(19)
(11)EP 2 895 500 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
27.11.2019 Bulletin 2019/48

(21)Application number: 13837551.4

(22)Date of filing:  12.09.2013
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C07K 14/155  (2006.01)
A61P 31/18  (2006.01)
A61K 39/12  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2013/000210
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/042669 (20.03.2014 Gazette  2014/12)

(54)

ANTIBODY EVOLUTION IMMUNOGENS

ANTIKÖRPEREVOLUTIONSIMMUNOGENE

IMMUNOGÈNES INDUCTEURS D'ANTICORPS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 12.09.2012 US 201261700252 P
01.10.2012 US 201261708466 P
13.02.2013 US 201361764421 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
22.07.2015 Bulletin 2015/30

(73)Proprietors:
  • Duke University
    Durham, NC 27705 (US)
  • Triad National Security, LLC
    Los Alamos, NM 87545 (US)
  • The Trustees of The University of Pennsylvania
    Philadelphia, PA 19104 (US)
  • Trustees of Boston University
    Boston, MA 02215 (US)
  • The Government Of The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Department Of Health And Human Services
    Rockville, MD 20852 (US)
  • The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University
    Stanford, CA 94305-2038 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • HAYNES, Barton, F.
    Durham, NC 27705 (US)
  • LIAO, Hua-Xin
    Durham, NC 27705 (US)
  • LYNCH, Rebecca, M.
    National Institutes of Health, Office of Technology Transfer, Suite 325, 6011 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (US)
  • ZHOU, Tongqing
    National Institutes of Health, Office of Technology Transfer, Suite 325, 6011 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (US)
  • GAO, Feng
    Durham, NC 27705 (US)
  • BOYD, Scott
    Palo Alto, CA 94306 (US)
  • SHAW, George, M.
    Philadelphia, PA 19104 (US)
  • HAHN, Beatrice, H.
    Philadelphia, PA 19104 (US)
  • KEPLER, Thomas, B.
    Boston, MA 02215 (US)
  • KORBER, Bette, T.
    Los Alamos, NM 87545 (US)
  • KWONG, Peter
    National Institutes of Health, Office of Technology Transfer, Suite 325, 6011 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (US)
  • MASCOLA, John
    National Institutes of Health, Office of Technology Transfer, Suite 325, 6011 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (US)

(74)Representative: Stafford, Jonathan Alan Lewis et al
Marks & Clerk LLP 1 New York Street
Manchester M1 4HD
Manchester M1 4HD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2004/014420
WO-A1-2009/058989
US-A1- 2009 232 830
US-A1- 2010 215 682
US-A1- 2012 039 923
WO-A1-2004/014420
US-A1- 2009 232 830
US-A1- 2010 215 682
US-A1- 2012 039 923
  
  • XUELING WU ET AL: "Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1", SCIENCE, AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, US, vol. 329, no. 5993, 13 August 2010 (2010-08-13), pages 856-861, XP002669441, ISSN: 0036-8075, DOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1187659 [retrieved on 2010-07-08]
  • FALKOWSKA, EMILIA ET AL.: 'PGV04, an HIV-1 gp120 CD4 binding site antibody, is broad and potent in neutralization but does not induce conformational changes characteristic of CD4' JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY vol. 8, no. 8, 15 February 2012, pages 4394 - 4403, XP055242096
  • DATABASE GENBANK [Online] 22 April 2013 'ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN [HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS 1]', XP055243026 Retrieved from NCBI Database accession no. AGG24895
  • DATABASE GENBANK [Online] 22 April 2013 'ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN [HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS 1]', XP055242802 Retrieved from NCBI Database accession no. AGG24989
  • DATABASE GENBANK [Online] 22 April 2013 'ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN [HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS 1]', XP055242786 Retrieved from NCBI Database accession no. AGG24950
  • DATABASE GENBANK [Online] 22 April 2013 'ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN [HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS 1]', XP055243050 Retrieved from NCBI Database accession no. AGG24942
  • DATABASE GENBANK [Online] 22 April 2013 'ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN [HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS 1]', XP055243064 Retrieved from NCBI Database accession no. AGG25037
  • DATABASE GENBANK [Online] 22 April 2013 'ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN [HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS 1]', XP055243169 Retrieved from NCBI Database accession no. AGG24930
  • DATABASE GENBANK [Online] 22 April 2013 'ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN [HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS 1]', XP055243173 Retrieved from NCBI Database accession no. GG25021
  • DATABASE GENBANK [Online] 22 April 2013 'ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN [HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS 1]', XP055243219 Retrieved from NCBI Database accession no. AGG24938
  • DATABASE GENBANK [Online] 22 April 2013 'ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN [HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS 1]', XP055243254 Retrieved from NCBI Database accession no. AGG24895
  • DATABASE GENBANK [Online] 22 April 2013 'ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN [HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS 1]', XP055244235 Retrieved from NCBI Database accession no. AGG24997
 
Remarks:
The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
 
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] This application claims priority from U.S. Provisional Application Nos. 61/700,252, filed September 12, 2012, 61/708,466, filed October 1, 2012 and 61/764,421, filed February 13, 2013.

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0002] The present invention relates, in general, to HIV-1 and, in particular, to broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. In particular, the present invention relates to HIV-1 immunogens and to methods of using such immunogens to induce the production of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies in a subject (e.g., a human).

BACKGROUND



[0003] Induction of HIV-1 envelope (Env) broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) is a key goal of HIV-1 vaccine development. BnAbs can target conserved regions that include conformational glycans, the gp41 membrane proximal region, the V1N2 region, glycans-associated C3N3 on gp120, and the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) (Walker et al, Science 326:285-289 (2009), Walker et al, Nature 477:466-470 (2011), Burton et al, Science 337:183-186 (2012), Kwong and Mascola, Immunity 37:412-425 (2012), Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010), Wu et al, Science 333:1593-1602 (2011), Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010), Sattentau and McMichael, F1000 Biol. Rep. 2:60 (2010), Stamatotos, Curr. Opin. Immunol. 24:316-323 (2012)). Most mature BnAbs have one or more unusual features (long heavy chain third complementarity determining regions [HCDR3s], polyreactivity for non-HIV-1 antigens, and high levels of somatic mutation) suggesting substantial barriers to their elicitation (Kwong and Mascola, Immunity 37:412-425 (2012), Haynes et al, Science 308:1906-1908 (2005), Haynes et al, Nat. Biotechnol. 30:423-433 (2012), Mouquet and Nussenzweig, Cell Mol. Life Sci. 69:1435-1445 (2012), Scheid et al, Nature 458:636-640 (2009)). In particular, CD4bs BnAbs have extremely high levels of somatic mutation suggesting complex or prolonged maturation pathways (Kwong and Mascola, Immunity 37:412-425 (2012), Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010), Wu et al, Science 333:1593-1602 (2011), Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010)). Moreover, it has been difficult to find Envs that bind with high affinity to BnAb germline or unmutated common ancestors (UCAs), a trait that would be desirable for candidate immunogens for induction of BnAbs (Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010), Chen et al, AIDS Res. Human Retrovirol. 23:11 (2008), Dimitrol, MAbs 2:347-356 (2010), Ma et al, PLoS Pathog. 7:e1002200 (2001), Pancera et al, J. Virol. 84:8098-8110 (2010), Xiao et al, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 390:404-409 (2009)). Whereas it has been found that Envs bind to UCAs of BnAbs targeting gp41 membrane proximal region (Ma et al, PLoS Pathog. 7:e1002200 (2001), Alam et al, J. Virol. 85:11725-11731 (2011)), and to UCAs of some V1/V2 BnAb (Bonsignori et al, J. Virol. 85:9998-10009 (2011)), to date, heterologous Envs have not been identified that bind the UCAs of CD4bs BnAb lineages (Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010), Xiao et al, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 390:404-409 (2009), Mouquet et al, Nature 467:591-595 (2010), Scheid et al, Science 333:1633-1637 (2011), Hoot et al, PLoS Pathog. 9:e1003106 (2013)), although Envs that bind CD4bs BnAb UCAs should exist (Hoot et al, PLoS Pathog. 9:e1003106 (2013)).

[0004] Eighty percent of heterosexual HIV-1 infections are established by one transmitted/founder (T/F) virus (Keele et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:7552-7557 (2008)). The initial neutralizing antibody response to this virus arises approximately 3 months after transmission and is strain-specific (Richman et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:4144-4149 (2003), Corti et al, PLoS One 5:e8805 (2010)). This antibody response to the T/F virus drives viral escape, such that virus mutants become resistant to neutralization by autologous plasma (Richman et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:4144-4149 (2003), Corti et al, PLoS One 5:e8805 (2010)). This antibody-virus race leads to poor or restricted specificities of neutralizing antibodies in -80% of patients; however in -20% of patients, evolved variants of the T/F virus induce antibodies with considerable neutralization breadth, e.g. BnAbs (Walker et al, Nature 477:466-470 (2011), Bonsignori et al, J. Virol. 85:9998-10009 (2011), Corti et al, PLos One 5:e8805 (2010), Gray et al, J. Virol. 85:4828-4840 (2011), Klein et al, J. Exp. Med. 209:1469-1479 (2012), Lynch et al, J. Virol. 86:7588-7595 (2012), Moore et al, Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS 4:358-363 (2009), Moore et al, J. Virol. 85:3128-3141 (2011), Tomaras et al, J. Virol. 85:11502-11519 (2011)).

[0005] There are a number of potential molecular routes by which antibodies to HIV-1 may evolve and, indeed, types of antibodies with different neutralizing specificities may follow different routes (Wu et al, Science 333:1593-1602 (2011), Haynes et al, Nat. Biotechnol. 30:423-433 (2012), Dimitrol, MAbs 2:347-356 (2010), Liao et al, J. Exp. Med. 208:2237-2249 (2011)). Because the initial autologous neutralizing antibody response is specific for the T/F virus (Moore et al, Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS 4:358-363 (2009)), some T/F Envs might be predisposed to binding the germline or unmutated common ancestor (UCA) of the observed BnAb in those rare patients that make BnAbs. Thus, although neutralizing breadth generally is not observed until chronic infection, a precise understanding of the interplay between virus evolution and maturing BnAb lineages in early infection may provide insight into events that ultimately lead to BnAb development. BnAbs studied to date have only been isolated from individuals who were sampled during chronic infection (Walker et al, Science 326:285-289 (2009), Burton et al, Science 337:183-186 (2012), Kwong and Mascola, Immunity 37:412-425 (2012), Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010), Wu et al, Science 333:1593-1602 (2011), Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010), Bonsignori et al, J. Virol. 85:9998-10009 (2011), Corti et al, PLoS One 5:e8805 (2010), Klein et al, J. Exp. Med. 209:1469-1479 (2012)). Thus, the evolutionary trajectories of virus and antibody from the time of virus transmission through the development of broad neutralization remain unknown.

[0006] Vaccine strategies have been proposed that begin by targeting unmutated common ancestors (UCAs), the putative naïve B cell receptors of BnAbs, with relevant Env immunogens to trigger antibody lineages with potential ultimately to develop breadth (Wu et al, Science 333:1593-1602 (2011), Haynes et al, Nat. Biotechnol. 30:423-433 (2012), Scheid et al, Nature 458:636-640 (2009), Chen et al, AIDS Res. Human Retrovirol. 23:11 (2008), Dimitrol, MAbs 2:347-356 (2010), Ma et al, PLoS Pathog. 7:e1002200 (2001), Xiao et al, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 390:404-409 (2009), Alam et al, J. Virol. 85:11725-11731 (2011), Mouquet et al, Nature 467:591-595 (2010)). This would be followed by vaccination with Envs specifically selected to stimulate somatic mutation pathways that give rise to BnAbs. Both aspects of this strategy have proved challenging due to lack of knowledge of specific Envs capable of interacting with UCAs and early intermediate (I) antibodies of BnAbs.

[0007] The present invention results, at least in part, from studies that resulted in the isolation of the CH103 CD4bs BnAb clonal lineage from an African patient, CH505, who was followed from acute HIV-1 infection through BnAb development. The studies show that the CH103 BnAb lineage is less mutated than most other CD4 binding site BnAbs, and may be first detectable by as early as 14 weeks after HIV-1 infection. Early autologous neutralization by antibodies in this lineage triggered virus escape, but rapid and extensive Env evolution in and near the epitope region preceded the acquisition of plasma antibody neutralization breadth defined as neutralization of heterologous viruses. Analysis of the cocrystal structure of the CH103 Fab and a gp120-core demonstrated a novel loop binding mode of antibody neutralization.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0008] In general, the present invention relates to HIV-1 and to broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. More specifically, the invention relates to HIV-1 immunogens and compositions comprising same. The invention further relates to compositions of the invention for use in inducing the production of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies in a subject (e.g., a human) .

[0009] According to a first aspect of the invention, there is provided a composition comprising a recombinant gp120 HIV-1 envelope protein comprising all the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 879, 861, 884 or 866, all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 889 or 871 or all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 893 or 875.

[0010] According to a second aspect of the invention, there is provided a composition comprising a recombinant gp140 HIV-1 envelope protein derived from all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NO: 844 or 852.

[0011] According to a further aspect of the invention, there is provided a recombinant HIV-1 envelope protein comprising all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 879, 861, 884 or 866, or all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 889 or 871, or all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 893 or 875.

[0012] Also provided is the composition of the invention for use in inducing an immune response to HIV in a mammal in need thereof by administering the composition to the mammal in an amount sufficient to effect said induction.

[0013] Embodiments are provided by the dependent claims.

[0014] Objects and advantages of the present invention will be clear from the description that follows.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0015] 

Figures 1A-1D. Development of neutralization breadth in donor CH505 and isolation of antibody. Fig. 1 A, Shown are HIV-1 viral RNA copies and reactivity of longitudinal plasmas samples with HIV1-1 YU2 core gp120, RSC3 and negative control ARSC3 proteins. Fig. 1B, PBMCs from week 136 was used for sorting CD19+, CD20+, IgG+, RSC3+ and RSC3A371 I- memory B cells (0.198%). Cells indicated as orange, blue and green dots yielded mAbs CH103, CH104 and CH106, as identified by index sorting. Fig. 1C, Shown are HIV-1 neutralization potency and breadth of CH103 antibody. A neighbor joining phylogenetic tree created by neighbor joining method (NJ tree PHYLIP package software) of 196 HIV-1 Envs representing major circulating clades is colored according to IC50 of neutralized virus by CH103. Fig. 1D, Cross competition of CH103 binding to YU2 gp120 by the indicated HIV-1 antibodies, and soluble CD4-Ig was determined in ELISA.

Figures 2A-2D. CH103-clonal family with time of appearance, VHDJH mutations, and HIV-1 Env reactivity. Phylogenies of VHDJH (Fig. 2A) and VLJL (Fig. 2B) sequences from sorted single memory B cells and pyrosequencing. Figure was produced using DNA sequences and the EBI bioinformatics server at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/phylogeny/ with ancestral reconstructions performed using dnaml maximum likelihood. Neighbor joining was used to illustrate the correspondence of sampling date and read abundance in the context of the clonal history. Within time-point VH monophyletic clades are collapsed to single branches; variant frequencies are indicated on the right. Isolated mature antibodies are red, pyrosequencing-derived sequences are black. The inferred evolutionary paths to observed matured antibodies are bold. Fig. 2C, CH103 lineage with the inferred intermediates (circles, I1-4, I7 and I8), and percentage mutated VH sites and timing (blue), indicated. Fig. 2D, Binding affinity (Kd, nM) of antibodies to autologous CH505 (left box) and heterologous B.63521 were measured by SPR (right box).

Figures 3A-3D. Structure of antibody CH103 in complex with the outer domain of HIV-1 gp120 (OD). Fig. 3A, Overall structure of complex with gp120 polypeptide depicted in red ribbon and CH103 shown as a molecular surface (heavy chain in green and light chain in blue). Fig. 3B, Superposition of OD bound by CH103 (red) and core gp120 bound by CH103 (gray) with polypeptide shown in ribbon representation. Fig. 3C, CH103 epitope (green) on OD (red) with the initial CD4-binding site superposed (yellow boundaries) in surface representation. Fig. 3D, Sequence alignment of outer domains of the crystallized gp120 shown on the first line and diverse HIV-1 Envs recognized by CH103 (SEQ ID NOS 23-28, respectively, in order of appearance). Secondary structure elements are labeled above the alignment with gray dashed lines indicating disordered regions. Symbols in yellow or green denote gp120 OD contacts for CD4 and CH103, respectively, with open circles representing main-chain contacts, open circles with rays representing side-chain contact, and filled circles representing both main-chain and side-chain contacts.

Figures 4A-4D. CH103 paratope, critical residues, and required immune precursors. Fig. 4A, Overall structure of complex with variable domains of CH103 depicted in ribbon representation and gp120 shown as a molecular surface. The color scheme is the same as in Fig. 3A. Fig. 4B, CH103 paratope surface displayed on top of an underlying polypeptide ribbon. The surface is colored and labeled by contributing antibody components. Fig. 4C, CH103 paratope surface colored by maturation states of the underlying residues. Unmutated residues are colored magenta while affinity matured residues are colored green and light blue for heavy and light chains respectively. Fig. 4D, Sequence alignment of heavy (SEQ ID NOS 29-42, respectively, in order of appearance) and light (SEQ ID NOS 43-47, respectively, in order of appearance) chains of CH103 clonal lineage members. Framework and CDR residues are labeled, as are residues that interact with the gp120 (open circle, main chain interaction; open circle with rays, side chain interactions; filled circle, both main chain and side chain interactions). The unmutated paratope residues are highlighted in magenta and the maturation-gained paratope residues are highlighted in green for heavy chain and blue for light chain.

