(19)
(11)EP 2 892 347 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
14.08.2019 Bulletin 2019/33

(21)Application number: 13765847.2

(22)Date of filing:  04.09.2013
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A01N 43/90  (2006.01)
A01P 7/00  (2006.01)
A61K 31/506  (2006.01)
A01N 43/54  (2006.01)
A61K 31/422  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2013/057925
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/039475 (13.03.2014 Gazette  2014/11)

(54)

SPIROCYCLIC ISOXAZOLINE PARASITICIDAL COMBINATIONS

SPIROCYCLISCHE PARASITIZIDE ISOXAZOLINKOMBINATIONEN

COMBINAISONS ANTIPARASITAIRES D'ISOXAZOLINE SPIROCYCLIQUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME

(30)Priority: 07.09.2012 US 201261698116 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
15.07.2015 Bulletin 2015/29

(73)Proprietor: Zoetis Services LLC
Parsippany, NJ 07054 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • CHUBB, Nathan Anthony Logan
    Florham Park, New Jersey 07932 (US)
  • EVANS, Kevin
    Florham Park, New Jersey 07932 (US)
  • McTIER, Tom L.
    Florham Park, New Jersey 07932 (US)
  • MEEUS, Patrick F.M.
    Florham Park, New Jersey 07932 (US)

(74)Representative: Mannion, Sally Kim 
Zoetis European Patent Department Walton Oaks, Dorking Road
Tadworth Surrey KT20 7NS
Tadworth Surrey KT20 7NS (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2012/060317
WO-A1-2014/036056
WO-A1-2012/120399
US-A1- 2012 035 122
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention relates to a novel antiparasitic composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, also known as Compound A, or a pharmaceutical or veterinary acceptable salt thereof, b) moxidectin, and c) pyrantel pamoate; compositions thereof, and the treatment of an animal with a parasitic infection with said composition.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0002] The compounds of Formula (1)

    were previously shown to be potent antiparasiticides. The Formula (1) compounds and Formula (1.1) compound (shown below), preparation, compositions, and methods of use thereof are described in WO2012/120399. The (S)-enantiomer of the Formula (1.1) compound is also referred to herein as Compound A. Additionally, the crystal form of Compound A (Form A) was described in PCT/US2013/56945. US2012/035122 and WO2012/060317 were cited in the ISR however, neither patent application discloses the spirocyclic isoxazoline compounds of the present invention. Compound A or the (S)-enantiomer of the Formula (1.1) compound is (S)-1-(5'-(5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl)-3'H-spiro[azetidine-3,1'-isobenzofuran]-1-yl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethanone).

    [0003] The object of the invention is, in particular, to use known parasiticides in order to prepare a composition which is highly effective against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. In many instances, parasiticidal combinations are used as a means of broadening the scope of efficacy on different parasites, generally endoparasites or ectoparasites, including those that may be showing resistance to a single agent. In some cases, the combination provides an unexpected scope of activity against the parasite that would not have been anticipated by the addition of another veterinary agent (i.e., a synergistic effect).

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0004] The present invention relates to a novel antiparasitic composition comprising a) the S-isomer of Formula (1.1), i.e., 1-(5'-(5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl)-3'H-spiro[azetidine-3,1'-isobenzofuran]-1-yl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethanone,

    or a pharmaceutical or veterinary acceptable salt thereof; b) moxidectin, and c) pyrantel pamoate.

    [0005] The compound (S)-1-(5'-(5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl) -5-trifluoromethyl) -4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl)-3'H-spiro[azetidine-3,1'-isobenzofuran]-1-yl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethanone is also known as Compound A.

    [0006] Each of the aforementioned and/or subsequent compositions optionally includes at least one pharmaceutical or veterinary acceptable carrier. Further, each of the aforementioned and/or subsequent compositions includes at least one pharmaceutical or veterinary acceptable carrier.

    [0007] The invention also contemplates a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) moxidectin, and c) pyrantel pamoate.

    [0008] Also disclosed herein is a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) moxidectin, and optionally, c) at least one additional veterinary agent.

    [0009] Also disclosed herein is a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) moxidectin, and c) at least one additional veterinary agent.

    [0010] Also disclosed herein is a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) moxidectin, and c) pyrantel pamoate, oxantel, morantel, novaluron, imidacloprid, febantel, piperazine citrate, niclosamide, lufenuron, nitenpyram, oxibendazole, fenbendazole, fipronil, and amitraz, or any combination thereof.

    [0011] The invention contemplates a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) moxidectin, and c) pyrantel pamoate.

    [0012] Also disclosed herein is a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) selamectin, and optionally, c) at least one additional veterinary agent.

    [0013] Also disclosed herein is a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) milbemycin or milbemycin oxime, and optionally, c) at least one additional veterinary agent.

    [0014] Also disclosed herein is a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) moxidectin, selamectin, milbemycin or milbemycin oxime, and optionally, c) praziquantel or epsiprantel.

    [0015] Further disclosed herein is a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising effective amounts of the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, macrocyclic lactone or derivative thereof, and least one additional veterinary agent.

    [0016] The invention also contemplates a composition for use in treating a parasitic infection or infestation in an animal, in need thereof, comprising administering a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) moxidectin, and c) pyrantel pamoate.

    [0017] Also disclosed herein is a composition for use in treating a parasitic infection or infestation in an animal, in need thereof, comprising administering a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) moxidectin, milbemycin, milbemycin oxime, or selamectin, and optionally, c) at least one additional veterinary agent.

    [0018] Also disclosed herein is a composition for use in treating a parasitic infection or infestation in an animal, in need thereof, comprising administering a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) moxidectin, milbemycin, milbemycin oxime, or selamectin, and c) at least one additional veterinary agent.

    [0019] Also described herein, is a veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising effective amounts of a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) a macrocyclic lactone or derivative thereof, and optionally, c) at least one additional veterinary agent, for use as a medicament.

    [0020] Also disclosed herein the veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) a macrocyclic lactone or derivative thereof, and optionally, c) at least one additional veterinary agent, for use in the treatment of a parasitic infection or infestation in an animal, in need thereof, by administering an effective amount of each active agent to an animal in need thereof.

    [0021] Also disclosed herein the macrocyclic lactone, or derivative thereof, is selected from the group consisting of: ivermectin, emamectin, selamectin, doramectin, moxidectin, abamectin, eprinomectin, milbemycin, and milbemycine oxime.

    [0022] Also disclosed herein the additional veterinary agent is selected from the group consisting of: monepantel, tetrahydropyrimidines (e.g., pyrantel (pamoate, embonate, citrate, and tartrate salts), oxantel, morantel, and the like), febantel, piperazine citrate, niclosamide, fenbendazole, oxibendazole, mebendazole, flubendazole, dichlorvos, imidacloprid, an insect growth regulator (e.g., s-methoprene, hydroprene, praziquantel, epsiprantel, azadirachtin, diofenolan, fenoxycarb, kinoprene, and the like), chitin synthesis inhibitors (e.g., chlorfluazuron, cryomazine, diflubenzuron, fluazuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron, tebufonozide, novaluron, teflubenzuron, triflumuron, and the like), and nitenpyram.

