(19)
(11)EP 2 879 609 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
25.03.2020 Bulletin 2020/13

(21)Application number: 13770511.7

(22)Date of filing:  02.08.2013
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61B 34/30(2016.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/IB2013/056336
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/020571 (06.02.2014 Gazette  2014/06)

(54)

CONTROLLER DEFINITION OF A ROBOTIC REMOTE CENTER OF MOTION

STEUERUNGSDEFINITION FÜR EIN ROBOTERBEWEGUNGSZENTRUM

DÉFINITION D'UNITÉ DE COMMANDE D'UN CENTRE DE MOUVEMENT À DISTANCE ROBOTIQUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 02.08.2012 US 201261678708 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
10.06.2015 Bulletin 2015/24

(73)Proprietor: Koninklijke Philips N.V.
5656 AG Eindhoven (NL)

(72)Inventors:
  • ELHAWARY, Haytham
    NL-5656 AE Eindhoven (NL)
  • POPOVIC, Aleksandra
    NL-5656 AE Eindhoven (NL)

(74)Representative: Philips Intellectual Property & Standards 
High Tech Campus 5
5656 AE Eindhoven
5656 AE Eindhoven (NL)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2011/100110
US-B1- 6 493 608
US-A- 5 279 309
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention generally relates to robotic control of a spherical rotation of a surgical instrument about a fulcrum point relative to an anatomical port during minimally invasive surgery. The present invention specifically relates to a definition by a robot controller of a remote center of motion for the surgical instrument at the anatomical port during the minimally invasive surgery.

    [0002] Minimally invasive surgery is performed using one or more elongated surgical instruments inserted into a patient's body through small port(s). Of particular importance, a main visualization method for the minimally invasive surgery is an endoscope inserted into the patient's body through one of the small ports.

    [0003] In robotic guided minimally invasive surgery, one or more of the surgical instruments are held and controlled by a robotic device as the surgical instruments are inserted through the small ports. More particularly, the small ports that are placed on the patient's body are the only incision points through which the surgical instruments may pass through to access the inside of the patient. As such, the surgical instruments may rotate around these fulcrum points, but the surgical instrument cannot impose translational forces on the ports as this would cause injury and harm to the patient. This is especially important for robotic guided surgery, because the robot has potential to exert large translational forces on the ports.

    [0004] US Patent 6493608 describes a surgical method and the control system for a minimally invasive surgical apparatus. The method includes generating a desired surgical instrument movement command signal, which is subsequently compared with a preset surgical instrument movement limitation. If the desired surgical instrument command signal transgresses the preset surgical instrument movement limitation, the desired surgical instrument movement command signal is restricted to yield a restricted surgical instrument movement command signal. A surgical instrument is then caused to move in response to the restricted surgical instrument movement command signal.

    [0005] US Patent 5279309 describes a system including a manipulator for manipulating a surgical instrument relative to a patient's body and, a position sensor for sensing the position of the surgical instrument relative to the patient's body. The manipulator can be manually or computer actuated and can have brakes to limit movement. It may be possible to allow orthogonal only motion between members of the manipulator. The position sensor includes beacons connected to the patient and manipulator or surgical instrument, and a 3D beacon sensor adapted to sense the location and position of the beacons.

    [0006] Some robots implement what is known as a remote center of motion ("RCM") at a mechanical fulcrum point of a surgical instrument whereby the robot may only enforce rotation at the small port and all translational forces at the small port are eliminated. As known in the art, the RCM for a surgical instrument may be achieved by implementing a mechanical design of the robot that has a fixed RCM for the surgical instrument at a specific location within a coordinate system of the robot. For example, FIG. 1 illustrates a robot 30 having an end effector 31 holding an endoscope 20. The mechanical design of robot 30, particularly end effector 31, provides for a fixed RCM 32 for endoscope 20. During a minimally invasive surgery, RCM 32 is aligned with a small port of an anatomical region 10 of a patient within a coordinate frame 33 of robot 30 as shown in FIG. 1. This alignment facilitates a spherical rotation of endoscope 20 about RCM 32 without any significant translational forces being exerted on the small port.

    [0007] For robotic devices that do not have a remote center of motion inherent in the mechanism design, a robot controller must have the capability of defining a virtual remote center of motion is located in space in the coordinate frame of the robotic device and must have the capability to calculate the necessary motions of the robot in order to position the RCM in a manner that coincides with the anatomical port while avoiding any exertion of translational forces at that point in space. For example, as shown in FIG. 2, a robot 40 has an end effector 41 holding endoscope 20. Robot 40 does not have a mechanical RCM. A virtual RCM 21 for endoscope 20 therefore has to be defined for endoscope 20, which is navigated by robot 40 whereby virtual RCM 21 coincides with a port into anatomical region 10.

