(19)
(11)EP 2 900 829 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 13842260.5

(22)Date of filing:  25.09.2013
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C12P 19/18(2006.01)
C07H 15/08(2006.01)
C07H 13/04(2006.01)
C07H 15/26(2006.01)
C07H 3/06(2006.01)
C12P 19/44(2006.01)
C07H 15/04(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/DK2013/050306
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/048439 (03.04.2014 Gazette  2014/14)

(54)

GLYCOCONJUGATE SYNTHESIS

GLYCOKONJUGATSYNTHESE

SYNTHÈSE DE GLYCO-CONJUGUÉ


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 25.09.2012 DK 201270582
07.06.2013 DK 201370311

(43)Date of publication of application:
05.08.2015 Bulletin 2015/32

(73)Proprietor: Glycom A/S
2970 Hørsholm (DK)

(72)Inventors:
  • PELTIER-PAIN, Pauline
    F-45100 Orleans (FR)
  • DEKANY, Gyula
    Sinnamon Park Queensland 4073 (AU)
  • PAIN, Christophe
    F-45400 Fleury-les-Aubrais (FR)
  • CHASSAGNE, Pierre
    F-63110 Beaumont (FR)
  • FIERFORT, Nicolas
    F-54110 Varangeville (FR)
  • MOLNÁR-GÁBOR, Dóra
    H-1042 Budapest (HU)

(74)Representative: Inspicos P/S 
Kogle Allé 2
2970 Hørsholm
2970 Hørsholm (DK)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 911 850
WO-A1-01/04341
WO-A1-2007/101862
WO-A1-2008/002230
US-A1- 2012 208 181
EP-A1- 1 911 850
WO-A1-2007/101862
WO-A1-2008/002230
US-A1- 2012 208 181
US-B1- 7 521 212
  
  • SÉBASTIEN FORT ET AL: "Biosynthesis of conjugatable saccharidic moieties of GM2 and GM3 gangliosides by engineered E. coli", CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, no. 20, 1 January 2005 (2005-01-01), page 2558, XP055147366, ISSN: 1359-7345, DOI: 10.1039/b500686d
  • SOPHIE DROUILLARD ET AL: "Large-Scale Synthesis of H-Antigen Oligosaccharides by ExpressingHelicobacter pylori [alpha]1,2-Fucosyltransferase in Metabolically EngineeredEscherichia coli Cells", ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE INTERNATIONAL EDITION, vol. 45, no. 11, 6 March 2006 (2006-03-06) , pages 1778-1780, XP055105681, ISSN: 1433-7851, DOI: 10.1002/anie.200503427
  • FORT S ET AL.: 'Biosynthesis of conjugatable saccharidic moieties of GM2 and GM3 gangliosides by engineered E. coli' CHEM COMMUN 2005, pages 2558 - 2560, XP055147366
  • DROUILLARD S ET AL.: 'Large-Scale Synthesis of H- AntigenOligosaccharides by Expressing Helicobacterpylori alpha 1,2-Fycosyltransgerase in Metabolically Engineered Escheri coli Cells' ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE INTL. ED. vol. 45, 2006, pages 1778 - 1780, XP055105681
  • DEFREES S ET AL: "GlycoPEGylation of recombinant therapeutic proteins produced in Escherichia coli", GLYCOBIOLOGY, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, US, vol. 16, no. 9, 1 September 2006 (2006-09-01), pages 833-843, XP002403450, ISSN: 0959-6658, DOI: 10.1093/GLYCOB/CWL004
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates to a method of making glycoconjugates using genetically modified cells.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] In general, glycoconjugates are carbohydrate derivatives in which the carbohydrate part is linked to another chemical moiety by covalent linkage. Glycoconjugates like glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, lipopolysaccharides play important roles in living systems, particularly in cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions.

[0003] Glycoproteins are proteins that contain sugar moiety/moieties, particularly oligosaccharide chain(s), covalently attached to the amino acid unit(s) of the polypeptide chain of a protein, preferably via the OH-group of an amino acid (serine, threonine, hydroxyproline) or the amide nitrogen of asparagine or glutamine (O- vs. N-glycosides). Glycoproteins are often parts of cell membranes. Glycopeptides are similar to glycoproteins in that the glycosyl moiety is attached to an amino acid, but that particular amino acid can be a single aglycon or the part of an oligopeptide.

[0004] Glycolipids are lipid (fatty acid) containing carbohydrate conjugates, generally classified in the groups of glyceroglycolipids, glycosphingolipids and glycosylphosphatidylinositols, with the role providing energy for the cell. Lipopolysaccharides, also lipid containing glycoconjugates, but having antennary-like polysaccharide chains, are components of the outer membrane of bacteria and involved in inducing immune response.

[0005] Preparing complex molecules such as glycoconjugates has always been a challenge for chemists and biologists. Structurally altered analogues of glycopeptides can be important targets in studying and understanding basic physiological processes taking place in cell systems. Glycoconjugates and analogues thereof can be synthesized by both chemical and enzymatic ways. In chemical synthesis, the carbohydrate part has been reacted with the aglycon under glycosylation condition, in which both the participating educts shall be present in protected form, that is all functional groups that are not involved in forming the desired linkage and can be affected under glycosylation conditions shall be masked. This chemical approach, in many cases, can suffer from low stereoselectivity with regard to the newly formed glycosidic bond, low overall yield due to the high number of protection/deprotection steps, the use of sophisticated and often expensive purification methodologies such as column chromatography, and sometimes the use of toxic reagents. Alternatively, enzyme mediated glycosylation reactions can require fewer or even just a few elementary steps and/or take place with remarkable stereo- and/or regioselectivity, but the narrow substrate specificity of the enzymes towards the donors and the acceptors often requires the use of different enzymes depending on the structure of the target, which makes it practically impossible to develop a general methodology.

[0006] The production of some oligosaccharides having lactose, galactose or GlcNAc at the reducing terminus, and optionally their allyl glycosides, has been reported by using genetically modified E. coli cells which have been able to internalize lactose, allyl galactoside, allyl lactoside or GlcNAc-OAII added as exogenous precursors to the fermentation broth (WO 01/04341, Fort et al. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Comm. 2558 (2005), WO 2007/101862, EP-A-1911850, WO 2010/070104, US 2012/208181).