    [0023] Also disclosed herein the veterinary or pharmaceutical composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, b) a macrocyclic lactone or derivative thereof, and optionally, c) at least one additional veterinary agent is administered to an animal in need thereof by oral, topical, or injectable (subcutaneous, intramuscularly, and intravenously) routes of administration. Preferred routes of administration are oral and topical.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0024] For purposes of the present invention, as described and claimed herein, the following terms and phrases are defined as follows:

    "Additional veterinary agent(s)" as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, refers to other veterinary or pharmaceutical compounds or products that provide a therapeutically effective amount of said agents that are useful for the treatment of a parasitic infection in an animal, as described herein.

    "Animal(s)", as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, refers to an individual animal that is a mammal, bird, or fish. Specifically, mammal refers to a vertebrate animal that is human and non-human, which are members of the taxonomic class Mammalia. Non-exclusive examples of non-human mammals include companion animals and livestock. Non-exclusive examples of a companion animal include: dog, cat, llama, and horse. Preferred companion animals are dog, cat, and horse. More preferred is dog. Non-exclusive examples of livestock include: swine, camel, rabbits, goat, sheep, deer, elk, bovine (cattle), and bison. Preferred livestock is cattle and swine. Specifically, bird refers to a vertebrate animal of the taxonomic class Aves. Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic, and egg-laying. Non-exclusive examples of bird include, poultry (e.g., chicken, turkey, duck, and geese), all of which are also referred to herein as fowl.

    "Composition of the present invention", as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, refers to a composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound, or a pharmaceutical or veterinary acceptable salt thereof (also known as Compound A); including the free base of the compound, b) moxidectin, and c) pyrantel pamoate. The composition further comprises at least one pharmaceutical or veterinary acceptable carrier.

    Parasite(s)", as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, refers to endoparasites and ectoparasites. Endoparasites are parasites that live within the body of its host and include helminths (e.g., trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes) and protozoa. Ectoparasites are organisms of the Arthropoda phylum (e.g., arachnids, insects, and crustaceans (e.g., copepods-sea lice) which feed through or upon the skin of its host. Preferred arachnids are of the order Acarina, e.g., ticks and mites. Preferred insects are midges, fleas, mosquitoes, biting flies (stable fly, horn fly, blow fly, horse fly, and the like), bed bugs, and lice. Preferred compounds of the present invention can be used for the treatment of parasites, i.e., treatment of a parasitic infection or infestation.

    "Therapeutically effective amount", or "effective amount" as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, refers to an amount of the compounds of the present invention that (i) treat the particular parasitic infection or infestation, (ii) attenuates, ameliorates, or eliminates one or more symptoms of the particular parasitic infection or infestation, or (iii) prevents or delays the onset of one or more symptoms of the particular parasitic infection or infestation described herein.

    "Treatment", "treating", and the like, as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, refers to reversing, alleviating, or inhibiting the parasitic infection, infestation, or condition. As used herein, these terms also encompass, depending on the condition of the animal, preventing the onset of a disorder or condition, or of symptoms associated with a disorder or condition, including reducing the severity of a disorder or condition or symptoms associated therewith prior to affliction with said infection or infestation. Thus, treatment can refer to administration of the compounds of the present invention to an animal that is not at the time of administration afflicted with the infection or infestation. Treating also encompasses preventing the recurrence of an infection or infestation or of symptoms associated therewith as well as references to "control" (e.g., kill, repel, expel, incapacitate, deter, eliminate, alleviate, minimize, and eradicate).

    "Veterinary acceptable" as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, indicates that the substance or composition must be compatible chemically and/or toxicologically, with the other ingredients comprising a formulation, composition, and/or the animal being treated therewith. The term "pharmaceutical" acceptable has the same meaning as that recited for "veterinary" acceptable.



    [0025] When referring to the S-isomer of the compound of Formula (1.1) (Compound A), these compounds also include any pharmaceutical or veterinary acceptable salt thereof, while also including the free base.

    Pharmaceutical/Veterinary Compositions



    [0026] The composition of the present invention can be administered by any suitable route, preferably in the form of a pharmaceutical acceptable or veterinary acceptable composition adapted to such a route, and in a dose effective amount for the treatment intended. Accordingly, the invention specifically comprises a pharmaceutical or veterinary composition comprising the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound (Compound A), in combination with b) moxidectin, and c) pyrantel pamoate. The composition further comprises at least one pharmaceutical or veterinary acceptable carriers. The amount of the compound of the present invention that is administered and the dosage regimen for treating a condition or disorder with the compound depends on a variety of factors, including the age, weight, sex and medical condition of the animal, the severity of the disease, the route and frequency of administration, and thus may vary widely. It is preferable for the administration of the composition of the present invention to be administered concomitantly and preferably simultaneously. However, the composition can also be administered sequentially, for example, separate compositions in a dual tube configuration that are freely mixed upon administration.

    [0027] Administration of the composition of the present invention is contemplated to be once a month. However, an extended duration formulation may allow for dosing once every 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 months. A once a year dose is also contemplated.

    [0028] Preferably, administration of the composition of the instant invention is carried out so as to administer to the animal a dose of the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound (Compound A), ranging from about 0.1 to 25 mg/kg, preferably from about 0.5 to 10 mg/kg, and even more preferably from about 1 to 5 mg/kg, and most preferably from about 1 to 2.5 mg/kg. For the additional veterinary agents in the composition of the invention and the disclosure, for example, pyrantel, fenbendazole, ivermectin, selamectin, moxidectin, milbemycin oxime, oxantel, imidacloprid, and the like, dose ranges will generally range in accordance with approved product labels. For example, a dose range of about 0.5 to 10 µg/kg for moxidectin is contemplated. More preferred, a moxidectin dose range of about 1 to 5 µg/kg, and more preferably, about 3 µg/kg is contemplated. An approved dose of milbemycin oxime (0.5 to 2 mg/kg), (0.6 µg/kg), and selamectin (6 mg/kg), is contemplated.

    [0029] In another instance, a dose range of about 1 to 15 mg/kg is contemplated for pyrantel. More preferred, a pyrantel dose of about 2 to 10 mg/kg, or more preferably 5 mg/kg is contemplated. Further, approved doses for the additional veterinary agent(s) include, for example, imidacloprid (10 mg/kg), febantel (15mg/kg), praziquantel (3.5 to 12 mg/kg), oxantel (20 mg/kg), piperazine citrate (200 mg/kg), and lufenuron (10 mg/kg), are contemplated. For a topical solution, the range of the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound (Compound A), is about 0.1 to 1000 mg/mL, and preferably from about 0.5 to 500 mg/mL, and more preferably from about 1 to 250 mg/mL, and even more preferably from about 2 to 200 mg/mL. Depending upon the final volumes of the topical solution(s), the concentration of the actives can change from that described above. Similarly, the macrocyclic lactone and derivatives thereof, as well as the additional veterinary agents are generally dosed in an amount comparable to the approved dose for said compound.

    [0030] For an injectable composition, lower doses of the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound (Compound A) may require lower amounts versus those administered in an oral or topical composition. Similarly, the additional veterinary agent(s) and the macrocyclic lactone and or derivatives thereof, may also require dosing changes.