    [0008] To this end, the present invention provides robotic surgical systems for defining a virtual RCM in the coordinate frame of a robot and for aligning the virtual RCM with an anatomical port in an easy and non-disruptive manner.

    [0009] One form of the present invention is a robotic surgical system employing a surgical instrument, a robot for navigating the surgical instrument relative to an anatomical region within a coordinate system of the robot, and a robot controller for defining a remote center of motion for a spherical rotation of the surgical instrument within the coordinate system of the robot based on a physical location within the coordinate system of the robot of a port into the anatomical region. The definition of the remote center of rotation is used by the robot controller to command the robot to align the remote center of motion of the surgical instrument with the port into the anatomical region for spherically rotating the surgical instrument relative to the port into the anatomical region.

    [0010] In various embodiments of the robotic surgical system, the robot controller may defines the virtual remote center of motion by using a string potentiometer attached to the robot end effector, by locating the end effector tip at the port location, by using optical shape sensing fiber attached to the robot end effector, or by using compliance control of the robot and mathematical extraction of the remote center of motion.

    [0011] The foregoing forms and other forms of the present invention as well as various features and advantages of the present invention will become further apparent from the following detailed description of various embodiments of the present invention read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings. The detailed description and drawings are merely illustrative of the present invention rather than limiting, the scope of the present invention being defined by the appended claims.

    FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a mechanical remote center of motion as known in the art.

    FIG. 2 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a virtual remote center of motion in accordance with the present invention.

    FIG. 3 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a robotic surgical system in accordance with the present invention.

    FIG. 4 illustrates a flowchart representative of an exemplary embodiment of a robotic surgical method in accordance with the present invention.

    FIG. 5 illustrates a flowchart representative of an exemplary embodiment of a robotic surgical method in accordance with the present invention.

    FIG. 6 illustrates a flowchart representative of an exemplary embodiment of a robotic surgical method in accordance with the present invention.

    FIG. 7 illustrates a flowchart representative of an exemplary embodiment of a robotic surgical method in accordance with the present invention.



    [0012] As shown in FIG. 3, a robotic surgical system of the present invention employs robot 40, a surgical instrument in the form of endoscope 20 and a robot controller 43 for any type of medical procedure including, but not limited to, minimally invasive cardiac surgery (e.g., coronary artery bypass grafting or mitral valve replacement), minimally invasive abdominal surgery (laparoscopy) (e.g., prostatectomy or cholecystectomy), and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery.

    [0013] Robot 40 is broadly defined herein as any robotic device structurally configured with motorized control of one or more joints for maneuvering an end-effector 41 as desired for the particular medical procedure. In practice, robot 40 may have a minimum of five (5) degrees-of-freedom including an end-effector translation, an end-effector axis rotation, and three (3) degrees of rotational freedom of the joints.

    [0014] Endoscope 20 is broadly defined herein as any device having a field-of-view for imaging within anatomical region 10. Examples of endoscope 20 for purposes of the present invention include, but are not limited to, any type of scope, flexible or rigid (e.g., endoscope, arthroscope, bronchoscope, choledochoscope, colonoscope, cystoscope, duodenoscope, gastroscope, hysteroscope, laparoscope, laryngoscope, neuroscope, otoscope, push enteroscope, rhinolaryngoscope, sigmoidoscope, sinuscope, thorascope, etc.) and any device similar to a scope that is equipped with an image system (e.g., a nested cannula with imaging). The imaging is local, and surface images may be obtained optically with fiber optics, lenses, or miniaturized (e.g. CCD based) imaging systems.

    [0015] In practice, endoscope 20 is mounted to end-effector 41 of robot 40. A pose of end-effector 41 41 of robot 40 is a position and an orientation of end-effector 41 within a coordinate system 42 of robot 40. With endoscope 20 being inserted within anatomical region 10, any given pose of the field-of-view of endoscope 20 within the anatomical region 10 corresponds to a distinct pose of end-effector 41 within the robotic coordinate system 42. Consequently, each individual endoscopic image generated by endoscope 20 within the anatomical region 10 may be linked to a corresponding pose of endoscope 20 within the anatomical region 10.