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0007] The invention relates to a method for producing a glycoconjugate , the method comprising:
  1. (i) providing a genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype comprising a gene encoding a glycosyl transferase enzyme that is able to transfer the glycosyl residue of an activated sugar nucleotide to an internalized acceptor, wherein the glycosyl transferase is a fucosyl transferase, and/or a sialyl transferase, and/or an N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase and/or a galactosyl transferase, and the activated sugar nucleotide is GDP-Fuc, CMP-sialic acid, UDP-GlcNAc or UDP-Gal,
  2. (ii) culturing said genetically modified cell in the presence of an exogenous acceptor which is a compound of formula 7

    wherein n is an integer from 2 to 10, inducing
    1. (a) internalization of the exogenous acceptor by the genetically modified cell, and
    2. (b) formation of said glycoconjugate from said internalized acceptor molecule by a glycosyl transfer mediated by said glycosyl transferase enzyme expressed by said cell, and then
  3. (iii) collecting said glycoconjugate from the fermentation broth,
    wherein the glycoconjugate produced by the method is a fucosylated and/or sialylated and/or N-acetylglucosaminylated and/or galactosylated compound of formula 7a

    wherein n is as defined above and Y is a human milk oligosaccharide glycosyl residue.


[0008] In one embodiment, n is an integer from 2 to 6.

[0009] In one embodiment, said genetically modified cell provided in step (i) further comprises a set of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of said activated sugar nucleotide by a de novo pathway, and wherein said culturing step (ii) further induces producing said activated sugar nucleotide by a de novo pathway.

[0010] In one embodiment, said glycosyl transferase enzyme is selected from the group consisting of β-1,3-N-acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase, β-1,6-N-acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase, β-1,3-galactosyl transferase, β-1,4-galactosyl transferase, α-2,3-sialyl transferase, α-2,6-sialyl transferase, α-1,2-fucosyl transferase, α-1,3-fucosyl transferase and α-1,4-fucosyl transferase.

[0011] In one embodiment, the human milk oligosaccharide is 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, difucosyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose or lacto-N-neotetraose.

[0012] In one embodiment of said method, the compound of formula 7a is that of formula 8d

wherein R1 is fucosyl or H, R2 is fucosyl or H, n is an integer from 2 to 10, provided that at least one of the R1 and R2 groups is fucosyl.

[0013] In one embodiment, n is an integer from 2 to 6 in formula 8d.

[0014] The invention also relates to a compound of formula 6

wherein n is an integer from 2 to 10 and
X is the moiety of formula 1

wherein R1 is fucosyl or H,

R2 is fucosyl or H,

R3 is selected from H, sialyl, N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and lacto-N-biosyl groups, wherein the N-acetyl lactosaminyl group may carry a glycosyl residue comprising one or more N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and/or one or more lacto-N-biosyl groups; each of the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and lacto-N-biosyl groups can be substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue, R4 is selected from H, sialyl and N-acetyl-lactosaminyl groups optionally substituted with a glycosyl residue comprising one or more N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and/or one or more lacto-N-biosyl groups; each of the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and lacto-N-biosyl groups can be substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue,

provided that at least one of the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups is different from H,

or a salt thereof.



[0015] In one embodiment, n is an integer from 2 to 6.

[0016] In one embodiment, X is a human milk oligosaccharide glycosyl residue.

[0017] In one embodiment, the human milk oligosaccharide glycosyl residue is that of 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, 2',3-difucosyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose or lacto-N-neotetraose.

[0018] In one embodiment, the compound is characterized by formula 6d

wherein R1 is fucosyl or H, R2 is fucosyl or H, n is an integer from 2 to 10, provided that at least one of the R1 and R2 groups is fucosyl.

[0019] In one embodiment, n is an integer from 2 to 6 in formula 6d.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0020] In accordance with this disclosure an "oligosaccharide part or residue of a glycoconjugate" preferably means an oligosaccharide residue having at least two monosaccharide units. The oligosaccharide residue can have a linear or branched structure containing monosaccharide units that are linked to each other by interglycosidic linkages. The monosaccharides units can be any 5-9 carbon atom sugars that are aldoses (e.g. D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose, D-ribose, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, etc.), ketoses (e.g. D-fructose, D-sorbose, D-tagatose, etc.), deoxysugars (e.g. L-rhamnose, L-fucose, etc.), deoxy-aminosugars (e.g. N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmannosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, etc.), uronic acids, ketoaldonic acids (e.g. sialic acid) or equivalents. The glycoconjugate has an oligosaccharide part covalently attached to a non-sugar moiety (aglycon) by either a covalent bond, which is a linkage between any atom of the oligosaccharide residue and any atom of the non-sugar moiety, or by a linker, which consists of one, two, three or four atoms such as -O-, -C-, -NH-, -N(OH)-, -S-, -C(=O)-, -C(=S)-, -C(=NH)-, -C(=N-OH)-, -C(=O)-O-, -O-C(=O)-, -C(=O)-S-, -S-C(=O)-, -C(=S)-O-, -O-C(=S)-, -C(=S)-S-, -S-C(=S)-, -C(=O)-NH-, -NH-C(=O)-, - C(=NH)-O-, -O-C(=NH)-, -C(=S)-NH-, -NH-C(=S)-, -C(=NH)-S- and -S-C(=NH).. Preferably, the C-1 (in case of aldoses) or C-2 (in the case of ketoses) anomeric carbon atom of the reducing end of the oligosaccharide residue is linked to the non-sugar moiety by a covalent bond or a linker, thus forming O-, N-, S- or C-glycosides. Similarly, an "exogenous acceptor having a mono- or disaccharide part covalently attached to a non-sugar moiety" means that the mono- or disaccharide moiety is linked to the non-sugar moiety (aglycon) by either a covalent bond or by a linker in the above defined manner. The monosaccharide residue or the monosaccharide units of the disaccharide moiety can be those defined above.

