(19)
(11)EP 2 895 147 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 13802105.0

(22)Date of filing:  11.09.2013
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 9/70(2006.01)
A61K 31/404(2006.01)
A61K 31/135(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/IB2013/058458
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/041489 (20.03.2014 Gazette  2014/12)

(54)

RAPIDLY DISSOLVING PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION

SCHNELLLÖSLICHE PHARMAZEUTISCHE ZUSAMMENSETZUNG

COMPOSITION PHARMACEUTIQUE À DISSOLUTION RAPIDE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 11.09.2012 ZA 201206803
11.09.2012 ZA 201206792

(43)Date of publication of application:
22.07.2015 Bulletin 2015/30

(73)Proprietor: University Of The Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
Braamfontein Johannesburg 2001 (ZA)

(72)Inventors:
  • KUMAR, Pradeep
    2050 Johannesburg (ZA)
  • PILLAY, Viness
    2196 Sandton (ZA)
  • CHOONARA, Yahya, Essop
    1827 Johannesburg (ZA)

(74)Representative: Cremer & Cremer 
Patentanwälte St.-Barbara-Straße 16
89077 Ulm
89077 Ulm (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-98/26788
WO-A1-2012/083269
WO-A1-2009/153634
US-A1- 2005 065 175
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical dosage form which may comprise a novel polymer, and particularly it relates to a pharmaceutical dosage form comprising the novel polymer in a lyophilized polymeric wafer form which shows rapid disintegration and dissolution characteristics in use.

    BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION



    [0002] Successful treatment of medical conditions and/or disease is not only dependent on novel active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), but it is also dependent on providing novel and effective pharmaceutical dosage forms to ensure delivery of the API to the intended target site within the human or animal being treated. In order to achieve effective API delivery at the intended site due consideration must be given to where the intended target is within the body, and to the physiological obstacles that may prevent effective delivery via various routes of administration.

    [0003] Often the time taken for the API to reach its target site is also important. This is of particular importance in API's that provide pain relief or allergy relief.

    [0004] Extensive research has been conducted in the field of biocompatible polymers which have been developed to provide effective pharmaceutical dosage forms. These polymers are then formulated into various solid dosage forms such as wafers, tablets and capsules depending on their physico-chemical and/or physico-mechanical properties.

    [0005] Document WO 2012/083269 A1 describes sublingual films for use in treatment of various diseases like Parkinson's disease. Among other ingredients it discloses use of hydroxypropyl cellulose as polymer. Polyacrylate may be used as pH neutralizing agent. Moreover, maltodextrin may be present as hydrolyzed starch.

    [0006] Wafer technology is already used within the pharmaceutical industry as a species of pharmaceutical dosage form. Wafers are typically used when needing to deliver API through the mucosal membrane of the mouth cavity. Essentially, the wafer incorporates at least one active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to be released in use. When formulating wafers, one needs to consider several variables, including, but not limited to the fact that: the API should be rapidly absorbed through the mucosal membranes in the mouth via transmucosal absorption; wafer technologies typically attempt to deliver API's that cannot be effectively delivered via conventional oral solid dosage (OSD) forms (for reasons including that the API has a low gastric bioavailability, and that normal OSD's may result in nausea of the patient making them unsuitable); a low dose of the API is typically required since the dosage form is not subjected to passage through the entire gastro-intestinal tract; and rapid action is often required, especially where pain and/or allergy relief is required.

    [0007] Known wafer technology typically relies on the formulation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) within a water soluble polymeric/excipient blend to dissolve rapidly in the mouth, thereby releasing the API for absorption and transport to its desired target. To be effective, the formulation requires that the following performance aspects are met: the polymers and/or excipients used to manufacture the wafer must be soluble at physiological temperature (about 37°C) without the aid of heating or stirring; the API taste must be masked by the excipients; the wafer should not be excessively hygroscopic and must have an acceptable shelf life; the total wafer size should not exceed a diameter of about 2 cm and the mass should be less than about 800 mg for ease of use for the patient; and the wafers should dissolve completely and leave no residue after disintegration.

    [0008] The manufacture of rapidly dissolving dosage forms, particularly wafer type dosage forms, for the rapid release of active pharmaceutical ingredient remains a difficult task. The lyophilized polymeric matrices of the dosage forms are not robust and present difficulty in handling with a risk of breaking when taking them out from the packaging (typically blister packs). Therefore, a specialized peel-off packaging is required for the same which further increases that final cost of the product. The complete solubility of the matrix components is very important as a gritty feel would compromise patient compliance. The disintegration, dispersion, and dissolution of the matrix should be very fast in order to provide enhanced permeability and taste-masking.

    [0009] Existing products on the market include the Zydis® technology, which has been used for a number of commercial products including Claritin® Reditab®, Dimetapp® Quick Dissolve, Feldene® Melt, Maxalt-MLT®, Pepcid® RPD, Zofran® ODT®, and Zyprexa®. The existing products are known to use active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) including for examples: oxazepam, lorazepam, loperamide, and enalapril.

    [0010] There is a need for novel and improved pharmaceutical dosage forms in order to improve effective delivery of APIs.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0011] According to the invention there is provided a wafer pharmaceutical dosage form for the release of at least one active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) at a target site in a human or animal, the pharmaceutical dosage form comprising a soluble matrix forming polymer, an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer, an anti-collapsing agent, and a filler substance.

    [0012] The pharmaceutical dosage form according to the invention, wherein the soluble matrix forming polymer is hydroxypropyl cellulose, wherein the ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer is sodium polyacrylate, wherein the anti-collapsing agent is diglycine, and wherein the filler substance is maltodextrin.

    [0013] The invention may further comprise at least one active pharmaceutical compound (API).

    [0014] The invention may further comprise a taste masking agent.

    [0015] The invention may further comprise a taste masking agent and API, preferably hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin HPβCD - active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) inclusion complex (HPβCD-API inclusion complex).

    [0016] An embodiment of the invention may be formulated as a placebo and lacking an API. Such a placebo embodiment may comprise:

    a soluble matrix forming polymer, preferably hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC);

    an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer, preferably sodium polyacrylate;

    an anti-collapsing agent, preferably diglycine;and

    a filler substance, preferably maltodextrin.



    [0017] The placebo may further comprise a taste-masking agent, preferably HPβCD.

    [0018] In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the pharmaceutical dosage form may comprise:

    a soluble matrix forming polymer, namely hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC);

    an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer, namely sodium polyacrylate;

    an anti-collapsing agent, namely diglycine;

    a filler substance, namely maltodextrin; and

    a taste masking agent and API, preferably HPβCD-API inclusion complex.



    [0019] There is provided that the dosage forms according to this invention may be homogenous, alternatively layered like a sandwich, alternatively layered like an onion. In the event that the dosage form is layered, each layer may include at least one of the same or different API.

    [0020] According to a further aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of manufacturing the wafer pharmaceutical dosage form of this invention, the method comprising the steps of:
    1. (a). dissolving a soluble matrix forming polymer, preferably hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC), in a liquid medium, preferably deionized water to produce Solution 1;
    2. (b). adding to Solution 1 a filler, preferably maltodextrin, an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer, preferably sodium polyacrylate and an anti-collapsing agent, preferably diglycine, to produce Solution 2;
    3. (c). freezing Solution 2; and
    4. (d). lyophilizing the frozen Solution 2.


    [0021] Step (b) may further include adding a taste-masking agent, preferably HPβCD complex, to produce Solution 2.

    [0022] There is provided for pharmaceutical dosage forms in accordance with this invention substantially as herein described, exemplified and/or illustrated with reference to any one of Examples 1 to 2 and the accompanying figures.

    [0023] There is provided for a compound of Formula (I) substantially as herein described, exemplified and/or illustrated with reference to any one of Examples 1 to 2 and the accompanying figures.