    [0016] Robot controller 43 is broadly defined herein as any controller structurally configured to provide commands (not shown) to robot 40 for controlling a pose of end-effector 41 of robot 40 as desired for navigating endoscope 20 through a port 12 of anatomical region and for spherically rotating endoscope 20 about a virtual fulcrum point 21 upon a positioning of virtual fulcrum point 21 in a manner than partially or entirely coincides with port 12. For purposes of the present invention, a spherical rotation of endoscope 20 about virtual fulcrum point 21 is broadly defined as any rotational motion of endoscope 20 about virtual fulcrum point 21 in a fixed location of robotic coordinate system 42 without any significant wobble of endoscope 20 against port 12.

    [0017] In operation, robot controller 43 executes various exemplary robotic surgical methods to define a virtual remote center of motion for the spherical rotation endoscope 20 within robotic coordinate system 42 based on a physical location within robotic coordinate system 42 of anatomical port 12 and to align the remote center of motion of endoscope 20 with anatomical port 12 for spherically rotating endoscope 20 relative to anatomical port 12. A description of various methods represented by flowcharts shown in FIGS. 4-7 will now be described herein to facilitate an understanding of the operation of robot controller 43.

    [0018] A flowchart 50 as shown in FIG. 4 is representative of robotic surgical method of the present invention directed to the use of a potentiometer to define the RCM for endoscope 20. Referring to FIG. 4, a stage S51 of flowchart 50 encompasses a calibration of a string potentiometer 60 that is mounted unto end effector 41 of endoscope 40. Potentiometer 60 employs a spool 61, a rotational sensor 62, a torsion spring 63, a flexible cable 64 and a coupler 65 as known in the art for providing a voltage proportional to an extension of cable 64 over a distance D. Upon being mounted on end effector 41, potentiometer 60 is registered in robotic coordinate system 42 as known in the art to thereby have a calibrated location within robotic coordinate system 42 as endoscope 20 is navigated via robot 20 within robotic coordinate system 42.

    [0019] A stage S52 of flowchart 50 encompasses robot controller 43 calculating the distance D over which cable 64 has been extended to facilitate a determination of a virtual fulcrum point 21 of endoscope 20. In one embodiment of stage S52, cable 64 is pulled and attached via coupler 65 to a desired location of virtual fulcrum point 21 along endoscope 20 whereby the distance D together with the current joint positions of robot 40 are used conjunction with the robot kinematics by robot controller 43 to define the exact physical location of virtual fulcrum point 21 within robotic coordinate system 42. Thereafter, robot controller 43 commands robot 40 to navigate endoscope 20 whereby the physical location of virtual fulcrum point 21 within robotic coordinate system 42 partially or entirely coincides with the physical location of anatomical port 12 (FIG. 3) within robotic coordinate system 42.

    [0020] In an alternative embodiment of stage S52, robot controller 43 commands robot 40 to navigate endoscope 20 whereby a desired location of virtual fulcrum point 21 within robotic coordinate system 42 partially or entirely coincides with anatomical port 12. Thereafter, cable 64 is pulled and attached via coupler 65 to the desired location of virtual fulcrum point 21 along endoscope 20 whereby the distance D together with the current joint positions of robot 40 are used conjunction with the robot kinematics by robot controller 43 to define the exact physical location of virtual fulcrum point 21 within robotic coordinate system 42.

    [0021] A flowchart 70 as shown in FIG. 5 is representative of robotic surgical method of the present invention directed to a use of locating distal tip 22 (FIG. 3) of endoscope 20 at the physical location of anatomical port 12. Referring to FIG. 5, a stage S71 of flowchart 70 encompasses robot controller 43 commanding robot 40 to navigate distal tip 22 of endoscope 20 to anatomical port 12 as known in the art whereby current joint positions of robot 40 are used conjunction with the robot kinematics by robot controller 43 to define the exact physical location of anatomical port 12 within robotic coordinate system 42.

    [0022] Stage S72 of flowchart 70 encompasses robot controller 43 calculating a distance from anatomical port 12 to a desired virtual fulcrum point on endoscope 20. In practice, the distance D ranges from zero whereby the desired virtual fulcrum point coincides with the physical location of anatomical port 12 to a maximum distance between the distal tip of endoscope 20 and the end effector of robot 40. Based on the distance D from anatomical port 12 to a desired virtual fulcrum point on endoscope 20, the current joint positions of robot 40 with the distal tip of endoscope 20 at anatomical port 12 are used conjunction with the robot kinematics by robot controller 43 to define the exact physical location of virtual fulcrum point 21 within robotic coordinate system 42. As such, robot controller 43 commands robot 40 to endoscope 20 relative to anatomical port 12 whereby the virtual fulcrum point partially or entirely coincides with anatomical port 12.