[0021] Also in this disclosure, a "glycoconjugate having an oligosaccharide part covalently attached to a polyethylene glycol" preferably means an oligosaccharide as defined above that is linked to the polyethylene glycol by a covalent bond as defined above. The polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a water soluble polyether of molecular formula C2nH4n+2On+1, having oxyethylene (-CH2-O-CH2- or CH2-CH2-O-) repeating units and wherein n is 2 to 100, preferably 2 to 50, particularly 2 to 25, more particularly 2 to 10. Lower molecular weight PEGs are available in a purified form and are referred to as a "monodisperse PEG", and are also available as mixtures of PEGs and are referred to as a "polydisperse PEG". With regard to their geometry, PEGs can be in a linear, branched, star or comb configuration. Linear PEGs are preferably lower molecular weight PEGs (i.e., n is 2 to 10, preferably 3 to 6). Branched PEGs preferably have 3 to 10 linear, preferably lower molecular weight, PEG chains emanating from a central core group. Star PEGs preferably have 10 to 100 linear or branched, preferably lower molecular weight, PEG chains emanating from a central core group. Comb PEGs have multiple linear, branched and/or star, preferably lower molecular weight, PEG chains bonded to a polymer backbone. Terminal primary hydroxy group of PEGs can be bonded by an ether bond with an alkyl group, preferably methyl. In addition, their terminal hydroxy group can be replaced by amino, alkyl amino, dialkyl amino, acylamino, thiol or alkyl thio groups or their terminal hydroxymethyl group can be oxidized to a carboxyl, which can be esterified or be present in amide form with ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. PEGs can be attached to a saccharide unit at another one of its terminal ends. The attachment is preferably a glycosidic-like bond. Similarly, an "exogenous acceptor having a mono- or disaccharide part covalently attached to a PEG" means a mono- or disaccharide as defined above that is linked to a PEG by a covalent bond as defined above. Preferred PEGs are linear and of 2-10 repeating units.

[0022] Preferably, in the above defined glycoconjugates and mono- or disaccharide derivatives the non-sugar (or non-carbohydrate) moiety is directly attached to the anomeric carbon atom.

[0023] Also herein, the term "human milk oligosaccharides" means tri- and higher oligosaccharides found in human milk (see Urashima et al.: Milk oligosaccharides Nova Medical Books, NY, 2011).

[0024] Also herein, a "genetically modified cell" preferably means a microorganism in which at least one alteration in its DNA sequence has been introduced into its genome in order that it has a particular phenotype. The alteration can result in a change in the original characteristics of the wild type cell, e.g., the modified cell is able to perform additional chemical transformation due to the introduced new genetic material that encodes the expression of an enzymes not being in the wild type cell, or is not able to carry out transformation like degradation due to removal of gene/genes (knockout). A genetically modified cell can be produced in a conventional manner by genetic engineering techniques that are well-known to those skilled in the art.

[0025] In accordance with this disclosure, it has been surprisingly discovered that mono- and disaccharide conjugates, namely mono- and disaccharides covalently attached to polyethylene glycol, preferably mono- and disaccharide conjugates containing a galactose residue, more preferably lactose conjugates can be internalized by a transport mechanism involving permeases, allowing thus this carbohydrate precursors to be glycosylated in a genetically modified cell able to act so.

[0026] Also in accordance with this disclosure, a glycoconjugate having an oligosaccharide part covalently linked to a non-sugar moiety, which is polyethylene glycol, can be produced using a genetically modified cell, the method comprises:
  1. (i) providing a genetically modified cell comprising one or more recombinant genes encoding one or more glycosyl transferase enzymes that are able to transfer the glycosyl residue of activated glycosyl nucleotides to an internalized acceptor molecule,
  2. (ii) culturing the genetically modified cell in the presence of an exogenous acceptor having a mono- or disaccharide part covalently attached to a non-sugar moiety, which non-sugar moiety is polyethylene glycol, inducing
    1. (a) internalization of the exogenous acceptor molecule by the genetically modified cell, and
    2. (b) formation of the glycoconjugate of interest from the internalized acceptor molecule or glycosylated derivative thereof by one or more glycosyl transfers mediated by the one or more glycosyl transferase enzymes, and
  3. (iii) collecting the glycoconjugate from the fermentation broth.


[0027] The genetically modified cell used in the method according to the present disclosure can be selected from the group of bacteria and yeasts, preferably the genetically modified cell stems from a bacterium. Bacteria suitable for genetic modification preferably are selected from the group comprising Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp. (e.g. Bacillus subtilis), Campylobacter pylori, Helicobacter pylori, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Staphylococcus aureus, Thermophilus aquaticus, Azorhizobium caulinodans, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitis, Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Sporolactobacillus spp., Micromomospora spp., Micrococcus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Pseudomonas, among which E. coli is of preferable choice. The genetically modified cell used in connection to the present invention preferably lacks of enzyme activity directed to degrade the acceptor molecule, glycosylated derivative thereof and the glycoconjugate of interest as product of the method.

[0028] The genetically modified cell used in the method according to the present invention comprises one or more endogenous or recombinant genes encoding one or more glycosyl transferase enzymes that are able to transfer the glycosyl residue of an activated sugar nucleotide to an internalized acceptor molecule. The gene or an equivalent DNA sequence thereof, if it is recombinant, is introduced into the cell by known techniques, using an expression vector. The origin of the heterologous nucleic acid sequence can be any animal (including human) or plant, eukaryotic cells such as those from Saccharomyces cerevisae, Saccharomyces pombe, Candida albicans and the like, prokaryotic cells such as those originated from E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Campylobacter pylori, Helicobacter pylori, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Staphylococcus aureus, Thermophilus aquaticus, Azorhizobium caulinodans, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium meliloti, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitis, or virus. The glycosyl transferase enzyme/enzymes expressed by the protein(s) encoded by the gene(s) or equivalent DNA sequence(s) are preferably glucosyl transferases, galactosyl transferases, N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases, N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferases, glucuronosyl transferases, xylosyl transferases, mannosyl transferases, fucosyl transferases, sialyl transferases and the like. In a preferred embodiment, the glycosyl transferases are selected from the group consisting of β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase, β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase, β-1,3-galactosyl-transferase, β-1,4-galactosyl-transferase, β-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase, β-1,3-glucuronosyl-transferase, α-2,3-sialyl-transferase, α-2,6-sialyl-transferase, α-2,8-sialyl-transferase, α-1,2-fucosyl-transferase, α-1,3-fucosyl-transferase and α-1,4-fucosyl-transferase. More preferably, the glycosyl transferases are selected from β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase, β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase, β-1,3-galactosyl transferase, β-1,4-galactosyl transferase, α-2,3-sialyl transferase, α-2,6-sialyl transferase, α-1,2-fucosyl transferase, α-1,3-fucosyl transferase and α-1,4 fucosyl transferase' that is from those involved in the construction of HMO core structures as well as fucosylated and/or sialylated HMOs that are linked to a non-sugar moiety, which non-sugar moiety is polyethylene glycol, α. The genes encoding the above-mentioned transferases have been described in the literature.