    [0031] Suitable pharmaceutical or veterinary acceptable carriers are well known to those skilled in the art and include materials such as carbohydrates, waxes, water soluble and/or swellable polymers, hydrophilic or hydrophobic materials, gelatin, oils, solvents, water, and the like. The particular carrier will depend upon the means and purpose for which the compound of the present invention is being applied. Solvents are generally selected based on solvents recognized by persons skilled in the art as safe to be administered to an animal. The formulations may also include one or more buffers, stabilizing agents, surfactants, wetting agents, lubricating agents, emulsifiers, suspending agents, preservatives, antioxidants, opaquing agents, glidants, processing aids, colorants, sweeteners, perfuming agents, flavoring agents and other known additives to provide an elegant presentation of the composition or aid in the manufacturing of the composition.

    [0032] The formulations can be prepared using conventional dissolution and mixing procedures. Such compositions and methods for their preparation may be found, for example, in 'Remington's Veterinary Sciences', 19th Edition (Mack Publishing Company, 1995; and "Veterinary Dosage Forms: Tablets, Vol. 1", by H. Lieberman and L. Lachman, Marcel Dekker, N.Y., 1980 (ISBN 0-8247-6918-X). The composition of the present invention is typically formulated into veterinary dosage forms to provide an easily controllable dosage form for administration. Further, the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound (Compound A) can be formulated into a spray dried dispersion prior to being added to the final dosage form.

    [0033] The choice of carrier will to a large extent depend on factors such as the particular mode of administration, the effect of the carrier on solubility and stability, and the nature of the dosage form.

    [0034] The methods by which the composition of the present invention may be administered include oral, topical, and injectable.

    [0035] The composition of the present invention can be administered orally by capsule, bolus, tablet, powders, lozenges, chews (hard and soft palatable), multi and nanoparticulates, gels, solid solution, films, sprays, or liquid form. Oral administration is a preferred method for administering the composition. An oral formulation further comprises at least one carrier, for example, water, ethanol, polyethylene glycol, N-methylpyrrolidone or other pyrrolidones, gelatinized and pre-gelatinized starch, propylene glycol, glycerol, sodium starch glycolate, methylcellulose, sugars (lactose, dextrose, mannose, and the like) or a suitable vegetable oil, and one or more emulsifying agents, flavorants (for example, animal (pork, beef, swine) and non-animal flavorants (smoke, and other synthetic flavorants), and/or suspending agents. Liquid forms include suspensions, solutions, syrups, drenches and elixirs. Liquid formulations may also be prepared by the reconstitution of a solid, for example, from a sachet. Oral drenches are commonly prepared by dissolving or suspending the compound of the present invention in a suitable medium (e.g. triethylene glycol, benzyl alcohol, and the like). The composition of the present invention can also be formulated with a food substance, e.g., a dietary admixture (food pellets for birds and fish). Preservatives and antioxidants can also be included in the formulations (for example, sodium benzoate, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), citric acid, and the like).

    [0036] The composition of the present invention can also be administered topically to the skin or mucosa, that is dermally or transdermally. This is another preferred method of administration and as such it is desirable to develop the composition of the present invention to be suited to such formulations, for example liquid forms. Typical formulations for this purpose include pour-on, spot-on, multi-spot-on, stripe-on, comb-on, roll-on, dip, spray, mousse, shampoo, powder formulation, gels, hydrogels, lotions, solutions, creams, ointments, dusting powders, dressings, foams, films, skin patches, wafers, implants, sponges, fibers, bandages and micro emulsions. Liposomes may also be used as a carrier. Typical carriers include alcohol, water, mineral oil, liquid petrolatum, white petrolatum, glycerin, N-methyl formamide, mono and diglycol ethers (for example, diethyleneglycol monomethyl ether (DEGMME) diethyleneglycol monoethylether (DEGMEE), and the like), polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and the like. Penetration enhancers may be incorporated - see, for example, J Pharm Sci, 88 (10), 955-958 by Finnin and Morgan (October 1999). Pour-on or spot-on formulations may be prepared by dissolving the active ingredients in an acceptable liquid carrier vehicle such as butyl digol, liquid paraffin or a nonvolatile ester, optionally with the addition of a volatile component such as propan-2-ol or a glycol ether. Alternatively, pour-on, spot-on or spray formulations can be prepared by encapsulation, to leave a residue of active agent on the surface of the animal, this effect may ensure that the active agents within the composition of the present invention have increased persistence of action and is more durable, for example it may be more water-fast. Topical formulations contemplated herein can comprise from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 50 mg/kg of the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound (Compound A) of the present invention, and more preferably from about 1 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, and even more preferably, from about 1mg/kg to about 5 mg/kg.

    [0037] The composition of the present invention can also be administered topically via a support matrix for example, a synthetic or natural resin, plastic, cloth, leather, or other such polymeric system in the shape of a collar or ear tag. Said collar or ear tag may be coated, impregnated, layered, by any means so as to provide a veterinary acceptable amount of the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound. Such formulations are prepared in a conventional manner in accordance with standard medicinal or veterinary practice. Further, these formulations will vary with regard to the weight of active compound contained therein, respective salt forms, species of host animal to be treated, the severity and type of infection or infestation, and the body weight of the animal. The volume of the applied composition can be from about 0.2 mL/kg to about 5 mL/kg and preferably from about 1 mL/kg to about 3 mL/kg.

    [0038] Agents may be added to the formulations of the present invention to improve the persistence of such formulations on the surface of the animal to which they are applied, for example to improve their persistence on the coat of the animal. It is particularly preferred to include such agents in a formulation which is to be applied as a pour-on or spot-on formulation. Examples of such agents include acrylic copolymers and in particular fluorinated acrylic copolymers. A particular suitable reagent is the trademark reagent "Foraperle" (Redline Products Inc, Texas, USA).

    [0039] Certain topical formulations may include unpalatable additives to minimize oral exposure.

    [0040] Injectable (e.g., subcutaneous and parenteral) formulations may be prepared in the form of a sterile solution, which may contain other substances, for example enough salts or glucose to make the solution isotonic with blood. Acceptable liquid carriers include vegetable oils such as sesame oil, glycerides such as triacetin, esters such as benzyl benzoate, isopropyl myristate and fatty acid derivatives of propylene glycol, as well as organic solvents such as pyrrolidin-2-one and glycerol formal. The formulations of the invention and of the disclosure are prepared by dissolving or suspending the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound (Compound A), macrocyclic lactone, or derivative thereof, and optionally, an additional veterinary agent in the liquid carrier such that the final formulation contains from about 0.01 to 30% by weight of the active ingredients.

    [0041] Suitable devices for injectable administration include needle (including micro needle) injectors, needle-free injectors and infusion techniques. Injectable formulations are typically aqueous solutions which may contain excipients such as salts, carbohydrates and buffering agents (preferably to a pH of from 3 to 9), but, for some applications, they may be more suitably formulated as a sterile non-aqueous solution or as a dry powder form to be used in conjunction with a suitable vehicle such as sterile, pyrogen-free water. The preparation of injectable formulations under sterile conditions, for example, by lyophilisation, may readily be accomplished using standard veterinary techniques well known to those skilled in the art. The solubility of the veterinary parasiticides (i.e., Formula (A) compounds, macrocyclic lactones and derivatives thereof, and additional veterinary agents) used in the preparation of an injectable solution may be increased by the use of appropriate formulation techniques, such as the incorporation of solubility-enhancing agents.

