm and a nylon mesh having a sieve opening of 100 µm. Further, by repeating methanol washing, silicon particles having particle sizes of 37 to 100 µm were obtained. The average particle size of the obtained silicon particles was 55 µm.

[0179] The silicon particles were weighed after vacuum drying, and a glycerin/ethanol mixed solvent (mass ratio 1/4) of 3 times the mass of the silicon particle was added and shaken to prepare an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film in which the silicon particles were dispersed in the glycerin/ethanol mixed solvent With respect to the composition of the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 25% by mass, glycerin was 15% by mass, and ethanol was 60% by mass.

(2) Film Production



[0180] The application liquid for forming a semiconductor film was drop-cast on a glass substrate with a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) transparent electrode and heated at 120°C on a hot plate to thereby remove ethanol. After removing ethanol, heating was further conducted at 150°C for 3 minutes to manufacture a substrate with a semiconductor film. With respect to the composition of the semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 95% by mass, the total amount of glycerin and compounds generated by oxidation of glycerin was 5 % by mass. The relative permittivity of glycerin was 48. The film thickness of the semiconductor film was 250 µm.

[Example 2]


(1) Preparation of CIGS Particle-containing Application Liquid for Forming Semiconductor Film



[0181] CIGS particle powder (manufactured by Kojundo Chemical Lab. Co., Ltd., composition: Cu(In0.8Ga0.2)S2) was added to a 1-thioglycerol/ethanol mixed solvent (mass ratio 1/4) to prepare a 5% by mass solution. Zirconia balls were added to the solution, ultrasonic treatment was conducted, and thereafter the solution was stirred and shaken for 10 hours. After stirring and shaking the solution, the zirconia balls were taken out. The particle sizes of the CIGS particles were 0.5 to 2.0 µm, and the average particle size of the CIGS particles was 0.8 µm. With respect to the composition of the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the CIGS particle was 5% by mass, 1-thioglycerol was 19% by mass, and ethanol was 76% by mass.

(2) Film Production



[0182] A substrate with a semiconductor film was manufactured under the same conditions as in Example 1. With respect to the composition of the semiconductor film, the CIGS particle was 90% by mass, and the total amount of 1-thioglycerol and compounds generated by oxidation of 1-thioglycerol was 10% by mass. The film thickness of the semiconductor film was 20 µm. The relative permittivity of 1-thioglycerol was 132.

[Example 3]


(1) Preparation of CIGS Particle-containing Application Liquid for Forming Semiconductor Film



[0183] An application liquid was prepared under the same conditions as in Example 2 except that the 1-thioglycerol/ethanol mixed solvent (mass ratio 1/4) was changed to a glycerin/ethanol mixed solvent (mass ratio 1/4). The particle sizes of the CIGS particles were 0.5 to 2.0 µm, and the average particle size of the CIGS particles was 0.8 µm. With respect to the composition of the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the CIGS particle was 5% by mass, glycerin was 19% by mass, and ethanol was 76% by mass.

(2) Film Production



[0184] A substrate with a semiconductor film was manufactured under the same conditions as in Example 1. With respect to the composition of the semiconductor film, the CIGS particle was 90% by mass, and the total amount of glycerin and compounds generated by oxidation of glycerin was 10% by mass. The film thickness of the semiconductor film was 20 µm.

[Comparative Example 1]


(1) Preparation of Silicon Particle-containing Application Liquid for Forming Semiconductor Film



[0185] Silicon particles were obtained under the same conditions as in Example 1 except that methanol was changed to toluene. The average particle size of the obtained silicon particles was 55 µm. The silicon particles were weighed after vacuum drying, and toluene of 3 times the mass of the silicon particle was added and shaken to prepare an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film in which the silicon particles were dispersed in toluene. With respect to the composition of the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 25% by mass, and toluene was 75% by mass.

(2) Film Production



[0186] A substrate with a semiconductor layer was manufactured under the same conditions as in Example 1. With respect to the composition of the semiconductor layer, the silicon particle was 100%. The film thickness of the semiconductor layer was 250 µm.

[Comparative Example 2]


(1) Preparation of CIGS Particle-containing Application Liquid for Forming Semiconductor Film



[0187] CIGS particles were obtained under the same conditions as in Example 2 except that the 1-thioglycerol/ethanol mixed solvent (mass ratio 1/4) was changed to ethanol. The particle size of the CIGS particles was 0.5 to 2.0 µm, and the average particle size of the CIGS particles was 0.8 µm. With respect to the composition of the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the CIGS particle was 5% by mass, and ethanol was 95% by mass.

(2) Film Production



[0188] A substrate with a semiconductor layer was manufactured under the same conditions as in Example 1. With respect to the composition of the semiconductor layer, the CIGS particle was 100% by mass. The film thickness of the semiconductor layer was 20 µm.

[Evaluation of Solar Cell Property 1]



[0189] Solar cells were manufactured using: the substrates with a p-type semiconductor film, the substrates obtained in Examples and Comparative Examples described above; an n-type semiconductor layer comprising titanium oxide; and a substrate comprising IZO as a transparent electrode. The n-type semiconductor layer was manufactured on the transparent electrode by a spin coating method using a water/2-butoxy ethanol mixed solvent comprising titanium oxide particles (anatase type, solid content 5% by mass) having an average particle size of 20 nm. In addition, the thickness of the n-type semiconductor film obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 60 minutes after spin coating was 500 nm. The substrate with a p-type semiconductor film and the substrate with an n-type semiconductor film were stuck to make a solar cell.

[0190] As a structure of a solar cell, Examples 1 to 3 each have a structure similar to the structure illustrated in Figure 1. Comparative Examples 1 and 2 each have a structure almost similar to the structure illustrated in Figure 9.

[0191] As evaluation of the I-V property of the solar cells, measurement was conducted adjusting the quantity of light so as to irradiate the solar cell with light having a quantity of light of 3 sun. Moreover, a positive electrode and a negative electrode were made by joining each electrode and a conductive tape using silver paste. Terminal during I-V measurement were taken from the conductive tape. The results are shown in Table 1.