[0029] In glycosyl transferase mediated glycosylation reactions activated sugar nucleotides serve as donors. The activated sugar nucleotides generally comprising a phosphorylated glycosyl residue attached to a nucleoside, the specific glycosyl transferase enzyme accept only the specific sugar nucleotide. Thus, preferably the following activated sugar nucleotides involved in the glycosyl transfer: UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal, UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GalNAc, UDP-glucuronic acid, UDP-Xyl, GDP-Man, GDP-Fuc and CMP-sialic acid, particularly those selected from the group consisting of UDP-Gal, UDP-GlcNAc, GDP-Fuc and CMP-sialic acid.

[0030] In one embodiment of the method, the genetically modified cell used in the method according to the present invention has one or more sets of genes encoding one or more enzymes responsible for the synthesis of one or more activated glycosyl nucleotide mentioned above by a de novo pathway. The sets of genes are either naturally present in the cell or introduced into the cell by means of gene technology or recombinant DNA techniques, all of them are parts of the general knowledge of the skilled person. Also in this embodiment, the genetically modified cell having one or more sets of genes encoding one or more enzymes responsible for the synthesis of one or more activated glycosyl nucleotide by a de novo pathway produces one or more activated glycosyl nucleotide, ready for glycosylation in glycosyl transferase mediated reaction in the cell, when cultured. The production of the activated glycosyl nucleotides by the cell takes place under the action of enzymes involved in the de novo biosynthetic pathway of that respective sugar nucleotide stepwise reaction sequence starting from a simple carbon source like glycerol, fructose or glucose (for a review for monosaccharide metabolism see e.g. H. H. Freeze and A. D. Elbein: Chapter 4: Glycosylation precursors, in: Essentials of Glycobiology, 2nd edition (Eds. A. Varki et al.), Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press (2009)).

[0031] According to the preferred embodiment disclosed above, the genetically modified cell is cultured in the presence of a carbon-based substrate such as glycerol, glucose, glycogen, fructose, maltose, starch, cellulose, pectin, chitin, etc. Preferably, the cell culturing is performed on glycerol and/or glucose and/or fructose.

[0032] In another embodiment, the genetically modified cell can utilize salvaged monosaccharide for producing activated sugar nucleotide. In the salvage pathway, monosaccharides derived from degraded oligosaccharides phosphorylated by kinases, and converted to nucleotide sugars by pyrophosphorylases. The enzymes involved in the procedure can be heterologous ones, or native ones of the cell used for genetic modification. Preferably, the synthesis of UDP-arabinose, GDP-fucose or CMP-sialic acid can be accomplished using the salvage pathway when exogenous arabinose, fucose or sialic acid is also added to the culture.

[0033] It should be emphasized, that whatever way, either the de novo, or the salvage pathway taken for producing activated sugar nucleotides by the genetically modified cell is advantageous compared to in vitro versions of transfer glycosylation, as it avoids using the very expensive sugar nucleotide type donors added exogenously, hence the donors are formed by the cell in situ and the phosphatidyl nucleoside leaving groups are recycled in the cell.

[0034] The method of this invention is also based on the way transporting an exogenous acceptor molecule into the genetically modified cell for glycosylation thus producing glycoconjugates of interest. The internalization cannot affect the basic and vital functions or destroy the integrity of the cell. In one embodiment the internalization takes place via a passive transport mechanism during which the exogenous acceptor molecule diffuses passively across the plasma membrane of the cell. The flow is directed by the concentration difference in the extra- and intracellular space with respect to the acceptor molecule to be internalized, which acceptor is supposed to pass from the place of higher concentration to the zone of lower concentration tending towards an equilibrium. In other embodiment the exogenous precursor is internalized with the aid of an active transport. In this case the genetically modified cell used in the method claimed comprises transporter proteins, called permeases, with which the cell is able to admit exogenous substances and to concentrate them in the cytoplasm. Permeases act as enzymes, mention should be made of lactose permease (LacY) and sucrose permease (CscB). LacY has specificity towards galactose and simple galactosyl disaccharides, CscB is supposed to transport fructose and fructosyl disaccharides (see e.g. J. Sugihara et al. Biochem. 50, 11009 (2011)). The specificity towards the sugar moiety of the substrate to be internalized can be altered by mutation by means of known recombinant DNA techniques. In a preferred embodiment the internalization of the exogenous lactose derivative acceptor takes place via an active transport mechanism mediated by lactose permease.

[0035] During fermentation the exogenous substrate is internalized to and accumulated in the cell. The internalized substrate, acting as acceptor, participates in a glycosyl transferase induced glycosylation reaction, in which a glycosyl residue of an activated nucleotide donor is transferred so that the acceptor is glycosylated. Optionally, when more than one glycosyl transferase is expressed by the cell, additional glycosylation reactions can occur resulting in the formation of the target glycoconjugate. Thus the expression "formation of the glycoconjugate of interest from the glycosylated derivative of the internalized acceptor molecule" in describing the method refers to the case when at least two, identical or different monosaccharide units are transferred to the acceptor added exogenously and internalized by an active and/or passive mechanism by the cell, and the so glycosylated acceptor derivative is not yet intended to be the target glycoconjugate of interest, instead it is involved in further glycosylation reaction(s) in order to make the glycoconjugate of interest to be isolated. Of course, the cell preferably lacks any enzyme activity which would degrade the acceptor or the oligosaccharide derivatives produced in the cell.