    Method of Use



    [0042] The present invention further comprises compositions for use in the treatment of a parasitic infection and/or parasitic infestation in an animal having or being susceptible to such infection or infestation, by administering to the animal in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of a composition of the present invention.

    [0043] The compound, (S)-1-(5'-(5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl)-3'H-spiro[azetidine-3,1'-isobenzofuran]-1-yl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethanone (Compound A) is useful as an antiparasitic agent, therefore, also disclosed is a veterinary composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the compound prepared from the polymorphic Form A of said compound, and a veterinary acceptable carrier. The polymorphic Form A of 1-(5'-(5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl)-3'H-spiro[azetidine-3,1'-isobenzofuran]-1-yl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethanone can also be used in the manufacture of an antiparasitic medicament for the therapeutic applications described herein.

    [0044] The composition of the present invention is useful as an ectoparasiticide and endoparasiticide that can be used in the fields of veterinary medicine, livestock husbandry and the maintenance of public health: against acarids and insects which are parasitic upon vertebrates, particularly warm-blooded vertebrates, including companion animals, livestock, and fowl. Some non-limiting examples of ectoparasites include: ticks (e.g., Ixodes spp., (e.g., I. ricinus, I. hexagonus), Rhipicephalus spp.,(e.g., R. sanguineus), Boophilus spp., Amblyomma spp. (e.g., A. maculatum, A. triste, A. parvum, A. cajennense, A. ovale, A. oblongoguttatum, A. aureolatum, A. cajennense), Hyalomma spp., Haemaphysalis spp., Dermacentor spp. (e.g., D. variabilis, D. andersoni, D. marginatus), Ornithodorus spp., and the like); mites (e.g., Dermanyssus spp., Sarcoptes spp.,(e.g., S. scabiei), Psoroptes spp., (e.g., P/bovis), Otodectes spp., Chorioptes spp., Demodex spp., (e.g., D. folliculorum, D. canis, and D. brevis) and the like); chewing and sucking lice (e.g., Damalinia spp., Linognathus spp., Cheyletiella spp., Haematopinus spp., Solenoptes spp., Trichodectes spp., Felicola spp., and the like); fleas (e.g., Siphonaptera spp., Ctenocephalides spp., and the like); biting flies, midges, and mosquitoes (e.g., Tabanidae spp., Haematobia spp., Musca spp., Stomoxys spp., Dematobia spp., Cochliomyia spp., Simuliidae spp., Ceratopogonidae spp., Psychodidae spp., Aedes spp., Culex spp., Anopheles spp., and the like); bed bugs (e.g., insects within the genus Cimex and family Cimicidae); and grubs (e.g.,Hypoderma bovis, H.lineatum).

    [0045] The composition of the present invention can also be used for the treatment of endoparasites, for example, heartworms, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, tapeworms, fluke, and other cestodes and trematodes. The gastrointestinal roundworms include, for example, Ostertagia ostertagi (including inhibited larvae), O. lyrata, Haemonchus placei, H. similis, H. contortus, Toxocara canis, T.leonina, T. cati, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. longispicularis, Cooperia oncophora, C. pectinata, C. punctata, C. surnabada (syn. mcmasteri), C. spatula, Ascaris suum, Hyostrongylus rubidus, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Capillaria bovis, B. trigonocephalum, Strongyloides papillosus, S. ransomi, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. dentatum, O. columbianum, O. quadrispinulatum, Trichuris spp., and the like. Other parasites include: hookworms (e.g., Ancylostoma caninum, A.tubaeforme, A.braziliense, Uncinaria stenocephala); lungworms (e.g., Dictyocaulus viviparus and Metastrongylus spp); eyeworms (e.g., Thelazia spp.); parasitic stage grubs (e.g., Hypoderma bovis, H. lineatum, Dermatobia hominis); kidneyworms (e.g., Stephanurus dentatus); screw worm (e.g., Cochliomyia hominivorax (larvae); filarial nematodes of the super-family Filarioidea and the Onchocercidae Family. Non-limiting examples of filarial nematodes within the Onchocercidae Family include the genus Brugia spp. (i.e., B.malayi, B. pahangi, B. timori, and the like), Wuchereria spp. (i.e., W. bancrofti, and the like), Dirofilaria spp. (D. immitis, D. repens, D. ursi, D. tenuis, D.spectans, D. lutrae, and the like), Dipetalonema spp. (i.e., D reconditum, D. repens, and the like), Onchocerca spp. (i.e., O. gibsoni, O. gutturosa, O. volvulus, and the like), Elaeophora spp. (E.bohmi, E. elaphi, E. poeli, E. sagitta, E. schneideri, and the like), Mansonella spp. (i.e., M. ozzardi, M. perstans, and the like), and Loa spp. (i.e., L. loa). In another aspect of the invention, the composition of the present invention is useful for treating endoparasiticidal infection from filarial nematodes within the genus Dirofilaria (i.e., D .immitis, D. repens, D. ursi, D. tenuis, and the like).

    [0046] The compositions of the invention can be administered in a way appropriate to the specific use envisaged, the particular host animal and weight of host animal being treated, the parasite or parasites involved, degree of infestation, etc., according to standard veterinary practice. The veterinary practitioner, or one skilled in the art, will be able to determine the dosage suitable for the particular animal, which may vary with the species, age, weight, and response. The average doses are exemplary of the average case. Accordingly, higher or lower dosage ranges may be warranted, depending upon the above factors, and are within the scope of this invention.

    [0047] The following list of additional veterinary agents together with which the composition of the present invention can be used is intended to illustrate the possible combinations, but not to impose any limitation. Non-limiting examples of additional veterinary agents include: amitraz, arylpyrazoles, amino acetonitriles, anthelmintics (e.g., albendazole, cambendazole, dichlorvos, fenbendazole, flubendazole, mebendazole, octadepsipeptides, oxantel, oxfendazole, oxibendazole, paraherquamide, parbendazole, piperazines, praziquantel, epsiprantel, thiabendazole, tetramisole, triclabendazole, levamisole, pyrantel, oxantel, morantel, monepantel, and the like), avermectins (e.g., abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin, selamectin, and the like), milbemycin, milbemycin oxime, DEET, demiditraz, diethylcarbamazine, fipronil, insect growth regulators (e.g., lufenuron, novaluron, hydroprene, kinoprene, methoprene, and the like), metaflumizone, niclosamide, nitenpyram, permethrin, pyrethrins, pyriproxyfen, spinosad, and the like. In certain instances, compositions of the present invention with at least one additional veterinary agent can result in a greater-than-additive effect.