    [0023] A flowchart 80 as shown in FIG. 6 is representative of robotic surgical method of the present invention directed to the use of a shape sensing optical fiber to define the RCM for endoscope 20. Referring to FIG. 6, a stage S81 of flowchart 80 encompasses a calibration of a shape sensing optical fiber 90 that is mounted unto end effector 41 of robot 40. Shape sensing optical fiber 90 employs Fiber Bragg Gratings 92 or other optical shape sensing capability within a fiber core 91 as known in the art for providing optical signals indicative of a shape of optical fibers 90 within robotic coordinate system 42. Upon having a proximal end mounted on end effector 41, shape sensing optical fiber 90 is registered in robotic coordinate system 42 as known in the art to thereby have a calibrated location within robotic coordinate system 42 as endoscope 20 is navigated via robot 40 within robotic coordinate system 42.

    [0024] A stage S82 of flowchart 80 encompasses robot controller 43 calculating the distance D between the mounted proximal end of optical fiber 90 and a distal end of optical fiber 90 to facilitate a determination of a virtual fulcrum point 21 of endoscope 20. In one embodiment of stage S82, the distal end of optical fiber 90 is coupled to a desired location of virtual fulcrum point 21 along endoscope 20 whereby a sensed shape of optical fiber 90 as known in the art provides for the distance D, which together with the current joint positions of robot 40 are used conjunction with the robot kinematics by robot controller 43 to define the exact physical location of virtual fulcrum point 21 within robotic coordinate system 42. Thereafter, robot controller 43 commands robot 40 to navigate endoscope 20 whereby the physical location of virtual fulcrum point 21 within robotic coordinate system 42 partially or entirely coincides with the physical location of anatomical port 12 (FIG. 3) within robotic coordinate system 42.

    [0025] In an alternative embodiment of stage S82, robot controller 43 commands robot 40 to navigate endoscope 40 whereby a desired location of virtual fulcrum point 21 within robotic coordinate system 42 partially or entirely coincides with anatomical port 12 (FIG. 5). Thereafter, the distal end of optical fiber 90 is coupled to the desired location of virtual fulcrum point 21 along endoscope 20 whereby the distance D (FIG. 4) together with the current joint positions of robot 40 are used conjunction with the robot kinematics by robot controller 43 to define the exact physical location of virtual fulcrum point 21 within robotic coordinate system 42.

    [0026] A flowchart 100 as shown in FIG. 7 is representative of robotic surgical method of the present invention directed locating distal tip 22 of endoscope 20 to a desired depth within anatomical region 10 to utilize compliance control of the robot and mathematical extraction of the remote center of motion. Specifically, force and torque sensors (not shown) located on robot 40 allows robot 40 to be manually moved with little or no effort. The compliance control works by using the force and torque sensors that sense the force a user exerts on the robot 40 and by using the dynamic model of robot 40 to convert those forces and torques into acceleration at the joints to thereby move robot 40.

    [0027] Referring to FIG. 7, a stage S101 of flowchart 100 encompasses robot controller 43 commanding robot 40 to navigate distal tip 22 of endoscope 20 through anatomical port 11 to a desired depth as known in the art. Upon reaching the depth, the user slowly moves the robot in a manner that pivots endoscope 20 around the anatomical port as exemplary shown in FIG. 7. By obtaining the joint motions and calibrated positions 22a-22c of distal tip 22 of endoscope 20 and using forward kinematics during this motion, robot controller 43 mathematically calculates virtual fulcrum point 21 during a stage S102 of flowchart 100. In one embodiment of stage S102, the calibrated locations 22a-22c of distal tip 22 of endoscope 20 from time t0 to t3 as given by the robot kinematics is stored and their calibrated positions are used to solve an error minimization problem that finds the point 21 that is equidistant from all calibrated positions 22a-22c.

    [0028] In practice, embodiments of a potentiometer and an optical fiber alternative to the embodiments shown in FIGS. 4 and 6 may be utilized in the implementation of a robotic surgical method of the present invention.

    [0029] Again, in practice, robot controller 43 may be implemented by any configuration of hardware, software and/or firmware for executing the robotic surgical methods of the present invention, particularly the methods shown in FIGS. 4-7.

    [0030] Also, in practice, any selection of a desired virtual fulcrum point is dependent upon many factors, such as, for example, a required depth of the surgical instrument into the anatomical region for purposes of performing a surgical task and the structural configuration of the surgical instrument relative to the anatomical structure of the patient.