[0036] At the end of incubation the glycoconjugate of interest as product of the method can be accumulated both in the intra- and the extracellular matrix. The product can be transported to the supernatant in a passive way, that is it diffuses outside across the cell membrane. The transport can be facilitated by sugar efflux transporters, proteins that promote the effluence of sugar derivatives from the cell to the supernatant. The sugar efflux transporter can be present exogenously or endogenously and is overexpressed under the conditions of the fermentation to enhance the export of the oligosaccharide derivative produced. The specificity towards the sugar moiety of the product to be secreted can be altered by mutation by means of known recombinant DNA techniques.

[0037] According to a preferred embodiment, the method also comprises the addition of an inducer to the culture medium. The role of the inducer is to promote the expression of enzymes involved in the de novo or salvage pathway and/or of permeases involved in the active transport and/or of sugar efflux transporters of the cell. Preferably, the inducer is isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG).

[0038] In step (iii) of the method according to the present invention the glycoconjugate of interest is collected from the fermentation broth. According to a general manipulation, the supernatant containing the glycoconjugate of interest is separated from the cells by centrifugation. The separated cells are resuspended in water and subjected to heat and/or acid treatment in order to be permeabilized for releasing the glycoconjugates of interest piled up intracellularly. The product is separated from the treated cell by centrifugation. The two supernatants containing the extra- and intracellular products, respectively, are combined and the products are purified and isolated by means of standard separation, purification and isolation techniques like gel and/or cationic ion exchange resin (H+ form) chromatography. Preferably, the oligosaccharide derivative is collected only from the supernatant.

[0039] When carrying out a fermentation, a genetically modified cell, particularly a Lac Z-Y+ E. coli cell, is preferably cultured in the following way:
  1. (a) a first phase of exponential cell growth ensured by a carbon-based substrate, and
  2. (b) a second phase of cell growth limited by a carbon-based substrate which is added continuously.


[0040] Preferably, said carbon-based substrate is selected from the group consisting of glycerol and glucose. More preferably, the carbon-based substrate added during the second phase glycerol.

[0041] Also preferably, said culturing is performed under conditions allowing the production of a culture with a high cell density.

[0042] Also preferably, said culturing further comprises a third phase of slowed cell growth obtained by continuously adding to the culture an amount of said carbon-based substrate that is less than the amount of the carbon-based substrate added in said second phase so as to increase the content of the product produced in the high cell density culture.

[0043] Also preferably, the amount of the carbon-based substrate added continuously to the cell culture during said third phase is at least 30% less than the amount of the carbon-based substrate added continuously during said second phase.

[0044] Also preferably, the method further comprises the addition of an inducer to said culture medium to induce the expression in said cell of said enzyme and/or of a protein involved in said transport. The inducer is preferably isopropyl β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) and the protein is lactose permease.

[0045] The exogenous acceptor having a mono- or disaccharide part covalently attached to a non-sugar moiety, which non-sugar moiety is polyethylene glycol, to be internalized by and glycosylated in the fermented cell can be added to the culture medium at once or continuously. The pure acceptor as solid/liquid or a concentrated aqueous solution of the acceptor can be added at once at the end of the first phase of exponential cell growth, then the fermentation is continued by addition of the carbon-based substrate as described above. Alternatively, the continuous addition is beneficial when higher amount exogenous acceptor is intended to be used at a given volume. To avoid overflow metabolism and other side processes during the fermentation, the exogenous acceptor is dissolved in the feeding solution to be added during the second (and optionally the third) phase, therefore a continuous addition of the acceptor (with the carbon-based substrate) is realized.

[0046] The most preferred way to carry out the fifth particular embodiment of the invention comprises:
  1. (i) providing a genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype comprising
    a recombinant gene encoding an α-1,2-fucosyl transferase, and
    a set of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of GDP-fucose by a de novo pathway,
  2. (ii) culturing the genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype in the presence of an exogenous C6-C20, preferably a C6-C14, more preferably a C6-C10-alkyl O-glycoside of lactose, inducing
    1. (a) internalization of the exogenous C6-C20, preferably a C6-C14, more preferably a C6-C10-alkyl O-glycoside of lactose via an active transport mechanism by a lactose permease of the genetically modified cell,
    2. (b) formation of GDP-fucose by a de novo pathway, and
    3. (c) formation of a glycoconjugate from the internalized C6-C20, preferably a C6-C14, more preferably a C6-C10-alkyl O-glycoside of lactose by a fucosyl transfer mediated by the α-1,2-fucosyl transferase,
  3. (iii) collecting the glycoconjugate which is a C6-C20, preferably a C6-C14, more preferably a C6-C10-alkyl O-glycoside of 2'-fucosyllactose, from the culture medium.


[0047] According to a particular embodiment of the disclosure, it is provided a method for producing a glycoconjugate of interest having an oligosaccharide part covalently linked to polyethylene glycol using a genetically modified cell, the method comprises:
  1. (i) providing a genetically modified cell comprising a gene, preferably a recombinant gene encoding a glycosyl transferase enzyme that is able to transfer the glycosyl residue of an activated sugar nucleotide to an internalized acceptor molecule,
  2. (ii) culturing the genetically modified cell in the presence of an exogenous acceptor having a mono- or disaccharide part covalently linked to polyethylene glycol inducing
    1. (a) internalization of the exogenous acceptor molecule via an active and/or passive transport mechanism by the genetically modified cell, and
    2. (b) formation of the glycoconjugate from the internalized acceptor molecule by a glycosyl transfer mediated by the glycosyl transferase enzyme expressed by the cell,
  3. (iii) collecting the glycoconjugate from the culture medium.


[0048] The genetically modified cell can comprise more than one gene, preferably more than one recombinant gene, encoding more than one glycosyl transferase enzyme that are able to transfer the glycosyl residue of the activated sugar nucleotides to the internalized acceptor molecule or glycosylated derivative thereof, and the glycoconjugate is formed from the internalized acceptor by multiple glycosyl transfer mediated by multiple glycosyl transferases expressed by the cell.

[0049] In a more preferred embodiment the exogenous acceptor is a mono- or disaccharide part covalently linked to polyethylene glycol as defined above, and the glycoconjugate of interest is of an oligosaccharide part covalently linked to polyethylene glycol as defined above.