Figure 5. Sequence Logo displaying variation in key regions of Ch505 Envs. The frequency of each amino acid variant per site is indicated by its height, deletions are indicated by grey bars. The first recurring mutation, N279K, appears at week 4 (open arrow). The timing of BnAb activity development (from Fig. 8 and Table 1) is on the left. Viral diversification, which precedes acquisition of breadth, is highlighted by vertical arrows to the right of each region. CD4 and CH103 contact residues, and amino acid position numbers based on HIV-1 HXB2, are shown along the base of each Logo column.

Figures 6A and 6B. Development of neutralization breadth in the CH103-clonal lineage. Fig. 6A, Phylogenetic CH103 clonal lineage tree showing the IC50 (µg/ml) of neutralization of either the autologous T/F (C.CH505), heterologous tier clades A (A.Q842) and B (B.BG1168) viruses as indicated. Fig. 6B, Interplay between evolving virus and developing clonal lineage mapped on to models of CH103-developmental variants and contemporaneous virus. The outer domain of HIV gp120 is depicted in worm representation, with worm thickness and color (white to red) mapping the degree of per-site sequence diversity at each time point. Models of antibody intermediates are shown in cartoon diagram with somatic mutations at each time point highlighted in spheres and colored red for mutations carried over from I8 to mature antibody, cyan for mutations carried over from I4 to mature antibody, green for mutations carried over from I3 to mature antibody, blue for mutations carried over from I2 to mature antibody, orange for mutations carried over from II to mature antibody, magenta for CH103 mutations from I1. Transient mutations that did not carry all the way to mature antibody are colored in deep olive. The antibody (paratope) residues are shown in surface representation and colored by their chemical types as in Fig. 5.

Figures 7A and 7B. Hamming distance frequency distributions of sequences at (Fig. 7A) week 4 and (Fig. 7B) week 14. A model of the best fit Poisson distribution is shown as a red line. Analysis of the sequence diversity in the first available sample (Fig. 7A) from subject CH505 using the Poisson Fitter tool (ref below) indicates that the sequences were a consistent with a star phylogeny and that the mutations were accumulating according to a Poisson distribution (goodness of fit p = 0.11). This is consistent with a single founder virus establishing the infection, with random accumulation of mutations prior to selection. The lambda parameter was 1.325, and assuming the mutation rate of 2.16 10-05, the estimated time from the most recent common ancestor was 22 days (95% CI, 18-27). Given that the outer bound of this confidence interval is 27 days, it is highly like this sample was taken within 4 weeks of infection, thus this sampling time is called "week 4" as a conservative estimate. This timing estimate is further supported by Feibig staging at time of enrollment. By week 14 (Fig. 7B), the tree was no longer consistent with a star phylogeny or a Poisson distribution (p << 10-10), indicating selection was well underway. Of note, although the mutation data at week 4 (Fig. 7A) is statistically consistent with a Poisson distribution, the observed number of pairwise sequence identities was somewhat reduced relative to expectation, and the observed number of Hamming distances of 1 and 2 are slightly more than expected. This is of interest as this shift is the a result of a single mutation in loop D, in a CH103 contact residue (N279K) -- so although the deviation from the Poisson was not significant, given its location it is possible that the site is a very early indicator of selection. (Giorgi et al, BMC Bioinformatics Oct 25;11:532 (2010), PMID: 20973976 http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/POISSON_FITTER/poisson_fitter.html

Figure 8. Binding of plasma antibodies of CH505 patient over time to autologous transmitted/founder (T/F) and heterologous HIV-1 Env proteins. Plasma samples were longitudinally collected from HIV-1 patient CH505 starting from time of infection(in x axis) and tested for neutralization activity against the autologous transmitted/founder (T/F) virus and heterologous HIV-1 Env pseudoviruses including subtype B (B) SF162, JRFL and BG1168) and subtype A in TZM-bl cell-based neutralization assays. Results were expressed as IC50 (reciprocal plasma dilution) (in y axis).

Figures 9A and 9B. Reactivity of antibodies in CH103 clonal lineage to HIV-1 Env resurfaced core3 (RSC3) and RSC3 mutant. Antibodies in CH103 clonal lineage were tested in dose range from 100µg to 0.0005 µg/ml for binding to (Fig. 9A) HIV-1 Env RSC) and (Fig. 9B) RSC3 with P363N and D371I mutations in ELISA. Results are expressed as EC50 (µg/ml) and are indicated next to the individual antibodies. NB = no detectable binding.

Figures 10A and 10B. SDS-PAGE analysis of recombinant HIV-1 Env gp140 and gp120 proteins*. HIV-1 Env gp120 and gp140 proteins were analyzed on SDS-PAG under reducing condition (Fig. 10A) and gp140 proteins were analyzed on blue negative PAGE for (Fig. 10B). Individual HIV-1 Env proteins are identified on the tope of gels. Fig. 10A, The HIV-1 gp120 and gp140 used in the study had no degradation under reducing condition in SDS-PAGE. Fig. 10B, Most heterologous HIV-1 Env gp140 Envs and all autologous CH505 gp140 Envs migrated predominantly as trimers and also contain dimer and monomer forms.

Figures 11A-11D. Polyreactivity analysis of CH103 clonal lineage antibodies by HEp-2 staining, ANA assays and protein array microchip analysis . Reactivity of antibodies in CH103 clonal lineage was assayed by indirect immunofluorescence staining (Fig. 11A) and by ANA assays (Fig. 11B). Pictures at magnification x 200 of immunofluorescence staining for individual antibodies are presented next to the antibody ID. Results of the reactivity of individual antibodies with panel of autoantigens assayed by ANA is indicated (Fig. 11B). The intermediate antibody (I1) and CH106 were identified as reactive with HEp-2 cells and then selected for further testing for reactivity with human host cellular antigens (Figs. 11C and 11D) using Invitrogen ProtoArraysTM . It was found that I1 (Fig. 11C) and CH106 ((Fig. 11D) exhibit specific autoreactivity and robust polyreactivity. Bound antibody was determined by immunofluorescence and relative fluorescence intensities for 9,400 recombinant human proteins in the 151K array (y-axis) is plotted against (x-axis) the homologous intensities in IA1 (Fig. 11C) and CH106 (Fig. 11D) arrays. All proteins are printed in duplicate on each array and each data point represents one fluorescence measurement. The diagonals in each graph represent equal fluorescence intensities (equivalent binding) by the I1, CH106 and 151K control Ab. Self-antigens bound by the I1 and CH106 are identified by high fluorescence intensity versus 151K and are indicated by circles. Polyreactivity is indicated by significant and general skewing from the diagonal. Autoantigens identified: BHMT2 (betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2); CENP-R (centromere protein R) [151K]; eEF-2K (eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase); UBE3A (ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A) [IA1 and CH106]; TGM2 (transglutaminase 2) [CH106]; NFKBIA (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha); FAM184A (family with sequence similarity 184, member A) [I1].

Figures 12A and 12B. Crystal packing of the CH103-gp120 complex in P21 space group. Fig. 12A, A view of the crystal lattice. The two complexes in each asymmetric unit are marked with red and blue dashed lines and are shown in cartoon diagrams with gp120 in red and salmon, CH103 heavy chain in green and palegreen, and CH103 light chain in light blue and cyan. Fig. 12B, A close-up view of the lattice between two neighboring complexes. When extended core gp120 of clade C ZM176.66 from the VRC01 complex is superposed with its ordered corresponding portions in the CH103 complex, the inner domain shown in magenta clashes with the neighboring complex, indicating inner domain of gp120 is not present in the CH103-gp120 crystal due to proteolytic degradation during crystal growth.

Figure 13. Pixel map and phylogenetic tree of HIV evolution over time in CH505. The pixel tool (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/pixel/pixel.html) was used to illustrate the amino changes in the V1 to V5 region of the envelope; focus was on this region as it most critical CD4bs antibody susceptibility, and includes of all known CD4 binding contacts, which are indicated as black tic marks along the top of the figure. Blue tic marks indicated CH103 contact residues, and the horizontal blue line indicates that part of gp120 that was used for the CH103 crystal structure (although the contact surface is mostly there, still quite a bit is missing that is important for CD4 and VRC01, which is why we use CD4 contacts to help define bits that may be important for CH103 binding in those missing regions). Each row is a sequences, and they are ordered according to the phylogeny. Red bits indicate amino acid change relative to the TF virus, and black bits indicate either an insertion or deletion. The phylogenetic tree on the right was made with PhyML v2 [1] and the JTT substitution model [2] from the translated Env sequences. The tree was conmfigured as a ladder and the T/F virus was reconstructed from the first time point sequences obtained at week 4 after transmission. Colors indicated the estimated number of weeks from infection. The tree was rendered with APE v3.0-6 [3] and both used R v2.15.1 [4]. The arrow indicates the week 30-53 selective bottleneck. (Guindon et al, Syst. Biol. 52:696-704 (2003), Jones et al, Comput Applic Biosci 8: 275-282 (1992), Paradis et al, Bioinformatics 20: 289-290 (2004), R Core Team. 2012. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org/.)

Figure 14. Entropy map illustrating the per site diversity within each time point sampled in CH505. Full gp160 is shown, and CD4 and CH103 contact residues are highlighted. This figure shows the Shannon entropy of each position in the alignment, where the observed frequency of all in a position characters is considered, and a gap is treated as a character (Korber J Virol. 1994;68(11):7467-81). This provides a map of regional within-time point diversity spanning Env, and illustrates where mutations are concentrated and the relative diversity of key regions over time.

Figures 15A and 15B. A comparison of the speed of viral sequence evolution in CH505 in regions relevant to the CH103 epitope to other subjects. Fig. 15A, The distribution of sequence distances expressed as the percentage of amino acids that are different between two sequences, resulting from in a pairwise comparison of all sequences sampled in a given time point. These are all homogeneous infection cases, so in acute infection there is very little mutation in the CH103 relevant regions, or elsewhere in the virus (left hand panels). By 24 weeks after enrollment (week 30 from infection in CH505, labeled month 6 here as it is approximate), extensive mutations have begun to accrue, focused in CH103 relevant regions (top middle panel), but not in other regions of Env (bottom middle panel). CH103 has the highest ranked diversity among 15 subject sampled in this time frame (p= 0.067), indicating a focused selective pressure began unusually early in this subject. By 1 year (month 12 indicates samples taken between 10-14 months from enrollment), this region has begun to evolve in many individuals, possibly due to autologous NAb responses that come up later in infection. Fig. 15B, Phylogenetic trees based on CH103 relevant regions. In this view, the extensive evolution away from the T/F virus by month 6, shown in gold, is particularly striking. The distance between sequences sampled in CH505 at month 6 and the T/F ancestral state were much greater than the sequences in the second most variable individual 704010042 (Wilcoxon rank sum, p = 0.0003: CH505, median = 0.064, range = 0.019 - 0.13, N = 25, and 704010042, median = 0.027, range = 0.009 - 0.056, N = 26).

Figure 16. Co-evolution of virus and antibody - interplay between maturation of antibody CH103 and sequence variability epitope in gp120. The sequence variability (within sample) at each time point is mapped on a gp120 structure that tracks the viral evolution over time from 14 weeks thru 100 weeks post-transmission. Entropy at each residue is color-coded as green to white to red to indicate no sequence variation to slight variation to high sequence variation. This extensive virus within-time point diversity coincides with maturing antibody lineages that ultimately develop breadth. Here, the somatic mutations are captured along the CH103 clonal lineage beginning with unmutated common ancestor (UCA) to I-8 to I-4 to I-3 to I-2 to I-1 and to mature CH103. The color balls in heavy (violet) and light (cyan) chains of antibody indicate the appearance/disappearance of somatic mutations during the evolutionary path according to the following scheme. Red balls: mutations appeared in I-8 and remained all the way thru maturation to CH103, Orange balls: mutations appeared in 1-4 and remained thru maturation to CH103, Blue balls: mutations that appeared early but are lost before maturing to CH103, and Gray balls: mutations that appeared very late in maturation. Structure of Fab CH103-gp120 from ZM176.66 complex determined in this work is used to map these mutations. The sequence entropy at week 100 is used to pair with CH103 to simply illustrate the relative spatial locations of somatic mutations and sequence variability in gp120. As discussed in the text, viral evolution with time tracks with neutralization breadth and this simple mapping supports that (i) T/F virus began to diversify very early in regions in or proximal to the epitope, and (ii) Somatic mutations that occur early in evolution and remain fixed in heavy chain tend to cluster near the gp120 contact region unlike those mutations that appear later.

Figures 17A and 17B. Amino acid (Fig. 17A) and nucleic acid (Fig. 17B) sequences. 703010505.TF is the transmitted/founder sequence and "W and number" indicates the week after transmission

Figure 18. Antibody-virus co-evolution in acutely infected patients followed to BnAb induction.

Figures 19A - 19D. Multivalent vaccine sequences. CH505 Env sequences (Figs 19A and 19B), and CH505_D8gp120 or CH505 gp120 sequences (Fig. 19C) and corresponding cleavage site mutations (Fig. 19D) (underlined).

Figure 20. The HIV-1 arms race: isolation of broad neutralizing antibodies from chronically infected patient CH0505 followed from time of transmission.

Figure 21. The same virus clonal lineage tree of CH0505 shown in Fig. 20 - starred in the right panel are examples of sequential envs chosen for immunogens and starred on the tree on the left are env sequences in Fig. 17.

Figure 22. Contact region for CD4, VRC01 and b12 and the signature sites that impact VRC01 and b12 neutralization are under intense selective pressure in CH0505.

Figure 23. The number of pairwise differences in just the CD4/b12/VRC01 contact residues is also relatively high for CH0505.

Figure 24. Clonal lineage tree of Clone 103 from CH0505 - binding to CH0505 transmitted/founder Env gpl40 (EC50 µg/ml).

Figure 25. Clonal lineage tree of Clone CH103 from CH0505 - neutralization of tier 2 CH0505 (EC50, µ/ml).

Figure 26. HIV-1 vaccine design. Figure 26 discloses SEQ ID NOS 897-898, respectively, in order of appearance.

Figure 27. Viral evolution during BnAb development in the HIV-1 infected individual (CH505). Figure 27 discloses SEQ ID NOS 899-908, respectively, in order of appearance.

Figure 28. Alignment of CH505 Env gp120 with RSC3. Figure 28 discloses SEQ ID NOS 909-910, respectively, in order of appearance.

Figure 29. Design for CH505 outer domain immunogen. Figure 29 discloses SEQ ID NO: 911, residues 1-65 of SEQ ID NO: 911, SEQ ID NO: 912, residues 1-65 of SEQ ID NO: 912 and SEQ ID NO: 913, respectively, in order of appearance.

Figure 30. Plasma binding ratio of RSC3 to RSC3delta371 proteins induced by CH505 Env variants alone or sequentially administered to BALB/c mice.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0016] The results of the study described in the Example that follows demonstrate that the binding of a T/F Env to a UCA B cell receptor of a BnAb lineage was responsible for the induction of broad neutralizing antibodies, thus providing a logical starting place for vaccine-induced CD4bs BnAb clonal activation and expansion. Importantly, the number of mutations required to achieve neutralization breadth was reduced in the CH103 lineage compared to most CD4bs BnAbs, although the CH103 lineage had reduced neutralization breadth compared to more mutated CD4bs BnAbs. By tracking viral evolution through early infection, it was found that intense selection and epitope diversification in the T/F virus preceded the acquisition of NAb breadth in this individual -- thus demonstrating the viral variants or combination of variants associated with development of BnAbs directly from autologous neutralizing antibodies and illuminating a pathway for induction of similar B cell lineages. (See viral envelope sequences (and encoding sequences) in Figs. 17A, B and 19A-D.) The envelopes to be used as immunogens can be expressed as full gp140, gp145 with transmembrane portions, gp120s, gp120 resurfaced core proteins, gp120 outer domain constructs, or other minimal gp120 constructs with portions of the CH103 contacts such as the gp120 D loop, the V5 loop and the CD4 binding site loop region expressed such that the UCA, and/or Intermediate antibodies and/or mature CH103, CH104, CH105, and CH106 mature antibodies bind to the immunogen constructs.

[0017] Immunization regimens can include sequential immunizations of Env constructs selected from Figs 17 and 19, or can involve prime and boosts of combinations of Envs, or the administration of "swarms" of such sequences (e.g., those in Fig. 19A-D). Immunogenic fragments/subunits are also described herein as are encoding nucleic acid sequences.

[0018] Alternatively, the transmitted founder virus Env constructs can be used as primes, followed by a boost with the transmitted founder Env and sequential additions of Envs from progressively later times after transmission in patient CH505. Further, repetitive immunization can be effected with "swarms" of CH505 Envs (for example, including various combinations of the proteins and nucleic acid sequences in Figs. 19A-D) ranging from, for example, 2 to 40 Envs. Examples of vaccine strategies of the invention are shown in Fig. 18.