    [0024] There is provided for methods in accordance with aspects of this invention substantially as herein described, exemplified and/or illustrated with reference to any one of Examples 1 to 2 and the accompanying figures.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0025] The invention is now described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying diagrammatic drawings, in which
    Figure 1
    shows a schematic representation of synthesis of chitosan carbamoyl glycine derivative via -NH2----COOH- hydrogen bond formation as elucidated using molecular modelling simulations;
    Figure 2
    shows Fourier transform infra-red spectra of (a) pristine chitosan; (b) carbamoyl glycinated chitosan (CmGC); and (c) pristine carbamoyl glycine;
    Figure 3
    shows differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves of (a) pristine chitosan; (b) pristine carbamoyl glycine; and (c) carbamoyl glycinated chitosan (CmGC);
    Figure 4
    shows photomicrographs of the lyophilized carbamoyl glycinated chitosan (CmGC) depicting the well-defined; uniformly-distributed; unidirectional; multi-lamellar; and fibrous structure;
    Figure 5
    shows Fourier transform infra-red spectra of the pharmaceutical dosage forms of Wafer 1 & 2 (drug-free embodiments of an aspect not being part of the present invention and of the invention respectively) and the inherent components of Wafer 1 thereof;
    Figure 6
    shows photomicrographs showing a) and b) the surface of the wafer matrices; c) and d) the horizontal cross-sectional porous structure of Wafer 1 in accordance with a not claimed embodiment;
    Figure 7
    shows photomicrographs showing a) and b) the layered structure vertically; c) and d) the connected fibrous structure of the wafered pharmaceutical dosage form (vertical cross-section) of Wafer 1 in accordance with a not claimed embodiment.
    Figure 8
    shows a) a linear isothermic plot, b) a log isothermic plot, c) a linear BJH adsorption dV/dD curve for pore volume, and d) a log BJH adsorption dV/dD curve for pore volume of the composite polymeric matrices of Wafer 1 in accordance with a not claimed embodiment. The figures 8a-d confirm the presence of a "H4 hysteresis" of the isotherm;
    Figure 9
    shows visualization of the dissolution of Wafer 1 in accordance with a not claimed embodiment;
    Figure 10
    shows the size of the pharmaceutical dosage form of Wafer 2 in accordance with the invention (drug-free embodiment) compared to a one Rand coin;
    Figure 11
    shows a block flow diagram representing a method of manufacturing the dosage form of Wafer 2 in accordance with the invention (drug-free embodiment);
    Figure 12
    shows a Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectra of the wafer matrix of Formulation 1 (a drug-free embodiment of the invention) and the inherent components;
    Figure 13
    shows photomicrographs showing a) and b) the surface of the wafer matrices of Formulation 1 (a drug-free embodiment of the invention); c) and d) the horizontal cross-sectional porous structure of the wafer matrices;
    Figure 14
    shows photomicrographs showing a) and b) the layered structure vertically; c) and d) the connected fibrous structure of the wafer matrices of Formulation 1 (a drug-free embodiment of the invention) (vertical cross-section);
    Figure 15
    shows scanning electron micrographs for the top surface of the wafer of Formulation 1 (a drug-free embodiment of the invention) at various magnifications;
    Figure 16
    shows scanning electron micrographs for the bottom surface of the wafer of Formulation 1 (a drug-free embodiment of the invention) at various magnifications;
    Figure 17
    shows Scanning electron micrographs for the cross-section of the wafer of Formulation 1 (a drug-free embodiment of the invention) at various magnifications;
    Figure 18
    shows X-Ray diffaction patterns of hydroxypropyl cellulose, a) hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, diglycine, b) sodium polyacrylate, c) maltodextrin, and d) the final wafer product of Formulation 1 (a drug-free embodiment of the invention). X-axis corresponds to 2θ degrees and Y-axis corresponds to intensity values;
    Figure 19
    shows typical force-distance and force-time profiles of the wafer matrix of Formulation 1 (a drug-free embodiment of the invention) at distance mode for determining (a) matrix hardness (determined from gradient between anchors 1 and 2) and deformation energy (determined from AUC between anchors 1 and 2); and (b) matrix resilience;
    Figure 20
    shows typical force-distance and force-time profiles of the wafer matrix of Formulation 1 (a drug-free embodiment of the invention) at strain mode for determining (a) matrix hardness (determined from gradient between anchors 1 and 2) and deformation energy (determined from AUC between anchors 1 and 2); and (b) matrix resilience;
    Figure 21
    shows typical force-distance and force-time profiles of the wafer matrix of Formulation 1 (a drug-free embodiment of invention) at force mode for determining (a) matrix hardness (determined from gradient between anchors 1 and 2) and deformation energy (determined from AUC between anchors 1 and 2); and (b) matrix resilience; and
    Figure 22
    shows a Linear isothermic plot, Log isothermic plot, linear BJH adsorption dV/dD curve for pore volume, and log BJH adsorption dV/dD curve for pore volume of the composite polymeric matrices of Formulation 1 (a drug-free embodiment of the invention). The figures confirm the presence of a "H4 hysteresis" of the isotherm.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0026] According to a not claimed aspect there is provided a pharmaceutical dosage form for the release of at least one active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) at a target site in a human or animal, the pharmaceutical dosage form comprising a compound of the Formula (I):



    [0027] The compound of the Formula (I) is a soluble ester chitosan derivative polymer and is herein termed carbomoyl glycinated chitosan (CmGC). The pharmaceutical dosage form may further comprise a soluble matrix forming polymer. Typically, the dosage form is used as an oral pharmaceutical dosage form, and more typically is formed into a wafer for abutment, in use, against mucosa in the oral cavity of a human and/or an animal. The term 'wafer' in this specification refers to a solid, laminar and rigid structure. The target site is typically the oral cavity of a human and/or animal. The dosage form may also be formed into a tablet, capsule and/or ocular dosage form. The ocular dosage form being a mini-tablet essentially comprises a solid eye drop.

    [0028] It is to be understood that the dosage form according to the invention, namely in regard to a wafered dosage form, incorporates advantages including the fact that no coating or microencapsulation is involved; there is a one-step formulation; no effervescence in use; robust and non-friable formulation (for geriatrics); no moisture sensitivity; no chewing required; no water insoluble content; no grittiness; and no remnants during and/or after use.

    [0029] The dosage form according to the invention dissolves rapidly in aqueous media, especially when it comes into contact with the mucosal membranes of the mouth cavity in a human or animal. The rapid, and in fact, ultrafast disintegration follows the following principle: the phenomenon involved in the fast disintegration of the dosage form is based on the use of freely water soluble polymeric/excipient blends. The important aspect for choosing the polymers/excipients is that the polymers/excipients should be soluble at physiological temperature (37°C) without the aid of heating or stirring. The inherent individual solubility of the components is synergistically enhanced when used with other polymers/excipients in a particular ratio. The component with the highest solubility (maltodextrin) was chosen as the bulk and hydroxypropyl cellulose was chosen for the matrix stability. Hydroxypropyl cellulose can be combined with a soluble novel derivative of chitosan namely carbamoyl glycinated chitosan (CmGC). This novel polymer is also easily dispersible in deionised water in lyophilized form and is capable of forming channels making the aqueous media to intrude rapidly. Being a polymeric ester, sodium polyacrylate was used to assist in rapid wettability and hence disintegration and solubility. Diglycine conferred microhardness properties at very low concentrations and provide required functional groups for hydrogen bonding rendering intactness to the wafer matrix dosage form. The combination of compounds comprising the wafer dosage forms in accordance with the invention involved a considerable amount of research and development. The very rapid dissolution characteristics and robust nature of the dosage forms of the invention could not have been predicted, are surprising and are advantageous when compared to the current state of the art.

    [0030] The soluble matrix forming polymer is hydroxypropyl cellulose.

    [0031] The pharmaceutical dosage form further comprises an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer, namely sodium polyacrylate.

    [0032] The pharmaceutical dosage form further comprises an anti-collapsing agent, the anti-collapsing agent being diglycine.

    [0033] The pharmaceutical dosage form further comprises a filler substance, in use binding and/or combining the various components comprising the dosage form, the filler substance being maltodextrin (MD).

    [0034] The pharmaceutical dosage form may further comprise a taste masking agent, in use to mask the unsavoury taste of the dosage form, the taste masking agent may be at least one compound selected from the group including, but not limited to: macrocyclic compound such as but not limited to a cyclodextrins and their derivatives, porphyrins, ion exchange resins, cucurbiturils, permeation enhancing agents well known in the art such as surfactants (fatty acid derivatives - sodium decanoate), and stabilizers. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the cyclodextrin derivative comprises a rapidly soluble derivative, more preferably hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. It is to be understood that the taste masking agent may also act in use as a permeation enhancer.

    [0035] The pharmaceutical dosage form may further comprise an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The API may be selected from the group including, but not limited to: smoking cessation drugs, narcotic analgesics, anesthetics, antitussives, non-narcotic analgesics such as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS), erectile dysfunction drugs, female sexual dysfunction drugs, antihistamines, cold and allergy drugs, drugs that combat cough, drugs that combat respiratory disorders, drugs that combat sore throat, drugs that combat heartburn and/or dyspepsia, antiemetics, sleep aids, drugs that combat diarrhea, drugs that improve oral hygiene, antagonists of CGRP receptors, drugs associated with migrane treatment, drugs for hormone replacement, drugs that combat Alzheimer's disease, sitagliptin, caffeine and caffeine salt compounds.

    [0036] The API may be incorporated together with at least one of the soluble chitosan derivative polymer and/or the ester containing derivative of the acrylic acid and/or the anti-collapsing agent and/or the filler substance and/or the taste masking agent. API incorporation may take place via at least one of the group, but not limited to: noncovalent interactions, covalent interactions, van der Waals forces, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) may be incorporated within the taste masking agent hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) to form a HPβCD-API inclusion complex.

    [0037] According to the invention there is provided a wafer pharmaceutical dosage form for the release of at least one active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) at a target site in a human or animal, the pharmaceutical dosage form comprising a soluble matrix forming polymer, an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer, an anti-collapsing agent, and a filler.