[0192] A solar cell having a semiconductor film of Example 1, the film comprising the silicon particle and glycerin, had a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.09%. A solar cell having a semiconductor layer of Comparative Example 1, the film consisting of only the silicon particle, had a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 0.035%. I-V curves for the solar cells of Comparative Example 1 and Example 1 are shown in Figures 10(A) and 10(B), respectively.

[0193] A solar cell having a semiconductor film of Example 2, the film comprising the CIGS particle and 1-thioglycerol, had a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 0.005%. A solar cell having a semiconductor film of Example 3, the film comprising the CIGS particle and glycerin, had a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 0.001%. A solar cell having a semiconductor layer of Comparative Example 2, the film consisting of only the CIGS particle, did not generate power. An I-V curve for the solar cell of Comparative Example 2 and I-V curves for the solar cells having the semiconductor films of Example 2 and Example 3 respectively are shown in Figures 11(A), 11(B), and 11(C) respectively.
[Table 1]
 Composition of semiconductor film (% by mass)Photoelectric conversion efficiency (%)Cell structure
Silicon particleGIGS particleGlycerin and oxidesThioglycerol and oxides
Example 1 95 - 5 - 1.09 Figure 1
Example 2 - 90 - 10 0.005 Figure 1
Example 3 - 90 10 - 0.001 Figure 1
Comparative Example 1 100 - - - 0.035 Figure 9
Comparative Example 2 - 100 - - - Figure 9

[Example 4]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0194] A titanium oxide layer comprising titanium oxide particles (rutile type, solid content 12% by mass) having an average particle size of 20 nm was manufactured on a PET film with ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) by a spin coating method. In addition, the thickness of the titanium oxide layer obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 300 nm. Coating was conducted by blade coating further on the titanium oxide layer with a liquid obtained by diluting cyanoethyl saccharose with 2-methoxyethanol to adjust the concentration to 20% by mass, and the coated liquid was dried at 120°C for 1 minute. The thickness of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer was 600 nm. A solar cell was manufactured by sticking a p-type silicon crystal wafer having a thickness of 500 µm and a resistivity of 3 Ωcm on the cyanoethyl saccharose layer. The relative permittivity of cyanoethyl saccharose was 25.

[Example 5]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0195] A solar cell was manufactured under the same conditions as in Example 4 except that the following hydrofluoric acid treatment was conducted to a p-type silicon crystal wafer having a thickness of 500 µm and a resistivity of 3 Ωcm.
"Hydrofluoric acid treatment": the p-type silicon crystal wafer was washed with acetone to remove surface pollution, thereafter immersed in a 5% hydrofluoric acid for 5 minutes, and was washed with ultrapure water. Thereafter, the p-type silicon crystal wafer was washed with methanol. After washing, the wafer was dried under vacuum at room temperature for 1 hour.

[Example 6]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0196] A solar cell was manufactured under the same conditions as in Example 5 except that the p-type silicon crystal wafer having a resistivity of 3 Ωcm was changed to a p-type silicon crystal wafer having a resistivity of 0.02 Ωcm.

[Example 7]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0197] A solar cell was manufactured under the same conditions as in Example 5 except that the p-type silicon crystal wafer having a resistivity of 3 Ωcm was changed to a p-type silicon crystal wafer having a resistivity of 23 Ωcm.

[Example 8]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0198] A titanium oxide layer comprising titanium oxide particles (anatase type, TKS 201, manufactured by Tayca Corporation, solid content 33% by mass) having an average particle size of 6 nm was manufactured on a PET film with ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) by a spin coating method. In addition, the thickness of the titanium oxide layer obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 2000 nm. Coating was conducted by blade coating further on the titanium oxide layer with a liquid obtained by diluting cyanoethyl saccharose with 2-methoxyethanol to adjust the concentration to 20% by mass, and the coated liquid was dried at 120°C for 1 minute. The thickness of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer was 600 nm. On the other hand, the hydrofluoric acid treatment was conducted to a p-type silicon crystal wafer having a thickness of 500 µm and a resistivity of 3 Ωcm. A solar cell was manufactured by sticking the silicon crystal wafer and the titanium oxide film coated with cyanoethyl saccharose.

[Comparative Example 3]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0199] A thin film of a titanium oxide particle (rutile type, solid content 12% by mass) having an average particle size of 20 nm was manufactured on a PET film with ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) by a spin coating method. In addition, the thickness of the thin film obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 300 nm. On the other hand, the hydrofluoric acid treatment was conducted to a p-type silicon crystal wafer having a thickness of 500 µm and a resistivity of 0.02 Ωcm. A solar cell was manufactured by sticking the silicon crystal wafer and the titanium oxide film.

[Evaluation of Solar Cell Property 2]



[0200] Solar cells of Examples 4 to 8 and Comparative Example 3 were evaluated. The cell structures of Examples 4 to 8 are similar to the structure illustrated in Figure 6. The cell structure of Comparative Example 3 is almost similar to the structure illustrated in Figure 9. As evaluation of the I-V property of the solar cells, measurement was conducted adjusting the quantity of light so as to irradiate the solar cell with light having a quantity of light of 1 sun. Moreover, a conductive tape and silicon were joined to a silicon-side electrode using indium-gallium alloy paste in both of Examples and Comparative Example. Moreover, with respect to the titanium oxide side, the ITO electrode and a conductive tape were joined using silver paste. Terminals during I-V measurement were taken from the conductive tape. The results are shown in Tables 2 and 3.