    [0031] From the description of FIGS. 1-7 herein, those having ordinary skill in the art will appreciate the numerous benefits of the present invention including, but not limited to, a robot controller capable of defining a virtual RCM for a surgical instrument (e.g., endoscope) mounted on an end-effector of a robot designed with or without a mechanical RCM.

    [0032] Although the present invention has been described with reference to exemplary aspects, features and implementations, the disclosed systems and methods are not limited to such exemplary aspects, features and/or implementations.


    Claims

    1. A robotic surgical system, comprising:

    a surgical instrument (20);

    a robot (40) operably configured to navigate the surgical instrument (20) relative to an anatomical region (10) within a coordinate system (42) of the robot (40); and

    a robot controller (43) configured to provide commands to the robot for controlling a pose of an end-effector (41) of the robot (40);

    characterized in that

    the robot controller (43) is operably configured to define a remote center of motion for a spherical rotation of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) based on a physical location within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) of a port (12) into the anatomical region (10), and

    the robot controller (43) is further operably configured to command the robot (40) to align the previously defined remote center of motion of the surgical instrument (20) with the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) for spherically rotating the surgical instrument (20) relative to the port (12) into the anatomical region (10).


     
    2. The robotic surgical system of claim 1, wherein the surgical instrument (20) is an endoscope.
     
    3. The robotic surgical system of claim 1, wherein:

    the definition of the remote center of motion includes a calculation of a distance from a calibrated location of an end effector (41) of the robot (40) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) to a physical location of a virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40); and

    the alignment of the remote center of motion of the surgical instrument (20) with the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) includes the physical location of the virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) at least partially coinciding to the physical location of the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40).


     
    4. The robotic surgical system of claim 1, wherein:

    the definition of the remote center of motion includes a calculation of a distance from a calibrated location of a potentiometer (60) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) to a physical location of a virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) established by an attachment of the potentiometer (60) to an end effector (41) of the robot (40) and to the surgical instrument (20); and

    the alignment of the remote center of motion of the surgical instrument (20) with the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) includes the physical location of the virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) at least partially coinciding to the physical location of the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40).


     
    5. The robotic surgical system of claim 4, wherein the potentiometer (60) includes a string (64) attached to the surgical instrument (20) adjacent the virtual fulcrum point (21) prior to the physical location of the virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) at least partially coinciding to the physical location of the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40).
     
    6. The robotic surgical system of claim 4, wherein the potentiometer (60) includes a string (64) attached to the surgical instrument (20) adjacent the virtual fulcrum point (21) subsequent to the physical location of the virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) at least partially coinciding to the physical location of the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40).
     
    7. The robotic surgical system of claim 1, wherein:

    the definition of the remote center of motion includes a calculation of a distance of from a calibrated location of a distal tip (22) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) to a physical location of a virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40); and

    the alignment of the remote center of motion of the surgical instrument (20) with a port (12) into the anatomical region (10) includes the physical location of the virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) at least partially coinciding to the physical location of the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40).


     
    8. The robotic surgical system of claim 7, wherein the definition of the remote center of motion further includes the calibrated location of the distal tip (22) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) at least partially coinciding to the physical location of the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40).
     
    9. The robotic surgical system of claim 7, wherein the alignment of the remote center of motion of the surgical instrument (20) with a port (12) into the anatomical region (10) includes a navigation of the surgical instrument (20) by the robot (40) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) as commanded by robot controller (43) based on the calculated distance from the calibrated location of the distal tip (22) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) to the physical location of the virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20).
     
    10. The robotic surgical system of claim 1, wherein:

    the definition of the remote center of motion includes a calculation of distance from a calibrated location of an optical fiber (90) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) to a physical location of a virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) established by an attachment of the optical fiber (90) to an end effector (41) of the robot (40) and to the surgical instrument (20); and

    the alignment of the remote center of motion of the surgical instrument (20) with a port (12) into the anatomical region (10) includes the physical location of the virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) at least partially coinciding to the physical location of the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40).


     
    11. The robotic surgical system of claim 10, wherein the optical fiber (90) is attached to the surgical instrument (20) adjacent the virtual fulcrum point (21) prior to the physical location of the virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) at least partially coinciding to the physical location of the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40).
     
    12. The robotic surgical system of claim 10, wherein the optical fiber (90) is attached to the surgical instrument (20) adjacent the virtual fulcrum point (21) subsequent to the physical location of the virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) at least partially coinciding to the physical location of the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40).
     