    [0038] Essentially, the invention is formulated without the use of the compound of Formula (I).

    [0039] The invention may further comprise at least one active pharmaceutical compound (API). The invention may further comprise a taste masking agent. The invention may further comprise a taste masking agent and API, preferably hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin HPβCD - active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) inclusion complex (HPβCD-API inclusion complex).

    [0040] It is to be understood that an embodiment of the invention may be formulated as a placebo and lacking an API. Such a placebo embodiment comprises a soluble matrix forming polymer, namely hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC); an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer, namely sodium polyacrylate; an anti-collapsing agent, namely diglycine; and a filler substance, namely maltodextrin.

    [0041] The placebo according to the invention may additionally comprise a taste masking agent.

    [0042] In a preferred embodiment of the invention the pharmaceutical dosage form comprises a soluble matrix forming polymer, namely hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC); an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer, namely sodium polyacrylate; an anti-collapsing agent, namely diglycine; a filler substance, namely maltodextrin; and a taste masking agent and API, preferably HPβCD-API inclusion complex.

    [0043] It is to be understood that the dosage forms according to this invention may be homogenous, alternatively layered like a sandwich, alternatively layered like an onion. In the event that the dosage form is layered, each layer may include at least one of the same or different API.

    [0044] Figure 11 shows a block flow diagram representing a method of manufacturing the dosage form according to the invention and illustrates and/or exemplifies the method according to this invention when read together with the Examples below.

    [0045] According to another aspect of the invention there is provided a method of manufacturing the wafer pharmaceutical dosage form of this invention, the method comprising the steps of:
    1. (a). dissolving a soluble matrix forming polymer, preferably hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC), in a liquid medium, preferably deionized water to produce Solution 1;
    2. (b). adding to Solution 1 a filler, preferably maltodextrin, an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer, preferably sodium polyacrylate and an anti-collapsing agent, preferably diglycine, to produce Solution 2;
    3. (c). freezing Solution 2; and
    4. (d). lyophilizing the frozen Solution 2.


    [0046] Step (b) may further include adding a taste-masking agent, preferably HPβCD complex, to produce Solution 2;
    Example 2 below particularly describes and/or illustrates and/or exemplifies the method of manufacturing the dosage form according to the invention.

    [0047] It is to be understood that the unique combination of components that comprise the dosage form according to the invention imparts very specific three dimensional architecture to the solid dosage form. These components are the soluble matrix forming polymer (HPC), the ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer (sodium polyacrylate), an anti-collapsing agent (diglycine), and a filler substance (maltodextrin). The SEM figures show aligned laminar troughs or channels that lead into the interior of the dosage form. These troughs or channels allow for the rapid ingress of fluid in use causing rapid disintegration and/or dissolution. The combination of components imparts this physico-mechanical property to the dosage form. The XRD shows that diglycine improves crystallinity to the overall structure which is balanced by other more amorphous components. The formation of the troughs or channels seen on the SEM figures also imparts increased stability and rigidity to the dosage form. The formation of the troughs and/or channels in the three dimensional structure is surprising and unexpected.

    [0048] Representative examples of the invention are described in detail hereunder.

    EXAMPLE 1 (Wafer 1)



    [0049] In a not claimed embodiment the pharmaceutical dosage form was manufactured to be a multi-constituent system displaying, in use, rapid disintegration, the dosage form being formed into a wafer and comprising:
    1. i. a soluble chitosan derivative polymer, preferably carbamoyl glycinated-chitosan (CmGC)
    2. ii. a soluble matrix forming polymer, preferably hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC);
    3. iii. an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer, preferably sodium polyacrylate;
    4. iv. an anti-collapsing agent, preferably diglycine;
    5. v. a filler substance, preferably maltodextrin; and
    6. vi. a taste masking agent and API, preferably hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin HPβCD - active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) inclusion complex (HPβCD-API inclusion complex).


    [0050] A placebo may also be manufactured by simply excluding item (vi) above during the manufacturing process. However, it is to be understood that placebos may include a taste masking agent without API.

    [0051] When the term 'rapid disintegration' or 'rapid dissolution' is used in this specification it means fast ingress of fluid into a dosage form and immediate onset of dissolution and/or disintegration of the dosage form.
    Table 1: Dosage form components of the pharmaceutical dosage form according to the not claimed embodiment, and their specific function(s) (Wafer 1 - drug-free placebo embodiment)
    S. No.ComponentCompoundFunction(s)
    1. Soluble chitosan derivative polymer Carbamoylglycinated-chitosan Rapidly soluble polymer; unique soluble polymeric ester providing the fibrous matrix for rapid water channeling and directional flow
    2. Soluble matrix forming agent Hydroxypropyl cellulose Soluble polymer; robust matrix forming polymer
    3. Ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer Ester containing derivative of sodium polyacrylate Soluble polymer; ester components for initiation of rapid solubility
    3. Filler substance Maltodextrin Soluble bulk filler component; cryoprotectant
    5. Anti-collapsing agent Diglycine Microhardness providing agent and/or prevents collapse of dosage form
    6. Taste masking agent Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) Solubilizing agent, permeation enhancer, and taste masking agent


    [0052] Preferred embodiments of the dosage forms were prepared as wafered pharmaceutical dosage forms, where a wafer is a solid, laminar, rigid structure. Preparatory methods describing the manufacture and/or preparation of the various components of the wafered dosage form and/or the wafered dosage form itself, will now be described in detail. Characterization experiments of the various components of the wafered dosage form and/or of the wafered dosage form itself will also be discussed.

    Materials



    [0053] Chitosan (low molecular weight, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA, Lot#MKBF2754V); hydantoic acid (N-Carbomoylglycine, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA)]; Hydroxypropyl cellulose (KLUCEL®, Type:EF, Hercules Incorporated, Wilminton, DE, USA); Maltodextrin (Dextrose equivalent 16.5-19.5, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA); Sodium Polyacrylate (average MW∼2100Da, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA); Diglycine (Gly-Gly, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA); Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (average Mw∼1,460, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Methods


    Preparation of carbamoyl glycinated chitosan (CmGC)



    [0054] Chitosan (2g) was dissolved in 50mL of 2%w/v hydantoic acid solution until a clear solution is obtained. The resulting solution was centrifuged to remove any particulate matter. The supernatant from the centrifuged solution was then dialyzed (cellulose membrane; MWCO 12,000Da) against 1000mL of deionized water for 48 hours with replenishment of deionized water every 6 hours. The dialyzed solution so obtained was frozen at -82°C for 12 hours followed by lyophilization at 25mtorr/-42°C/12hours (FreeZone® 2.5, Labconco®, Kansas City, Missouri, USA). The lyophilized sample was pulverized and stored for further use in a desiccator.

    Preparation of the hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) (HPβCD-API) complex



    [0055] A specified amount of API and HPβCD (in a specified ratio to the API) were dissolved in a common solvent (in which both the API and HPβCD were soluble), preferably deionized water, until clear solutions were obtained, preferably at the saturation solubility of the API. The resulting HPβCD-API inclusion complex solution so obtained was frozen at -82°C for 12 hours followed by lyophilization at 25mtorr/-42°C/12hours (FreeZone® 2.5, Labconco®, Kansas City, Missouri, USA) to yield the drug- HPβCD inclusion complex. The lyophilized sample was pulverized and stored for further use in a desiccator. Should lyophilization not be used, micronisation may be used, especially in embodiments of the invention where inhaler or spray dosage forms are to be manufactured.

    Preparation of the pharmaceutical dosage form (according to a not claimed embodiment):



    [0056] A specified quantity of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) was dissolved in deionized water to make a clear solution 1. To solution 1, carbamoyl glycinated chitosan was added and allowed to dissolve completely to obtain solution 2. Thereafter, specified quantities of maltodextrin, sodium polyacrylate, and diglycine were added to solution 2 and stirred to complete solubilisation to form solution 3. A specified quantity of HPβCD-API inclusion complex was added to solution 3 as the last addition to obtain solution 4. The solution 4 obtained above was filtered to remove any particulate matter and was poured into circular moulds of various capacities such as 0.25cc; 0.4cc; and 0.75cc. The moulds were then frozen at -82°C for 12 hours followed by lyophilization at 25mtorr/-42°C/5hours to obtain the final dosage form. The final dosage forms were wafers. It is to be understood that the API may be incorporated into the dosage using various means and need not necessarily be incorporated therewith through the use of the HPβCD-API inclusion complex. Should lyophilization not be used, micronisation may be used, especially in embodiments of the invention where inhaler or spray dosage forms are to be manufactured.