[0201] As shown in Tables 2 and 3, it was found that, with respect to the systems in which a cyano group-containing organic compound was introduced to the pn interface, the short-circuit current density and the open-circuit voltage were improved and the conversion efficiency became high. Furthermore, a conversion efficiency of 5% or more was exhibited by changing the resistivity of silicon and the kind of titanium oxide.
[Table 2]
 Hydrofluoric acid treatmentResistivity of silicon (Ωcm)Crystal structure of titanium oxideLayer containing a compound having relative permittivity of 2 or more (junction interface layer)
Example 4 - 3 Rutile type Cyanoethyl saccharose
Example 5 3 Rutile type Cyanoethyl saccharose
Example 6 0.02 Rutile type Cyanoethyl saccharose
Example 7 23 Rutile type Cyanoethyl saccharose
Example 8 3 Anatase type Cyanoethyl saccharose
Comparative Example 3 0.02 Rutile type -
[Table 3]
 Junction interface layer thickness (nm)Cell structureShort-circuit current density (mA/cm2)Open-circuit voltage (V)FFPhotoelectric conversion efficiency (%)
Example 4 600 Figure 6 13.8 0.54 0.22 1.62
Example 5 600 Figure 6 27.6 0.54 0.22 3.21
Example 6 600 Figure 6 7.9 0.26 0.26 0.53
Example 7 600 Figure 6 12.8 0.54 0.25 1.69
Example 8 600 Figure 6 47.3 0.49 0.24 5.48
Comparative Example 3 - Figure 9 0.72 0.14 0.25 0.02

[Example 9]


(1) Preparation of Silicon Particle-containing Application Liquid for Forming Semiconductor Film



[0202] A p-type silicon crystal wafer having a resistivity of 1 Ωcm was pulverized under the presence of methanol by a ball mill method. A large excess of methanol was added after pulverization, and silicon particles having a particle size of 37 µm or less were classified by filtering with a nylon mesh having a sieve opening of 37 µm. Furthermore, by conducting decantation with a methanol solvent, silicon particles having particle sizes of 10 to 37 µm were obtained. The average particle size of the obtained silicon particles was 20 µm.

[0203] The silicon particles were weighed after vacuum drying, and a glycerin/ethanol mixed solvent (mass ratio 1/4) of 3 times the mass of the silicon particle was added and shaken to prepare an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film in which the silicon particles were dispersed in the glycerin/ethanol mixed solvent. With respect to the composition of the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 25% by mass, glycerin was 15% by mass, and ethanol was 60% by mass.

(2) Film Production



[0204] The application liquid for forming a semiconductor film was drop-cast on a glass substrate with a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) transparent electrode and heated at 120°C on a hot plate to thereby remove ethanol. After removing ethanol, heating was further conducted at 150°C for 3 minutes to manufacture a substrate with a semiconductor film. With respect to the composition of the semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 95% by mass, and the total amount of glycerin and compounds generated by oxidation of glycerin was 5% by mass. The film thickness was 250 µm.

(3) Manufacture of Solar Cell



[0205] A solar cell was manufactured by sticking a substrate comprising IZO as a transparent electrode, the substrate with a p-type semiconductor film, and an n-type semiconductor layer comprising titanium oxide. The n-type semiconductor layer was manufactured by a spin coating method using titanium oxide particles (anatase type, TKS 201, manufactured by Tayca Corporation, solid content 33% by mass) having an average particle size of 6 nm. In addition, the thickness of the n-type semiconductor layer obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 500 nm.

[Example 10]


(1) Preparation of Silicon Particle-containing Application Liquid for Forming Semiconductor Film



[0206] A p-type silicon crystal wafer having a resistivity of 1 Ωcm was pulverized under the presence of methanol by a ball mill method. A large excess of methanol was added after pulverization, and silicon particles having particle sizes of 37 to 100 µm were obtained by filtering with a nylon mesh having a sieve opening of 37 µm and a nylon mesh having a sieve opening of 100 µm. The average particle size of the obtained silicon particles was 55 µm.

[0207] The silicon particles were weighed after vacuum drying, and a glycerin/ethanol mixed solvent (mass ratio 1/4) of 3 times the mass of the silicon particle was added and shaken to prepare an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film in which the silicon particles were dispersed in the glycerin/ethanol mixed solvent. With respect to the composition of the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 25% by mass, glycerin was 15% by mass, and ethanol was 60% by mass.

(2) Film Production



[0208] A semiconductor film was manufactured under the same conditions as in Example 9. With respect to the composition of the semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 95% by mass, the total amount of glycerin and compounds generated by oxidation of glycerin was 5 % by mass. The film thickness was 300 µm.

(3) Manufacture of Solar Cell



[0209] A solar cell was manufactured using the substrate with a semiconductor film, an n-type semiconductor layer comprising zinc oxide, and a substrate comprising IZO as a transparent electrode. The n-type semiconductor layer was manufactured by a spin coating method using a butyl acetate solvent comprising zinc oxide particles (solid content 40% by mass, manufactured by Aldrich) having an average particle size of 35 nm. In addition, the thickness of the n-type semiconductor layer obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 60 minutes after spin coating was 600 nm.

[Example 11]


(1) Preparation of Silicon Particle-containing Application Liquid for Forming Semiconductor Film



[0210] A p-type silicon crystal wafer having a resistivity of 3 Ωcm was pulverized under the presence of methanol by a ball mill method. A large excess of methanol was added after pulverization, and silicon particles having particle sizes of 32 µm or more and 57 µm or less were classified by filtering with a nylon mesh having a sieve opening of 32 µm and a nylon mesh having a sieve opening of 57 µm. The average particle size of the obtained silicon particles was 43 µm.

[0211] The silicon particles were weighed after vacuum drying, and a glycerin/ethanol mixed solvent (mass ratio 1/4) of 3 times the mass of the silicon particle was added and shaken to prepare an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film in which the silicon particles were dispersed in the glycerin/ethanol mixed solvent. With respect to the composition of the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 25% by mass, glycerin was 15% by mass, and ethanol was 60% by mass.

(2) Film Production



[0212] A substrate with a semiconductor film was manufactured under the same conditions as in Example 9 except that the substrate was changed to SUS 304. With respect to the composition of the semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 95% by mass, the total amount of glycerin and compounds generated by oxidation of glycerin was 5 % by mass. The film thickness was 250 µm.