    [0048] The veterinary composition for application to an animal may be packaged in a variety of ways depending upon the method used for administering the composition of the present invention. Generally, an article for distribution includes a container having deposited therein the veterinary composition in an appropriate form. Suitable containers are well-known to those skilled in the art and include materials such as bottles (plastic and glass), sachets, ampoules, blister-paks, plastic bags, metal cylinders, and the like. The container may also include a tamper-proof assemblage to prevent indiscreet access to the contents of the package. In addition, the container has deposited thereon a label that describes the contents of the container. The label may also include appropriate warnings.

    EXAMPLES



    [0049] 

    Example 1. Antiparasitic Composition Comprising: Compound A (2 mg/kg), moxidectin (3µg/kg), and pyrantel (5mg/kg), and optionally, at least one veterinary acceptable carrier.

    Reference Example 2. Antiparasitic Composition Comprising: Compound A (2 mg/kg), milbemycin oxime (0.5 mg/kg), and pyrantel (5 mg/kg), and optionally, at least one veterinary acceptable carrier.

    Reference Example 3. Antiparasitic Composition Comprising: Compound A (2 mg/kg), ivermectin (6 µg/kg), and pyrantel (5 mg/kg), and optionally, at least one veterinary acceptable carrier.

    Reference Example 4. Antiparasitic Composition Comprising: Compound A (2 mg/kg), milbemycin (0.5 mg/kg), and pyrantel (5 mg/kg), and optionally, at least one veterinary acceptable carrier.

    Reference Example 5. Antiparasitic Composition Comprising: oxantel in place of pyrantel as described in Examples 1-4, and optionally, at least one veterinary acceptable carrier.

    Reference Example 6. Antiparasitic Composition Comprising: morantel in place of pyrantel as described in Examples 1-4, and optionally, at least one veterinary acceptable carrier.

    Reference Example 7. Antiparasitic Composition comprising Compound A and selamectin, and optionally, at least one veterinary acceptable carrier.

    Reference Example 8. Antiparasitic Composition comprising Compound A and moxidectin, and optionally, at least one veterinary acceptable carrier.

    Reference Example 9. Antiparasitic Composition comprising Compound A and milbemycin or milbemycin oxime, and optionally, at least one veterinary acceptable carrier.

    Reference Example 10. Antiparasitic Composition comprising Compound A and ivermectin, and optionally, at least one veterinary acceptable carrier.


    BIOLOGICAL


    In-Vitro Endoparasite Evaluation



    [0050] The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate concentrations of moxidectin, pyrantel pamoate and Compound A that reduce motility less than 100% alone and then combine selected suboptimal concentrations to gain an understanding of any effect on motility of a susceptible and resistant strain of Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm) L3 and a Michigan strain of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) microfilariae (MF), in vitro.

    [0051] Antiparasitic compounds were dissolved in DMSO and were spotted into the well of a 384 well microtiter plate. Nematodes in a buffered solution were added to the plates and motility measured at 96 hours for the H. contortus strains and 72 hours for D. immitis. Each test compound was assayed individually against each nematode with an 11 point ½ log dose curve from 100 µM to 1 nM and minimum efficacious dose (MED) was determined. MED was subjective based on visual assessment using light microscopy and was the lowest dose to cause a significant decrease in motility. Concentrations at ½ log below the MED were used alone and in combination and were read on the LemnaTec Scanalyzer to provide a quantitative percent motility compared to the negative control. MED data are presented in Table 1.

    [0052] Material and method for the Haemonchus contortus in vitro assay: H. contortus L3 were produced from feces of infected sheep and maintained in a buffered nutrient media containing antibiotics. The assay was conducted in a 384 well microtiter plate with a total of 250 nL of DMSO solvated test compound and 25 µl of media containing approximately 100 H. contortus L3 per well. The motility assessment was performed after 96 hours of incubation at 37°C on a LemnaTec Scanalyzer which determined motility of the H. contortus L3 by image analysis. The endpoint was defined as percent motility (average/2-plates) compared to that of the untreated control, and is presented in Tables 2 (susceptible) and Table 3 (resistant).

    [0053] Material and method for the Dirofilaria immitis in vitro assay: Dirofilaria immitis MF were purified from microfilaremic canine blood by erythrocyte lysis and filtration and maintained in a cell culture media fortified with fetal bovine serum and antibiotics. The assay was conducted in a 384 well microtiter plate with a total of 250 nL of DMSO solvated Compound A and 25 µl of media containing approximately 200 MF per well. The motility assessment was performed after 72 hours of incubation at 37°C and 5% CO2 on a LemnaTec Scanalyzer which determined motility of the MF by image analysis. The endpoint was defined as percent motility (average/2-plates) compared to that of the untreated control, and is presented in Table 4.
    Table 1. Individual Compound MED's and Combination Treatments
     H. contortus L3 resistant MED µMH. contortus L3 susceptible MED µMD. immitis MED µM
    Moxidectin 1 0.3 10
    Pyrantel 33 33 100
    Compound A >100 >100 33
           
     Final concentration of test combinationsFinal concentration of test combinationsFinal concentration of test combinations
    Treatment 1 DMSO DMSO DMSO
    Treatment 2 .3m .1m 3.3m
    Treatment 3 10p 10p 33p
    Treatment 4 100A 100A 10A
    Treatment 5 .3m + 10p .1m + 10p 3.3m + 33p
    Treatment 6 .3m + 100A .1m + 100A 3.3m + 10A
    Treatment 7 10p + 100A 10p + 100A 33p + 10A
    Treatment 8 .3m + 10p + 100A .1m + 10p + 100A 3.3m + 33p + 10A
    m = moxidectin; p = pyrantel pamoate; A = Compound A.
    Numbers = µM dose, for example, .3m + 10p = 0.3µM moxidectin + 10µM pyrantel pamoate.
    Table 2. H. contortus L3 Susceptible Strain
    Dose Amount% Motility
    DMSO 100.0
    0.1 µM Moxidectin 95.0
    10µM Pyrantel 95.6
    100µM Compound A 76.0
    0.1 µM Moxidectin + 10µM Pyrantel 76.5
    0.1 µM Moxidectin + 100µM Compound A 67.0
    10µM Pyrantel + 100µM Compound A 59.5
    0.1µM Moxi + 10µM Pyrantel + 100µM Compound A 51.8


    [0054] According to the results of the susceptible strain of H. contortus, a more than additive effect was observed in reducing larval motility for the moxidectin and pyrantel combination; the Compound A and pyrantel combination; and the Compound A, pyrantel, and moxidectin combination.
    Table 3. H. contortus L3 Resistant Strain
    Dose Amount% Motility
    DMSO 100.0
    0.3µM Moxidectin 64.3
    10µM Pyrantel 80.0
    100µM Compound A 69.0
    0.3µM Moxidectin + 10µM Pyrantel 43.5
    0.3µM Moxidectin + 100µM Compound A 32.8
    10µM Pyrantel + 100µM Compound A 575
    0.3µM Moxi + 10µM Pyrantel + 100µM Compound A 38.6


    [0055] According to the results of the resistant strain of H. contortus, at least a potential additive effect was observed.
    Table 4. D. immitis Motility
    Dose Amount% Motility
    DMSO 100.0
    3.3µM Moxidectin 62.0
    33µM Pyrantel 77.8
    10µM Compound A 50.9
    3.3µM Moxidectin + 33µM Pyrantel 37.1
    3.3µM Moxidectin + 1 0µM Compound A 18.1
    33µM Pyrantel + 1 0µM Compound A 1.7
    3.3µM Moxi + 33µM Pyrantel + 100µM Compound A 1.3


    [0056] As indicated above, addition of Compound A to either pyrantel or moxidectin resulted in a more than additive, synergistic, effect on D. immitis motility.