[0019] The data provided in the Examples below have implications for understanding the B cell maturation pathways of the CH103 lineage and for replicating similar pathways in a vaccine setting. First, it was demonstrated in CH505 that BnAbs were driven by sequential Env evolution beginning as early as 14 weeks after transmission, a time period compatible with induction of this type of BnAb lineage with a vaccine given the correct set of immunogens. Second, whereas heterologous Envs did not bind with UCAs or early intermediate antibodies of this lineage, the CH505 T/F Env bound remarkably well to the CH103 UCA, and subsequent Envs bound with increased affinity to later clonal lineage members. Thus, immunizations with similar sequences of Env or Env subunits can be expected drive similar lineages. Third, the CH103 lineage is less complicated than those of the VRC01-class of antibodies because antibodies in this lineage have fewer somatic mutations, and no indels, except CH103 VL has a deletion of 3 amino acid residues in the LCDR1 region. The study described in the Example 1 below was in one patient. Nonetheless, in each BnAb patient, analysis of viral evolution should elucidate a similar pathway of evolved Envs that induce BnAb breadth. The observation that rhesus macaques infected with the CCR5-tropic SHIV-AD8 virus frequently develop neutralization breadth (Shingai et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109:19769-19774 (2012)) indicates that certain envelopes may be more likely to induce breadth and potency than others.

[0020] Polyreactivity to host molecules in the CH103-lineage arose during affinity maturation in the periphery coincident with BnAb activity. This finding is compatible with the hypothesis that BnAbs may be derived from an inherently polyreactive pool of B cells, with polyreactivity providing a neutralization advantage via heteroligation of Env and host molecules (Mouquet et al, Nature 467:591-595 (2010), Alam et al, J. Immunol. 178:4424-4435 (2007)). Alternatively, as CH103 affinity maturation involves adapting to the simultaneous presence of diverse co-circulating forms of the epitope (Malherbe et al, J. Virol.. 85:5262-5274 (2011)), the selection of antibodies that can interact with extensive escape-generated epitope diversification may be an evolutionary force that also drives incidental acquisition of polyreactivity.

[0021] Thus, in one embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of activating an appropriate naive B cell response in a subject (e.g., a human) by administering the CH505 T/F Env or Env subunits that can include the gp145 with a transmembrane portion, gp41 and gp120, an uncleaved gp140, a cleaved gp140, a gp120, a gp120 subunit such as a resurfaced core (Wu X, Science 329:856-61 (2010)), an outerdomain, or a minimum epitope expressing only the contact points of CH103 with Env, i.e., the gp120 D loop, the V5 loop and the CD4 binding site loop region (the minimal epitope to avoid dominant Env non-neutralizing epitopes), followed by boosting with representatives of the subsequently evolved CH505 Env variants (e.g., those in Figs. 17 and 19) either given in combination to mimic the high diversity observed in vivo during affinity maturation, or in series, using vaccine immunogens specifically selected to trigger the appropriate maturation pathway by high affinity binding to UCA and antibody intermediates (Haynes et al, Nat. Biotechnol. 30:423-433 (2012)). DNA, RNA, protein or vectored immunogens can be used alone or in combination. Transmitted founder virus envelope (e.g., B.6240 (see also Fig. 17)) maybe administered to the subject (e.g., human) as the priming envelope and then one or more of the sequential envelopes disclosed herein is administered as a boost in an amount and under conditions such that BnAbs are produced in the subject (e.g., human). By way of example, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 or 18 envelopes (or subunits thereof) (e.g., from Fig. 19) can be used with one prime and multiple boosts.

[0022] The data provided in the Examples demonstrate the importance of studying subjects followed from the transmission event through the development of plasma BnAb activity for concomitant isolation of both T/F viruses and their evolved quasispecies along with the clonal lineage of induced BnAbs. The finding that the T/F Env can be the stimulator of a potent BnAb and bind optimally to that BnAb UCA is a critical insight for vaccine design, and makes possible the induction of BnAbs by targeting UCAs and IAs of BnAb clonal lineage trees (Haynes et al, Nat. Biotechnol. 30:423-433 (2012)).

[0023] The present invention includes the specific envelope proteins claimed herein. Nucleic acids comprising nucleotide sequences encoding the same are also described (e.g., those in Fig. 17B). Sequences (amino acid and nucleic acid) include those designated 703010505.TF, 703010505.w53.16, 703010505.w78.33 and 703010505.w100.B6. The envelope proteins (and subunits) can be expressed, for example, in 293T cells, 293F cells or CHO cells (Liao et al, Virology 353:268-82 (2006)). As indicated above, the envelope proteins can be expressed, for example, as gp120 or gp140 proteins and portions of the envelope proteins can be used as immunogens such as the resurfaced core protein design (RSC) (Fig. 28) (Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010)); another possible design is an outer domain design (Fig. 29) (Lynch et al, J. Virol. 86:7588-95 (2012)). Also described are immunogenic fragments/subunits of the envelope sequences disclosed herein, including fragments at least 6, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 300, 320 or more amino acids in length, as well as nucleic acids comprising nucleotide sequences encoding such fragments and vectors containing same.

[0024] The application describes variants of the sequences in Fig. 17, wherein the variants comprise a mutation which repairs a trypsin cleavage site, thereby preventing protein clipping during Env protein production in a cell line, e.g., a CHO cell line. Non-limiting examples of such trypsin resistant variants are shown in Figure 19D (the portion of the document called constructs cleavage site mutations). In one embodiment, amino acid "A" at position 289 in CH0505TF 7gp120 is changed to "T", and amino acid "Q" at position 295 is changed to "D." The invention contemplates trypsin resistant Env variants that include changes at the corresponding positions in any of the Env sequences in Fig. 17.

[0025] The envelopes (immunogens) can be formulated with appropriate carriers using standard techniques to yield compositions suitable for administration. The compositions can include an adjuvant, such as, for example, alum, poly IC, MF-59 or other squalene-based adjuvant, ASO1B or other liposomal based adjuvant suitable for protein immunization.

[0026] As indicated above, nucleic acid sequences (e.g., DNA sequences) encoding the immunogens can also be administered to a subject (e.g., a human) under conditions such that the immunogen is expressed in vivo and BnAbs are produced. The DNA can be present as an insert in a vector, such as a rAdenoviral (Barouch, et al. Nature Med. 16: 319-23 (2010), recombinant mycobacterial (i.e., BCG or M smegmatis) (Yu et al. Clinical Vaccine Immunol. 14: 886-093 (2007); ibid 13: 1204-11 (2006), or recombinant vaccinia type of vector (Santra S. Nature Med. 16: 324-8 (2010)).

[0027] Immunogens and compositions of the invention are suitable for use in generating an immune response (e.g., BnAbs) in a patient (e.g., a human patient) to HIV-1. The mode of administration of the immunogen, or encoding sequence, can vary with the particular immunogen, the patient and the effect sought, similarly, the dose administered. Typically, the administration route is intramuscular or subcutaneous injection (intravenous and intraperitoneal can also be used). Additionally, the formulations can be administered via the intranasal route, or intrarectally or vaginally as a suppository-like vehicle. Optimum dosing regimens can be readily determined by one skilled in the art. The immunogens (and nucleic acids encoding same) are preferred for use prophylactically, however, their administration to infected individuals may reduce viral load.

[0028] Previous attempts to use sequential immunizations with Env proteins that have developed over time in humans or animals that have developed neutralization breadth have failed, primarily because the viruses have been isolated but the envelope immunogens have not been matched to bind to the BnAbs themselves, i.e., they are not antigenic. That is, in the two studies that have isolated Envs over time in BnAb subjects, no transmitted founder viruses or subsequent (sequential) viruses were available and thus the correct Env immunogens to choose were not apparent (Malherbe et al, J Virol. 85:5262-74 (2011); Pissoni, Vaccine 30:5519-26 (2012)). What is different here is that both the BnAbs and the virus Env sequences tht drove the induction and maturation of the BnAbs are known, and, thus, those envelopes can be chosen with mutations in the CD4 binding site or in regions that are important for CD4 binding site BnAb binding, such as V5 loop region (Zhou et al, Science 329:811-17 (2010); Wu et al, Science 333:1593-602 (2011)).

[0029] Certain aspects of the invention can be described in greater detail in the non-limiting Examples that follow. (See also U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/542,469, filed October 3, 2011, U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/700,234, filed September 12, 2012, U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/708,413, filed October 1, 2012, U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/700,252, filed September 12, 2012, U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/708,466, filed October 1, 2012, U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/708,503, filed October 1, 2012, U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/806,717, filed March 29, 2013, U.S. Application No. 13/314,712, filed December 8, 2011 and PCT/US2012/000442, filed October 3, 2012).

EXAMPLE 1


Experimental Details



[0030] In summary, serial blood samples were collected from a HIV-1 infected subject CH505 starting 4 weeks after infection up to 236 weeks after infection. MAbs CH103, CH104 and CH106 were generated by the isolation, amplification and cloning of single RSC3-specific memory B cells as described (Scheid et al, J. Immunol. Methods 343:65-67 (2009), Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010), Wu et al, Science 333:1593-1602 (2011), Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010), Scheid et al, Science 333:1633-1637 (2011)). VHDJH and VLJL 454 pyrosequencing was performed on samples from 5 timepoints after transmission (Wu et al, Science 333:1593-1602 (2011)). Inference of unmutated ancestor (UCA), identification and production of clone members were performed using the methods as described (Liao et al, J. Exp. Med. 208:2237-2249 (2011)) (Kepler, T.B. submitted, 2012). Additional VHDJH and VOL and VLJL genes were identified by 454 pyrosequencing (Wu et al, Science 333:1593-1602 (2011), Liao et al, J. Exp. Med. 208:2237-2249 (2011), Boyd et al, Sci. Transl. Med. 1:12ra23 (2009)) and select VHDJH and VOL genes were used to produce recombinant antibodies as reported previously (Liao et al, J. Exp. Med. 208:2237-2249 (2011)). Binding of patient plasma antibodies and CH103 clonal lineage antibody members to autologous and heterologous HIV-1 Envs was measured by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (Alam et al, J. Virol. 85:11725-11731 (2011), Liao et al, J. Exp. Med. 208:2237-2249 (2011), Alam et al, J. Immunol. 178:4424-4435 (2007), Alam et al, J. Virol. 82:115-125 (2008)), and neutralizing activity of patient plasma and CH103 antibody clonal lineage members was determined in a TZM-bl-based pseudovirus neutralization assay (Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010), Seaman et al, J. Virol. 84:1439-1452 (2010), Montefiori, Cur. Protoc. Immunol., Chapter 12, Unit 12 11 (2005)). Crystallographic analysis of CH103 bound to HIV-1 outer domain was performed as previously reported (Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010)). The GenBank accession numbers for 292 CH505 Envs are KC247375-KC247667, for 459 VHDJH are 174 VLJL sequences of antibody members in CH103 clonal lineage are KC575845-KC576303 and KC576304-KC576477, respectively. Coordinates and structure factors for unbound CH103 Fab as well as CH103 Fab in complex with ZM176.66 outer domain have been deposited with the Protein Data Bank.

[0031] The methods used are described in greater detail below.

[0032] Study subject. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from serial blood samples that were collected from a HIV-1 infected subject CH505 starting 6 weeks after infection up to 236 weeks after infection (Table 1) and frozen at -80°C and liquid nitrogen tanks, respectively. During this time, no anti-retroviral therapy was administered. All work related to human subjects was in compliance with Institutional Review Board protocols approved by the Duke University Health System Institutional Review Board.

[0033] Inference of unmutated common ancestor (UCA) and identification of clone members. The variable regions of heavy- and light chain (VHDJH and VLJL) gene segments were inferred from the natural pairs themselves. The posterior probabilities for these two gene segments are 0.999 and 0.993, respectively. The UA was first inferred from the natural pairs. Additional clonally related variable region sequences were then identified from deep sequencing and the estimate of the UCA refined iteratively. All variable region sequences inferred were identified to have been rearranged to the same VHDJH and JH, and to have the correct CDR3 length. For each sequence, a count was made of the number of mismatches between the sequence and the presumed VHDJH gene up to the codon for the second invariant cysteine. Each iteration was based on the CDR3 of the current posterior modal UA. For each candidate sequence, the number of nucleotide mismatches between its CDR3 and the UA CDR3 were computed. The sequence was rejected as a potential clone member if the z-statistic in a test for difference between proportion is greater than two (Zar, Biostatistical Analysis, entice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ (1974)). Once the set of candidates has been thus filtered by CDR3 distance, the UA was inferred on that larger set of sequences as described (Haynes et al, Nat. Biotechnol. 30:423-433 (2012), Ma et al, PLoS Pathog. 7:e1002200 (2001), Liao et al, J. Exp. Med. 208:2237-2249 (2011)). The paper, Kepler, T.B., Reconstructing a B cell clonal lineage: I. Statistical Inference of Unobserved Ancestors, that describes the methods and their mathematical basis in detail has been deposited to the arXiv preprint collection http://arxiv.org/ at Cornell. If the new posterior modal UA differed from the previous one, the process was repeated until convergence was reached. Due to the greatest uncertainty occurring in the CDRH3, from the VHDJH sequences derived from observed antibodies and sequences identified by 454 pyrosequencing, the 7 most likely VH UCA sequences were inferred resulting in 4 unique amino acid sequences that were all produced and assayed for reactivity with the transmitted/founder envelope gp140 (Table 5).

[0034] Isolation of VHDJH and VL genes and expression of VHDJH and VLJL genes as full-length IgG1 recombinant mAbs. The VHDJH and VLJL gene segment pairs of the observed CH103, CH104 and CH106 and the VHDJH gene segment of CH105 were amplified by RT/PCR of flow sorted HIV-1 Env RSC3 (re-surface core3) -specific memory B cells using the methods as described previously (Scheid et al, J. Immunol. Methods 343:65-67 (2009), Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010), Wu et al, Science 333:1593-1602 (2011), Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010), Scheid et al, Science 333:1633-1637 (2011). Additional VHDJH and VLJL and VLJL genes were identified by 454 pyrosequencing. Clonally related VHDJH and VLJL sequences derived from either sorted single B cells or 454 pyrosequencing were combined and used to generate neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees (Figs 2A and 2B). Antibodies that were recovered from single memory B cells are noted in the figure in red, and bolded lines show the_inferred evolutionary paths from the UCA to mature BnAbs. For clarity, related VH variants that grouped within monophyletic clades from the same time-point were collapsed to single branches, condensing 457 VHDJH and 174 V VLJL variants to 119 and 46 branches, respectively, via the "nw_condense" function from the Newick Utilities package (v. 1.6) (Junier and Zdobnov, Bioinformatics 26:1669-1670 (2010)). The frequencies of VHDJH variants in each B cell sample are shown to the right of the VHDJH tree in Fig. 2A, and were computed from sample sizes of 188,793, 186,626, and 211,901 sequences from weeks 53, 92, and 144, respectively. Two VHDJH genes (IZ95W and 02IV4) were found at 14 weeks after transmission and paired with UCA VLJL for expression as IgG1 mAbs. IZ95W mAb weakly bound the CH505 T/F Env gp140 with end-point titer of 11 ug/ml. Among heavy chain sequences in the tree, the mean distance of each to its nearest neighbor to was calculated to be 8.1 nt. The cumulative distribution function shows that, while there are pairs that are very close together (nearly 30% of sequences are 1nt from its neighbor), 45% of all sequences differ by 6nt or more from its nearest neighbor. The probability of generating a sequence that differs by 6 or more nucleotides from the starting sequence by PCR and sequencing is very small. The numbers of sequences obtained from a total of 100 million PBMC were within the expected range of 50-500 antigen-specific B cells.

[0035] Regarding the number of unique VHDJH and VLJL genes that have been isolated, this issue has been analyzed in a number of ways. First, the calculations have been clarified for the possible number of antigen-specific CD4bs memory B cells that could have been isolated from the samples studied. Five patient CH505 time points were studied with pyrosequencing with ∼20 million PBMC per time point for a total of 100 million PBMC studied. In chronic HIV, there is a mean of 145 total B cells per ul of blood, and a mean of 60 memory B cells per ul of blood (Moir et al, The Journal of Infectious Diseases 197:572-579 (2008)). This high percent of memory B cells of ∼40% of the total B cells in chronic HIV infection is due to selective loss of naive B cells in HIV infection. Thus, in 100 ml (100,000 µl) of blood, there will be approximately 6 million memory B cells. If 0.1 to 1.0% are antigen specific, that that would be 6,000 to 60,000 antigen-specific B cells sampled, and if, of these, 5% were CD4bs antibodies, then from 300 to 3000 CD4 bs B cells would have been sampled in 100 million PBMC studied. This is completely compatible and within the range of the calculations of the reviewer above (50 CD4 bs B cells per 5 million PBMC), since studied 100 million PBMC, there should, by these calculations, 1000 CD4bs B cells sampled. Either calculation therefore yields estimates that are completely compatible with the 474 VHDJH genes amplified.

[0036] To further study the plausibility of sequences isolated, the second method of analysis used was as follows. Among heavy chain sequences in the tree, one can compute the distance of each to its nearest neighbor. The mean distance to the nearest neighbor is 8.1 nt. The cumulative distribution function shows that, while there are pairs that are very close together (nearly 30% of sequences are 1nt from its neighbor), 45% of all sequences differ by 6nt or more from its nearest neighbor. The probability of generating a sequence that differs by 6 or more nucleotides from the starting sequence by PCR and sequencing is very small. It is believed that the number of genes represented in the sample is closer to 200 than to 50, and most likely is larger than 200.