    [0057] Placebo wafers according to both, the not claimed aspect and the invention, were manufactured according to Tables 2 and 3 below.
    Table 2: Wafer 2- Placebo wafer matrix (an embodiment of the invention)
    Hydroxypropyl cellulose : 0.5% w/v
    Maltodextrin : 5.0% w/v
    Sodium Polyacrylate : 0.25% w/v
    Diglycine : 0.25% w/v
    Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin : 1.0% w/v
    Table 3: Wafer 1- Placebo wafer matrix (a not claimed embodiment)
    Hydroxypropyl cellulose : 0.5% w/v
    carbamoyl glycinated chitosan : 0.5% w/v
    Maltodextrin : 5.0% w/v
    Sodium Polyacrylate : 0.25% w/v
    Diglycine : 0.25% w/v
    Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin : 1.0% w/v

    Results and discussion:


    Synthesis of carbamoyl glycinated chitosan (CmGC) for Wafer 1:



    [0058] Carbamoyl glycinated chitosan (CmGC) or chitosan-hydantoate is a novel chitosan derivative having the characteristic property in being rapidly soluble in deionized water without requiring acidic conditions. The derivative is formed by the interaction of the carboxylic functionality (-COOH) of hydantoic acid with the amine functionality (-NH2) of chitosan as shown below and discussed further in detail in the FTIR description below. Notably, the -COOH/-NH2 interaction in case of carbamoyl glycinated chitosan differs from that of acetic acid-chitosan and citric acid-chitosan. This is evident from the fact that acetic acid-chitosan is not soluble in deionized water after lyophilisation. In case of citric acid-chitosan; chitosan precipitates out during the dialysis stage because of diffusion of citric acid from the mixture leaving the chitosan insoluble again. This confirms that carbamoyl glycinated chitosan forms a very stable bond by simple mixing and requires no special reactants for the -COOH/-NH2 interaction. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of synthesis of chitosan carbamoyl glycine derivative via -NH2----COOH- hydrogen bond formation as elucidated using molecular modelling simulations. The -COOH group of carbamoylglycine can be conjugated to the -NH2 group of chitosan by carobodiimide chemistry or any other type of chemistry known to a person skilled in the art of forming an amide bond.

    Structural characterization of chitosan carbamoyl glycine derivative (CmGC)


    FTIR analysis of chitosan, carbamoyl glycine and chitosan carbamoyl glycine derivative for Wafer 1



    [0059] Characteristic peaks assignment of chitosan (Figure 2a) are: 3359cm-1 (O-H stretch overlapped with N-H stretch), 2868cm-1 (C-H stretch), 1640 cm-1 (amide II band, C-O stretch of acetyl group), 1588 cm-1 (amide II band, N-H stretch), 1485-1375 cm-1 (asymmetric C-H bending of CH2 group) and 1022 cm-1 (bridge O stretch) of glucosamine residue. The IR spectral band of carbamoyl glycine showed characteristic peaks at (Figure 2b): 3386cm-1, 3220cm-1, 2735cm-1, 2452cm-1, 1872cm-1, 1694cm-1, 1664cm-1, 1637cm-1, 1523cm-1, 1448cm-1, 1402cm-1, 1305cm-1, 1236cm-1, 1172cm-1, 1083cm-1, 1025cm-1, 972cm-1, 918cm-1, 768cm-1, 713cm-1, 647cm-1. Figure 2c shows the significant peaks of chitosan carbamoyl glycine derivative. The peaks corresponding to chitosan are 2882cm-1, 1602cm-1, 1382cm-1, 1151cm-1, 1019cm-1 and 899cm-1. The new peak appearing 3262cm-1 (3386cm-1 and 3220cm-1 merge), 1518cm-1, 1382cm-1, 1304cm-1, and 1248cm-1 indicates the incorporation of the carbamoyl glycine moieties. The FTIR results suggest that the-COOH group of HA have been successfully bonded to the NH2 group of chitosan main chain to form amide linkage. When viewing Figure 2, Figure 2 shows Fourier transform infra-red spectra of (a) pristine chitosan; (b) carbamoyl glycinated chitosan; and (c) pristine carbamoyl glycine.

    FTIR spectral analysis of the placebo Wafer 1 (as per Table 3):



    [0060] The FTIR spectra of all the constituent components and the overall dosage form of Wafer 1 are depicted in Figure 5. The FTIR spectra of the overall dosage form of Wafer 2 are also shown. A detailed analysis of the unique and general contribution of the components to the formation of final structure can be elucidates as shown in Table 4 and as discussed below.

    [0061] It is evident from FTIR analysis that all the components are uniformly distributed in the dosage form irrespective of the concentration of the component as all the components contributed to the generation of transmittance spectra with maltodextrin forming the major part of the dosage form - the bulk filler.

    [0062] The broad peak contribution of sodium polyacrylate (NaPAA) (3308cm-1) confirms its role as the ester polymer coating the granular matrix rather than being the inherent matrix itself. In this embodiment of the invention the dosage form is not layered but there is provided that it may be formulated as sandwiched layered structures. The NaPAA is not a coating of the dosage form. The word "coating" is used to indicate that the NaPAA may be spread homogenously in the matrix in the form of a coating on the "microenvironment" of the wafer matrix making the dosage form rapidly disintegrating when in use.

    [0063] The highly prominent band at 1373cm-1 arising from the CH bending vibration in cellulose confirmed the intact presence of the cellulosic structure and hence the robustness of the dosage form, in this case formed into a wafer, can be assured.

    [0064] The presence of diglycine characteristic peak (-CH2-CH2-) in the finger print region (704cm-1) and also in the aliphatic region (2923cm-1) fulfils the hydrophobicity condition (among the all-hydrophillic system involved in lyophilization) required for the anti-collapsing micro-hardening property of diglycine in the final formulation.

    [0065] The ubiquitous presence of hydroxyporpyl-β-cyclodextrin along the polymeric matrix encourages the fact that the drug will be uniformly dispersed once complexed with the cyclodextrin thereby providing adequate release. Given the short time of disintegration of the matrix, this might appear insignificant.

    [0066] The incorporation of carbamoyl glycinated chitosan into the above formulation shifted the very intense 995cm-1 peak (Wafer 1) to 1013cm-1 peak corresponding to that of carbamoyl glycinated chitosan and hence proving the potential effect of incorporating this novel fibrous polymer to the matrix.

    [0067] The shifting and change in intensity of various transmittance peaks along with the occurance of a peak at 1590cm-1 confirms the formation of a unique blend having all the inherent functionalities of the components as well as a novel interaction profile of the components.
    Table 4: FTIR spectral analysis of the Wafer 1 & 2, pharmaceutical dosage form, with respect to the component polymers
    S. No.Wavelength Number for Wafer 2 (embodiment of the invention)Corresponding wavelength number of the component(s)
    1. 3308cm-1 Sodium polyacrylate (3306cm-1)
    2. 2922cm-1 Diglycine (2923cm-1)
    Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2925cm-1)
    Maltodextrin (2923cm-1)
    3. 1590cm-1 Unique to the wafer system
    4. 1373cm-1 Hydroxypropyl cellulose (1373cm-1)
    5. 1148cm-1 Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (1148cm-1)
    Maltodextrin (1147cm-1)
    6. 1077cm-1 Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (1079cm-1)
    Maltodextrin (1076cm-1)
    7. 995cm-1 Maltodextrin (991cm-1)
    8. 930cm-1 Maltodextrin (927cm-1)
    9. 848cm-1 Maltodextrin (847cm-1)
    Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (848cm-1)
    10. 758cm-1 Maltodextrin (758cm-1)
    Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (755cm-1)
    11. 704cm-1 Diglycine (706cm-1)
     
    S. No.Wavelength Number shift for Wafer 1 (not claimed embodiment)Corresponding wavelength number of the component(s)
    1. 995cm-1 to 1013cm-1 carbamoyl glycinated chitosan (1019cm-1)
    2. 3308cm-1 Sodium polyacrylate (3306cm-1)
    3. 2922cm-1 Diglycine (2923cm-1)
    Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2925cm-1)
    Maltodextrin (2923cm-1)
    4. 1590cm-1 Unique to the wafer system
    5. 1373cm-1 Hydroxypropyl cellulose (1373cm-1)
    6. 1148cm-1 Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (1148cm-1)
    Maltodextrin (1147cm-1)
    7. 1077cm-1 Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (1079cm-1)
    Maltodextrin (1076cm-1)
    8. 995cm-1 Maltodextrin (991cm-1)
    9. 930cm-1 Maltodextrin (927cm-1)
    10. 848cm-1 Maltodextrin (847cm-1)
    Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (848cm-1)
    11. 758cm-1 Maltodextrin (758cm-1)
    Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (755cm-1)
    12. 704cm-1 Diglycine (706cm-1)

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of chitosan, carbamoyl glycine and chitosan carbamoyl glycine derivative (CmGC) for Wafer 1



    [0068] Figure 3 revealed differential scanning calorimetric analysis curves of pristine chitosan (Figure 3a), pristine carbamoyl glycine (Figure 3b) and chitosan carbamoyl glycine derivative (Figure 3c). From the DSC curves, two endothermic stages appeared in the thermal analysis of chitosan. The first stage began at about 100°C due to the loss of residual or physically adsorbed water, and the second stage showed an endothermic peak at 203°C which corresponds to the Tg of chitosan (CHT). The DSC curve of hydantoic acid also showed two peaks at 172°C (melting point of carbamoyl glycine) and 195°C (decomposition peak). The chitosan carbamoyl glycine derivative however showed three major endothermic steps assigned by chitosan and the conjugated groups, individually. Different from the peak of chitosan at 203°C, a flat peak at 210°C and a sharp peak at 236°C were preset in chitosan derivative, which clearly revealed that the degradation peak temperature of chitosan derivative was higher than that of chitosan. Additionally, the sharp peak manifested that chitosan derivative degraded very fast at the temperature range close to 240°C, which resulted from a series of complex chemical changes in the process including the sugar ring dehydration, degradation, molecular chain glycine and N-deacetylation of the cracking unit, as well as the disruption of the ordered structure of chitosan by the introduction of the carbamoyl moeity. Figure 3 shows differential scanning calorimetry curves of (a) pristine chitosan; (b) pristine carbamoyl glycine; and (c) carbamoyl glycinated chitosan.