(3) Manufacture of Solar Cell



[0213] A solar cell was manufactured using the substrate with a p-type semiconductor film, an n-type semiconductor layer comprising titanium oxide, and a PET film comprising ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) as a transparent electrode.

[0214] The n-type semiconductor layer was manufactured by a spin coating method using an aqueous dispersion liquid comprising titanium oxide particles (anatase type, TKS 201, manufactured by Tayca Corporation, solid content 33% by mass) having an average particle size of 6 nm. In addition, the thickness of the n-type semiconductor layer obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 600 nm.

[Example 12]


(1) Preparation of Silicon Particle-containing Application Liquid for Forming Semiconductor Film



[0215] Silicon particles were obtained under the same conditions as in Example 11. The average particle size of the obtained silicon particles was 43 µm.

[0216] The silicon particles were weighed after vacuum drying, and a glycerin/ethanol mixed solvent (mass ratio 1/3) and a 2-methoxyethanol solution of cyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohol were added and shaken. As a result thereof, an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film in which the silicon particles were dispersed in a glycerin/ethanol/2-methoxy ethanol mixed solution where cyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohol was dissolved, was prepared. With respect to the composition of the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 20% by mass, cyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohol was 4 % by mass, glycerin was 19% by mass, and ethanol was 57% by mass.

(2) Film Production



[0217] A substrate with a semiconductor film was manufactured in the same manner as in Example 11. With respect to the composition of the semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 80% by mass, cyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohol was 16% by mass, the total amount of glycerin and compounds generated by oxidation of glycerin was 4 % by mass. The relative permittivity of cyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohol was 15. The film thickness of the semiconductor film was 250 µm.

(3) Manufacture of Solar Cell



[0218] Using a PET film comprising ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) as a transparent electrode, an n-type semiconductor layer comprising titanium oxide was manufactured thereon. The n-type semiconductor layer was manufactured by a spin coating method using an aqueous dispersion liquid comprising titanium oxide particles (anatase type, TKS 201, manufactured by Tayca Corporation, solid content 33% by mass) having an average particle size of 6 nm. In addition, the thickness of the thin film obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 600 nm. Coating was conducted by blade coating further on the titanium oxide layer with a liquid obtained by diluting cyanoethyl saccharose with 2-methoxyethanol to adjust the concentration to 20% by mass, and the coated liquid was dried at 120°C for 1 minute. The thickness of the cyanoethyl saccharose was 600 nm. A solar cell was manufactured by sticking the substrate with the p-type semiconductor film on the layer thus obtained.

[Evaluation of Solar Cell Property 3]



[0219] Evaluation of the I-V properties of solar cells of Examples 9 to 12 were conducted. With respect to electrodes of the solar cells, a positive electrode and a negative electrode were made by joining each electrode and a conductive tape using silver paste. Terminals during I-V measurement were taken from the conductive tape. As evaluation of the I-V property of the solar cells, measurement was conducted adjusting the quantity of light so as to irradiate the solar cell with light having a quantity of light of 3 sun. The cell structures of Examples 9 to 11 are similar to the structure illustrated in Figure 1. The cell structure of Example 12 is similar to the structure illustrated in Figure 7. The results are shown in Tables 4 and 5.

[0220] As shown in Tables 4 and 5, it was confirmed that the performance was improved by introducing a p-type semiconductor film comprising glycerin and the performance of the solar cell in which a cyano group-containing organic compound was introduced to the pn interface was further improved. The I-V properties before and after light irradiation for Example 12 are shown in Figure 12 ((A) shows the I-V property before light irradiation and (B) shows the I-V property after light irradiation).
[Table 4]
 Silicon particleComposition of semiconductor film (% by mass)n-Type semiconductor layerLayer containing a compound having relative permittivity of 2 or more (junction interface layer)
Average particle size (nm)Resistivity (Ωcm)Silicon particleGlycerin and oxidesCyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohol
Example 1 55 1 95 5 - Titanium oxide -
Example 9 20 1 95 5 - Titanium oxide -
Example 10 55 1 95 5 - Zinc oxide -
Example 11 43 3 95 5 - Titanium oxide -
Example 12 43 3 80 4 16 Titanium oxide Cyanoethyl saccharose
Comparative Example 1 55 1 100 - - Titanium oxide -
[Table 5]
 Cell structureShort-circuit current density (mA/cm2)Open-circuit voltage (V)FFPhotoelectric conversion efficiency (%)
Example 1 Figure 1 43.5 0.29 0.26 1.09
Example 9 Figure 1 24.3 0.23 0.26 0.48
Example 10 Figure 1 20.1 0.29 0.26 0.42
Example 11 Figure 1 6.51 0.23 0.25 0.34
Example 12 Figure 7 8.72 0.22 0.24 0.45
Comparative Example 1 Figure 9 2.85 0.14 0.27 0.035

[Example 13]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0221] A titanium oxide layer was manufactured on a PET film with ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) by a spin coating method using an aqueous dispersion liquid comprising titanium oxide particles (anatase type, TKS 201, manufactured by Tayca Corporation, solid content 33% by mass) having an average particle size of 6 nm. In addition, the thickness of the titanium oxide layer obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 1500 nm. A thin film was manufactured further on the titanium oxide layer by a spin coating method using a liquid obtained by diluting polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) to adjust the concentration to 0.1% by mass, and the thin film was dried at 120°C for 1 minute. The thickness of the PVDF layer was 50 nm. On the other hand, the hydrofluoric acid treatment was conducted to a silicon crystal wafer having a thickness of 500 µm and a resistivity of 3 Ωcm. A solar cell was manufactured by sticking the silicon crystal wafer and the titanium oxide film coated with PVDF. The relative permittivity of PVDF was 8.

[Example 14]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0222] Manufacture of a heterojunction solar cell was conducted in the same manner as in Example 13 except that a liquid obtained by diluting polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) to adjust the concentration to 5% by mass was used. The thickness of the PVDF layer was 550 nm.