[0037] The third analysis performed was to compute the distance of each heavy chain sequences in the tree to its nearest neighbor. The mean distance to the nearest neighbor is 8.1 nt. Agglomerative clustering was used to prune the sequence alignment. At the stage where no pairs of sequences were 3 nucleotides apart or closer, there were 335 of 452 sequences remaining; when no pairs are 6nt apart or closer, there are still 288 sequences remaining. Therefore, with this analysis, it is believed that the number of genes represented in the sample is closer to 300 than to 50, and may be larger. Thus, by the sum of these re-analyses, it is believed that the number of genes in the trees in Fig. 2 are quite plausible.

[0038] The isolated Ig VHDJH and VLJL gene pairs, the inferred UCA and intermediate VHDJH and VLJL sequences, and select VHDJH gene sequences identified by pyrosequencing were studied experimentally (Table 2) and used to generate a phylogenetic tree showing percentage of mutated VH sites and time of appearance after transmission (Figs 2C) and binding affinity (Fig 2D). The isolated four mature antibodies are indicated in red, antibodies derived from 454 pyrosequencing are indicated in black, and inferred-intermediate antibodies (I1-I4, I7, I8) are indicated by circles at ancestral nodes. The deep clades in this tree had modest bootstrap support, and the branching order and UCA inference were somewhat altered when more sequences were added to the phylogenetic analysis (compare the branching order of Fig. 2C and Fig. 2A). The tree depicted in Figs. 2C and 2D was used to derive the ancestral intermediates of the representative lineage early in the study, and marked an important step in the analysis of antibody affinity maturation. The VHDJH and VLJL genes were synthesized (GenScript, NJ) and cloned into pcDNA3.1 plasmid (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) for production of purified recombinant IgG1 antibodies as described previously (Liao et al, J. Virol. Methods 158:171-179 (2009), Liao et al, Immunity 38:176-186 (2013)). The VHDJH genes of I1-I4, I7 and I8 as well as the VHDJH of CH105 were paired with either the VL gene of the inferred UCA or I2 depending on the genetic distance of the VHDJH to either the UCA or mature antibodies for expressing as full-length IgG1 antibodies as described (Liao et al, J. Meth. Virol. 158:171-179 (2009)) (Table 2).

[0039] Production of recombinant HIV-1 Proteins. HIV-1 Env genes including subtype B, 63521, subtype C, 1086, and subtype CRF_01, 427299, as well as subtype C, CH505 autologous transmitted/founder Env were obtained from acutely infected HIV-1 subjects by single genome amplification (Keele et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:7552-7557 (2008)) codon-optimized by employing the codon usage of highly expressed human housekeeping genes (Andre et al, Journal of Virology 72:1497-1503 (1998)), de novo synthesized (GeneScript, NJ) as gp140 or gp120 (AE.427299) and cloned into a mammalian expression plasmid pcDNA3.1/hygromycin (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY). Recombinant Env glycoproteins were produced in 293F cells cultured in serum-free medium and transfected with the HIV-1 gp140- or gp120-expressing pcDNA3.1 plasmids, purified from the supernatants of transfected 293F cells by using Galanthus nivalis lectin-agarose (Vector Labs, Burlingame, CA) column chromatography (Ma et al, PLoS Pathog. 7:e1002200 (2001)), Liao et al, Virology 353:268-282 (2006), Liao et al, Immunity 38:176-186 (2013)), and stored at -80°C until use. Select Env made as CH505 T/F Env were further purified by superpose 6 column chromatography to trimer forms, and used in binding assays that showed similar results as with the lectin-purified oligomers.

[0040] Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay (ELISA). Binding of patient plasma antibodies and CH103 clonal lineage antibody members to autologous and heterologous HIV-1 Envs was measured by ELISA as described previously (Liao et al, J. Exp. Med. 208:2237-2249 (2011), Liao et al, Immunity 38:176-186 (2013)). Plasma samples in serial 3-fold dilutions starting at 1:30 to 1:521,4470 or purified mAbs in serial 3-fold dilutions starting at 100µg/ml to 0.000µg/ml diluted in PBS were assayed for binding to autologous and heterologous HIV-1 Envs. Binding of biotin-labeled CH103 at the subsaturating concentration was assayed for cross competition by unlabeled HIV-1 antibodies and soluble CD4 in serial 4-fold dilutions starting at 10µg/ml. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of plasma samples and mAbs to HIV-1 Envs were determined and expressed as either the reciprocal dilution of the plasma samples or concentration of mAbs.

[0041] Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) affinity and kinetics measurements. Binding Kd and rate constant (association rate ka, dissociation rate kd) measurements of mAbs and all candidate UCAs to the autologous Env C. CH05 gp140 and/or the heterologous Env B.63521 gp120 were carried out on BIAcore 3000 instruments as described previously (Alam et al, J. Virol. 85:11725-11731 (2011), Alam et al, J. Immunol. 178:4424-4435 (2007), Alam et al, J. Virol. 82:115-125 (2008)). Anti-human IgG Fc antibody (Sigma Chemicals) was immobilized on a CM5 sensor chip to about 15000 Response Unit (RU) and each antibody was captured to about 50-200 RU on three individual flow cells for replicate analysis, in addition to having one flow cell captured with the control Synagis (anti-RSV) mAb on the same sensor chip. Double referencing for each mAb-HIV-1 Env binding interactions was used to subtract non-specific binding and signal drift of the Env proteins to the control surface and blank buffer flow respectively. Antibody capture level on the sensor surface was optimized for each mAb to minimize rebinding and any associated avidity effects. C.CH505 Env gp140 protein was injected at concentrations ranging from 2 to 25µg/mL and B.63521 gp120 was injected at 50 - 400 µg/mL for UCA and early intermediates (IA8, IA4), 10-100µg/mL (IA3), and 1-25 µg/mL for the distal and mature mAbs. All curve fitting analysis were performed using global fit of to the 1:1 Langmuir model and are representative of at least three measurements. All data analysis was performed using the BIAevaluation 4.1 analysis software (GE Healthcare).

[0042] Neutralization assays. Neutralizing antibody assays in TZM-bl cells were performed as described previously (Montefiori, The Journal of Infectious Diseases 206:431-441 (2012)). Neutralizing activity of plasma samples in 8 serial 3-fold dilutions starting at 1:20 dilution and for recombinant mAbs in 8 serial 3-fold dilutions starting at 50ug/ml were tested against autologous and herologous HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses in TZM-bl-based neutralization assays using the methods as described (Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010), Seaman et al, J. Virol. 84:1439-1452 (2010), Montefiori, The Journal of Infectious Diseases 206:431-441 (2012)). The data were calculated as a reduction in luminescence units compared with control wells and reported as IC50 in either reciprocal dilution for plasma samples or in µg/ml for mAbs.

[0043] Crystallization of antibody CH103 and its gp120 complex. The antigen binding fragment (Fab) of CH103 was generated by LyS-C (Roche) digestion of IgG1 CH103 and purified with protocols described previously (Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010)). The extended core gp120 of HIV-1 clade C ZM176.66 was used to form complex with Fab CH103. Briefly, deglycosylated ZM176.66 extended core gp120 that was produced using the method as described previously (Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010)) and Fab CH103 were mixed at a 1:1.2 molar ratio at room temperature and purified by size exclusion chromatography (Hiload 26/60 Superdex S200 prep grade, GE Healthcare) with buffer containing 0.35 M NaCl, 2.5 mM Tris pH 7.0, 0.02% NaN3. Fractions of the Fab or gp120:CH103 complex were concentrated to ∼10 mg/ml, flash frozen with liquid nitrogen before storing at -80°C and used for crystallization screening experiments.

[0044] Commercially available screens, Hampton Crystal Screen (Hampton Research), Precipitant Synergy Screen (Emerald BioSystems), Wizard Screen (Emerald BioSystems), PACT Suite and JCSG+ (Qiagen) were used for initial crystallization screening of both Fab CH103 and its gp120 complex. Vapor-diffusion sitting drops were set up robotically by mixing 0.2 µl of protein with an equal volume of precipitant solutions (Honeybee 963, DigiLab). The screen plates were stored at 20 °C and imaged at scheduled times with RockImager (Formulatrix.). The Fab CH103 crystals appeared in a condition from the JCSG+ kit containing 170 mM ammonium sulfate, 15% glycerol and 25.5 % PEG 4000. For the gp120:CH103 complex, crystals were obtained after 21 days of incubation in a fungi-contaminated droplet of the PACT suite that contained 200 mM sodium formate, 20% PEG 3350 and 100 mM Bistrispropane, pH 7.5.

[0045] X-ray data collection, structure determination and refinement for the gp120:CH103 complex. Diffraction data were collected under cryogenic conditions. Best cryo-protectant conditions were obtained by screening several commonly used cryo-protectants as described previously (Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010)). X-ray diffraction data were collected at beam-line ID-22 (SER-CAT) at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, with 1.0000 Å radiation, processed and reduced with HKL2000 (Otwinowski, Methods in Enzymology 276:307 (1997)). For the Fab CH103 crystal, a data set at 1.65 Å resolution was collected with a cryo-solution containing 20% ethylene glycol, 300 mM ammonium sulfate, 15% glycerol and 25 % PEG 4000 (Table 7). For the gp120:CH103 crystals, a data set at 3.20 Å resolution was collected using a cryo-solution containing 30% glycerol, 200 mM sodium formate, 30% PEG 3350 and 100 mM Bistrispropane, pH 7.5 (Table 7).

[0046] The Fab CH103 crystal was in the P21 space group with cell dimensions at a=43.0, b=146.4, c=66.3, α=90.0, β=97.7, γ=90.0 and contained two Fab molecules per asymmetric unit (Table 7). The crystal structures of Fab CH103 were solved by molecular replacement using Phaser (McCoy et al, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 40:658-674 (2007)) in the CCP4 Program Suite (Project, cta Crystallographica Section D 50:760 (1994)) with published antibody structures as searching models. The gp120:CH103 crystal also belonged to the P21 space group with cell dimensions at a=48.9, b=208.7, c=69.4, α=90, β=107.2, γ=90.0, and contained two gp120:CH103 complexes per asymmetric unit (Table 7). The high resolution Fab CH103 structure was used as an initial model to place the Fab CH103 component in the complex. With the Fab CH103 position fixed, searching with the extended core gp120 of ZM 176.66 in the VRC01-bound form as an initial model failed to place the gp120 component in the complex. After trimming the inner domain and bridging sheet from the gp120 model, Phaser was able to correctly place the remaining outer domain of gp120 into the complex without significant clashes. Analysis of the packing of the crystallographic lattice indicated the lack of space to accommodate the inner domain of gp120, suggesting possible protease cleavage of the gp120 by the containing fungi during crystallization.

[0047] Structural refinements were carried out with PHENIX (Adams et al, Acta Crystallogr. D. Biol. Crystallogr. 58:1948-1954 (2002)). Starting with torsion-angle simulated annealing with slow cooling, iterative manual model building was carried out on COOT (Emsley and Cowtan, Acta Crystallogr. D. Biol. Crystallogr. 60:2126-2132 (2004)) with maps generated from combinations of standard positional, individual B-factor, TLS refinement algorithms and non-crystallographic symmetry (NCS) restraints. Ordered solvents were added during each macro cycle. Throughout the refinement processes, a cross validation (Rfree) test set consisting of 5% of the data was used and hydrogens were included as riding model. Structure validations were performed periodically during the model building/refinement process with MolProbity (Davis et al, Nucleic Acids Res. 35:W375-383 (2007)) and pdb-care (Lutteke and von der Lieth, BMC Bioinformatics 5:69 (2004)). X-ray crystallographic data and refinement statistics are summarized in Table 7. The Kabat nomenclature (Kabat et l, C. Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest, 5th Editiion (1991)) was used for numbering of amino acid residues in amino acid sequences in antibodies.

[0048] Protein structure analysis and graphical representations. PISA (Krissinel and Henrick, J. Mol. Biol. 372:774-797 (2007)) was used to perform protein-protein interfaces analysis. CCP4 (Emsley and Cowtan, Acta Crystallogr. D. Biol. Crystallogr. 60:2126-2132 (2004)) was used for structural alignments. All graphical representation with protein crystal structures were made with Pymol (DeLano, The PyMOL Molecular Graphics System, DeLano Scientific, San Carlos, CA, USA http://www.pymol. Org (2002)).

[0049] Polyreactivity analysis of CH103 clonal lineage antibodies by HEp-2 cell staining, ANA assays and protein array microchip. All antibodies in CH103 clonal lineage were assayed at 50µg/ml for autoreactivity to HEp-2 cells (Inverness Medical Professional Diagnostics, Princeton, NJ) by indirect immunofluorescence staining and a panel of autogens by ANA assays using the methods as reported previously (Haynes et al, Science 308:1906-1908 (2005)). The intermediate antibody (IA1) and CH106 were identified as reactive with HEp-2 cells and then selected for further testing for reactivity with human host cellular antigens using ProtoArray 5 microchip (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) according to the instructions of the microchip manufacturer. Briefly, ProtoArray 5 microchips were blocked and exposed to 2 µg/ml IA1, CH106 or an isotype-matched (IgG1, k) human myeloma protein, 151K (Southern Biotech) for 90 min at 4 °C. Protein-Ab interactions were detected by 1 µg/mL Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated anti-human IgG. The arrays were scanned at 635 nm with 10µm resolution using 100% power and 600 gain (GenePix 4000B scanner, Molecular Devices). Fluorescence intensities were quantified using GenePix Pro 5.0 (Molecular Devices). Lot-specific protein spot definitions were provided by the microchip manufacturer and aligned to the image.

Results


Isolation of the CH103 BnAb lineage



[0050] The CH505 donor was enrolled in the CHAVI001 acute HIV-1 infection cohort (Tomaras et al, J. Virol. 82:12449-12463 (2008)) approximately 4 weeks after HIV-1 infection (Fig. 7) and followed for more than 3 years. Single genome amplification of 53 plasma viral Env gp160 RNAs (5) from 4 weeks after transmission identified a single clade C transmitted/founder (T/F) virus. Serologic analysis demonstrated the development of autologous neutralizing antibodies at 14 weeks, CD4 binding site (CD4bs) antibodies that bound to a recombinant Env protein (resurfaced core, RSC3) (Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010)) at 53 weeks, and evolution of plasma cross-reactive neutralizing activity from 41-92 weeks after transmission (Lynch et al, J. Virol. 86:7588-7595 (2012)) (Fig. 1, Table 1, Fig. 8). The natural variable regions of heavy- (VHDJH) and light-chain (VLJL) gene pairs of antibodies CH103, CH104, CH106 were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at 136 weeks after transmission by flow sorting of memory B cells that bound RSC3 Env protein (Scheid et al, J. Immunol. Methods 343:65-67 (2009),Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010), (Scheid et al, Nature 458:636-640 (2009)) (Fig. 1B). The VHDJH gene of antibody CH105 was similarly isolated, but no VLJL gene was identified from the same cell. Analysis of characteristics of VHDJH (VH4-59 [posterior probability, PP = 0.99), D3-16 (PP=0.74), JH4 [PP= 1.00]) and VLJL (Vλ3-1 [PP=1.00], Jλ1 [PP=1.00]) rearrangements in mAbs CH103, CH104, CH105 and CH106 demonstrated that these antibodies were representatives of a single clonal lineage designated as the CH103 clonal lineage (Fig. 2, Table 2).

[0051] Neutralization assays using a previously described (Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010), (Seaman et al, J. Virol. 84:1439-1452 (2010)) panel of 196 of geographically and genetically diverse Env-pseudoviruses representing the major circulated genetic subtypes and circulating recombinant forms demonstrated that CH103 neutralized 55% of viral isolates with a geometric mean IC50 of 4.54 ug/ml among sensitive isolates (Fig. 1C, Table 3). ELISA cross-competition analysis demonstrated that CH103 binding to gp120 was competed by known CD4bs ligands such as mAb VRC01 and the chimeric protein CD4-Ig (Fig. 1D); CH103 binding to RSC3 Env was also substantially diminished by gp120 with P363N and Δ371I mutations known to reduce binding of most CD4bs mAbs (Fig. 9) (Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010), Lynch et al, J. Virol. 86:7588-7595 (2012)).

Molecular characterization of the CH103 BnAb lineage



[0052] The RSC3 probe isolated CH103, CH104, CH105, and CH106 BnAbs by single cell flow sorting. The CH103 clonal lineage was enriched by VHDJH and VLJL sequences identified by pyrosequencing PBMC DNA (Liao et al, J. Exp. Med. 208:2237-2249 (2011), Boyd et al, Sci. Transl. Med. 1:12ra23 (2009)) obtained 66 and 140 weeks after transmission and cDNA antibody transcripts (Wu et al, Science 333:1593-1602 (2011)) obtained 6, 14, 53, 92 and 144 weeks after transmission. From pyrosequencing of antibody gene transcripts, 457 unique heavy and 171 unique light chain clonal members were found (Figs. 2A, 2B). For comprehensive study, a representative 14 member BnAb pathway was reconstructed from VHDJH sequences (1AH92U, 1AZCET and 1A102R) recovered by pyrosequencing, and VHDJH genes of the inferred intermediate (I) antibodies (I1-I4, I7, I8) (Haynes et al, Nat. Biotechnol. 30:423-433 (2012), (Ma et al, PLoS Pathog. 7:e1002200 (2001)), Liao et al, J. Exp. Med. 208:2237-2249 (2011)) (Kepler, TB, Submitted, 2012) that were paired and expressed with either the UCA or 12 VLJL depending on the genetic distance of the VHDJH to either the UCA or mature antibodies (Fig. 2C, Table 2). The mature CH103, CH104 and CH106 antibodies were paired with their natural VLJL. The CH105 natural VHDHJH isolated from RSC3 memory B cell sorting was paired with the VLJL of 12.