    13. The robotic surgical system of claim 1, wherein:

    the definition of the remote center of motion includes a calculation of an equidistance of a virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) to a plurality of calibrated positions of a distal tip (22) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) to determine a physical location of the virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40); and

    the alignment of the remote center of motion of the surgical instrument (20) with a port (12) into the anatomical region (10) includes a physical location of the virtual fulcrum point (21) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) at least partially coinciding to the physical location of the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40).


     
    14. The robotic surgical system of claim 13, wherein the definition of the remote center of motion further includes:
    a manual rotation of the surgical instrument (20) relative to the physical location of the port (12) into the anatomical region (10) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) to move the distal tip (22) of the surgical instrument (20) to each of the calibrated positions of the distal tip (22) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40).
     
    15. The robotic surgical system of claim 13, wherein the definition of the remote center of motion further includes:
    an execution of an error minimization of the calibrated positions of the distal tip (22) of the surgical instrument (20) within the coordinate system (42) of the robot (40) to determine the virtual fulcrum point (21) as an equidistance from the calibrated positions of the distal tip (22) of the surgical instrument (20).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Chirurgisches Robotersystem, umfassend:
    ein chirurgisches Instrument (20);
    einen Roboter (40), der betriebsmäßig konfiguriert ist, um das chirurgische Instrument (20) in Bezug auf einen anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb eines Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zu navigieren; und
    eine Robotersteuerung (43), die konfiguriert ist, um für den Roboter Befehle zum Steuern einer Pose eines Endeffektors (41) des Roboters (40) bereitzustellen;
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass
    die Robotersteuerung (43) betriebsmäßig konfiguriert ist, um ein entferntes Bewegungszentrum für eine kugelförmige Drehung des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zu definieren basierend auf einem physischen Ort einer Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zu definieren, und
    die Robotersteuerung (43) weiter betriebsmäßig konfiguriert ist, um dem Roboter (40) zu befehlen, das zuvor definierte entfernte Bewegungszentrum des chirurgischen Instruments (20) mit der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) zum kugelförmigen Drehen des chirurgischen Instruments (20) in Bezug auf die Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) auszurichten.
     
    2. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 1, wobei das chirurgische Instrument (20) ein Endoskop ist.
     
    3. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 1, wobei:

    die Definition des entfernten Bewegungszentrums eine Berechnung eines Abstands von einem kalibrierten Ort eines Endeffektors (41) des Roboters (40) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zu einem physischen Ort eines virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) aufweist; und

    die Ausrichtung des entfernten Bewegungszentrums des chirurgischen Instruments (20) mit der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) aufweist, dass der physische Ort des virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb der Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zumindest teilweise mit dem physischen Ort der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zusammenfällt.


     
    4. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 1, wobei:

    die Definition des entfernten Bewegungszentrums eine Berechnung eines Abstands von einem kalibrierten Ort eines Potentiometers (60) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zu einem physischen Ort eines virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) aufweist, der durch eine Befestigung des Potentiometers (60) an einem Endeffektor (41) des Roboters (40) und an dem chirurgischen Instrument (20) festgelegt ist; und

    die Ausrichtung des entfernten Bewegungszentrums des chirurgischen Instruments (20) mit der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) aufweist, dass der physische Ort des virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb der Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zumindest teilweise mit dem physischen Ort der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zusammenfällt.


     
    5. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 4, wobei das Potentiometer (60) eine Schnur (64) umfasst, die an dem chirurgischen Instrument (20) benachbart zu dem virtuellen Drehpunkt (21) befestigt ist, vor dem physischen Ort des virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40), der zumindest teilweise mit dem physischen Ort der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zusammenfällt.
     
    6. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 4, wobei das Potentiometer (60) eine Schnur (64) umfasst, die an dem chirurgischen Instrument (20) benachbart zu dem virtuellen Drehpunkt (21) befestigt ist, nachfolgend dem physischen Ort des virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40), der zumindest teilweise mit dem physischen Ort der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zusammenfällt.
     
    7. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 1, wobei:
    die Definition des entfernten Bewegungszentrums eine Berechnung eines Abstands von einem kalibrierten Ort einer distalen Spitze (22) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zu einem physischen Ort eines virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) aufweist; und
    die Ausrichtung des entfernten Bewegungszentrums des chirurgischen Instruments (20) mit einer Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) aufweist, dass der physische Ort des virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb der Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zumindest teilweise mit dem physischen Ort der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zusammenfällt.
     
    8. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 7, wobei die Definition des entfernten Bewegungszentrums weiter aufweist, dass der kalibrierte Ort der distalen Spitze (22) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zumindest teilweise mit dem physischen Ort der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zusammenfällt.
     