[0050] Also preferably the method comprises:
  1. (i) providing a genetically modified cell comprising
    a gene, preferably a recombinant gene encoding a glycosyl transferase enzyme that is able to transfer the glycosyl residue of an activated sugar nucleotide to an internalized acceptor molecule, and
    a set of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the activated sugar nucleotide by a de novo pathway,
  2. (ii) culturing the genetically modified cell in the presence of an exogenous acceptor that is a mono- or disaccharide part covalently linked to polyethylene glycol inducing
    1. (a) internalization of the exogenous acceptor molecule via an active and/or passive transport mechanism by the genetically modified cell,
    2. (b) formation of the activated sugar nucleotide by a de novo pathway, and
    3. (c) formation of the glycoconjugate from the internalized acceptor molecule by a glycosyl transfers mediated by the glycosyl transferase enzyme,
  3. (iii) collecting the glycoconjugate from the culture medium.


[0051] The genetically modified cell can comprise more than one gene, preferably more than one recombinant gene, encoding more than one glycosyl transferase enzyme that are able to transfer the glycosyl residue of the activated sugar nucleotides to the internalized acceptor molecule or glycosylated derivative thereof, as well as it can comprise more than one set of genes encoding set of enzymes responsible for the synthesis of more than one activated sugar nucleotide by a de novo pathway, and the glycoconjugate is formed from the internalized acceptor by multiple glycosyl transfer mediated by multiple glycosyl transferases expressed by the cell.

[0052] In a more preferred realization the genetically modified cell lacks enzymes able to degrade the internalized acceptor molecule or glycosylated derivative thereof.

[0053] Also more preferably, the mono- or disaccharide part of the exogenous acceptor molecule is selected from galactose, glucose, N-acetyl-glucosamine and lactose, more preferably lactose. In this regard, a preferred exogenous acceptor can be characterized by formula 7

wherein n is an integer from 1 to 10, preferably from 2 to 6.

[0054] According to an even more preferable way the genetically modified cell is E. coli of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype, the exogenous acceptor is a compound of formula 7, the glycosyl transferase is at least one fucosyl-transferase and/or at least one sialyl-transferase and/or at least one N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase, and/or at least one galactosyl-transferase and the glycoconjugate produced by the method is a fucosylated and/or sialylated and/or N-acetylglucosaminylated and/or galactosylated compound of formula 7, preferably polyethylene glycol O-glycoside of a human milk oligosaccharide of formula 7a

wherein Y is a human milk oligosaccharide glycosyl residue, and

n is as defined above.



[0055] Accordingly, the method even more preferably comprises:
  1. (i) providing a genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype comprising
    a gene, preferably a recombinant gene encoding a fucosyl transferase enzyme that is able to transfer the fucosyl residue of an activated fucose nucleotide to an internalized acceptor molecule, and
    a set of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the activated fucose nucleotide, preferably GDP-fucose, by a de novo pathway,
  2. (ii) culturing the genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype in the presence of an exogenous lactose derivative of formula 7, inducing
    1. (a) internalization of the exogenous lactose derivative of formula 7 via an active transport mechanism by a lactose permease of the genetically modified cell,
    2. (b) formation of an activated fucose nucleotide, preferably GDP-fucose, by a de novo pathway, and
    3. (c) formation of a glycoconjugate from the internalized lactose derivative of formula 7 by a fucosyl transfer mediated by the fucosyl transferase enzyme,
  3. (iii) collecting a fucosylated lactose derivative of formula 7, particularly a corresponding polyethylene glycol O-glycoside of 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose or difucosyllactose, from the culture medium.


[0056] Yet even more preferably, the method comprises:
  1. (i) providing a genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype comprising
    a gene, preferably a recombinant gene encoding a sialyl transferase enzyme that is able to transfer the sialyl residue of an activated sialic acid nucleotide to an internalized acceptor molecule, and
    a set of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the activated sialic acid nucleotide, preferably CMP-sialic acid, by a de novo pathway,
  2. (ii) culturing the genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype in the presence of an exogenous lactose derivative of formula 7, inducing
    1. (a) internalization of the exogenous lactose derivative of formula 7 via an active transport mechanism by a lactose permease of the genetically modified cell,
    2. (b) formation of an activated sialic acid nucleotide, preferably CMP-sialic acid, by a de novo pathway, and
    3. (c) formation of a glycoconjugate from the internalized lactose derivative of formula 7 by a sialyl transfer mediated by the sialyl transferase enzyme,
  3. (iii) collecting the sialylated lactose derivative of formula 7, particularly a corresponding polyethylene glycol O-glycoside of 3'-sialyllactose or 6'-sialyllactose, from the culture medium.


[0057] Yet even more preferably, the method comprises:
  1. (i) providing a genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype comprising
    a gene, preferably a recombinant gene encoding a sialyl transferase enzyme that is able to transfer the sialyl residue of an activated sialic acid nucleotide to an internalized acceptor molecule,
    a gene, preferably a recombinant gene encoding a fucosyl transferase enzyme that is able to transfer the sialyl residue of an activated sialic acid nucleotide to an internalized acceptor molecule,
    a set of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the activated sialic acid nucleotide, preferably CMP-sialic acid, by a de novo pathway, and
    a set of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of said activated fucose nucleotide, preferably GDP-fucose, by a de novo pathway,
  2. (ii) culturing the genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype in the presence of an exogenous lactose derivative of formula 7, inducing
    1. (a) internalization of the exogenous lactose derivative of formula 7 via an active transport mechanism by a lactose permease of the genetically modified cell,
    2. (b) formation of an activated sialic acid nucleotide, preferably CMP-sialic acid, by a de novo pathway,
    3. (c) formation of an activated fucose nucleotide, preferably GDP-fucose, by a de novo pathway, and
    4. (d) formation of a glycoconjugate from the internalized lactose derivative of formula 7 by a sialyl transfer mediated by the sialyl transferase enzyme, and by a fucosyl transfer mediated by the fucosyl transferase enzyme,
  3. (iii) collecting the sialylated and fucosylated lactose derivative of formula 7, particularly the corresponding polyethylene glycol O-glycoside of 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose, from the culture medium.