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis chitosan, carbamoyl glycine and chitosan-carbamoyl glycine derivative (CmGC) for Wafer 1



    [0069] Owing to the presence of the a) well-defined; b) uniformly-distributed, c) uni-directional, d) multi-lamellar, fibrous structure - the amorpho-crystal nature of the said polymer may play a significant role in providing the insight of the inherent mechanism of superior performance of the novel polymer. Apart from the structural and thermals analysis, preliminary XRD analysis shows a very unique amorpho-crystalline profile and the final elucidation is under process.

    [0070] Detailed XRD analysis is being carried out for the confirmation of the exact mechanism of this high-performance API delivery system. XRD analysis will provide the amorpho-crystalline profile and the final elucidation is under process.

    Morphology of carbamoyl glycinated chitosan (CmGC) Wafer 1



    [0071] The unique morphology of carbamoylglycinated-chitosan is depicted in Figure 4. It is evident from the photomicrographs that the lyophilized form consists of a) well-defined; b) uniformly-distributed, c) uni-directional, d) multi-lamellar, fibrous structure which led to an instant ingress of aqueous phase making carbamoyl glycinated chitosan "an instantly soluble chitosan derivative". The parallel-channels formed during the lyophilisation phase rendered rapid influx of aqueous phase inside the polymer matrix leading to rapid disintegration and dissolution of the dosage form.

    Morphology of the developed pharmaceutical dosage forms (Wafer 1)



    [0072] As depicted in Figure 6 and Figure 7; it can be concluded that:
    The upper surface of the wafered dosage form (the surface from which the water phase escaped during lyrophilization) was crystalline in appearance: the surface structure is likely to disperse amongst the constituents microcrystalline environment leading to separation of these parts as soon as the aqueous phase makes a contact with the wafer (Figure 6a and Figure 6b).

    [0073] The horizontal cross-sectional area is highly porous with the pore size ranging from macro- to micropores: this continuous porous structure is likely to help in rapid ingress of aqueous phase leading to dispersion as well as dissolution of the matrix structure (Figure 6c and Figure 6d).

    [0074] In order to take the photomicrographs of Figure 7; the dosage form was broken to visualise the vertical cross-section. The dosage form appeared layered in nature: this layer-by-layer structure is likely to assist the aqueous phase to disperse the dosage form stage-by-stage leading to independent dispersion and dissolution of one layer with respect to other. This divides the dosage form into various microstructures to be acted upon by the ingress aqueous phase. Additionally, these independent microstructures will ensure the rapid disintegration of the dosage form independent of the size of the final formulation (Figure 7a and 7b).

    [0075] Figure 7c and 7d display a micrograph inherent to a single layer in the dosage form's structure: the fibrous nature of the polymer composite can be visualized in the micrograph further explaining the robustness and connectivity of the matrix forming the dosage form. It is the unique combination of components comprising the Wafer 1 that allows for channels, typically parallel channels, to be formed. These channels facilitate rapid ingress of water and rapid disintegration and/or dissolution in use, and were surprising and expected physico-mechanical features of the Wafer 1. The three dimensional architecture is a function of the individual components of the Wafer 1 and also ensures sufficient rigidity to the wafer prior to use. Increased rigidity facilitates ease of use, since the dosage form will not disintegrate and/or break when handled by a user.

    Porositometric quantification of the developed wafer dosage forms (Wafer 1)



    [0076] 
    Surface Area
    Single point surface area at P/Po = 0.200637096: 1.9615 m2/g
    BET Surface Area: 2.6956 m2/g
    t-Plot External Surface Area: 4.2946 m2/g
    BJH Adsorption cumulative surface area of pores between 17.000 Å and 3000.000 Å diameter: 2.625 m2/g
    BJH Desorption cumulative surface area of pores between 17.000 Å and 3000.000 Å diameter: 2.5504 m2/g


    [0077] Figure 8 shows linear isothermic plot, log isothermic plot, linear BJH adsorption dV/dD curve for pore volume, and log BJH adsorption dV/dD curve for pore volume of the composite polymeric matrices. The figures confirm the presence of a "H4 hysteresis" of the isotherm.
    Pore Volume
    Single point adsorption total pore volume of pores less than 808.805 Å diameter at P/Po = 0.975468283: 0.003604 cm3/g
    t-Plot micropore volume: -0.000998 cm3/g
    BJH Adsorption cumulative volume of pores between 17.000 Å and 3000.000 Å diameter: 0.005569 cm3/g
    BJH Desorption cumulative volume of pores between 17.000 Å and 3000.000 Å diameter: 0.005528 cm3/g
    Pore Size
    Adsorption average pore width (4V/A by BET): 53.4764 Å
    BJH Adsorption average pore diameter (4V/A): 84.867 Å
    BJH Desorption average pore diameter (4V/A): 86.694 Å

    PERFORMANCE OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM



    [0078] 
    Table 5: The salient features of the wafered dosage form (Wafer 1)
    FeatureUltra-fast disintegrating matrix system
    Dispersion speed ∼1 second (Figure 9)
    Mouth feel Non-gritty
    Texture Smooth
    Dose size <500mg - insoluble
    <100mg - soluble
    *Adjustable to the requirements as cyclodextrin can be used to enclose the drug
    Taste masking Yes
    Hygroscopicity Non-hygroscopic
    Stability Stable at room temperature and humidity condition as observed for 1 year (July 2011-July 2012) under South African climate conditions
    Packaging No special packaging required as the wafers can be dispensed on a poly-bottle with a dessicant, if required
    Applications An oral wafer matrix, a graft lubricant, a chromatography gel, a wound dressing, a mesh, a degradable bone fixation glue, a degradable ligament glue and sealant, a tendon implant, a dental implant, a reconstituted nerve injectable, a disposable article, a disposable contact lens, an ocular device, a rupture net, a rupture mesh, an instant blood bag additive, an instant haemodialysis additive, an instant peritoneal dialysis additive, an instant plasmapheresis additive, an inhalation drug delivery device, a cardiac assist device, a tissue replacing implant, a drug delivery device, an endotracheal tube lubricant, a drain additive, and a dispersible suspension system.

    EXAMPLE 2 (Wafer 2)



    [0079] A representative Example of the invention was manufactured as described, illustrated and exemplified below.

    [0080] In an embodiment of the invention the pharmaceutical dosage form was manufactured to be a multi-constituent system displaying, in use, ultra-rapid disintegration, the dosage form being formed into a wafer and comprising:
    1. i. a soluble matrix forming polymer, namely hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC);
    2. ii. an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer, namely sodium polyacrylate;
    3. iii. an anti-collapsing agent, namely diglycine;
    4. iv. a filler substance, namely maltodextrin; and
    5. v. a taste masking agent and API, preferably hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin HPβCD - active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) inclusion complex (HPβCD-API inclusion complex).


    [0081] A placebo may also be manufactured by simply excluding item (v) above during the manufacturing process. However, it is to be understood that placebos may include a taste masking agent without API.

    Materials



    [0082] Hydroxypropyl cellulose (KLUCEL®, Type:EF, Hercules Incorporated, Wilminton, DE, USA); Maltodextrin (Dextrose equivalent 16.5-19.5, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA); Sodium Polyacrylate (average MW∼2100Da, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA); Diglycine (Gly-Gly, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA); Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (average Mw∼1,460, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Methods


    Preparation of drug-HPβCD complex for Wafer 2



    [0083] A specified amount of drug and HPβCD (in a specified ratio to the API or drug) were dissolved in a common solvent (in which both the API and HPβCD were soluble), preferably deionized water, until clear solutions were obtained, preferably at the saturation solubility of the API. The resulting HPβCD-API inclusion complex solution so obtained was frozen at -82°C for 12 hours followed by lyophilization at 25mtorr/-42°C/12hours (FreeZone® 2.5, Labconco®, Kansas City, Missouri, USA). The lyophilized sample was pulverized and stored for further use in a desiccator.