[0053] Whereas the VHDJH mutation frequencies of the published CD4bs BnAbs VRC01, CH31 and NIH45-46 VHDJH are 30-36% (Wu et al, Science 329:856-861 (2010), Wu et al, Science 333:1593-1602 (2011), Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010), Scheid et al, Science 333:1633-1637 (2011), (Bonsignori et al, J. Virol. 86:4688-4692 (2012)), the CH103 lineage CH103, CH104, CH105 and CH106 VHDJH frequencies are 13-17% (Fig. 2C). Additionally, antibodies in CH103 clonal lineage do not contain the large (>3 nt) insertion or deletion mutations common in VRC01-class of BnAbs (1-3) with the exception of the VLJL of CH103 which contained a 3 aa LCDR1 deletion.

[0054] It has been proposed that one reason CD4bs BnAbs are difficult to induce is heterologous HIV-1 Envs do not bind their UCAs (Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010), Xiao et al, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 390:404-409 (2009)), Scheid et al, Science 333:1633-1637 (2011)). The question presented was whether the CH505 T/F Env, the initial driving antigen for the CH103 BnAb lineage, would preferentially bind to early CH103 clonal lineage members and the UCA compared to heterologous Envs. Indeed, a heterologous gp120 T/F Env, B-63521, did not bind to the CH103 UCA (Fig. 2D) but did bind to later members of the clonal lineage. Affinity for this heterologous Env increased four orders of magnitude during somatic evolution of the CH103 lineage, with maximal Kd values of 2.4 to 7.0 nM in the mature CH103-CH106 mAbs (Fig. 2D). The CH103 UCA mAb also did not bind other heterologous T/F Envs AE.427299, B.9021 and C.1086 (Table 4), confirming lack of heterologous Env binding to CD4bs UCAs. Moreover, the gp120 Env RSC3 protein was also not bound by the CH103 UCA and earlier members of the clonal lineage (Fig. 9A) and no binding was seen with RSC3 mutant proteins known to disrupt CD4bs BnAb binding (Fig. 9B).

[0055] In contrast to heterologous Envs, the CH505 T/F Env gp140 bound well to all of the candidate UCAs (Table 5) with the highest UCA affinity of Kd = 37.5 nM. In addition, the CH505 T/F Env gp140 was recognized by all members of the CH103 clonal lineage (Fig. 2D). Whereas affinity to the heterologous T/F Env B.63521 increased by over four orders of magnitude as the CH103 lineage matured, affinity for the CH505 T/F Env increased by no more than ten fold (Fig. 2D). To directly demonstrate Env escape from CH103 lineage members, autologous recombinant gp140 Envs isolated at weeks 30, 53 and 78 postinfection were expressed and compared with the CH505 T/F Env for binding to the BnAb arm of the CH103 clonal lineage (Table 6, Fig. 10). Escape mutant Envs could be isolated that were progressively less reactive with the CH103 clonal lineage members. Envs isolated from weeks 30, 53 and 78 lost UCA reactivity and only bound intermediate antibodies 3, 2 and 1 as well as BnAbs CH103, CH104, CH105 and CH106 (Table 6). In addition, two Env escape mutants from week-78 viruses also lost either strong reactivity to all intermediate antibodies or to all lineage members (Table 6).

[0056] To quantify CH103 clonal variants from initial generation to induction of broad and potent neutralization, pyrosequencing of antibody cDNA transcripts from five time points, weeks 6, 14, 53, 92 and 144 weeks after transmission was used (Table 7). Two VHDJH chains closely related to, and possibly members of, the CH103 clonal lineage were found (Fig. 2A, Table 7). Moreover, one of these VHDJH when reconstituted in a full IgG1 backbone and expressed with the UCA VLJL weakly bound the CH505 T/F Env gp140 at endpoint titer of 11 µg/ml (Fig. 2A). These reconstructed antibodies were present concomitant with CH505 plasma autologous neutralizing activity at 14 weeks after transmission (Fig. 8). Antibodies that bound the CH505 T/F Env were present in plasma as early as 4 weeks after transmission (data not shown). Both CH103 lineage VHDJH and VLJL sequences peaked at week 53 with 230 and 83 unique transcripts, respectively. VHDJH clonal members fell to 46 at week 144, and VLJL members were 76 at week 144.

[0057] Polyreactivity is a common trait of BnAbs, suggesting that the generation of some BnAbs may be controlled by tolerance mechanisms (Haynes et al, Science 308:1906-1908 (2005), Mouquet et al, Nature 467:591-595 (2010), Haynes et al, Hum. Antibodies 14:59-67 (2005)). Conversely, polyreactivity can arise during the somatic evolution of B cells in germinal centers as a normal component of B-cell development (Wardemann et al, Science 301:1374-1377 (2003)). The CH103 clonal lineage was evaluated for polyreactivity as measured by HEp-2 cell reactivity and binding to a panel of autoantigens (Haynes et al, Science 308:1906-1908 (2005)). While earlier members of the CH103 clonal lineage were not polyreactive by these measures, polyreactivity was acquired in concert with BnAb activity by the intermediate antibody I2, I1, and clonal members, CH103, CH104 and CH106 (Figs. 11A, 11B). The BnAbs CH106 and intermediate antibody I1 also demonstrated polyreactivity in protein arrays with specific reactivity to several human autoantigens, including elongation factor-2 kinase and ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (Figs. 11C and 11D).

Structure of CH103 in complex with HIV-1 gp120



[0058] Crystals of the complex between Fab CH103 and the ZM176.66 strain of HIV diffracted to 3.15-Å resolution, and molecular replacement identified solutions for Fab CH103 and for the outer domain of gp120 (Fig. 3A). Inspection of the CH103-gp120 crystal lattice (Fig. 12) indicated the absence of the gp120 inner domain was likely related to proteolytic degradation of the extended gp120 core to an outer domain fragment. Refinement to Rcrystal/Rfree of 19.1%/25.3% (Table 8) confirmed a lack of electron density for gp120 residues N terminal to residue Val 255gp120 or C terminal to Gly472gp120 (gp120 residues are numbered according to standard HXB2 nomenclature), and no electron density was observed for residues 301-324gp120 (V3), 398-411gp120 (V4) and 421-439gp120 (β20-21). Superposition of the ordered portions of gp120 (gp120 residues are numbered according to standard HXB2 nomenclature) in complex with CH103 with the fully extended core gp120 bound by antibody VRC01 (Zhou et al, Science 329:811-817 (2010)) indicated a highly similar structure (Cα-rmsd 1.16 Å) (Fig. 3B). Despite missing portions of core gp120, the entire CH103 epitope appeared to be present in the electron density for the experimentally observed gp120 outer domain.

[0059] The surface bound by CH103 formed an elongated patch with dimensions of ∼40 x 10 Å, which stretched across the site of initial CD4 contact on the outer domain of gp120 (Fig. 3C). The gp120 surface recognized by CH103 correlated well with the initial site of CD4 contact; of the residues contacted by CH103, only eight of these residues were not predicted to interact with CD4. CH103 interacted with these residues through side-chain contact with Ser256gp120 in loop D, main- and side-chain contacts with His364gp120 and Leu369gp120 in the CD4-binding loop, and main- and side-chain contacts with Asn463gp120 and Asp464gp120 in the V5 loop (Fig. 3D). Notably, residue 463 is a predicted site of N-linked glycosylation in strain ZM176.66 as well as in the autologous CH505 virus, but electron density for an N-linked glycan was not observed. Overall, of the 22 residues that mAb CH103 was observed to contact on gp120, 14 were expected to interact with CD4 (16 of these residues with antibody VRC01), providing a structural basis for the CD4-epitope specificity of CH103 and its broad recognition (Table 9).

[0060] Residues 1-215HC on the antibody heavy chain and 1-209LC showed well defined backbone densities. Overall, CH103 utilizes a CDR H3 dominated mode of interaction, although all six of the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) interacted with gp120 as well as the light chain framework region 3 (FWR3) (Fig. 4A,B, Tables 10 and 11). It is important to note that ∼40% of the antibody contact surface was altered by somatic mutation, in two regions, in the CDR H2 and in the CDR L1, L2 and FWR3. In particular, residues 56HC, 50LC, 51LC and 66LC are altered by somatic mutation to form hydrogen bonds with the CD4-binding loop, loop D and loop V5 of gp120. Nevertheless, 88% of the CH103 VHDHJH and 44% of the VλJλ contact areas were with amino acids unmutated in the CH103 germline, potentially providing an explanation for the robust binding of the T/F Env to the CH103 UCA (Figs. 4C, 4D, and Table 12).

Evolution of transmitted/founder Env sequences tracks acquisition of BnAb activity



[0061] Using single genome amplification and sequencing ((Keele et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:7552-7557 (2008)), the evolution of CH505 env genes was tracked longitudinally from the T/F virus through 160 weeks post-transmission (Fig. 5, Fig. 12). The earliest recurrent mutation in Env, N279K (HIV-1 HXB2 numbering), was found at 4 weeks post-infection, and was in Env loop D in a CH103 contact residue. By week 14 additional mutations in loop D appeared, followed by mutations and insertions in V1 at week 20. Insertions and mutations in the V5 loop began to accumulate by week 30 (Fig. 5). Thus, the T/F virus began to diversify in key CD4 contact regions starting within 3 months of infection (Figs. 13, 14). Loop D and V5 mutations were directly in or adjacent to CH103/Env contact residues. Although the V1 region was not included in the CH103-Env co-crystal, the observed V1 CH505 Env mutations were adjacent to contact residues for CD4 and VRC01 so are likely to be relevant. It is also possible that early V1 insertions (Fig. 5) were selected by inhibiting access to the CD4bs in the trimer or that they arose in response to early T cell pressure. CD4 binding-loop mutations were present by week 78. Once regions that could directly impact CH103-lineage binding began to evolve (loop D, V5, the CD4 binding, loop, and possibly V1), they were under sustained positive selective pressure throughout the study period (Fig. 5, Figs. 13, 14, Table 13).

[0062] Considerable within-sample virus variability was evident in Env regions that could impact CH103-linage antibody binding, and diversification within these regions preceded neutralization breadth. Expanding diversification early in viral evolution (4-22 weeks after transmission) (Figs. 13, 14) coincided with autologous NAbs development, consistent with autologous NAb escape mutations. Mutations that accumulated from weeks 41-78 in CH505 Env contact regions immediately preceded development of NAb breadth (Fig 5, Figs. 13, 14). By weeks 30-53, extensive within-sample diversity resulted from both point mutations in and around CH103 contact residues, and to multiple insertions and deletions in V1 and V5 (Fig. 14). A strong selective pressure seems to have come into play between weeks 30 and 53, perhaps due to autologous neutralization escape, and neutralization breadth developed after this point (Figs. 5, 13, 14). Importantly, due to apparent strong positive selective pressure between week 30 and week 53, there was a dramatic shift in the viral population that is evident in the phylogenetic tree, such that only viruses carrying multiple mutations relative to the T/F, particularly in CH103 contact regions, persisted after week 30. This was followed by extreme and increasing within time-point diversification in key epitope regions, beginning at week 53 (Fig. 14). Emergence of antibodies with neutralization breadth occurred during this time (Fig. 8, Table 1). Thus, plasma breadth evolved in the presence of highly diverse forms of the CH103 epitope contact regions (Fig. 5, Fig. 8).

[0063] To evaluate and compare the immune pressure on amino acids in the region of CH103 and CD4 contacts, a comparison was made of the frequency of mutations in evolving T/F sequences of patient CH505 during the first year of infection and in 16 other acutely infected subjects followed over time (Fig. 15). The accumulation of mutations in the CH505 virus population was concentrated in regions likely to be associated with escape from the CH103 lineage (Fig. 15A), and diversification of these regions was far more extensive during the first six months of infection in CH505 than in other subjects (Fig. 15B). However, by one year into their infections, viruses from the other subjects had also begun to acquire mutations in these regions. Thus, the early and continuing accumulation of mutations in CH103 contact regions may have potentiated the early development of neutralizing antibody breadth in patient CH505.