[Evaluation of Solar Cell Property 4]



[0223] Solar cells of Examples 13 and 14 and Comparative Example 3 were evaluated. The cell structures of Examples 13 and 14 are similar to the structure illustrated in Figure 6. The cell structure of Comparative Example 3 is almost similar to the structure illustrated in Figure 9. As evaluation of the I-V properties of the solar cells, measurement was conducted adjusting the quantity of light so as to irradiate the solar cell with light having a quantity of light of 1 sun. Moreover, a conductive tape and the silicon wafer were joined to a silicon wafer-side electrode using indium-gallium alloy paste. Moreover, with respect to the titanium oxide layer side, the ITO electrode and a conductive tape were joined using silver paste. Terminals during I-V measurement were taken from the conductive tape. The results are shown in Tables 6 and 7.
[Table 6]
 Hydrofluoric acid treatmentResistivity of silicon (Ωcm)Crystal structure of titanium oxideLayer containing a compound having relative permittivity of 2 or more (junction interface layer)
Example 13 3 Anatase type PVDF
Example 14 3 Anatase type PVDF
Comparative Example 3 0.02 Rutile type -
[Table 7]
 Junction interface layer thickness (nm)Cell structureShort-circuit current density (mA/cm2)Open-circuit voltage (V)FFPhotoelectric conversion efficiency (%)
Example 13 50 Figure 6 24 0.49 0.21 2.6
Example 14 550 Figure 6 27 0.5 0.21 2.9
Comparative Example 3 - Figure 9 0.72 0.14 0.25 0.02


[0224] As shown in Tables 6 and 7, it was found that the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage were improved and the conversion efficiency became high in the systems in which a material having a high dielectric constant was introduced to the pn interface.

[Example 15]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0225] A titanium oxide layer was manufactured on a PET film with ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) by a spin coating method using an aqueous dispersion liquid comprising titanium oxide particles (anatase type, TKS 201, manufactured by Tayca Corporation, solid content 33% by mass) having an average particle size of 6 nm. In addition, the thickness of the titanium oxide layer obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 1500 nm. A film was produced further on the titanium oxide layer by a spin coating method using a liquid obtained by diluting cyanoethyl saccharose with 2-methoxyethanol to adjust the concentration to 0.1% by mass, and the film was dried at 120°C for 1 minute. The thickness of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer was 20 nm. On the other hand, a silicon crystal wafer having a thickness of 500 µm and a resistivity of 3 Ωcm was washed with methanol. A solar cell was manufactured by sticking the silicon crystal wafer which was dried after washing and the titanium oxide film coated with cyanoethyl saccharose.

[Example 16]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0226] Manufacture of a heterojunction solar cell was conducted in the same manner as in Example 15 except that a liquid obtained by diluting cyanoethyl saccharose with 2-methoxyethanol to adjust the concentration to 1% by mass was used. The thickness of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer was 40 nm.

[Example 17]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0227] Manufacture of a heterojunction solar cell was conducted in the same manner as in Example 15 except that a liquid obtained by diluting cyanoethyl saccharose with 2-methoxyethanol to adjust the concentration to 5% by mass was used. The thickness of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer was 150 nm.

[Example 18]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0228] Manufacture of a heterojunction solar cell was conducted in the same manner as in Example 15 except that a liquid obtained by diluting cyanoethyl saccharose with 2-methoxyethanol to adjust the concentration to 20% by mass was used. The thickness of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer was 600 nm.

[Example 19]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0229] Manufacture of a heterojunction solar cell was conducted in the same manner as in Example 15 except that a liquid obtained by diluting cyanoethyl saccharose with 2-methoxyethanol to adjust the concentration to 40% by mass was used. The thickness of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer was 2100 nm.

[Example 20]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0230] Manufacture of a heterojunction solar cell was conducted in the same manner as in Example 15 except that a liquid obtained by diluting cyanoethyl saccharose with 2-methoxyethanol to adjust the concentration to 40% by mass was used. The thickness of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer was 5000 nm.

[Comparative Example 4]


(1) Manufacture of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using Silicon Wafer



[0231] A thin film was manufactured on a PET film with ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) by a spin coating method using an aqueous dispersion liquid comprising titanium oxide particles (anatase type, TKS 201, manufactured by Tayca Corporation, solid content 33% by mass) having an average particle size of 6 nm. In addition, the thickness of the thin film obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 1500 nm. On the other hand, a p-type silicon crystal wafer having a thickness of 500 µm and a resistivity of 3 Ωcm was washed with methanol. A solar cell was manufactured by sticking the silicon crystal wafer which was dried after washing and the titanium oxide film.

[Evaluation of Solar Cell Property 5]



[0232] Solar cells of Examples 15 to 20 and Comparative Example 4 were evaluated. The cell structures of Examples 15 to 20 are similar to the structure illustrated in Figure 6. As evaluation of the I-V properties of the solar cells, measurement was conducted adjusting the quantity of light so as to irradiate the solar cell with light having a quantity of light of 1 sun. Moreover, a conductive tape and the silicon wafer were joined to a silicon wafer-side electrode using indium-gallium alloy paste. Moreover, with respect to the titanium oxide layer side, the ITO electrode and a conductive tape were joined using silver paste. Terminals during I-V measurement were taken from the conductive tape. The results are shown in Tables 8 and 9.
[Table 8]
 Hydrofluoric acid treatmentResistivity of silicon (Ωcm)Crystal structure of titanium oxideLayer containing a compound having relative permittivity of 2 or more (junction interface layer)
Example 15 - 3 Anatase type Cyanoethyl saccharose
Example 16 - 3 Anatase type Cyanoethyl saccharose
Example 17 - 3 Anatase type Cyanoethyl saccharose
Example 18 - 3 Anatase type Cyanoethyl saccharose
Example 19 - 3 Anatase type Cyanoethyl saccharose
Example 20 - 3 Anatase type Cyanoethyl saccharose
Comparative Example 4 - 3 Anatase type -
[Table 9]
 Junction interface layer thickness (nm)Cell structureShort-circuit current density (mA/cm2)Open-circuit voltage (V)FFPhotoelectric conversion efficiency (%)
Example 15 20 Figure 6 6.4 0.42 0.17 0.5
Example 16 40 Figure 6 11.2 0.44 0.14 0.7
Example 17 150 Figure 6 11 0.43 0.15 0.7
Example 18 600 Figure 6 29.7 0.5 0.2 2.9
Example 19 2100 Figure 6 37.7 0.46 0.16 2.7
Example 20 5000 Figure 6 13.3 0.46 0.13 0.8
Comparative Example 4 - Figure 9 1.9 0.5 0.22 0.2