    9. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 7, wobei die Ausrichtung des entfernten Bewegungszentrums des chirurgischen Instruments (20) mit einer Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) eine Navigation des chirurgischen Instruments (20) durch den Roboter (40) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) aufweist, wie durch die Robotersteuerung (43) basierend auf dem berechneten Abstand von dem kalibrierten Ort der distalen Spitze (22) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zu dem physischen Ort des virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) befohlen.
     
    10. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 1, wobei:

    die Definition des entfernten Bewegungszentrums eine Berechnung eines Abstands von einem kalibrierten Ort einer optischen Faser (90) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zu einem physischen Ort eines virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) aufweist, der durch eine Befestigung der optischen Faser (90) an einem Endeffektor (41) des Roboters (40) und an dem chirurgischen Instrument (20) festgelegt ist; und

    die Ausrichtung des entfernten Bewegungszentrums des chirurgischen Instruments (20) mit einer Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) aufweist, dass der physische Ort des virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb der Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zumindest teilweise mit dem physischen Ort der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zusammenfällt.


     
    11. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 10, wobei die optische Faser (90) benachbart zu dem virtuellen Drehpunkt (21) an dem chirurgischen Instrument (20) befestigt ist, vor dem physischen Ort des virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40), der zumindest teilweise mit dem physischen Ort der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zusammenfällt.
     
    12. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 10, wobei die optische Faser (90) benachbart zu dem virtuellen Drehpunkt (21) an dem chirurgischen Instrument (20) befestigt ist, nachfolgend dem physischen Ort des virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40), der zumindest teilweise mit dem physischen Ort der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zusammenfällt.
     
    13. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 1, wobei:

    die Definition des entfernten Bewegungszentrums eine Berechnung eines gleichen Abstands eines virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) zu einer Mehrzahl von kalibrierten Positionen einer distalen Spitze (22) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) aufweist, um einen physischen Ort des virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zu bestimmen; und

    die Ausrichtung des entfernten Bewegungszentrums des chirurgischen Instruments (20) mit einer Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) aufweist, dass ein physischer Ort des virtuellen Drehpunkts (21) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb der Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zumindest teilweise mit dem physischen Ort der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zusammenfällt.


     
    14. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 13, wobei die Definition des entfernten Bewegungszentrums weiter aufweist:
    eine manuelle Drehung des chirurgischen Instruments (20) in Bezug auf den physischen Ort der Öffnung (12) in den anatomischen Bereich (10) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40), um die distale Spitze (22) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) zu jeder der kalibrierten Positionen der distalen Spitze (22) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40) zu bewegen.
     
    15. Chirurgisches Robotersystem nach Anspruch 13, wobei die Definition des entfernten Bewegungszentrums weiter aufweist:
    eine Ausführung einer Fehlerminimierung der kalibrierten Positionen der distalen Spitze (22) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) innerhalb des Koordinatensystems (42) des Roboters (40), um den virtuellen Drehpunkt (21) als einen gleichen Abstand von den kalibrierten Positionen der distalen Spitze (22) des chirurgischen Instruments (20) zu bestimmen.
     


    Revendications

    1. Système chirurgical robotique, comprenant :

    un instrument chirurgical (20) ;

    un robot (40) configuré fonctionnellement pour faire naviguer l'instrument chirurgical (20) par rapport à une région anatomique (10) dans un système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) ; et

    une unité de commande de robot (43) configurée pour fournir des ordres au robot pour commander une posture d'un effecteur terminal (41) du robot (40) ;

    caractérisé en ce que

    l'unité de commande de robot (43) est configurée fonctionnellement pour définir un centre à distance d'un mouvement de rotation sphérique de l'instrument chirurgical (20) dans le système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) sur la base d'un emplacement physique à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) d'un orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10), et

    l'unité de commande de robot (43) est en outre configurée fonctionnellement pour ordonner au robot (40) d'aligner le centre de mouvement à distance précédemment défini de l'instrument chirurgical (20) avec l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) pour faire tourner de façon sphérique l'instrument chirurgical (20) par rapport à l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10).


     
    2. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'instrument chirurgical (20) est un endoscope.
     
    3. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 1, dans lequel :

    la définition du centre de mouvement à distance inclut un calcul d'une distance depuis un emplacement étalonné d'un effecteur terminal (41) du robot (40) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) à un emplacement physique d'un point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) ; et

    l'alignement du centre de mouvement à distance de l'instrument chirurgical (20) avec l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) inclut l'emplacement physique du point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) coïncidant au moins partiellement avec l'emplacement physique de l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40).