Neutralization of autologous and heterologous viruses and the CH103 lineage



[0064] Heterologous BnAb activity was confined to the later members (13 and later) of the BnAb arm of the CH103 lineage as manifested by their neutralization capacity of pseudoviruses carrying tier 2 Envs A.Q842 and B.BG1168 (Fig. 6A). Similar results were seen with Envs A.Q168, B.JRFL, B.SF162 and C.ZM106 (Tables 14 and 15). In contrast, neutralizing activity of clonal lineage members against the autologous T/F Env pseudovirus appeared earlier with measurable neutralization of the CH505 T/F virus by all members of the lineage after the UCA except mAb 1AH92U (Fig. 6A). Thus, within the CH103 lineage, early intermediate antibodies neutralized the T/F virus, while later intermediate antibodies gained neutralization breadth, indicating evolution of neutralization breadth with affinity maturation, and CH103-CH106 BnAbs evolved from an early autologous neutralizing antibody response. Moreover, the clonal lineage was heterogeneous, with an arm of the lineage represented in Fig. 6A evolving neutralization breadth and another antibody arm capable of mediating only autologous T/F virus neutralization. While some escape viruses are clearly emerging over time (Table 4), it is important to point out that, whereas escape mutant viruses are driving BnAb evolution, the BnAbs remain capable of neutralizing the CH505 T/F virus (Fig. 6A). Of note, the earliest mutations in the heavy chain lineage clustered near the contact points with gp120, and these remained fixed throughout the period of study, while mutations that accumulated later tended to be further from the binding site and may be impacting binding less directly (Fig. 10). Thus, stimulation of the CH103 BnAbs occurs in a manner to retain reactivity with the core CD4bs epitope present on the T/F Env. One possibility that might explain this is that the footprint of UCA binding contracts to the central core binding site of the CH103 mature antibody. Obtaining a crystal structure of the UCA with the T/F Env should inform this notion. Another possibility is that because affinity maturation is occurring in the presence of highly diverse forms of the CD4bs epitope, antibodies that favor tolerance of variation in and near the epitope are selected instead of those antibodies that acquire increased affinity for particular escape Envs. In both scenarios, persistence of activity to the T/F form and early viral variants would be expected. Fig. 6B and Fig. 16 show views of accumulations of mutations or entropy during the parallel evolution of the antibody paratope and the Env epitope bound by mAb CH103.
Table 1. Plasma neutralization activity developed over time of in patient CH505 against the autologous transmitted/funder (T/F) and heterologous viruses.
Sample IDWeek after InfectionEC50, reciprocal dilution
MuLVCH505B.SF162B.JRFLA.Q168A.842B.BG1168
G770DM2V-12 6 <20 <20 <20 <20 <20 <20 <20
G770DPFL-12 7 <20 <20 <20 <20 <20 <20 <20
K770DQNT-15 8 <20 <20 <20 <20 <20 <20 <20
K770F1ZZ-12_16 14 <20 45 <20 <20 <20 <20 <20
A770FDB0-13 20 <20 157 29 <20 <20 <20 <20
C770FJKX-13 22 <20 267 28 <20 <20 <20 <20
F770G05F-11 30 <20 1,291 60 <20 <20 <20 <20
A770GN15-12 41 <20 1,636 154 56 <21 53 <20
A770H7QF-11 53 <20 1,701 237 244 32 183 <20
D8Z03WQG-03 66 <20 3,193 401 701 69 367 <20
K8Z047D8-04 78 <20 6,428 1,172 806 83 345 <20
A770JL0J-12 92 <20 3,396 1,534 522 92 293 25
J770JXKQ-12 100 <20 2,464 1,066 619 94 473 35
K770KQ98-12 136 <20 4,985 4,651 2,085 172 433 56
A770KRJ3-13 138 <20 3,586 5,081 1,368 138 326 51
H770KSHS-12 140 <20 3,374 13,407 1,287 148 237 56
C770KW30-13 144 <20 4,665 8,354 905 118 237 40
F770L0XJ-12 152 <20 1,789 3,122 1,612 108 234 35
K8Z06JCY-03 160 <20 2,684 9,761 2,482 144 230 55
K770LJF6-12 176 <20 2,003 5,148 2,243 91 150 58
B770MDVN-11 208 <20 1,353 5,850 1,303 60 95 31
E770NW1S-11 233 <20 3,279 3,612 895 107 151 37
K8Z07X34-04 234 <20 3,033 4,887 1,712 103 232 60
D8Z07Y9M-06 236 <20 1,969 4,417 1,354 107 299 57
2F5*   >50 >50 0.69 2.26 1.62 11.71 1.43
*EC50 values for positive control antibody 2F5 are presented as ug/ml. MuLV = murine leukemia virus as negative control.
Table 2. V(D)J rearrangement of the matured, and reverted unmutated ancestor and intermediate antibodies in CH103 clonal lineage.
Antibody IDIgH_IDVHDHJHMutation frequencyCDRH3 length1IsotypeVL IDVLJLMutation frequencyCDRL3 length1
UCA UCAVH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 0.0% 15 IgG1 UCAVL 3-1*01 1*01 0% 10
I8 I8VH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 3.6% 15 IgG1 UCAVL 3-1*01 1*01 0% 10
I7 I7VH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 5.0% 15 IgG1 UCAVL 3-1*01 1*01 0% 10
I4 I4VH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 6.9% 15 IgG1 UCAVL 3-1*01 1*01 0% 10
I3 I3VH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 9.1% 15 IgG1 I2VL 3-1*01 1*01 10.0% 10
I2 I2VH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 14.9% 15 IgG1 I2VL 3-1*01 1*01 10.0% 10
I1 I1VH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 15.2% 15 IgG1 I2VL 3-1*01 1*01 10.0% 10
1AZCETI5 1AZCETI5VH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 15.2% 15 IgG1 I2VL 3-1*01 1*01 10.0% 10
1AH92U 1AH92UVH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 8.3% 15 IgG1 UCAVL 3-1*01 1*01 0% 10
1A102RI6 1A102RI6VH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 7.7% 15 IgG1 I2VL 3-1*01 1*01 10.0% 10
CH106 CH106VH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 16.0% 15 IgG1 CH106VL 3-1*01 1*01 11.2% 10
CH103 CH103VH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 16.8% 15 IgG1 CH103VL 3-1*01 1*01 10.6% 10
CH104 CH104VH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 14.9% 15 IgG1 CH104VL 3-1*01 1*01 10.6% 10
CH105 CH105VH 4-59*01 3-16*01 4*02 12.7% 15 IgG1 I2VL 3-1*01 1*01 10.0% 10
1 The HCDR3 and LCDR3 lengths of the CH103 lineage are similar to the median of HCDR3 and LCDR3 lengths of unrelated antibodies in pyrosequencing database or Genbank. Using the same 454 pyrosequencing dataset derived from three HIV infected subjects unrelated to the CH505 patient as the source of comparison, we find that the CH103 CDRH3 length of 45 nucleotides (15 aa) is the median value. The interquartile range is 39-54 nucleotides (13-18 aa). 9% of all heavy chains in this database have HCDR3 length = 45 nucleotides, this is the second most-frequent length, after 42 nucleotides. We used human L\lambda rearrangements from Genbank to compare the light chain. The CH103 light chain CDR3 is 30 nucleotides (10 aa) long. The median among Genbank hu man lambda chains is 33 nucleotides (11 aa). 24% of all human lambda chains have HCDR3 length = 30 nt, second-most frequent after 33nt.
Table 3a. Comparison of neutralization activity of CH103, and other CD4bs mAbs against 25 clade A Env-pseudoviruses.
  IC50a IC80a
Virus IDCladeVRC01CH31b12CH103 VRC01CH31b12CH103
0260.v5.c36 A 0.53   >50 >50   1.48   >50 >50
0330.v4.c3 A 0.06   >50 7.84   0.23   >50 31.30
0439.v5.c1 A 0.05 0.06 >50 8.37   0.24 0.26 >50 >50
3365.v2.c20 A   0.01 18.90 4.00     0.03 >50 40.00
3415.v1.c1 A 0.09 0.06 6.93 2.46   0.26 0.18 13.70 4.73
3718.v3.c11 A 0.22 0.13 12.10 29.60   4.99 0.41 43.80 >50
398-F1_F6_20 A 0.06   0.06 >50   0.32   1.30 >50
BB201.B42 A 0.34 0.04 0.52 9.19   1.11 0.13 3.77 40.50
BB539.2B13 A 0.09 >50 1.42 22.20   0.33 >50 7.40 >50
BI369.9A A 0.15 0.01 14.90 >50   0.66 0.04 >50 >50
BS208.B1 A 0.03 0.02 0.04 >50   0.10 0.05 0.33 >50
KER2008.12 A 0.56 0.11 >50 >50   1.74 0.41 >50 >50
KER2018.11 A 0.07 0.39 49.20 40.00   0.40 2.32 >50 >50
KNH1209.18 A 0.09 0.02 0.79 >50   0.30 0.10 3.39 >50
MB201.A1 A 0.24 0.02 >50 17.70   0.48 0.07 >50 >50
MB539.2B7 A 0.54 0.16 14.00 3.70   1.48 0.45 >50 14.20
MI369.A5 A 0.16 0.03 1.58 >50   0.77 0.08 36.40 >50
MS208.A1 A 0.15 0.07 0.13 >50   0.67 0.21 0.98 >50
Q23.17 A 0.09   >50 10.40   0.25   >50 12.90
Q259.17 A 0.05 5.09 >50 10.60   0.25 >50 >50 33.90
Q769.d22 A 0.02 0.03 >50 1.00   0.07 0.16 >50 2.67
Q842.d12 A 0.01 0.003 >50 1.46   0.02 0.01 >50 5.10
QH209.14M.A2 A 0.02 0.01 >50 1.16   0.08 0.07 >50 5.75
RW020.2 A 0.30 0.004 10.70 23.60   0.87 0.03 21.60 47.40
UG037.8 A 0.04 0.02 >50 1.76   0.13 0.09 >50 11.90
Breadth N=25 Titer <50 96 80 56 68   96 76 40 48
Geometric Meanb   0.095 0.038 2.180 6.569   0.373 0.12 5.34 0.39
aValues <1µg/ml are indicated in red and values 1-50 µg/ml are in green.
bGeometric means were calculated for neutralization sensitive viruses with an IC50 or IC80 value <50µg/ml.
*Results of 118 isolates summarized in Tables 3a, b and c are representatives of total of 196 isolates tested.
Table 3b. Comparison of neutralization activity of CH103, and other CD4bs mAbs against 39 clade B Env-pseudoviruses.
  IC50a IC80a
Virus IDCladeVRC01CH31b12CH103 VRC01CH31b12CH103
3988.25 B 2.10   2.21 9.84   >50   12.40 11.68
5768.04 B 0.10 0.10 5.62 7.08   0.94 2.37 >50 7.03
6101.10 B 0.10   >50 1.80   0.33   >50 2.25
6535.3 B 2.16   0.87 4.67   6.27   18.50 3.90
7165.18 B >50   >50 >50   >50   >50 >50
45_01dG5 B       0.80         1.10
89.6.DG B 0.46 0.06 0.08 1.40   1.58 0.33 0.49 1.56
AC10.29 B 1.43   1.86 >50   3.83   16.30 >50
ADA.DG B 0.42 0.21 0.13 1.49   1.40 1.07 0.73 1.82
Bal.01 B 0.10   0.09 0.68   0.32   0.45 2.01
BG1168.01 B 0.45 0.65 >50 21.70   1.43 2.50 >50 >50
BL01.DG B >50 >50 >50 >50   >50 >50 >50 >50
BR07.DG B 1.67 2.01 0.19 9.67   4.67 8.06 1.30 >50
BX08.16 B 0.28   0.92 1.15   0.68   8.16 1.07
CAAN.A2 B 1.06 >50 >50 >50   2.63 >50 >50 >50
CNE10 B 0.78   >50 26.90   1.87   >50 >50
CNE12 B 0.79   >50 26.40   2.19   >50 >50
CNE14 B 0.39   8.28 0.52   0.98   24.50 0.60
CNE4 B 0.87   >50 43.50   2.36   >50 >50
CNE57 B 0.54   16.60 >50   1.34   >50 >50
HO86.8 B >50 >50 >50 >50   >50 >50 >50 >50
HT593.1 B 0.44 0.17 0.25 40.00   1.72 0.76 4.51 >50
HXB2.DG B 0.04   0.00 0.12   0.08   0.01 0.23
JRCSF.JB B 0.23   0.22 0.91   0.80   1.56 1.96
JRFL.JB B 0.03   0.02 0.02   0.12   0.10 0.05
MN.3 B 0.03   <0.0006 0.19   0.07   0.002 0.54
PVO.04 B 0.39   >50 >50   0.99   >50 >50
QH0515.01 B 0.52 0.03 0.80 10.20   3.66 0.38 12.50 4.93
QH0692.42 B 1.16   0.79 25.20   3.00   3.05 >50
REJO.67 B 0.05   1.70 2.15   1.47   >50 5.38
RHPA.7 B 0.05   0.13 8.53   0.21   0.58 9.20
SC422.8 B 0.13   0.20 2.44   0.16   2.19 3.08
SF162.LS B 0.24   0.03 0.84   0.33   0.15 1.19
SS1196.01 B 0.28   0.78 1.34   0.63   5.51 1.08
THRO.18 B 4.42   0.96 >50   0.65   8.76 >50
TRJO.58 B 0.08   >50 >50   15.10   >50 >50
TRO.11 B 0.34   >50 5.34   0.24   >50 5.15
WITO.33 B 0.11   9.67 7.35   1.09   >50 8.53
YU2.DG B 0.06 0.072 1.46 1.80   0.27 0.23 6.34 2.00
Breadth N=39 Titer <50 90 21 64 77   87 21 56 59
Geometric Meanb   0.30 0.17 0.46 2.84   0.92 1.01 1.47 1.91
aValues <1µg/ml are indicated in red and values 1-50 µg/ml are in green.
bGeometric means were calculated for neutralization sensitive viruses with an IC50 or IC80 value <50µg/ml.
Table 3c. Comparison of neutralization activity of CH103, and other CD4bs mAbs against 54 clade C Env-pseudoviruses.
  IC50aIC80a
Virus IDCladeVRC01CH31b12CH103 VRC01CH31b12CH103
286.36 C 0.10   0.90 8.36   1.36   3.18 18.80
288.38 C 1.52   >50 8.45   0.38   >50 19.10
0013095-2.11 C 0.14   >50 5.71   5.86   >50 25.00
001428-2.42 C 0.01   >50 1.51   0.32   >50 4.64
0077_V1.C16 C 1.04   0.16 >50   0.04   2.42 >50
00836-2.5 C 0.13   >50 28.60   3.65   >50 >50
0921.V2.C14 C     3.30 >50   0.52   12.70 >50
16055-2.3 C 0.11   >50 >50       >50 >50
16845-2.22 C 2.41 4.55 >50 >50   0.37 27.80 >50 >50
16936-2.21 C 0.11   >50 5.57   9.07   >50 34.10
25710-2.43 C 0.55   >50 >50   0.47   >50 >50
25711-2.4 C 0.71   23.40 17.20   1.56   >50 46.00
25925-2.22 C 0.56   >50 26.70   1.70   >50 >50
26191-2.48 C 0.20   1.44 >50   1.39   7.25 >50
3168.V4.C10 C 0.13   >50 10.30   0.65   >50 >50
3637.V5.C3 C 4.09   >50 >50   0.28   >50 >50
3873.V1.C24 C 0.95   >50 >50   11.00   >50 >50
6322.V4.C1 C >50   >50 >50   0.33   >50 >50
6471.V1.C16 C >50   >50 >50   >50   >50 >50
6631.V3.C10 C >50   >50 >50   >50   >50 >50
6644.V2.C33 C 0.16   0.03 0.38   >50   0.36 1.51
6785.V5.C14 C 0.33   16.50 8.95   0.53   >50 27.60
6838.V1.C35 C     >50 29.00   0.87   >50 >50
96ZM651.02 C 0.53   >50 8.99       >50 >50
BR025.9 C 0.27 1.13 >50 >50   1.94 49.00 >50 >50
CAP210.E8 C >50   >50 >50   1.08   >50 >50
CAP244.D3 C 0.86   >50 >50   >50   >50 >50
CAP45.G3 C 9.47   0.11 >50   2.36   3.65 >50
CNE30 C 0.93   3.81 >50   >50   18.10 >50
CNE31 C 0.96   18.40 >50   2.59   >50 >50
CNE53 C 0.11   >50 6.92   2.24   >50 >50
CNE58 C 0.12   >50 0.54   0.28   >50 1.46
DU123.06 C 13.60   0.40 >50   0.31   5.02 >50
DU151.02 C 7.70   16.00 >50   >50   >50 >50
DU156.12 C 0.08   1.41 >50   >50   4.90 >50
DU172.17 C >50   0.55 >50   0.24   2.95 >50
DU422.01 C >50   0.40 >50   >50   2.17 >50
MW965.26 C 0.04   0.002 0.01   >50   2.34 0.09
SO18.18 C 0.07 0.07 14.30 1.88   0.12 0.32 47.20 7.48
TV1.29 C >50 >50 >50 >50   0.17 >50 >50 >50
TZA125.17 C >50 >50 >50 >50   >50 >50 >50 >50
TZBD.02 C 0.07 0.09 >50 5.55   >50 0.34 >50 23.70
ZA012.29 C 0.25 0.02 >50 28.00   0.23 0.10 >50 >50
ZM106.9 C 0.25   >50 4.82   0.83   >50 8.11
ZM109.4 C 0.13   >50 21.20   0.64   >50 >50
ZM135.10a C 1.28   >50 >50   0.39   >50 >50
ZM176.66 C 0.04 0.01 >50 0.23   6.16 2.27 >50 1.25
ZM197.7 C 0.62   >50 35.40   1.62 0.06 >50 >50
ZM214.15 C 0.88   4.78 41.40   0.25   >50 >50
ZM215.8 C 0.28   >50 2.57   1.55   >50 >50
ZM233.6 C 4.25   >50 7.35   3.04   >50 >50
ZM249.1 C 0.08   2.73 7.23   0.83   14.80 37.60
ZM53.12 C 0.84 4.76 >50 >50   23.10   >50 >50
ZM55.28a C 0.14   >50 4.59   0.24 17.00 >50 14.30
Breadth N=54 Titer <50 81 13 35 52   76 15 26 30
Geometric Meanb   0.366 0.219 1.224 5.23   0.870 1.574 4.881 8.11
aValues <1µg/ml are indicated in red and values 1-50 µg/ml are in green.
bGeometric means were calculated for neutralization sensitive viruses with an IC50 or IC80 value <50µg/ml.
Table 4. Binding of antibodies in CH103 clonal lineage to heterologous HIV-1 Env proteins
 Binding to heterologous HIV-1 Env, EC50 (ug/ml)
AntibodyAE.427299 gp120B.9021 gp140C.1086 gp140
UCA NB NB NB
I8 NB NB NB
I7 NB NB NB
1A102R16 NB NB NB
I4 NB NB 36.2
1AZCET15 NB >10 4.5
I3 NB 0.086 0.11
I2 NB 0.03 0.06
I1 NB 0.066 0.12
1AH92U NB 3.2 0.16
CH104 NB 0.063 0.06
CH103 NB 0.5 0.07
CH106 NB 0.06 0.22
CH105 NB 0.09 0.11
NB = No dateable binding.
Table 5. Affinity and kinetics of CH103 UCAs binding to autologous T/F CH505 gp140a.
 Binding affinity to autologous Envs
CH103UCAska (x 103 M-1s-1)kd, (x 10-3 s-1)Kd, nM
CH103UCA-1 26.7 0.926 37.5
CH103UCA-2,3,5b 20.5 2.9 141.5
CH103UCA-4 27.2 1.0 36.8
CH103UCA-6 25.0 6.6 264.0
aSPR binding rate constants and dissociation constant (Kd) was measured with each antibody captured on an anti-IgG (Fc specific) antibody surface and CH505
gp140 was injected in solution at concentrations ranging from 2 to 100 ug/mL and as described in the online Methods section. Data is representative of at least two independent measurements.
bAmino acid sequences encoded by VHDJH of CH103UCAs-2, 4 - 6 are the same amino acid as shown in the alignment below.

DNA sequence alignment of VHDJH CH103 UCAs: (SEQ ID NOS 1-6, respectively, in order of appearance)



[0065] 


Amino acid sequence alignment of VHDJH CH103 UCAs: (SEQ ID NOS 7-12, respectively, in order of appearance)



[0066] 

Table 6. Reactivity of autologous Envs with antibodies in CH103 clonal lineage in ELISA.
Autologous Env*Apparent binding affinity of autologous Envs to CH103 clonal lineage antibodies, EC50, ug/ml
UCAI8I4I3I2I1CH105CH103CH104CH106
CH0505 T/F 2 1.1 0.3 0.12 0.09 0.11 0.1 0.08 0.12 0.08
CH505.w30.e16 NB >10 2.1 0.07 0.047 0.06 0.064 0.055 0.05 0.05
CH0505.w30.e23 NB NB >20 0.14 0.07 0.09 0.08 0.044 0.07 0.053
CH505.w53.e16 NB NB NB 0.066 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.036 0.032
CH505.w78.e7 NB NB NB 0.13 0.054 0.083 0.09 0.043 0.1 0.13
CH505.w78.e16 NB NB NB NB 0.2 >10 0.3 1.2 0.19 0.14
CH505.w78.e38 NB NB NB >100 >100 >10 >10 >10 >10 >10
*Env proteins highlighted in green had 2-fold or greater loss of binding affinity to antibodies in CH103 clonal lineage compared with the binding of transmitted/founder (T/F) Env to the same antibodies. NB = No detectable binding.