[0233] As shown in Tables 8 and 9, it was found that when the thickness of the cyano group-containing organic compound introduced to the pn interface was changed, the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage were improved and the conversion efficiency became high at a thickness of at least 40 nm or more.

[Evaluation of Transmittance of Junction Interface Layer]


[Example 21]



[0234] A titanium oxide layer was manufactured on a PET film with ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) by a spin coating method using an aqueous dispersion liquid comprising titanium oxide particles (anatase type, TKS 201, manufactured by Tayca Corporation, solid content 33% by mass) having an average particle size of 6 nm. In addition, the thickness of the titanium oxide layer obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 1500 nm. A film was produced further on the titanium oxide layer by a spin coating method using a liquid obtained by diluting cyanoethyl saccharose with 2-methoxyethanol to adjust the concentration to 20% by mass, and the film was dried at 120°C for 1 minute. The thickness of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer was 600 nm.

[0235] The transmittance of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer measured by the aforementioned method was 90%.

[Example 22]



[0236] A titanium oxide layer was manufactured on a PET film with ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) by a spin coating method using an aqueous dispersion liquid comprising titanium oxide particles (anatase type, TKS 201, manufactured by Tayca Corporation, solid content 33% by mass) having an average particle size of 6 nm. In addition, the thickness of the titanium oxide layer obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 1500 nm. A thin film was manufactured further on the titanium oxide layer by a spin coating method using a liquid obtained by diluting polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) to adjust the concentration to 5% by mass, and the thin film was dried at 120°C for 1 minute. The thickness of the PVDF layer was 550 nm.

[0237] The transmittance of the PVDF layer measured by the aforementioned method was 36%.

[0238] The results of transmittances of Examples 21 and 22 are shown together in Table 10. It is found that the transmittance is high in both Examples 21 and 22.
[Table 10]
 Layer containing a compound having relative permittivity of 2 or more (junction interface layer)Transmittance (%)
Example 21 Cyanoethyl saccharose 90
Example 22 PVDF 36

[Evaluation of Resistivity of Junction Interface Layer]


[Example 23]



[0239] The resistivity of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer described in Example 21, namely, the junction interface layer, was measured by the above-described method.

[Example 24]



[0240] The resistivity of the PVDF layer described in Example 22, namely, the junction interface layer, was measured by the above-described method.

[0241] The results of resistivities of Examples 23 and 24 are shown together in Table 11. It is found that the resistivity is high in both Examples 23 and 24.
[Table 11]
 Layer containing a compound having relative permittivity of 2 or more (junction interface layer)Resistivity (Ωcm)
Example 23 Cyanoethyl saccharose 1.0×107 or more
Example 24 PVDF 1.0×107 or more

[Evaluation of Flexibility of Solar Cells]


[Example 25]



[0242] A titanium oxide layer was manufactured on a PET film with ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) by a spin coating method using an aqueous dispersion liquid comprising titanium oxide particles (anatase type, TKS 201, manufactured by Tayca Corporation, solid content 33% by mass) having an average particle size of 6 nm. In addition, the thickness of the titanium oxide layer obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 1500 nm. A thin film was manufactured further on the titanium oxide layer by a spin coating method using a liquid obtained by diluting polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) to adjust the concentration to 5% by mass, and the thin film was dried at 120°C for 1 minute. The thickness of the PVDF layer was 550 nm.

[0243] The flexibility was evaluated using the electrode substrate including the PET substrate, ITO, titanium oxide, and PVDF and a p-type silicon crystal wafer having a resistivity of 3 Ωcm which wafer had been washed with methanol.

[Example 26]



[0244] A titanium oxide layer was manufactured on a PET film with ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) by a spin coating method using an aqueous dispersion liquid comprising titanium oxide particles (anatase type, TKS 201, manufactured by Tayca Corporation, solid content 33% by mass) having an average particle size of 6 nm. In addition, the thickness of the titanium oxide layer obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 1500 nm. A film was produced further on the titanium oxide layer by a spin coating method using a liquid obtained by diluting cyanoethyl saccharose with 2-methoxyethanol to adjust the concentration to 20% by mass, and the film was dried at 120°C for 1 minute. The thickness of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer was 600 nm.

[0245] The flexibility was evaluated using the electrode substrate including the PET substrate, ITO, titanium oxide, and cyanoethyl saccharose and a p-type silicon crystal wafer having a resistivity of 3 Ωcm which wafer had been washed with methanol.

[0246] The results of the evaluation of the flexibilities of Examples 25 and 26 are shown together in Table 12. It was confirmed that both of Examples 25 and 26 were driven as a solar cell when bent.
[Table 12]
 Layer containing a compound having relative permittivity of 2 or more (junction interface layer)FlexibilityShort-circuit current density (mA/cm2)Open-circuit voltage (V)FFPhotoelectric conversion efficiency (%)
Example 25 Polyvinylidene fluoride Sufficient 26.9 0.51 0.21 2.9
Example 26 Cyanoethyl saccharose Sufficient 15.5 0.52 0.19 1.5

[Example 27]


(1) Preparation of Silicon Particle-containing Application Liquid for Forming Semiconductor Film



[0247] Silicon particles were obtained under the same conditions as in Example 11. The average particle size of the obtained silicon particles was 43 µm.