    Efficacy Against D.immitis MF and Adult Worms in Dogs



    [0057] In another study, safety of the triple combination (Compound A, moxidectin, and pyrantel pamoate) was assessed in dogs artificially infected with D. immitis MF. Male (7) and female (7) beagle dogs were artificially (surgical transplanted) infected with adult heartworm (10 male and 10 female worms). Three male and 4 female dogs received placebo. Four male and three female dogs received an oral combination (12 mg/kg Compound A, 18 µg/kg moxidectin, and 30 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate) dose on Days 0, 28, & 56. In-life assessments included body weight, directed clinical and neurologic examinations, a qualitative estimate of food intake, and blood collections for pharmacokinetics and serial MF counts. Blood was collected for MF count on Days 0 (predose), 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 84. Average blood collected MF are shown in Table 5.
    Table 5. Average Collected MF
    Day of StudyPlaceboTest
    -14 4530 3336
    0 5699 5331
    1 6417 3836
    3 6443 3757
    7 7174 4734
    14 10567 5714
    28 12157 6004
    56 15129 6700
    84 20600 6950


    [0058] At the end of the study, a partial necropsy (Day 84) was conducted on each dog. The precava, right atrium, right ventricle and pulmonary arteries (including those coursing through the lungs) were dissected and examined for adult worms. The worms from each dog were counted as either alive or dead. Worms that were abnormal in both motility and appearance were considered dead; all others were considered alive. Worm counts from placebo and study animals are presented as an average in Table 6.
    Table 6. Average Number of Adult D. immitis Worms at Necropsy
     PlaceboTest
    Average number dead males 0.14 0.00
    Average number dead females 0.43 0.00
    Average number live males 8.14 6.14
    Average number live females 8.29 9.29


    [0059] These data indicate that monthly dosing of the combination for 3 months gradually reduces D. immitis MF, but does not appear to kill adult heartworms .

    Efficacy in the Prevention of Heartworm Disease in Dogs



    [0060] Dogs were inoculated with 50 infective L3 D. immitis larvae on Day -30. On Day 0, dogs (8/group) received either a single oral dose of placebo (T01); Compound A (2mg/kg), moxidectin (3µg/kg), and pyrantel pamoate (5mg/kg) (T02); Compound A (2mg/kg) (T03); or moxidectin (3µg/kg) (T04). On Day 120, dogs were humanely euthanized and necropsied for recovery of adult D. immitis. The geometric mean adult worm count in the placebo group was 34.2 worms recovered from each dog. No worms were recovered from any dog in the T02 and the T04 groups, resulting in 100% efficacy. Adult D. immitis worm counts for T03 were similar to those for the placebo group with a geometric mean of 30.3 worms recovered from each dog. Therefore, a single oral dose of Compound A in combination with moxidectin and pyrantel resulted in 100% efficacy in the prevention of heartworm disease caused by D. immitis. Moxidectin alone also provided 100% efficacy, confirming no interference in the efficacy of moxidectin in the combination. Compound A provided virtually no reduction in adult D. immitis worm counts relative to placebo.

    Efficacy Against Roundworms (Toxascaris leonina) in Dogs



    [0061] Dogs were inoculated with 300 infective T. leonina eggs on Day -75. On Day 0, dogs (8/group) received a single oral placebo dose (T01) or Compound A (2mg/kg) and moxidectin (3µg/kg), and pyrantel pamoate (5 mg/kg) (T02). On Day 7, dogs were humanely euthanized and necropsied for recovery of adult T. leonina worms. Geometric mean adult T. leonina worm counts for group T01 was 11.9 worms recovered from each dog. One worm was recovered from one dog in the T02 group, resulting in 99.2% efficacy against adult T. leonina. Therefore, a single oral dose of Compound A in combination with moxidectin and pyrantel resulted in 99.2% efficacy in the treatment of adult T. leonina infections in dogs. Although the lack of a pyrantel-only group prevents direct comparison to the combination product, these data support a conclusion that neither Compound A nor moxidectin are interfering substantially with the efficacy of pyrantel against adult T. leonina.

    Efficacy Against Roundworms (Toxocara canis) in Dogs



    [0062] Dogs were inoculated with 300 infective T. canis eggs on Day -49. On Day 0, dogs (8/group) received a single oral placebo dose (T01); Compound A (2mg/kg) and moxidectin (3µg/kg), and pyrantel pamoate (5mg/kg) (T02); Compound A (2mg/kg) (T03); pyrantel (5mg/kg) (T04); or moxidectin (3µg/kg) (T05). On Day 7, dogs were humanely euthanized and necropsied for recovery of adult T. canis worms. Geometric mean adult T. canis worm counts for the placebo group was 11.8 worms recovered from each dog. Geometric mean (range) adult worm counts for T03, T04, and T05 were 8.2, 0.1, and 10.5, respectively. Percentage reduction in worm counts for T02, T03, T04, and T05 groups were 100%, 30.3%, 98.7%, and 10.9%, respectively. Therefore, a single oral dose of Compound A, moxidectin, and pyrantel in combination resulted in 100% efficacy against adult T. canis. Similar efficacy was provided by pyrantel alone, confirming no interference with the efficacy of pyrantel in the combination. In this study there was a 30.3% reduction in adult T. canis adult worm counts in the T03 group compared to placebo, suggesting Compound A may have some activity against adult T. canis. At the dosage evaluated, moxidectin provided virtually no efficacy against T. canis.

    Efficacy Against Hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala) in Dogs



    [0063] On Day -29, dogs (8/group) were inoculated with 200 infective A. caninum larvae and 400 infective U. stenocephala larvae. On Day 0, dogs received a single oral placebo dose (T01) or Compound A (2mg/kg) and moxidectin (3µg/kg), and pyrantel pamoate (5mg/kg) (T02). On Day 7, dogs were humanely euthanized and necropsied for recovery of adult A. caninum and U. stenocephala worms. Geometric mean adult A. caninum worm count for the T01 group was 84.5 worms recovered from each dog. No adult A. caninum worms were recovered from any T02 dog, resulting in a 100% efficacy against adult A. caninum. Geometric mean adult U. stenocephala worm counts for the T01 group were 223.5 worms recovered from each dog. Adult U. stenocephala worms were recovered from four of the eight T02 dogs resulted in a geometric mean adult worm count of 1.1 worms recovered from each dog, therefore the efficacy against adult U. stenocephala was 99.5%. Therefore, a single oral dose of Compound A in combination with pyrantel and moxidectin resulted in 100% efficacy against adult A. caninum and 99.5% efficacy against adult U. stenocephala. Although the lack of a pyrantel-only group prevents direct comparison to the combination product, these data support a conclusion that neither Compound A nor moxidectin are interfering substantially with the efficacy of pyrantel against adult A. caninum and U. stenocephala.