[0058] Yet even more preferably, the method comprises:
  1. (i) providing a genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype comprising
    a gene, preferably a recombinant gene encoding a N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase enzyme that is able to transfer the N-acetylglucosaminyl residue of an activated GlcNAc nucleotide to an internalized acceptor molecule,
    optionally a gene, preferably a recombinant gene encoding a galactosyl transferase enzyme that is able to transfer the galactosyl residue of an activated Gal nucleotide to an internalized acceptor molecule,
    a set of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the activated GlcNAc nucleotide, preferably UDP-GlcNAc, by a de novo pathway, and
    optionally a set of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the activated Gal nucleotide UDP-Gal, by a de novo pathway,
  2. (ii) culturing the genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype in the presence of an exogenous lactose derivative of formula 7, inducing
    1. (a) internalization of the exogenous lactose derivative of formula 7 via an active transport mechanism by a lactose permease of the genetically modified cell,
    2. (b) formation of an activated GlcNAc nucleotide, preferably UDP-GlcNAc, by a de novo pathway,
    3. (c) optional formation of an activated Gal nucleotide, preferably UDP-Gal, by a de novo pathway, and
    4. (d) formation of a glycoconjugate from the internalized lactose derivative of formula 7 by a N-acetylglucosaminyl transfer mediated by the N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase enzyme optionally followed by a galactosyl transfers mediated by the galactosyl transferase enzyme,
  3. (iii) collecting the N-acetylglucosaminylated lactose derivative of formula 7 optionally substituted by galactose, particularly the corresponding polyethylene glycol O-glycoside of 3'-N-acetylglucosaminyl lactose, LNT or LNnT, from the culture medium.


[0059] The most preferred way to carry out the method
comprises:
  1. (i) providing a genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype comprising
    a recombinant gene encoding an α-1,2-fucosyl transferase, and
    a set of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of GDP-fucose by a de novo pathway,
  2. (ii) culturing the genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype in the presence of an exogenous lactose derivative of formula 7, inducing
    1. (a) internalization of the exogenous lactose derivative of formula 7 via an active transport mechanism by a lactose permease of the genetically modified cell,
    2. (b) formation of GDP-fucose by a de novo pathway, and
    3. (c) formation of a glycoconjugate from the lactose derivative of formula 7 by a fucosyl transfer mediated by the α-1,2-fucosyl transferase,
  3. (iii) collecting the corresponding polyethylene glycol O-glycoside of 2'-fucosyllactose, from the culture medium.


[0060] The present disclosure also relates to providing glycoconjugates having an oligosaccharide part covalently linked to a polyethylene glycols, Preferably, the oligosaccharide moiety comprises monosaccharide units selected from the group consisting of glucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, fucose and sialic acid. Even more preferably, the oligosaccharide residue is a lactose moiety substituted by fucose and/or N-acetylglucosamine and/or galactose and/or sialic acid. Accordingly, the oligosaccharide moiety of the above defined glycoconjugates are characterized by formula 1

wherein R1 is fucosyl or H,

R2 is fucosyl or H,

R3 is selected from H, sialyl, N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and lacto-N-biosyl groups, wherein the N-acetyl lactosaminyl group may carry a glycosyl residue comprising one or more N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and/or one or more lacto-N-biosyl groups; each of the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and lacto-N-biosyl groups can be substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue, R4 is selected from H, sialyl and N-acetyl-lactosaminyl groups optionally substituted with a glycosyl residue comprising one or more N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and/or one or more lacto-N-biosyl groups; each of the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and lacto-N-biosyl groups can be substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue, and

provided that at least one of the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups is different from H, obtainable by culturing, as disclosed above, lactose covalently linked to polyethylene glycol,



[0061] Preferably, the moiety of formula 1 can be characterized by formula 1a, 1b or 1c





wherein R1 and R2 are as defined above,

R3a is an N-acetyl-lactosaminyl group optionally substituted with a glycosyl residue comprising one N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and/or one lacto-N-biosyl group; each of the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and lacto-N-biosyl groups can be substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue,

R4a is H or an N-acetyl-lactosaminyl group optionally substituted with a lacto-N-biosyl group; each of the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and lacto-N-biosyl groups can be substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue,

R3b is a lacto-N-biosyl group optionally substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue(s),

R4b is H or an N-acetyl-lactosaminyl group optionally substituted with one or two N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and/or one lacto-N-biosyl groups; each of the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and lacto-N-biosyl groups can be substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residues,

R5 is, independently, H or sialyl,

and wherein at least one of R1, R2 or R5 is not H.



[0062] More preferably, the moieties according to formulae 1a or 1b are characterized in that:

the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl group in the glycosyl residue of R3a is attached to another N-acetyl-lactosaminyl group with a 1-3 interglycosidic linkage,

the lacto-N-biosyl group in the glycosyl residue of R3a is attached to the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl group with a 1-3 interglycosidic linkage,

the lacto-N-biosyl group in the glycosyl residue of R4a is attached to the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl group with a 1-3 interglycosidic linkage,

the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl group in the glycosyl residue of R4b is attached to another N-acetyl-lactosaminyl group with a 1-3 or a 1-6 interglycosidic linkage,

the lacto-N-biosyl group in the glycosyl residue of R4b is attached to the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl group with a 1-3 interglycosidic linkage.



[0063] More preferably, the moieties according to formulae 1a, 1b and 1c are human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) glycosyl groups.

[0064] Also more preferably, the moiety of formula 1a is a glycosyl residue of lacto-N-neotetraose, para-lacto-N-hexaose, para-lacto-N-neohexaose, lacto-N-neohexaose, para-lacto-N-octaose or lacto-N-neooctaose optionally substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue, and the moiety of formula 1b is a glycosyl residue of lacto-N-tetraose, lacto-N-hexaose, lacto-N-octaose, iso-lacto-N-octaose, lacto-N-decaose or lacto-N-neodecaose optionally substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue.