[0248] The silicon particles were weighed after vacuum drying, and a glycerin/ethanol mixed solvent (mass ratio 1/3) and a 2-methoxyethanol solution of cyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohol were added and shaken. As a result thereof, an application liquid for forming a semiconductor film in which the silicon particles were dispersed in a glycerin/ethanol/2-methoxy ethanol mixed solution where cyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohol was dissolved, was prepared. With respect to the composition of the application liquid for forming a semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 20% by mass, cyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohol was 4 % by mass, glycerin was 19% by mass, and ethanol was 57% by mass.

(2) Film Production



[0249] The application liquid for forming a semiconductor film was drop-cast on SUS 304 having a thickness of 10 µm and heated at 120°C on a hot plate to thereby remove ethanol. After removing ethanol, heating was further conducted at 150°C for 3 minutes to manufacture a substrate with a semiconductor film. With respect to the composition of the semiconductor film, the silicon particle was 80% by mass, cyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohol was 16% by mass, and the total amount of glycerin and compounds generated by oxidation of glycerin was 4% by mass. The relative permittivity of cyanoethyl polyvinyl alcohol was 15.

(3) Manufacture of Solar Cell



[0250] Using a PET film comprising ITO (manufactured by Aldrich, sheet resistance 60 Ω/□) as a transparent electrode, an n-type semiconductor layer comprising titanium oxide was manufactured on the PET film. The n-type semiconductor layer was manufactured by a spin coating method using an aqueous dispersion liquid comprising titanium oxide particles (anatase type, TKS 201, manufactured by Tayca Corporation, solid content 33% by mass) having an average particle size of 6 nm. In addition, the thickness of the titanium oxide layer obtained as a result of drying at 120°C for 10 minutes after spin coating was 600 nm. Coating was conducted by blade coating further on the titanium oxide layer with a liquid obtained by diluting cyanoethyl saccharose with 2-methoxyethanol to adjust the concentration to 20% by mass, and the coated liquid was dried at 120°C for 1 minute. The thickness of the cyanoethyl saccharose layer was 600 nm. A solar cell was manufactured by sticking the substrate with the semiconductor film on the layer thus obtained.

[Evaluation of Solar Cell Property 6]



[0251] The flexibility of the solar cell was evaluated. It was confirmed that Example 27 was driven as a solar cell (had flexibility) even when it was bent. In addition, when the open-circuit voltage was measured by irradiating with light, an open-circuit voltage of 0.6 V was confirmed. The open-circuit voltage was 0 V when the light was shielded.

Industrial Applicability



[0252] According to the present invention, a semiconductor film which are suitably used for a semiconductor element, and a solar cell that is excellent in power generation efficiency by comprising a layer comprising the semiconductor film can be provided. Furthermore, according to the present invention, a solar cell that is excellent in power generation efficiency and is low cost, the solar cell comprising a junction interface layer, can be provided.

Reference Signs List



[0253] 1, 5 ... Metal jig, 2 ... Quartz plate, 3 ... Silicon rubber, 9 ... Screw, 10 ... Light, 4, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 ... Solar cell; 110, 210, 310, 410, 510, 610, 710, 810, 910 ... Substrate; 120, 220, 320, 420, 520, 620, 720, 820, 920 ... Positive electrode layer; 130, 240, 330, 340, 430, 450, 530, 730, 850 ... Layer comprising semiconductor film; 140, 650, 750, 940 ... n-type semiconductor layer; 150, 250, 350, 460, 540, 660, 760, 860, 950 ... Negative electrode layer; 230, 630, 830, 930 ... p-type semiconductor layer; 440, 640, 740, 840 ... Junction interface layer comprising compound having relative permittivity of 2 or more; 531 ... p-type semiconductor particle; 532 ... n-type semiconductor particle


Claims

1. An application liquid for forming a semiconductor film comprising:

an inorganic semiconductor particle; and

a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more.


 
2. An application liquid for forming a semiconductor film comprising:

an inorganic semiconductor particle; and

a compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle.


 
3. The application liquid for forming a semiconductor film according to claim 1, wherein the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more is at least one selected from the group consisting of glycerin, thioglycerol, cyano group-containing organic compounds, and PVDF.
 
4. The application liquid for forming a semiconductor film according to claim 2, wherein the compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle is at least one selected from the group consisting of glycerin and thioglycerol.
 
5. The application liquid for forming a semiconductor film according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein a content of the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more or the compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle is 0.5 to 90% by mass.
 
6. The application liquid for forming a semiconductor film according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the inorganic semiconductor particle is a silicon particle.
 
7. The application liquid for forming a semiconductor film according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the inorganic semiconductor particle is a compound semiconductor particle.
 
8. The application liquid for forming a semiconductor film according to claim 6, wherein an average particle size of the silicon particle is 0.1 to 400 µm.
 
9. The application liquid for forming a semiconductor film according to claim 7, wherein an average particle size of the compound semiconductor particle is 0.05 to 50 µm.
 
10. The application liquid for forming a semiconductor film according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein a content of the inorganic semiconductor particle is 0.5 to 70% by mass.
 
11. A method for producing a semiconductor film, comprising a step of applying the application liquid according to any one of claims 1 to 10 to a substrate on which an electrode is formed.
 
12. A semiconductor film comprising:

an inorganic semiconductor particle; and

a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more.


 
13. A semiconductor film comprising:

an inorganic semiconductor particle; and

a compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle.


 
14. The semiconductor film according to claim 12, wherein the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more is at least one selected from the group consisting of glycerin, thioglycerol, cyano group-containing organic compounds, and PVDF.
 
15. The semiconductor film according to claim 13, wherein the compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle is at least one selected from the group consisting of glycerin and thioglycerol.
 
16. The semiconductor film according to any one of claims 12 to 15, wherein a content of the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more or the compound having reducing power against the inorganic semiconductor particle is 0.5 to 80% by mass.
 