    Preparation of wafer matrix dosage form in accordance with the invention:



    [0084] A specified quantity of hydroxypropyl cellulose was dissolved in deionized water to make a clear solution 1. Thereafter, specified quantities of maltodextrin, sodium polyacrylate, and diglycine were added to solution 1 and stirred to complete solubilisation to form solution 2. A specified quantity of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-API (drug) inclusion complex was added to solution 2 as the last addition to obtain solution 3. The solution 3 obtained above was filtered to remove any particulate matter and frozen at -82°C for 12 hours followed by lyophilization at 25mtorr/-42°C/5hours to obtain the final dosage form.

    [0085] A placebo (or drug-free (DF)) wafer was manufactured by omitting the step of adding hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-API (drug) inclusion complex to solution 2. The formulation of prepared placebo wafers is provided below in Table 6a (Formulation 1).

    [0086] A drug-loaded (DL) wafer was prepared as described above wherein the API was rizatriptan benzoate, and the formulation thereof is provided below in Table 6b (Formulation 2).

    [0087] A drug-loaded (DL) wafer was prepared as described above wherein the API was fluoxetine hydrochloride, and the formulation thereof is provided below in Table 6c (Formulation 3).
    Table 6a: Formulation 1- Placebo (DF) of Wafer 2
    Hydroxypropyl cellulose : 0.5% w/v
    Maltodextrin : 5.0% w/v
    Sodium Polyacrylate : 0.25% w/v
    Diglycine : 0.25% w/v
    Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin : 1.0% w/v
    Table 6b: Formulation 2- Rizatriptan benzoate loaded (DL) Wafer 2 (per wafer)
    Hydroxypropyl cellulose : 0.5% w/v
    Maltodextrin : 5.0% w/v
    Sodium Polyacrylate : 0.25% w/v
    Diglycine : 0.25% w/v
    Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin : 1.0% w/v
    Rizatriptan benzoate : 14.53mg
    Deionized water q.s. : 0.4mL
    Table 6c: Formulation 3- Fluoxetine Hydrochloride loaded (DL) Wafer 2 matrix
    Hydroxypropyl cellulose : 0.5% w/v
    Maltodextrin : 5.0% w/v
    Sodium Polyacrylate : 0.25% w/v
    Diglycine : 0.25% w/v
    Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin : 1.0% w/v
    Fluoxetine Hydrochloride : 11.22mg
    Deionized water q.s. : 0.4mL

    FTIR spectral analysis of the placebo wafer of Formulation 1 (DF Wafer 2):



    [0088] The FTIR spectra of all the constituent components and the wafer of Formulation 1 are depicted in Figure 12. A detailed analysis of the unique and general contribution of the components to the formation of final structure can be elucidates as shown in Table 7 and as discussed below:
    1. 1. It is evident from FTIR analysis that all the components are uniformly distributed in the matrix system irrespective of the concentration of the component as all the components contributed to the generation of transmittance spectra with Maltodextrin forming the major part of the matrix - bulk filler.
    2. 2. The broad peak contribution of sodium polyacrylate (3308cm-1) confirms its role as the ester polymer coating the granular matrix rather than being the inherent matrix itself.
    3. 3. The highly prominent band at 1373cm-1 arising from the CH bending vibration in cellulose confirmed the intact presence of the cellulosic structure and hence the robustness of the wafer can be assured.
    4. 4. The presence of diglycine characteristic peak (-CH2-CH2-) in the finger print region (704cm-1) and also in the aliphatic region (2923cm-1) fulfils the hydrophobicity condition (among the all-hydrophillic system involved in lyophilization) required for the anti-collapsing micro-hardening property of diglycine in the final formulation.
    5. 5. The ubiquitous presence of hydroxyporpyl-b-cyclodextrin along the polymeric matrix encourages the fact that the drug will be uniformly dispersed once complexed with the cyclodextrin thereby providing adequate release. Given the short time of disintegration of the matrix; this might appear insignificant.
    6. 6. The shifting and change in intensity of various transmittance peaks along with the occurance of a peak at 1590cm-1 confirms the formation of a unique blend having all the inherent functionalities of the components as well as a novel interaction profile of the components.
    Table 7: FTIR spectral analysis of the wafer of Formulation 1 with respect to the component polymers (DF Wafer 2)
    S. No.Wavelength Number for W1Corresponding wavelength number of the component(s)
    1. 3308cm-1 Sodium polyacrylate (3306cm-1)
    2. 2922cm-1 Diglycine (2923cm-1)
        Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2925cm-1)
        Maltodextrin (2923cm-1)
    3. 1590cm-1 Unique to the wafer system
    4. 1373cm-1 Hydroxypropyl cellulose (1373cm-1)
    5. 1148cm-1 Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (1148cm-1)
        Maltodextrin (1147cm-1)
    6. 1077cm-1 Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (1079cm-1) Maltodextrin (1076cm-1)
    7. 995cm-1 Maltodextrin (991cm-1)
    8. 930cm-1 Maltodextrin (927cm-1)
    9. 848cm-1 Maltodextrin (847cm-1)
        Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (848cm-1)
    10. 758cm-1 Maltodextrin (758cm-1)
        Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (755cm-1)
    11. 704cm-1 Diglycine (706cm-1)

    Optical microscopy analysis of the developed wafer of Formulation 1 (DF Wafer 2)



    [0089] As depicted in Figure 13 and Figure 14; it can be concluded that:
    1. 1. The upper surface (the surface from which the water phase escaped during lyrophilization) was crystalline in appearance: the surface structure is likely to disperse amongst the constituents microcrystalline environment leading to separation of these parts as soon as the aqueous phase makes a contact with the wafer matrix (Figure 13a and Figure 13b).
    2. 2. The horizontal cross-sectional area is highly porous with the pore size ranging from macro- to micropores: this continuous porous structure is likely to help in rapid ingress of aqueous phase leading to dispersion as well as dissolution of the matrix structure (Figure 13c and Figure 13d).
    3. 3. For taking the photomicrographs of Figure 14; the matrix or wafer structure was broken to visualise the vertical cross-section. The matrix structure appeared layered in nature: this layer-by-layer structure is likely to assist the aqueous phase to disperse the matrix structure stage-by-stage leading to independent dispersion and dissolution of one layer with respect to other. This divides the matrix structure into various microstructures to be acted upon by the ingressing aqueous phase. Additionally, these independent microstructures will ensure the rapid disintegration of matrix structure independent of the size of the final formulation (Figure 14a and 14b).
    4. 4. Figure 14c and 14d display the micrograph inherent to a single layer in the matrix structure: the fibrous nature of the polymer composite can be visualized in the micrograph further explaining the robustness and connectivity of the matrix structure.

    Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the wafer matrix of Formulation 1 (DF Wafer 2)



    [0090] The top surface electron microscopy scan of the wafer system of Formulation 1 displayed a unique highly porous-symmetrical-channelled structure (Figure 15). On further magnification, the SEM micrograph showed that the channels are lined parallel with inter- and intra-channel connectivity. These channels further continued into the matrix bulk structure perpendicularly as evident from the SEM micrograph of the bottom surface of the wafer (Figure 16). A closer view at the surface reveals that the symmetrical-channelled structure consisted of very deep thin-walled microporous architecture (pore width approximatel 50µm) going to full width of the wafer matrix. Additionally, the porous architecture of the matrix displayed an angled morphology which imparted the much needed matrix resilience to the wafers. The full-width continuity of the matrix was further proved by the scanning the cross-section of the wafer matrix (Figure 17) which confirmed the vertical continuity-symmetry-linearity of the porous architecture and hence the no-resistance characteristic of the matrix towards water inflow and ingress.

    X-ray diffraction analysis of the wafer matrix of Formulation 1 (DF Wafer 2)