     
    4. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 1, dans lequel :

    la définition du centre de mouvement à distance inclut un calcul d'une distance depuis un emplacement étalonné d'un potentiomètre (60) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) à un emplacement physique d'un point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) établi par une fixation du potentiomètre (60) à un effecteur terminal (41) du robot (40) et à l'instrument chirurgical (20) ; et

    l'alignement du centre de mouvement à distance de l'instrument chirurgical (20) avec l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) inclut l'emplacement physique du point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) coïncidant au moins partiellement avec l'emplacement physique de l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40).


     
    5. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 4, dans lequel le potentiomètre (60) inclut un cordon (64) fixé à l'instrument chirurgical (20) au niveau adjacent du point d'appui virtuel (21) avant l'emplacement physique du point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) coïncidant au moins partiellement avec l'emplacement physique de l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40).
     
    6. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 4, dans lequel le potentiomètre (60) inclut un cordon (64) fixé à l'instrument chirurgical (20) au niveau adjacent du point d'appui virtuel (21) après l'emplacement physique du point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) coïncidant au moins partiellement avec l'emplacement physique de l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40).
     
    7. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 1, dans lequel :

    la définition du centre de mouvement à distance inclut un calcul d'une distance depuis un emplacement étalonné d'une pointe distale (22) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) à un emplacement physique d'un point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) ; et

    l'alignement du centre de mouvement à distance de l'instrument chirurgical (20) avec un orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) inclut l'emplacement physique du point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) coïncidant au moins partiellement avec l'emplacement physique de l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40).


     
    8. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 7, dans lequel la définition du centre de mouvement à distance inclut en outre l'emplacement étalonné de la pointe distale (22) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) coïncidant au moins partiellement avec l'emplacement physique de l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40).
     
    9. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 7, dans lequel l'alignement du centre de mouvement à distance de l'instrument chirurgical (20) avec un orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) inclut une navigation de l'instrument chirurgical (20) par le robot (40) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) commandée par une unité de commande de robot (43) sur la base de la distance calculée depuis l'emplacement étalonné de la pointe distale (22) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) à l'emplacement physique du point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20).
     
    10. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 1, dans lequel :

    la définition du centre de mouvement à distance inclut un calcul de distance depuis un emplacement étalonné d'une fibre optique (90) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) à un emplacement physique d'un point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) établi par une fixation de la fibre optique (90) à un effecteur terminal (41) du robot (40) et à l'instrument chirurgical (20) ; et

    l'alignement du centre de mouvement à distance de l'instrument chirurgical (20) avec un orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) inclut l'emplacement physique du point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) coïncidant au moins partiellement avec l'emplacement physique de l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40).


     
    11. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 10, dans lequel la fibre optique (90) est fixée à l'instrument chirurgical (20) au niveau adjacent du point d'appui virtuel (21) avant l'emplacement physique du point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) coïncidant au moins partiellement avec l'emplacement physique de l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40).
     
    12. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 10, dans lequel la fibre optique (90) est fixée à l'instrument chirurgical (20) au niveau adjacent du point d'appui virtuel (21) après l'emplacement physique du point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) coïncidant au moins partiellement avec l'emplacement physique de l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40).
     
    13. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 1, dans lequel :

    la définition du centre de mouvement à distance inclut un calcul d'une équidistance d'un point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) par rapport à une pluralité de positions étalonnées d'une pointe distale (22) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) pour déterminer un emplacement physique du point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) ; et

    l'alignement du centre de mouvement à distance de l'instrument chirurgical (20) avec un orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) inclut un emplacement physique du point d'appui virtuel (21) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) coïncidant au moins partiellement avec l'emplacement physique de l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40).


     
    14. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 13, dans lequel la définition du centre de mouvement à distance inclut en outre :
    une rotation manuelle de l'instrument chirurgical (20) par rapport à l'emplacement physique de l'orifice (12) dans la région anatomique (10) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) pour déplacer la pointe distale (22) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) vers chacune des positions étalonnées de la pointe distale (22) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40).
     
    15. Système chirurgical robotique selon la revendication 13, dans lequel la définition du centre de mouvement à distance inclut en outre :
    une exécution d'une réduction au minimum d'erreur des positions étalonnées de la pointe distale (22) de l'instrument chirurgical (20) à l'intérieur du système de coordonnées (42) du robot (40) pour déterminer le point d'appui virtuel (21) en tant qu'équidistance depuis les positions étalonnées de la pointe distale (22) de l'instrument chirurgical (20).
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description