17.  The semiconductor film according to any one of claims 12 to 16, wherein the inorganic semiconductor particle is a silicon particle.
 
18. The semiconductor film according to any one of claims 12 to 16, wherein the inorganic semiconductor particle is a compound semiconductor particle.
 
19. The semiconductor film according to claim 17, wherein an average particle size of the silicon particle is 0.1 to 400 µm.
 
20. The semiconductor film according to claim 18, wherein an average particle size of the compound semiconductor particle is 0.05 to 50 µm.
 
21. The semiconductor film according to any one of claims 12 to 20, wherein a content of the inorganic semiconductor particle is 20 to 99.5% by mass.
 
22. A semiconductor element comprising a layer comprising the semiconductor film according to any one of claims 12 to 21.
 
23. The semiconductor element according to claim 22, wherein the semiconductor element is a solar cell.
 
24. The semiconductor element according to claim 22 or 23, comprising:

a layer comprising the semiconductor film according to any one of claims 12 to 21; and

a layer comprising another semiconductor film having an opposite charge to a charge of the semiconductor film or another semiconductor layer having an opposite charge to the charge of the semiconductor film.


 
25. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 22 to 24, further comprising an electrode on the layer comprising the semiconductor film.
 
26. The semiconductor element according to claim 24, wherein the semiconductor element is a flexible semiconductor element.
 
27. A semiconductor element comprising:

a layer comprising the semiconductor film according to any one of claims 12 to 21;

a layer comprising another semiconductor film having an opposite charge to a charge of the semiconductor film; and

a junction interface layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more between the layer comprising the semiconductor film and the layer comprising another semiconductor film.


 
28. The semiconductor element according to claim 27, wherein the semiconductor element is a solar cell.
 
29. The semiconductor element according to claim 27 or 28, wherein the layer comprising the semiconductor film is a layer comprising a p-type semiconductor film, and the layer comprising another semiconductor film is a layer comprising an n-type semiconductor film.
 
30. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 27 to 29, further comprising an electrode on the layer comprising the semiconductor film.
 
31. A semiconductor element comprising:

a layer comprising the semiconductor film according to any one of claims 12 to 21;

a semiconductor layer; and

a junction interface layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more between the layer comprising the semiconductor film and the semiconductor layer.


 
32. The semiconductor element according to claim 31, wherein the semiconductor element is a solar cell.
 
33. The semiconductor element according to claim 31 or 32, wherein the layer comprising the semiconductor film is a layer comprising a p-type semiconductor film and the semiconductor layer is an n-type semiconductor layer, or the layer comprising the semiconductor film is a layer comprising an n-type semiconductor film and the semiconductor layer is a p-type semiconductor layer.
 
34. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 31 to 33, wherein the semiconductor layer is a titanium oxide layer.
 
35. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 31 to 33, wherein the semiconductor layer is a silicon wafer.
 
36. The semiconductor element according to claims 31 to 33, wherein the semiconductor layer is a compound semiconductor layer.
 
37. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 31 to 36, further comprising an electrode on the layer comprising the semiconductor film.
 
38. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 25, 30, and 37, wherein the inorganic semiconductor particle makes contact with the electrode.
 
39. A semiconductor element comprising:

a first semiconductor layer;

a second semiconductor layer; and

a junction interface layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more between the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer.


 
40. The semiconductor element according to claim 39, wherein the semiconductor element is a solar cell.
 
41. The semiconductor element according to claim 39 or 40, wherein the first semiconductor layer is a p-type semiconductor layer, and the second semiconductor layer is an n-type semiconductor layer.
 
42. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 39 to 41, wherein at least one of the semiconductor layers is a titanium oxide layer.
 
43. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 39 to 41, wherein at least one of the semiconductor layers is a silicon wafer.
 
44. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 39 to 41, wherein at least one of the semiconductor layers is a compound semiconductor layer.
 
45. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 27 to 44, wherein the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more and being contained in the junction interface layer is at least one selected from the group consisting of glycerin, thioglycerol, cyano group-containing organic compounds, and PVDF.
 
46. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 27 to 45, wherein a thickness of the junction interface layer is 0.03 to 500 µm.
 
47. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 27 to 46, wherein a transmittance of the junction interface layer is 35% or more.
 
48. The semiconductor element according to any one of claims 27 to 47, wherein a resistivity of the junction interface layer is 106 Ωcm or more.
 
49. A method for producing a semiconductor element comprising a step of obtaining a laminate having a layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more on a p-type semiconductor layer or an n-type semiconductor layer.
 
50. The method for producing a semiconductor element according to claim 49, wherein the semiconductor element is a solar cell.
 
51. The method for producing a semiconductor element according to claim 49 or 50, comprising:

the step of obtaining a laminate having a layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more on a p-type semiconductor layer or an n-type semiconductor layer;

a step of obtaining another laminate having another p-type semiconductor layer or another n-type semiconductor layer on an electrode; and

a step of sticking the laminate and the another laminate, with the layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more and the another p-type semiconductor layer or the another n-type semiconductor layer facing each other.


 
52. A method for producing a semiconductor element comprising:

a step of obtaining a laminate having, on an electrode, a p-type semiconductor layer or an n-type semiconductor layer, and a layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more in this order; and

a step of sticking another p-type semiconductor layer or another n-type semiconductor layer to the layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more.


 
53. The method for producing a semiconductor element according to claim 52, wherein the semiconductor element is a solar cell.
 
54. The method for producing a semiconductor element according to any one of claims 49 to 53, wherein the layer comprising a compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more is obtained by removing a volatile component from an application liquid comprising the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more.
 
55. The method for producing a semiconductor element according to any one of claims 49 to 54, wherein the compound having a relative permittivity of 2 or more is at least one selected from the group consisting of glycerin, thioglycerol, cyano group-containing organic compounds, and PVDF.
 




Drawing











































Search report













Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description