    [0091] The influence of the constituent components on the performance of the wafer of Formulation 1 was analyzed using XRD analysis. In addition to the final product, XRD analysis was performed on the individual excipients hydroxypropyl cellullose, maltodextrin, sodium polyacrylate, diglycine, and Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin. The XRD spectra clearly show that diglycine is a crystalline substance while hydroxypropyl cellulose, maltodextrin, sodium polyacrylate, and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin displayed amorphous nature. However; the final product - the wafer of Formulation 1 - demonstrated primarily amorphous and partial crystalline nature. As maltodextrin constituted the bulk of the matrix (5.0%); the XRD curve of the final wafer formulation can be seen as a derivative of maltodextrin curve - leading to a remapping of maltodextrin due to the addition of specialized excipients for the wafer application. Maltodextrin displayed a broad peak (2θ = 8.1-31.7) at an intensity of approximately 6547 at 2θ = 18.55 which was reduced to approximately 5007 in the final product. This decrease in intensity of 2θ = 8.1-31.7 degrees peak in maltodextrin can be attributed to the addition of sodium polyacrylate as sodium polyacrylate show a peak of intensity approximately3876 at 2θ = 18.55 as compared to hydroxypropyl cellullose and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin showing intensities of approximately11688 and approximately700, respectively. This confirms the role of sodium polyacrylate in imparting amorphousness to the final product. Additionally the peak width decreased from 2θ = 8.1-31.7 to 2θ = 10.34-28.73 which can be attributed to the crystalline nature of diglycine in the range of 2θ = 20-30. The peak at 2θ = 10.34-28.73 also corresponds to the peaks observed in hydroxypropyl cellullose and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin showing intensities of approximately11688 and approximately9700, respectively, ascertaining the overall conversion of partial crystallanity of hydroxypropyl cellullose and Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin to amorphous nature. A small but significant peak was observed at 2θ = 8.5 (intensity approximately3007) which can be assigned to 2θ = 8.23 (intensity ≈13488) and 2θ = 11.33 (intensity approximately 7105) peaks of hydroxypropyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin confirming their presence in the matrix system with an increase in amorphousness as the intensity of these peaks is drastically decreased. After lyophilisation, few very small signals are seen throughout the wafer spectra, indicating that some parts of the freeze dried product are still crystalline. One of the signals, at an angle of approximately 2θ = 81.08 (intensity approximately 2126), is not present in any other sample. This new signal at 2θ = 81.08 and the change in peak intensity, height, and width at 2θ = 10.34-28.73 signal can be assigned to the unique polymorphic structure of maltodextrin, formed in presence of diglycine and sodium polyacrylate and due to water contact. This makes the wafer system a partial amorphous - partial crystalline matrix system providing the desired matrix solubility and stability. It is the unique combination of components comprising the Wafer 2 that allows for channels, typically parallel channels, to be formed. These channels facilitate rapid ingress of water and rapid disintegration and/or dissolution in use, and were surprising and expected physico-mechanical features of the Wafer 2.

    [0092] Figure 18 shows X-Ray diffraction patterns of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), hydroxyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), diglycine, sodium polyacrylate, maltodextrin, and the final wafer product (Formulation 1 - a drug-free embodiment of the invention).

    Textural analysis of the wafer matrix of Formulation 1 (DF Wafer 2)



    [0093] The textural analysis of the matrix at various force (5N and 10 N), strain (10% and 25%), and displacement (2mm) conditions was carried out on a texture analyzer (TA.XT plus, Stable Micro Systems, UK) using a flat-base cylindrical probe (10 mm in diameter) to ascertain the robustness of the wafer matrix. The matrix structure was intact at all these conditions and displayed a high matrix deformation energy, rigidity gradient and matrix resilience at force (5N and 10 N), strain (5% and 25%), and displacement (2mm) conditions, as shown in Table 4.
    Table 8: Textural profiling for physicochemical characterization of the wafer matrices of Formulation 1 (DF Wafer 2)
    Texture analysis modeDeformation energy (J)Matrix Hardness (N/mm2)Matrix resilience (%)
    Strain (%) 10 0.425 9.769 15.437
    25 3.980 16.088 09.046
    Force (N) 5 0.795 17.446 17.000
    10 1.312 25.222 19.721
    Distance (mm) 2 24.016 12.644 03.608


    [0094] Figure 19 shows typical force distance and force time profiles of the wafer matrix of Formulation 1 (a drug-free embodiment of the invention) at distance mode for determining (a) matrix hardness (determined from gradient between anchors 1 and 2) and deformation energy (determined from AUC between anchors 1 and 2) and (b) matrix resilience.

    [0095] Figure 20 shows typical force distance and force time profiles of the wafer matrix (of Formulation 1 - a drug-free embodiment of the invention) at strain mode for determining (a) matrix hardness (determined from gradient between anchors 1 and 2) and deformation energy (determined from AUC between anchors 1 and 2); and (b) matrix resilience.

    [0096] Figure 21 shows typical force distance and force time profiles of the wafer matrix (of Formulation 1 - a drug-free embodiment of the invention) at force mode for determining (a) matrix hardness (determined from gradient between anchors 1 and 2) and deformation energy (determined from AUC between anchors 1 and 2); and (b) matrix resilience.

    Porositometric quantification of the developed wafer matrices of Formulation 1 (DF Wafer 2)



    [0097] 
    Surface Area
    Single point surface area at P/Po = 0.200637096: 1.9615 m2/g
    BET Surface Area: 2.6956 m2/g
    t-Plot External Surface Area: 4.2946 m2/g
    BJH Adsorption cumulative surface area of pores between 17.000 Å and 3000.000 Å diameter: 2.625 m2/g
    BJH Desorption cumulative surface area of pores between 17.000 Å and 3000.000 Å diameter: 2.5504 m2/g
    Pore Volume
    Single point adsorption total pore volume of pores less than 808.805 Å diameter at P/Po = 0.975468283: 0.003604 cm3/g
    t-Plot micropore volume: -0.000998 cm3/g
    BJH Adsorption cumulative volume of pores between 17.000 Å and 3000.000 Å diameter: 0.005569 cm3/g
    BJH Desorption cumulative volume of pores between 17.000 Å and 3000.000 Å diameter: 0.005528 cm3/g
    Pore Size
    Adsorption average pore width (4V/A by BET): 53.4764 Å
    BJH Adsorption average pore diameter (4V/A): 84.867 Å
    BJH Desorption average pore diameter (4V/A): 86.694 Å


    [0098] Figure 22 shows a) a linear isothermic plot, b) a Log isothermic plot, c) a linear BJH adsorption dV/dD curve for pore volume, and d) a log BJH adsorption dV/dD curve for pore volume of the composite polymeric matrices. The figures 12a-d confirm the presence of a "H4 hysteresis" of the isotherm.
    Table 9: The salient features of the Ultra-fast or rapid disintegrating matrix system of Formulation 1 (DF Wafer 2)
    FeatureUltra-fast disintegrating matrix system
    Dispersion speed ∼1 second
    Mouth feel Non-gritty
    Texture Smooth
    Dose size <500mg - insoluble
    <100mg - soluble
    *Adjustable to the requirements as cyclodextrin can be used to enclose the drug
    Taste masking Yes
    Hygroscopicity Non-hygroscopic
    Drug assay (%) Rizatriptan benzoate wafers: 96.32±1.82 Fluoxetine HCl wafers: 97.24±3.23
    Stability Stable at room temperature and humidity condition as observed for 1 year (July 2011-July 2012) under South African climate conditions
    Packaging No special packaging required as the wafers can be dispensed on a poly-bottle with a dessicant, if required
    Applications An oral wafer matrix, a graft lubricant, a chromatography gel, a wound dressing, a mesh, a degradable bone fixation glue, a degradable ligament glue and sealant, a tendon implant, a dental implant, a reconstituted nerve injectable, a disposable article, a disposable contact lens, an ocular device, a rupture net, a rupture mesh, an instant blood bag additive, an instant haemodialysis additive, an instant peritoneal dialysis additive, an instant plasmapheresis additive, an inhalation drug delivery device, a cardiac assist device, a tissue replacing implant, a drug delivery device, an endotracheal tube lubricant, a drain additive, and a dispersible suspension system.

    Mechanism of Performance of the Matrix System of Formulation 1 (DF Wafer 2)



    [0099] The performance of this ultra-fast disintegrating matrix system can be summarised in following points:
    1. 1. The constituent polymers and excipients used in the fabrication of the matrix are hydrophilic and freely soluble in aqueous media and hence impart rapid and complete dissolution and solubilisation of the matrix system.
    2. 2. The addition of sodium polyacrylate and diglycine provided the much needed amorphous-crystalline balance to the wafer matrix further responsible for the enhanced solubility of the combination over the individual components as well as the much required robustness and stability of the solid matrix further proven by the texture analysis results.
    3. 3. The scanning electron micrographs displayed a microporous-symmetrical-angled morphology capable of imparting a resistance-free and laminar flow of water into the matrix leading to rapid disintegration and subsequent dissolution of the matrix. The angled morphology additionally contributed to the much needed matrix resilience of the final product.
    4. 4. It is the unique combination of components comprising the Wafer 2 that allows for channels, typically parallel channels, to be formed. These channels facilitate rapid ingress of water and rapid disintegration and/or dissolution in use, and were surprising and expected physico-mechanical features of the Wafer 2. The three dimensional architecture is a function of the individual components of the Wafer 2 and also ensures sufficient rigidity to the wafer prior to use. Increased rigidity facilitates ease of use, since the dosage form will not disintegrate and/or break when handled by a user.


    [0100] While the invention has been described in detail with respect to specific embodiments and/or examples thereof, it will be appreciated that those skilled in the art, upon attaining an understanding of the foregoing may readily conceive of alterations to, variations of and equivalents to these embodiments. Accordingly, the scope of the present invention should be assessed as that of the claims and any equivalents thereto, which claims appended hereto.


    Claims

    1. A wafer pharmaceutical dosage form for the release of at least one active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) at a target site in a human or animal, the pharmaceutical dosage form comprising:

    a soluble matrix forming polymer in the form of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC);

    an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer in the form of sodium polyacrylate;

    an anti-collapsing agent in the form of diglycine; and

    a filler substance in the form of maltodextrin.