    In-Vitro Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) Assay



    [0064] The study was designed to assess sub-lethal concentrations of moxidectin, pyrantel pamoate and Compound A alone and in combination with moxidectin and pyrantel pamoate on flea (C.felis) mortality. Fleas were newly emerged (3-7 days) non-fed adults. The assay was an in-vitro flea feeding assay. DMSO solvated compounds were spotted into a 96 well plate, whole blood added to the compounds, and an artificial membrane adhered to the top of the 96 well plate. Fleas were collected into feeding chambers (N=10/well) and placed on top of the compound plate. The fleas fed on the blood meal over a period of 24 hours through the feeding membrane. Each test compound was tested individually in a half dose titration curve from 30 mM to 0.1 mM (moxidectin), and 1 mM to 0.001 mM (Compound A). A minimum efficacious dose (MED) was determined based on these dose titration curves. MED is a subjective visual assessment of organism viability, and is the lowest dose to cause mortality ≥50%. Mortality was compared to that of the untreated control. Pyrantel pamoate had no effect on fleas at the highest dose tested (300 mM).

    [0065] The lowest MED for Compound A and moxidectin alone was 0.0001 mM and 0.01 mM, respectively. Enhanced activity was observed with an MED being achieved with combined dose levels of Compound A (0.00003 mM) and moxidectin (0.003 µM), suggesting a potential synergistic effect.

    [0066] To assess the triple combination (i.e., Compound A, moxidectin, and pyrantel pamoate), Compound A was titrated from 0.03 µM to 0.000003 mM; moxidectin was titrated from 0.3 µM to 0.0003 mM; and pyrantel was maintained at a dose of 30 mM. In this assay, the control MED dose levels for Compound A, moxidectin and pyrantel alone were 0.3 mM and 10 mM and > 300 mM, respectively. MED was observed at Compound A/moxidectin doses of 0.001/0.003 mM, 0.001/0.001 mM, and 0.000003/0.01 mM. Thus, the addition of pyrantel pamoate does not appear to potentiate the effects beyond that seen with the Compound A/moxidectin combination.

    In-Vitro Tick (Ornithodoros turicata) Assay



    [0067] The study was designed to assess sub-lethal concentrations of moxidectin, pyrantel pamoate and Compound A alone and then combined on tick (O.turicata, Zoetis strain) in an in-vitro tick feeding assay. DMSO-solvated compounds were spotted into a petri dish, whole blood was added to the compounds, and an artificial membrane was stretched over the top of the plate so that it contacts the blood mixture. Ticks were allowed to feed to repletion (about 15 minutes) and assessed for viability and paralysis over 72 hours

    [0068] A minimum efficacious dose (MED) for moxidectin and Compound A was determined based on dose titration curves. Each test compound was tested individually in a five point half log curve from 3 ug/mL to 0.0003 ug/mL (moxidectin), and 0.1 ug/mL-0.0001 µM (Compound A). MED was based on subjective visual assessment of organism behavior, and is the lowest dose to cause paralysis ≥50% at 24, 28, and 72 hours post feeding. The MED was established for compound A at 0.01 ug/mL and for moxidectin at 0.03 ug/mL. Pyrantel pamoate had no effect at a rate of 3 or 30 ug/mL. There did not appear to be a greater than expected effect on the MED when the test agents were combined versus alone.

    Efficacy Against Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) in Dogs



    [0069] On Day 0, dogs (n=32; 8/group) received either a single oral placebo (T01); Compound A (2mg/kg), moxidectin (3µg/kg), and pyrantel pamoate (5mg/kg) (T02); Compound A (2mg/kg) (T03); or moxidectin (3µg/kg) (T04). Each dog was infested with approximately 100 unfed viable adult C. felis fleas on Days -1, 6, 13, 20, 27, and 34. Efficacy was assessed by comb counts of live fleas on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Efficacy was determined as the % reduction in geometric mean live flea counts versus placebo. Control animals maintained adequate levels of fleas during the study (mean range: 67.9-91.2 fleas per animal per infestation). Results are shown in Table 7.
    Table 7. In-vivo flea assay
    Day of StudyGroup% Efficacy
    1 T01 NA
      T02 100
      T03 100
      T04 0
    7 T01 NA
      T02 100
      T03 100
      T04 8.7
    14 T01 NA
      T02 100
      T03 100
      T04 12.0
    21 T01 NA
      T02 100
      T03 100
      T04 2.8
    28 T01 NA
      T02 100
      T03 100
      T04 16.1
    35 T01 NA
      T02 100
      T03 100
      T04 11.3
    NA - not applicable


    [0070] Percentage reductions in geometric and arithmetic mean live flea counts compared with placebo were 100% at all time points for T02 and T03 and the geometric mean counts for both of these groups were significantly (P<0.0001) lower than the placebo group at all time points. A single oral dose of Compound A in combination with moxidectin and pyrantel resulted in a 100% efficacy against an existing C. felis infestation and against weekly re-infestations of C. felis for at least 35 days. Equivalent efficacy was provided by Compound A alone, confirming no interference in the efficacy of Compound A in the combination. Moxidectin provided virtually no reduction in flea counts relative to placebo.

    Efficacy Against Ticks (Ambylomma maculatum) in Dogs



    [0071] On Day 0, dogs (n=32; 8/group) received either a single oral placebo (T01); Compound A (2mg/kg), moxidectin (3µg/kg), and pyrantel pamoate (5mg/kg) (T02); Compound A (2mg/kg) (T03); or moxidectin (3µg/kg) (T04). Each dog was infested with approximately 50 unfed viable adult A. maculatum ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26, and 33 and tick counts with removal were conducted on Days 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Range was the number of live ticks counted/removed and efficacy was determined as the % reduction in geometric mean live ticks versus placebo. Control animals maintained adequate levels of ticks during the study (mean range: 18.9-23.5 ticks per animal per infestation). Results are shown in Table 8.
    Table 8. Tick Efficacy
    DayGroup% Efficacy
    2 T01 NA
      T02 99.6%
      T03 99.2%
      T04 9.2
    7 T01 NA
      T02 100%
      T03 100%
      T04 0
    14 T01 NA
      T02 99.3%
      T03 99.1%
      T04 0
    21 T01 NA
      T02 99.5%
      T03 98.7%
      T04 0
    28 T01 NA
      T02 99.1%
      T03 100%
      T04 0
    35 T01 NA
      T02 1 00%
      T03 100%
      T04 0
    NA - not applicable


    [0072] A single oral dose of Compound A in combination with moxidectin and pyrantel resulted in >99% efficacy against an existing A. maculatum infestation and against weekly re-infestations of A. maculatum for at least 35 days. Similar efficacy was provided by Compound A alone, confirming no interference of the efficacy of Compound A in the combination. Moxidectin provided virtually no reduction in tick counts relative to placebo.