Table 8. Crystallographic data collection and refinement statistics.
 CH103:gp120Fab CH103
PDB accession code To be deposited To be deposited
     
Data collection  
Space group P21 P21
Cell constants  
a, b, c (Å) 48.9, 208.7, 69.4 43.0, 146.4, 66.322
 α, β, γ (°) 90.0, 107.2, 90.0 90.0, 97.7, 90.0
Wavelength (Å) 1.00 1.00
Resolution (Å) 50-3.20 (3.20-3.20)* 50-1.65(1.68-1.65)
Rmerge 13.4 (44.4) 6.7(53.1)
I / σI 9.6 (1.9) 30.0(1.7)
Completeness (%) 89.4 (52.3) 98.4 (90.0)
Redundancy 3.4 (2.4) 3.4 (2.3)
     
Refinement  
Resolution (Å) 3.20 1.65
No. reflections 68,668 319,139
Rwork / Rfree(%) 19.1/25.3 17.8/20.1
No. atoms 17821 13319
 Protein 8837 6428
 Ligand/ion 154 0
 Water 23 597
B-factors 88.7 28.3
 Protein 88.7 27.7
 Solvent 46.9 34.80
R.m.s. deviations  
 Bond lengths (Å) 0.004 0.004
 Bond angles (°) 0.735 0.967
Ramachandran  
 Most favored regions (%) 92.5 96.8
 Additional allowed regions (%) 7.0 2.8
     
Disallowed regions (%) 0.5 0.4
* Values in parentheses are for highest-resolution shell.


[0067] The antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of CH103 was screened for crystallization, either by itself or in complex with various strains of HIV-1 expressed with an extended gp120 core1, which had been deglycosylated to protein-proximal N-acetyl glucosamines2. Crystals of Fab CH103 by itself diffracted to 1.6-Å resolution, and the Fab CH103 structure was solved by molecular replacement and refined to Rcrystal/Rfree of 17.90/0/20.1%.
1Kwon YD, et al. (2012) Unliganded HIV-1 gp120 core structures assume the CD4-bound conformation with regulation by quaternary interactions and variable loops. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(15):5663-5668.
2Kwong PD, et al. (1999) Probability analysis of variational crystallization and its application to gp120, the exterior envelope glycoprotein of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). J Biol Chem 274(7):4115-4123.
Table 9. Comparison of interactions between HIV-1 gp120 and CD4, CH103 and other CD4-binding site antibodies.
HIV-1 gp120Residue-by-residue binding surface on HIV-1 gp120 (Å2)* HIV-1 gp120 interacting molecule (PDB code)
RegionResidueCD4 (2NXY)CH103 (XXXX)b12 (2NY7)b13 (3IDX)F105 (3HI1)VRC01 (3NGB)VRC03 (3SE8)VRC-PG04 (3SE9)NIH45-46 (3U7Y)
NumberType
  49 D                 4.8
                       
α1 96 W                 7.1
97 K           26.4 41.0 10.5 44.0
99 D                 22.1
102 E                 33.8
105 H         2.9        
108 I         2.8        
109 I         28.7        
112 W         69.9        
                       
V1/V2 122 L               3.1 3.3
123 T             8.5   5.6
124 P 39.9         36.8 81.7 31.2 33.8
125 L 6.7                
126 C 61.5                
127 V 30.8                
196 C 5.5                
198 T           12.7 51.3    
199 S             13.4    
                       
β4/5 210 F         5.3        
226 L         11.8        
244 T         5.7        
                       
Loop B 255 V         18.1        
256 S   56.6              
257 T     15.0   10.9   6.9    
                       
Loop D 275 V               26.2 11.1
276 N           22.6 13.3 17.7 9.9
278 T           84.4 73.0 35.2 36.7
279 D 18.5 3.9     6.6 56.5 36.5 51.7 57.5
280 N 51.1 94.9 13.0   14.3 70.2 76.3 72.0 69.7
281 A 74.7   29.8 16.7 52.2 69.6 70.8 74.0 75.7
282 K 31.6         30.5 17.2 31.9 49.7
283 T 18.2     12.6   11.9 8.2 10.6 5.2
                       
β15/α3 CD4-binging loop 364 S   18.9              
365 S 65.6 85.9 38.3 11.5 25.5 61.5 58.0 46.0 59.1
366 G 24.6 16.7 44.5 29.5 53.8 22.0 23.3 22.0 21.1
367 G 38.6 71.1 74.4 61.7 37.4 24.1 26.4 22.9 26.2
368 D 69.5 64.0 64.6 87.0 87.3 48.6 54.2 51.2 47.4
369 P   19.4 59.7 62.9 16.6        
370 E 14.7 30.1 14.7 26.4 53.7   16.0    
371 I 39.6 39.8 80.8 61.8 47.5 44.1 35.2 44.8 60.4
372 V     30.9 25.8          
373 T     17.3 11.7          
375 S       9.2 7.0   3.3    
                       
β17 382 F         36.2        
384 Y     4.6 16.2 7.2        
386 N     35.9 2.8          
                       
β18 417 P     16.3            
418 C     2.2            
419 R     84.7 64.8          
H1V-1 gp120 Residue-by-residue binding surface on HIV-1 gp120 (Å2) * HIV-1 gp120 interacting molecule (PDB code) 
RegionResidueCD4 (2NXY)CH103 (XXXX)b12 (2NY7)b13 (3IDX)F105 (3HI1)VRC01 (3NGB)VRC03 (3SE8)VRC-PG04 (3SE9)NIH45-46 (3U7Y)
NumberType
β20/21 Bridging sheet 421 K       40.2 54.1        
424 I         4.3        
425 N 24.5     60.7 18.2   12.1    
426 M 14.4     12.5 79.1   7.1    
427 W 28.2         7.6 35.1   12.8
428 Q           4.7      
429 K 14.9       63.0 2.1 49.7 47.6 23.7
430 V 111.5   31.1     58.3     57.3
431 G     132       13.8 7.0 11.3
432 K     47.8           8.0
                       
β23 455 T 15.5 18.6 28.3 3.5 9.6 31.2 24.0 32.9 31.9
456 R 3.6   5.4     5.8 6.4 2.4 6.8
457 D 37.4 49.1       46.4 43.7 27.1 45.8
                       
Loop V5 458 G   32.5       50.5 35.2 39.4 44.9
459 G 32.2 48.9       69.1 62.9 56.8 68.8
460 N 64.8 53.3       37.1 63.9   24.1
461 S   66.1       67.8 51.2 66.3 54.9
462 N   36.2         28.9 26.7 6.6
463 N   16.9       13.7 15.4   10.2
                       
β24 465 S           9.7 9.4   8.7
466 G           6.0     2.1
467 I           11.3 15.9   17.8
469 R 13.5 59.4       23.3 21.8 17.2 21.0
                       
Outer domain exiting loop 471 G   4.2     4.2        
472 G 20.5 6.6 20.5 6.3   8.4 23.7 3.6 4.8
473 G 23.4   53.5 23.8 50.2 27.6 29.2 18.3 22.8
474 D 37.2   26.0 25.3 43.9 17.3 3.0 7.6 30.5
475 M 2.8   65.0   33.6       4.2
                       
α5 476 R 9.3       40.9     21.9 24.8
477 D 3.7       3.1        
480 R                 16.4
*: Residues with interacting surface area less than 2.0 Å2 are not listed.


[0068] Table 9 discloses the residues at positions 122-127, 278-283, 364-373, 424-432, 458-463 and 471-475 as SEQ ID NOS 914-919, respectively.
Table 10. Interface between antibody CH103 and ZM176.66 gp120.
Supplementary Table 10a, Total buried surface areas across the interface of CH103 and HIV-1 gp120.
AntibodyInterface on gp120 (Å2)Interface on CH103 (Å2)
Total antibody areaArea contributed by UCA residues (% total)
Heavy chain 429 493 414 (84%)
Light chain 378 377 164 (44%)
Total 807 870 578 (66%)
Table 10b, Residue-by-residue buried surface area of gp120 residues that interact with CH103.
gp120 residueHeavy chain interactionsLight chain interactions
RegionNumberTypeBond type*Surface area (Å2)Bond typeSurface area (Å2)
Loop B 256 SER H 11.72    
             
Loop D 279 ASP       3.56
280 ASN   12.38 H 39.83
             
CD4-binding loop 364 HIS   13.21   3.56
365 SER H 53.96   31.86
366 GLY   17.71   3.61
367 GLY H 68.46    
368 ASP HS 65.44    
369 LEU H 18.72    
370 GLU HS 28.69    
371 ILE   38.90    
             
Loop V5 455 THR   18.59    
457 ASP   35.32   13.05
458 GLY   9.87 H 24.12
459 GLY       50.36
460 ASN   50.77   50.77
461 ASP     HS 69.50
462 ASP       36.60
463 ASN       15.46
             
24 469 ARG   23.84   34.44
471 GLY   5.35    
472 GLY   5.85    
* Bond type: H: Hydrogen, S: Salt bridge.
Detailed gp120:CH103 interface data was calculated on the EBI PISA server (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/msdsrv/prot_int/cgi-bin/piserver).


[0069] Table 10b discloses the residues at positions 364-371 and 457-463 as SEQ ID NOS 920-921, respectively.
Table 10c. Residue-by-residue buried surface areas of the CH103 paratope residues.
ChainRegionResidueBond type*Buried surface area (Å2)Contribution by Region (%)
Number (Kabat)Type
H CDR H1 33 TYR H 32.31 3.7
             
H CDR H2 50 TYR H 21.67 11.8
H 52 PHE   12.11
H 54 THR   7.68
H 56 GLU H 59.46
H 58 ASN   2.01
             
H CDR H3 97 ARG HS 82.19 41.1
H 98 GLY   23.45
H 99 GLN H 120.00
H 100 LEU H 27.19
H 100A VAL H 55.44
H 100B ASN   50.10
             
L CDR L1 27 SER   3.68 8.0
L 31 THR   14.17
L 32 ASN H 52.10
             
L CDR L2 50 GLU H 38.67 14.0
L 51 ASN H 27.91
L 52 TYR   32.84
L 53 LYS H 22.45
             
L FWR L3 65 SER   9.04 13.1
L 66 LYS HS 43.83
L 67 SER   25.47
L 68 GLY   36.10
             
L CDR L3 91 TRP   70.62 8.1
* Bond type: Hydrogen, D: Disulphide bond, S: Salt bridge, C: Covalent link.
Detailed gp120:CH103 interface data was calculated on the EBI PISA server (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/msdsrv/prot_int/cgi-bin/piserver).


[0070] Table 10c discloses the residues at positions 97-100B, 50-53 and 65-68 as SEQ ID NOS 922-924, respectively.
Table 11. Hydrogen bonds and salt bridges between CH103 and ZM176.66 gp120.
Hydrogen bonds
Antibody CH103Distance (Å)gp120
ChainNumberTypeAtomAtomTypeNumber
H 33 TYR OH 2.17 OD1 ASP 368
H 50 TYR OH 3.68 O GLY 367
H 56 GLU OE1 3.20 N LEU 369
H 97 ARG NH1 3.81 OG SER 256
H 97 ARG NH2 2.59 OE1 GLU 370
H 99 GLN NE2 3.10 OG SER 365
H 100 LEU N 2.41 O SER 365
H 100 LEU N 3.22 OG SER 365
H 100A VAL N 3.18 OG SER 365
L 32 ASN ND2 2.97 O GLY 458
L 50 GLU OE2 3.07 ND2 ASN 280
L 51 ASN ND2 2.92 OD1 ASP 461
L 53 LYS NZ 3.19 OD1 ASN 280
L 66 LYS NZ 3.16 OD2 ASP 461
 
Salt bridges
Antibody CH103Distance (Å)gp120
ChainNumberTypeAtomAtomTypeNumber
H 97 ARG NE 3.93 OD1 ASP 368
H 97 ARG NE 2.58 OD2 ASP 368
H 97 ARG NH2 2.59 OE1 GLU 370
H 97 ARG NH2 2.73 OD2 ASP 368
L 66 LYS NZ 3.65 OD1 ASP 461
L 66 LYS NZ 3.16 OD2 ASP 461
Table 12. Residue-by-residue specification of unmutated versus mutated residues on antibody CH103.
Heavy chain mutations
RegionIDUCAMatureParatopeDescription and note
FWR 1 11 L V   Shortens side chain on strand A
14 P S   Alters loop between strands A and B
29 I M   Enhances interactions with heavy chain Trp34
30 S G   Increases loop flexibility
           
CDR 1 31 S G   Increases CDR1 flexibility
32 Y T   Avoids clash with other heavy chain residues
           
FWR 1 37 I L   Neutral mutation
39 Q L   Alters heavy/light chain interface
40 P S   Allows flexibility in strand C
           
CDR 2 52 Y F Yes Polar to hydrophobic
53 Y H Yes Polar to basic
54 S T Yes Adds carbon to paratope interface
56 S E Yes Forms hydrogen bond with backbone amide of Leu369 in the CD4-binding loop
60 N S   Alters heavy/light chain interface
65 S G   Increases flexibility in loop between strand C" and D
           
FWR 3 68 T S   Avoids clashes with neighboring residues
75 K E   Basic to acidic change in loop between strand D and E
76 N D   Polar to acidic change at the beginning of strand E
81 K R   Neutral mutation
82A S R   Polar to basic change at C terminus of strand E
91 Y F   Polar to hydrophobic change at the heavy/light chain interface
           
CDR 3 101 D R   Acidic to basic change at the first layer adjacent to paratope
102 Y N   Smaller side chain at the end of CDR H3
         
105 Q R   Alters heavy/light chain interface
FWR 4 107 T S   Avoids clashes with neighboring residues
110 T S   Alters heavy/light chain interface
112 S T   Minor change at the end of strand G
113 S A   Avoids clashes with neighboring residues
Light chain mutations
RegionIDUCAMatureParatopeDescription and note
FWR 1 20 S T   Surface residue in strand B
           
CDR1 26 D A   Avoids clashes with neighboring residues
27 K     Deletion reduces potential clashes with HIV-1 gp120
27A L     Deletion reduces potential clashes with HIV-1 gp120
27B G     Deletion reduces potential clashes with HIV-1 gp120
27C D S Yes Acidic to polar change
31 K T Yes Shorter side chain reduces potential clashes with HIV-1 gp120
32 Y N Yes Smaller side chain reduces potential clashes with HIV-1 gp120
33 A V   Bulker side chain increases packing of light chain core
           
FWR 2 38 Q V   Alters heavy/light chain interface
45 V E   Surface residue at strand C', hydrophobic to acidic change
46 L V   Alters heavy/light chain interface
49 Y F   Alters heavy/light chain interface
           
CDR 2 50 Q E Yes Forms hydrogen bond with Asn280 in gp120 loop D
51 D N Yes Forms hydrogen bond with Asn461 in gp120 loop V5
52 S Y Yes Enhances interactions with gp120 loop D
           
FWR 3 60 E D   Surface residue in loop between strands C" and D
66 N K Yes Forms hydrogen bond and salt bridges with Asn461 in loop V5
69 N S   Shortens side chain in loop between strands D and E
76 S R   Polar to basic change and longer side chain at C terminus of strand E
81 M I   Shortens side chain in loop between strands E and F
CDR 3          
90 A V   Bulker side chain increases packing of light chain core
         
FWR 4 100 T S   Neutral mutation in strand G and near heavy/light chain interface
To determine the frequency of germline antibodies that could potentially serve as unmutated common ancestors of a lineage line CH103, we have interrogated a combined dataset of 454 pyrosequences of three HIV infected subjects unrelated to the CH505 patient. Gene segment frequencies in this dataset demonstrate that the frequency of the VH4-59 gene is 4.2%, the JH4 is 49.7% and the frequency of HCDR3 length of the CH103 VH length (a 15mer) is 8.9%. The proportion of sequences with all three characteristics, if independent is VH4-59/JH4/CDR3 Length=15 is 1/540 with the actual count in the analyzed data set of the combinantion = 637/386853 = 1/607.
This frequency is clearly very common. The question that remains regards the prevalence of the relevant characteristics of CDR3.
For example, the HC CDR3 contact residues (from figure 4 of the paper) are RGQLVN (SEQ ID NO: 926) starting at position 4 in HCDR3 with the following conservative substitutions:
R: K; G: A; Q: E; L: I, V; V: I, V; N: D

[0071] We therefore use the HCDR3 motif: XXX(R/K)(G/A)(Q/E)(L/V/I)(L/V/I)(N/D)nX, and scanned our pyrosequencing heavy-chain dataset for its occurrence. This motif occurred 10 times among the 337567 in-frame HCDR3 in our pyrosequencing database.