     
    2. The wafer pharmaceutical dosage form according to claim 1, further comprising a taste masking agent, in use to mask the unsavoury taste of the dosage form, the taste masking agent selected from the group: macrocyclic compounds such as cyclodextrins and their derivatives, porphyrins, ion exchange resins, cucurbiturils, permeation enhancing agents and stabilizers, preferably the taste masking agent is hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD).
     
    3. The wafer pharmaceutical dosage form according to claim 1 or 2, further comprising an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) selected from the group consisting of: smoking cessation drugs, narcotic analgesics, anesthetics, antitussives, non-narcotic analgesics such as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS), erectile dysfunction drugs, female sexual dysfunction drugs, antihistamines, cold and allergy drugs, drugs that combat cough, drugs that combat respiratory disorders, drugs that combat sore throat, drugs that combat heartburn and/or dyspepsia, antiemetics, sleep aids, drugs that combat diarrhea, drugs that improve oral hygiene, antagonists of CGRP receptors, drugs associated with migrane treatment, drugs for hormone replacement, drugs that combat Alzheimer's disease, sitagliptin, caffeine and caffeine salt compounds.
     
    4. The wafer pharmaceutical dosage form according to any one of claims 1 to 3, further comprising a HPβCD-API inclusion complex consisting of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) incorporated within taste masking agent hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD).
     
    5. A method of manufacturing the wafer pharmaceutical dosage form according to claim 1 comprising the steps of:

    (a). dissolving a soluble matrix forming polymer, preferably hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC), in a liquid medium, preferably deionized water to produce Solution 1;

    (b). adding to Solution 1 a filler, preferably maltodextrin, an ester containing derivative of an acrylic polymer, preferably sodium polyacrylate and an anti-collapsing agent, preferably diglycine, to produce Solution 2;

    (c). freezing Solution 2; and

    (d). lyophilizing the frozen Solution 2.


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Scheibenartige pharmazeutische Dosierungsform für die Freisetzung von wenigstens einem aktiven pharmazeutischen Inhaltsstoff (API) an einer Zielstelle in einem Menschen oder Tier, wobei die pharmazeutische Dosierungsform Folgendes umfasst:

    ein Polymer, das eine lösliche Matrix bilden kann, in Form von Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC);

    ein Derivat eines Acrylpolymers, das einen Ester enthält, in Form von Natriumpolyacrylat;

    ein das Zerfallen verhinderndes Agens in Form von Diglycin; und

    eine Füllsubstanz in Form von Maltodextrin.


     
    2. Scheibenartige pharmazeutische Dosierungsform nach Patentanspruch 1, weiterhin umfassend ein den Geschmack verbergendes Agens, das verwendet wird, um den unangenehmen Geschmack der Dosierungsform zu verbergen, wobei das den Geschmack verbergende Agens ausgewählt ist aus der folgenden Gruppe: makrocyclische Verbindungen wie zum Beispiel Cyclodextrine und ihre Derivate, Porphyrine, lonenaustauschharze, Cucurbiturile, Agentien, welche die Permeation verstärken, und Stabilisatoren, wobei das bevorzugte den Geschmack verbergende Agens Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) ist.
     
    3. Scheibenartige pharmazeutische Dosierungsform nach Patentanspruch 1 oder 2, weiterhin umfassend einen aktiven pharmazeutischen Inhaltsstoff (API), der ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe, bestehend aus: Arzneimittel zur Raucherentwöhnung, betäubende Schmerzmittel, Anästhetika, Hustenmittel, nichtnarkotische Analgetika wie zum Beispiel die nichtsteroidalen entzündungshemmenden Medikamente (NSAIDS), Arzneimittel gegen erektile Dysfunktion, Arzneimittel gegen weibliche sexuelle Dysfunktion, Antihistaminika, Erkältungs- und Allergiemittel, Arzneimittel, welche Husten behandeln, Arzneimittel, welche Atemwegserkrankungen behandeln, Arzneimittel, welche Halsschmerzen behandeln, Arzneimittel, welche Sodbrennen und/oder Dyspepsie behandeln, Antiemetika, Schlafhilfen, Arzneimittel, welche Durchfall behandeln, Arzneimittel, welche die Mundhygiene verbessern, Antagonisten von CGRP- Rezeptoren, Arzneimittel, die im Zusammenhang stehen mit der Behandlung von Migräne, Arzneimittel für Hormonersatz, Arzneimittel, welche Alzheimer-Krankheit behandeln, Sitagliptin, Koffein und Koffein-Salz-Verbindungen.
     
    4. Scheibenartige pharmazeutische Dosierungsform nach einem der Patentansprüche 1 bis 3, weiterhin umfassend einen HPβCD-API-Einschlusskomplex, bestehend aus einem aktiven pharmazeutischen Inhaltsstoff (API), der enthalten ist in dem den Geschmack verbergenden Agens Hydroxypropyl-beta-Cyclodextrin (HPβCD).
     
    5. Verfahren zur Herstellung der scheibenartigen pharmazeutischen Dosierungsform nach Patentanspruch 1, umfassend die folgenden Schritte:

    (a). Auflösen eines eine lösliche Matrix bildenden Polymers, vorzugsweise Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), in einem flüssigen Medium, vorzugsweise entionisiertes Wasser, um Lösung 1 herzustellen;

    (b). Hinzufügen zu Lösung 1 eines Füllstoffes, vorzugsweise Maltodextrin, eines Derivates eines Acrylpolymers, das einen Ester enthält, vorzugsweise Natriumpolyacrylat, und eines das Zerfallen verhindernden Agens, vorzugsweise Diglycin, um Lösung 2 herzustellen;

    (c). Einfrieren von Lösung 2; und

    (d). Lyophilisieren der gefrorenen Lösung 2.


     


    Revendications

    1. Forme posologique pharmaceutique en plaquette pour la libération d'au moins un ingrédient pharmaceutique actif (IPA) sur un site cible dans un être humain ou un animal, la forme posologique pharmaceutique comprenant :

    un polymère formant une matrice soluble sous forme d'hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) ;

    un dérivé d'un polymère acrylique contenant un ester sous forme de polyacrylate de sodium ;

    un agent anti-collapse sous forme de diglycine ; et

    un agent de charge sous forme de maltodextrine.


     
    2. Forme posologique pharmaceutique en plaquette selon la revendication 1 comprenant de plus un agent de masquage de goût utilisé pour masquer le mauvais goût de la forme posologique, l'agent de masquage de goût étant sélectionné dans le groupe comprenant : des composés macrocycliques, des composés tels que les cyclodextrines et leurs dérivés, les porphyrines, les résines échangeuses d'ions, les cucurbiturils, les agents augmentant la pénétration et les stabilisants, l'agent de masquage de goût étant de préférence l'hydroxypropyl-bêta-cyclodextrine (HPβCD).
     
    3. Forme posologique pharmaceutique en plaquette selon la revendication 1 ou 2 comprenant de plus un ingrédient pharmaceutique actif (IPA) sélectionné dans le groupe comprenant : les médicaments de sevrage tabagique, les analgésiques narcotiques, les anesthésiants, les antitussifs, les analgésiques non narcotiques tels que les agents anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS), les médicaments pour le dysfonctionnement érectile, les médicaments pour le dysfonctionnement sexuel féminin, les antihistaminiques, les médicaments contre le rhume et les allergies, les médicaments qui combattent la toux, les médicaments qui combattent les troubles respiratoires, les médicaments qui combattent les maux de gorge, les médicaments qui combattent les brûlures d'estomac et/ou la dyspepsie, les antiémétiques, les somnifères, les médicaments qui combattent la diarrhée, les médicaments qui améliorent l'hygiène buccale, les antagonistes de récepteurs de CGRP, les médicaments associés au traitement de la migraine, les médicaments de substitution hormonale, les médicaments qui combattent la maladie d'Alzheimer, la sitagliptine, les composés de caféine et de sel de caféine.
     
    4. Forme posologique pharmaceutique en plaquette selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 comprenant de plus un complexe d'inclusion de HPβCD-API comportant un ingrédient pharmaceutique actif (IPA) incorporé à l'intérieur de l'agent de masquage de goût hydroxypropyl-bêta-cyclodextrine (HPβCD).
     
    5. Procédé de fabrication d'une forme posologique pharmaceutique en plaquette selon la revendication 1 comprenant les étapes :

    (a) de dissolution d'un polymère formant une matrice soluble, de préférence d'hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), dans un milieu liquide, de préférence de l'eau désionisée pour produire une solution 1 ;

    (b) d'addition à la solution 1 d'un agent de charge, de préférence la maltodextrine, un dérivé d'un polymère acrylique contenant un ester, de préférence le polyacrylate de sodium, et un agent anti-collapse, de préférence de la diglycine, pour produire une solution 2 ;

    (c) de congélation de la solution 2 et

    (d) de lyophilisation de la solution 2 congelée.


     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description