    Combination Pharmacokinetics



    [0073] Fed dogs were treated with either a single dose of Compound A (2mg/kg), moxidectin (0.25 µg/kg), or pyrantel pamoate (5mg/kg) and then the three compounds were dosed simultaneously. Blood samples were obtained 1 hour post dose and out to 28 days. When dosed alone, Compound A, moxidectin, and pyrantel had AUC (µg·hr/mL) values of 202, 0.562, and 0.671, respectively. When dosed simultaneously, respective AUC values were 206, 0.620, and 0.461. Overall, the compounds appeared to perform comparably when treated as stand-alones versus in combination. No drug related adverse events were noted.

    Reference Example: Efficacy Against Fleas and Ticks in Cats: Selamectin Combination



    [0074] In another combination study, Compound A (1mg/kg or 2mg/kg) was topically administered with selamectin (6mg/kg) to assess the efficacy against Dermacentor variabilis and Ixodes scapularis ticks and C. felis fleas on cats. On Day 0, each treatment group (N=8) received a single topical application: T01 was a placebo control; T02 was Compound A (1mg/kg) and selamectin; and T03 was Compound A (2mg/kg) and selamectin). Animals were infested with approximately 50 unfed ticks (approximately equal numbers of females and males) as follows: D. variabilis: Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40 and 47; I. scapularis: Day 26. Animals were also infested with ∼ 100 C. felis fleas on the following days: Days 13, 27, 41, and 48. Parasite counts were performed 24 hours after each infestation of fleas (Days 14, 28, 42 and 49) and 48 hours after each infestation of ticks (Days: 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49). Efficacy was determined as % reduction in total flea and/or tick count. Results are shown in Table 9.
    Table 9. Feline Efficacy (% Reduction) Against Fleas and Ticks Following Single topical Applications of the Combination (Compound A and Selamectin)
      Day 2Day 7Day 14Day 21Day 28Day 36Day 42Day 49
      DvDvDvFleaDvDvIsDvFleaDvFleaDvFlea
                                 
    T02 % AM 89.3 99.6 96.6 100 97.0 97.1 95.9 94.9 99.4 96.9 99.8 63.5 98.7
      % GM 95.2 99.7 98.1 100 97.7 96.7 96.4 96.2 99.6 98.0 99.9 80.1 99.3
                                 
    T03 % AM 99.2 99.2 99.0 100 99.6 98.9 92.2 98.1 100 97.1 100 74.6 98.2
      % GM 99.3 99.3 99.4 100 99.7 99.0 96.8 98.4 100 98.9 100 89.2 99.6
    Dv = D. variabilis; |s = |. scapularis;
    AM= arithmetic mean; GM = geometric mean


    [0075] Infestation levels in the control animals were acceptable throughout the study, with a mean range of 16.4 to 33.6 ticks per infestation for D. variabilis and 62.6 to 77.5 fleas. The mean infestation level for I. scapularis on Day 28 in the control animals was 9.1 ticks. Compound A, in combination with selamectin was highly effective (>95%) against D. variabilis ticks for 42 days when dosed as low as 1 mg/kg, when measured by geometric means. Efficacy against I. scapularis was only assessed on Day 28 in this study, but the activity against this species was similar to that of D. variabilis. Activity against fleas was very robust (>98% for 49 days). Thus, in this study a topical combination containing ≤ 2 mg/kg of Compound A and selamectin (6 mg/kg) was > 95% effective for at least 1 month against both D. variabilis and I. scapularis ticks and C. felis fleas on cats.

    Efficacy Against Hookworms and Roundworms in Cats: Selamectin Combination



    [0076] In yet another combination study, Compound A (2 mg/kg) and selamectin (6 mg/kg) were topically applied to cats artificially infected with adult gastrointestinal nematodes Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Toxocara cati. Group T01 (control) and T02 (test) animals were inoculated with T. cati (roundworm) eggs on Day -60 and A. tubaeforme (hookworm) larvae on Day -30. All animals were treated with a single topical application on Day 0. Fecal egg counts were performed on Days -2 and 7 and necropsy for recovery of adult worms was performed on Day 7. Efficacy (% reduction) was determined by assessing fecal egg count and total adult worms. Efficacy results are shown in Table 10.
    Table 10. Endoparasitic Efficacy of the Combination of Compound A and Selamectin Following a Single Topical Dose in Cats.
     Fecal Egg Counts (Day 7)Total Adult Worm Counts (Day 7)
    Group A. tubaeformeT. catiA. tubaeformeT. cati
               
           
    T02 % (AM) 100 100 100 100
      % (GM) 100 100 100 100
    AM= arithmetic mean; GM = geometric mean


    [0077] The combination, Compound A and selamectin, was 100% effective in eliminating adult infections of both hookworms (A. tubaeforme) and roundworms (T. cati) in cats following a single topical application.

    [0078] Overall, the combination of Compound A with moxidectin or selamectin, Compound A with pyrantel, or Compound A with moxidectin or selamectin and pyrantel, were efficacious against endoparasites (barber pole worms, heartworms, hookworms and roundworms) and ectoparasites (fleas and ticks), where in some instances, a more than additive, synergistic, effect was observed.


    Claims

    1. A composition comprising a) the S-isomer of the Formula (1.1) compound,

    or a pharmaceutical or veterinary acceptable salt thereof; b) moxidectin and c) pyrantel pamoate.
     
    2. A composition as defined in Claim 1 for use in the treatment of a parasitic infection in an animal in need thereof.
     
    3. The composition for use of Claim 2 wherein administration is oral, topical, or by injection.
     
    4. The composition for use of Claim 3 wherein the animal is a companion animal or livestock.
     
    5. The composition of claim 1 further comprising a veterinary or pharmaceutical acceptable carrier.
     
    6. A composition as defined in claim 5 for use in the treatment of a parasitic infection in an animal in need thereof.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Zusammensetzung, umfassend: a) das S-Isomer der Verbindung der Formel (1.1)

    oder ein pharmazeutisch oder veterinär annehmbares Salz davon; b) Moxidectin und c) Pyrantelpamoat.
     
    2. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung einer parasitischen Infektion bei einem Tier, das der Behandlung bedarf.
     
    3. Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 2, wobei die Verabreichung oral, topisch oder durch Injektion erfolgt.
     
    4. Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 3, wobei das Tier ein Haustier oder Nutztier ist.
     
    5. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, des Weiteren umfassend einen veterinär oder pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Träger.
     
    6. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 5 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung einer parasitischen Infektion bei einem Tier, das der Behandlung bedarf.
     


    Revendications

    1. Composition comprenant a) l'isomère S du composé de formule (1.1),

    ou un sel acceptable pharmaceutique ou vétérinaire de celui-ci ; b) de la moxidectine et c) du pamoate de pyrantel.
     
    2. Composition selon la revendication 1 pour une utilisation dans le traitement d'une infection parasitaire chez un animal en ayant besoin.
     
    3. Composition pour une utilisation selon la revendication 2 dans laquelle l'administration est orale, topique, ou par injection.
     
    4. Composition pour une utilisation selon la revendication 3 dans laquelle l'animal est un animal de compagnie ou du bétail.
     
    5. Composition selon la revendication 1 comprenant en outre un vecteur acceptable pharmaceutique ou vétérinaire.
     
    6. Composition selon la revendication 5 pour une utilisation dans le traitement d'une infection parasitaire chez un animal en ayant besoin.
     




    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description