[0072] If we allow positions other than the fourth (which contains the R/K necessary for the salt bridge) to vary we obtain the table below. The number of positions at which the observed HCDR3 differs from the CH103 HCDR3 motif is on the left, and the number out of 337567 HCDR3 seqeunces is on the right. All of the CDR3 in this table have R or K at position 4.
distancenumber of sequences out of 337567
0 10
1 71
2 1028


[0073] An appropriate light-chain UCA is also likely to be readily available. We downloaded 2312 rearranged human lambda V-region sequences from Genbank and analyzed them for comparison. The CH103 light chain uses IGLV3-1 and IGLJ1. These genes are found in 9.6% and 15.5% respectively of all sequences in the Genbank lambda database. The CH103 light chain is 30 nt long, as are 23.7% of the Genbank lambdas. The single contact residue in the light-chain CDR3 is tryptophan at the 3rd CDR3 position, which is encoded by the IGLV gene.Indeed 43% of all Genbank lambda chains have W at position 3 of CDR3. Thus, there is considerable evidence that the germlines of the CH103 lineage are relatively common by a variety of criteria.
Table 13. Localization of sites under positive selection using the fixed effects likelihood (FEL)1 (p-value < 0.10) and the mixed effects model of evolution(MEME)2(q-value < 0.1).
 Using FELUsing MEME
Week after infectionn Negan PosbCH103 n NegcNon-CH103 n PosdFisher's p (n Pos)eFisher's p (n Neg)fSubstitution per sitegselected sitesPositively selected sites inside CH103 footprintPositively selected sites outside CH103 footprintFisher's exact P value
4 0 6 0 0 na 1 0.0035 0 0 0 na
14 0 14 0 0 na 1 0.0095 0 0 0 na
20 5 20 3 2 0.009 0.71 0.022 3 2/92 1/830 0.05
30 8 32 4 4 0.005 0.36 0.04 5 3/92 2/830 0.009
160 36 88 11 25 0.0004 0.6 0.057 34 11/92 23/830 0.0002
aNumber of positively selected sites; Number of negatively selected sites; cNumber of positively selected sites among 92 sites inside CH103 binding regions (footprint); dNumber of positively selected sites among 830 sites not in CH103 footprint; eP value from Fisher's exact test for positively selected sites inside vs. outside CH103 footprint; fP value from Fisher's exact test for negatively selected sites inside vs. outside CH103 footprint; and gPer-site substitution rate among 922 aligned sites.


[0074] The 922 codons in the CH505 alignment were considered as 2 sets: 92 codons (10%) were included in the candidate regions for CH103 selection (CH103, CD4, and VRC01 contact residues, as well as V1 and V5 hypervariable loops which border these contacts), and the 830 other codons remaining in the alignment. We used FEL1 and MEME2 methods to quantify selection in the CH505 codon-aligned sequences, implemented through the HyPhy package at the DATAMONKEY website (http://www.datamonkey.org). The full alignment was used for the initial analysis, and the codon sets defined above were used to see if positive selection was concentrated in the CH103 contact/CD4bs region. We used the strategy implemented at the DATAMONKEY web site to select optimal substitution models, with a p < 0.10 cutoff as evidence suggesting positive selection for the FEL model, and a q < 0.10 cutoff for the MEME model. Analysis by using both FEL and MEME methods showed that positive selection was enriched in CH103 binding regions by week 20, and this focus continued throughout the course of the study, through week 160. Fisher's exact test was used to test the null hypothesis that the positively selected sites are evenly distributed throughout Env; they are not, and are enriched in the CH103 region. In contrast, the number of sites under negative selection was evenly distributed between the two regions. The amino acids that are changing in the regions of interest for CH103 escape are shown in Fig 5. At week 4, using FEL1 and MEME2, there was no statistical evidence for positive selection anywhere in the CH505 codon-aligned sequences, though there was evidence for negative selection at 6 positions with p values below the cutoff. However, FEL and MEME will underestimate positive selection within a subject, as the frequencies of identical sequences are not considered, and thus changes in population frequency are not considered positive selection. Given this, it is of note that in the week-4 sample, a single mutation in the full alignment of 55 sequences occured more than once, and it was a N279K change in Loop D, found in 5 of the 55 sequences. There was also one instance of a short (7 residue) in-frame deletion spanning this position. This would produce just one ancestral change in the phylogenetic tree, so it could not provide statistical evidence of selection, but still coincidence of facts makes it of interest: 279 is located in a key contact position for CH103 in Loop D, in a region under clear strong subsequent selective pressure. Neighboring positions are mutating by week 14, a further indication that local positive selection might be underway, leaving open the possibility that these sites may targeted by the CH103 lineage very early in infection. Codon models also do not take into account insertions and deletions, an essential aspect of HIV env evolution, which is evident in CH505 in V1 by week 20.
  1. 1. Kosakovsky Pond, S.L. & Frost, S.D. Not so different after all: a comparison of methods for detecting amino acid sites under selection. Molecular biology and evolution 22, 1208-1222 (2005).
  2. 2. Murrell, B., et al. Detecting individual sites subject to episodic diversifying selection. PLoS genetics 8, e1002764 (2012).











EXAMPLE 2



[0075] Shown in Fig. 19 are CH505 Env sequences for a multivalent-valent vaccine that can be made both with RNAs (Geall et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109: 14604-14609 (2012)) and DNAs (Ledgerwood, et al. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 19:1792-7 (2012)) as gp160s for genetic immunization and as well made as gp160s and gp140s (Liao et al, Nature 201: 469-76 (2013)) for poxvirus vector immunizations in ALVAC (canary pox) vectors such as was used in RV144 (Rerks-Ngarm et al. NEJM 361:2209-2220 (2009)) and NYVAC that either are replicating (such as NYVAC-KC, Kibler et al, PLoS One 6: e25674, Epub 2011, Nov 9) or non-replicating (such as NYVAC-C, Perreau et al, J. Virol. 85: 9854-62 (2011)). Criteria for choosing the Envs was based on the following criteria: (i) the expressed Envs optimally bound to members of the CH103 BnAb lineage, or (ii) the viruses with these Envs escaped the CH103 lineage and, therefore, were involved in its early stimulation, or (iii) the viruses with these Envs did not escape from the CH103 lineage and, therefore, were able to continue to stimulate the later stages of the CH103 lineage, or (iv) the viruses with these Envs were hypersensitive to neutralization by the CH103 lineage and, therefore, were able to optimally drive the CH103 lineage.

EXAMPLE 3



[0076] The HIV-1 arms race in patient CH0505, in which CD4 binding site BnAbs develop over time (clonal lineage under "antibody") in response to HIV-1 virus evolution (virus evolution tree under "HIV-1"), is shown in Fig. 20. In the clonal lineage shown, env binding to the heterologous 63521 clade B transmitted founder Env increased 4 logs over the time of clonal lineage development.

[0077] Figure 21 shows the same virus clonal lineage tree of CH0505 and shows at the stars on the right panel examples of sequential envs chosen for immunogens. The stars on the tree in the left panel are env sequences shown in Fig. 17

[0078] The contact regions for CD4, VRC01, and b12, and the signature sites that impact VRC01 and b12 neutralization, are under intense selective pressure in CH0505. Fig. 22 illustrates several points: i) the 110 positions that are in or near the CD4bs are under far more intense selective pressure than the 846 positions that are not in the CD4bs region (see: "in or near CD4b" vs "excluding CD4bs"), ii) using the 10 CHAVI 17 samples that had a 24 week time point (blue), it can be seen that the diversification in or near the CD4bs is strikingly high in CH0505 very early on, already at 24 weeks, iii) using the 9 CHAVI 17 samples that had a sample between 1-2 years (range: 60-96 weeks), it can be seen that the pressure on the CD4bs region is unrelenting, and remarkable compared to other subjects, and iv) population breadth is first apparent at week 92, this autologous pressure first drove extensive diversification in the CD4 region, and then breadth developed in the presence of these diverse forms.

[0079] Fig. 23, like Fig. 22, shows how sites within the CD4 binding site of the CH0505 virus sequences are highly mutated in response to the antibodies generated in this patient.

[0080] Fig. 24 shows that the single transmitted/founder virus Envelope gp140C of CH0505 binds remarkably well to the unmutated common ancestor of the CH103, 104 and 105 CD4 binding site bnAbs isolated from CH0505, and this env should be able to drive this clonal lineage.

[0081] Fig. 25 shows that neutralization arises early on in the clonal lineage at 14 antibody and there are relatively few mutations from the UCA to 14 that an immunogen must induce.

[0082] Fig. 27 shows viral evolution during BnAb development in the HIV-1 infected individual CH505.

EXAMPLE 4



[0083] Figure 26 shows an Env designed to focus induction of CD4 binding site antibodies by deletion of V1, V2 and V3 loop sequences that were highlighted in red font (underlined) (as example by CH0505_CON gp120) resulting in a core Env as example shown in example as CH0505_DV123core. This strategy can also be applied to the other HIV-1 Envs in the list of evolved CH0505 Envs (evolved CH0505 Envs are Env sequences obtained in sequential times after transmission) and well as the other heterologous HIV-1 Envs.

EXAMPLE 5



[0084] BALB/c mice were immunized IM with 25 µg per dose of either the CH505 Transmitted/founder (T/F) Env delta 7 gp120 X4, the week 53.e16 CH505 variant X4, the week 78.33 CH505 variant X4, or the week 100B6 CH505 variant. In addition, BALB/c mice were also immunized IM with sequential Envs T/F, then week 53.e16 Env gp120, then week 78.33 Env gp120, then week 100B6 CH505 gp120 Env. A significant level of CD4 binding site antibodies occurs when a plasma titer of >1:200 to the resurfaced core 3 (RSC3) is present that is > 2.8 times over plasma binding to the RSC3 with an isoleucine deletion at position 371 (Lynch RM et al. J. Virol. 86: 7588-95, 2012). Each group represents the mean of 3-4 mice per group. Data represent the ration of binding RSC# to RSCEDelta 371 proteins expressed as log Area Under the Curve (AUC) RSC3/log AUC RSC3Delta 371. Each animal end point binding titers were >200. Fig. 30 demonstrates that immunization with each individual gp120 alone X4 did not induce antibodies with a ration above 2 except for the week 533nv where the ratio went to ∼3. However, the sequential immunization induced RSC3/RSC3D371 ratio of RSC3-binding antibodies of >4 demonstrating the superiority of this particular combination of antibodies of inducing the desired type of CD4 binding site antibodies over individual Env immunizations.

References:



[0085] Wei et al, Nature 422: 307-12 (2003); McMichael et al, Nature Rev. Immunol. 10:11-23 (2010) Epub 2009 Dec 11; Cohen et al, New Eng. J. Med. 364:1943-54 (2011), Bar et al, PLoS Pathog. 8: e1002721, Epub 2012 May 31; Goonetilleke et al, J. Exp. Med. 206:1253-72 (2009); Keele et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105:7552-7 (2008), Gray et al, J. Virol. 85:4828-40 (2011); Moore et al, PLoS Pathogens 5:e1000598, Epub 2009, Sept 18; Gray et al, J. Virol. 83:11265-74 (2009); Morris et al, PLoS One 6:e23532 (2011) Sept 30; McElrath and Haynes, Immunity 33: 542-54 (2010) and Haynes et al, Nature Biotech. 30:423-33 (2012)).


Claims

1. A composition comprising a recombinant gp120 HIV-1 envelope protein comprising all the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 879, 861, 884 or 866, all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 889 or 871 or all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 893 or 875.
 
2. A composition comprising a recombinant gpl40 HIV-1 envelope protein derived from all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NO: 844 or 852.
 
3. A recombinant HIV-1 envelope protein comprising all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 879, 861, 884 or 866, or all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 889 or 871, or all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 893 or 875.
 
4. The composition according to claim 1 or 2 wherein said composition further comprises a carrier.
 
5. The composition according to claim 1, 2 or 4 wherein said composition further comprises an adjuvant.
 
6. The composition according to any one of claims 1-2, 4 or 5 for use in inducing an immune response to HIV in a mammal in need thereof wherein the composition is administered to the mammal in an amount sufficient to effect said induction.
 
7. The composition for use according to claim 6 wherein the mammal is a human.
 
8. The composition for use according to claim 6 or claim 7 wherein the composition comprises the recombinant gp120 HIV-1 envelope protein comprising all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NO: 879 or SEQ ID NO: 861 and is administered as a prime in a prime boost regimen.
 
9. The composition for use according to claim 8 wherein further is administered a composition comprising at least one recombinant HIV-1 envelope protein comprising all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 884 or 866, or all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 889 or 871, or all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 893 or 875.
 
10. The composition for use according to claim 8 wherein the recombinant gp120 HIV-1 envelope protein of the composition consists of all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NO: 879 or SEQ ID NO: 861 and is for administration as a prime in a prime boost regimen.
 
11. The composition for use according to claim 10, wherein further is administered a composition comprising at least one recombinant HIV-1 envelope protein consisting of all the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 884 or 866, or all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 889 or 871, or all of the consecutive amino acids immediately after the signal peptide MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 893 or 875.
 
12. The composition for use according to any one of claims 6-11 wherein said composition is for administration by injection.
 
13. The composition for use according to any one of claims 6-11 wherein said composition is for administration intrarectally or vaginally.
 


Ansprüche

1. Zusammensetzung, umfassend ein rekombinantes gp120 HIV-1 Hüllprotein, umfassend alle der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 879, 861, 884 oder 866, alle der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 889 oder 871, oder alle der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 893 oder 875.
 
2. Zusammensetzung, umfassend ein rekombinantes gp140 HIV-1 Hüllprotein, abgeleitet von allen der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NO: 844 oder 852.
 
3. Rekombinantes HIV-1 Hüllprotein, umfassend alle der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 879, 861, 884 oder 866, oder alle der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 889 oder 871, oder alle der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 893 oder 875.
 
4. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die Zusammensetzung weiterhin einen Träger umfasst.
 
5. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, 2 oder 4, wobei die Zusammensetzung weiterhin ein Adjuvans umfasst.
 
6. Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-2, 4 oder 5, zur Verwendung bei der Induktion einer Immunantwort auf HIV in einem Säuger mit Bedarf daran, wobei die Zusammensetzung dem Säuger in einer Menge verabreicht wird, die zum Bewirken der Induktion ausreicht.
 
7. Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 6, wobei der Säuger ein Mensch ist.
 
8. Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 6 oder Anspruch 7, wobei die Zusammensetzung das rekombinante gp120 HIV-1 Hüllprotein, umfassend alle der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ NO: 879 oder SEQ ID NO: 861, umfasst und als Prime in einem Prime-Boost-Regime verabreicht wird.
 
9. Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 8, wobei weiterhin eine Zusammensetzung verabreicht wird, die zumindest ein rekombinantes HIV-1 Hüllprotein umfasst, das alle der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 884 oder 866, oder alle der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 889 oder 871, oder alle der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 893 oder 875 umfasst.
 
10. Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 8, wobei das rekombinante gp120 HIV-1 Hüllprotein der Zusammensetzung aus allen der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in Sequenz ID NO: 879 oder SEQ ID NO: 861 besteht und zur Verabreichung als Prime in einem Prime-Boost-Regime ist.
 
11. Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 10, wobei weiterhin eine Zusammensetzung verabreicht wird, die zumindest ein rekombinantes HIV-1 Hüllprotein umfasst, das aus allen der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 884 oder 866, oder allen der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 889 oder 871, oder allen der aufeinanderfolgenden Aminosäuren unmittelbar nach dem Signalpeptid MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG in SEQ ID NOs: 893 oder 875 besteht.
 
12. Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 6-11, wobei die Zusammensetzung zur Verabreichung durch Injektion ist.
 
13. Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 6-11, wobei die Zusammensetzung zur intrarektalen oder vaginalen Verabreichung ist.
 


Revendications

1. Composition comprenant une protéine d'enveloppe gp120 de VIH-1 recombinante comprenant tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 879, 861, 884 ou 866, tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 889 ou 871 ou tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 893 ou 875.
 
2. Composition comprenant une protéine d'enveloppe gp140 de VIH-1 recombinante dérivée de tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 844 ou 852.
 
3. Protéine d'enveloppe de VIH-1 recombinante comprenant tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 879, 861, 884 ou 866 ou tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 889 ou 871 ou tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 893 ou 875.
 
4. Composition selon la revendication 1 ou 2, où ladite composition comprend en outre un support.
 
5. Composition selon la revendication 1, 2 ou 4, où ladite composition comprend en outre un adjuvant.
 
6. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1-2, 4 ou 5 pour une utilisation dans l'induction d'une réponse immunitaire à un VIH chez un mammifère en ayant besoin, où la composition est administrée au mammifère dans une quantité suffisante pour effectuer ladite induction.
 
7. Composition pour une utilisation selon la revendication 6, où le mammifère est un humain.
 
8. Composition pour une utilisation selon la revendication 6 ou la revendication 7, où la composition comprend la protéine d'enveloppe gp120 de VIH-1 recombinante comprenant tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG dans la SEQ ID NO: 879 ou la SEQ ID NO: 861 et elle est administrée comme une amorce dans une stratégie de vaccination d'amorce-rappel.
 
9. Composition pour une utilisation selon la revendication 8, à laquelle il est en outre administré une composition comprenant au moins une protéine d'enveloppe de VIH-1 recombinante comprenant tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 884 ou 866 ou tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 889 ou 871 ou tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 893 ou 875.
 
10. Composition pour une utilisation selon la revendication 8, où la protéine d'enveloppe gp120 de VIH-1 recombinante de la composition est constituée de tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG dans la SEQ ID NO: 879 ou la SEQ ID NO: 861 et elle est pour une administration comme une amorce dans une stratégie de vaccination d'amorce-rappel.
 
11. Composition pour une utilisation selon la revendication 10, à laquelle il est en outre administré une composition comprenant au moins une protéine d'enveloppe de VIH-1 recombinante constituée de tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MRVMGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGFWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 884 ou 866 ou tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MRVTGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 889 ou 871 ou tous les acides aminés consécutifs immédiatement après le peptide signal MKVRGIQRNYPQWWIWSMLGLWMLMICNG dans les SEQ ID NOs: 893 ou 875.
 
12. Composition pour une utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 6-11, où ladite composition est pour une administration par injection.
 
13. Composition pour une utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 6-11, où ladite composition est pour une administration par voie intrarectale ou vaginale.
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description