[0065] Preferably, the moieties of formula 1a or 1b are characterized in that:
  • the fucosyl residue attached to the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and/or the lacto-N-biosyl group is linked to

    ∘ the galactose of the lacto-N-biosyl group with 1-2 interglycosidic linkage and/or

    ∘ the N-acetyl-glucosamine of the lacto-N-biosyl group with 1-4 interglycosidic linkage and/or

    ∘ the N-acetyl-glucosamine of the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl group with 1-3 interglycosidic linkage,

  • the sialyl residue attached to the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and/or the lacto-N-biosyl group is linked to

    ∘ the galactose of the lacto-N-biosyl group with 2-3 interglycosidic linkage and/or

    ∘ the N-acetyl-glucosamine of the lacto-N-biosyl group with 2-6 interglycosidic linkage and/or

    ∘ the galactose of the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl group with 2-6 interglycosidic linkage.



[0066] According to a further preferred aspect, the moieties according to subformulae 1a, 1b or 1c may be selected from the group of: a glycosyl residue of 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, 2',3-difucosyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose, lacto-N-neotetraose, LNFP-I, LNFP-II, LNFP-III, LNFP-V, LST-a, LST-b, LST-c, FLST-a, FLST-b, FLST-c, LNDFH-I, LNDFH-II, LNDFH-III, DS-LNT, FDS-LNT I and FDS-LNT II, or salts thereof. The glycosides may be alpha or beta-anomers, but preferably beta-anomers. Especially is preferred a residue of formula 1d

wherein R1 is fucosyl or H, and R2 is fucosyl or H, provided that at least one of the R1 and R2 groups is fucosyl.

[0067] According to preferred realization of the invention, the glycoconjugate obtainable by the method is an oligosaccharide covalently linked to a polyethylene glycol as described above. Preferably, the glycoconjugate covalently linked to a polyethylene glycol, obtainable by the particular method discloses herein, is characterized by formula 6

wherein X is the moiety of formula 1 as defined above, and

n is an integer from 1 to 10, preferably 2 to 6,

by culturing, as disclosed in the particular method, a lactose derivative of formula 7

wherein n is as defined above.



[0068] Preferably, in a compound of formula 6 moiety X is a group of formula 1a, 1b or 1c as defined above, thus to form a compound of formula 6a, 6b or 6c, respectively,





wherein R1, R2, R3a, R3b, R4a, R4b, R5 and n are as defined above.

[0069] More preferably, the compounds according to formulae 6a, 6b and 6c are human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) glycosyl groups.

[0070] Also more preferably, the compound of formula 6a has a glycosyl residue of lacto-N-neotetraose, para-lacto-N-hexaose, para-lacto-N-neohexaose, lacto-N-neohexaose, para-lacto-N-octaose or lacto-N-neooctaose optionally substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue, and the compound of formula 6b has a glycosyl residue of lacto-N-tetraose, lacto-N-hexaose, lacto-N-octaose, iso-lacto-N-octaose, lacto-N-decaose or lacto-N-neodecaose optionally substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue. Even more preferably, the glycosyl residue of compounds according to subformulae 6a, 6b or 6c may be selected from the group of: a glycosyl residue of 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, 2',3-difucosyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose, lacto-N-neotetraose, LNFP-I, LNFP-II, LNFP-III, LNFP-V, LST-a, LST-b, LST-c, FLST-a, FLST-b, FLST-c, LNDFH-I, LNDFH-II, LNDFH-III, DS-LNT, FDS-LNT I and FDS-LNT II, more preferably from the group of a glycosyl residue of 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, 2',3-difucosyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-neotetraose, or salts thereof. The glycosides may be alpha or beta-anomers, but preferably beta-anomers. Especially is preferred a compound of formula 6d

wherein R1 is fucosyl or H, R2 is fucosyl or H, and n is 2-6, provided that at least one of the R1 and R2 groups is fucosyl.




EXAMPLES


Example 1 - Tetraethylene glycol 2,3,6,2',3',4',6'-hepta-O-acetyl-β-lactoside:



[0071] 
  1. A) To a solution of 2,3,6,2',3',4',6'-hepta-O-acetyl-α-lactosyl bromide (15.0 g) and tetraethylene glycol (13.23 ml) in CH2Cl2 (200 ml) Ag2CO3 (5.90 g) was added at 0 °C under N2. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt overnight then filtered through a pad of celite, the filtrate was washed with water and brine, dried and evaporated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel to afford the title compound (12.66 g, 72.5 %) as a white foam. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 5.31 (d, J = 3.4 Hz, 1H), 5.17 (t, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J = 7.8, 10.4 Hz, 1H), 4.94-4.83 (m, 2H), 4.56 (d, J = 7.9, 1H), 4.48-4.44 (m, 2H), 4.14-4.01 (m, 3H), 3.91-3.82 (m, 2H), 3.80-3.73 (m, 1H), 3.72-3.66 (m, 3H), 3.65-3.57 (m, 14H), 2.12 (s, 3H), 2.09 (s, 3H), 2.03 (s, 3H), 2.02 (s, 3H), 2.01 (s, 3-H), 2.01 (s, 3H), 1.94 (s, 3H).
  2. B) To a solution of lactose peracetate (67.8 g) and tetraethylene glycol (69 ml) in CH2Cl2 (500 ml) BF3·OEt2 (64 ml) was added dropwise at 0 °C under Ar. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt overnight. The mixture was neutralised with triethyl amine, diluted with CH2Cl2, washed with saturated NaHCO3 solution and brine, dried and evaporated. The residue was chromatographed in silica gel to give the title compound (50 g, 62 %).

Example 2 - Tetraethylene glycol β-lactoside



[0072] To a solution of tetraethylene glycol 2,3,6,2',3',4',6'-hepta-O-acetyl-β-lactoside (12.66 g) in MeOH (60 ml) MeONa (25% in MeOH, 0.355 ml) was added at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 3 h then neutralized with acidic resin, filtered and concentrated to afford the title compound (7.88 g, 97.5 %) as a white foam. 1H NMR (300 MHz, MeOD) δ 4.36 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 4.35 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 4.00 (ddd, J = 2.9, 4.9, 9.6 Hz, 1H), 3.87 (dd, J = 3.3, 9.5 Hz, 1H), 3.82-3.81 (m, 1H), 3.78 (t, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 3.75 - 3.74 (m, 1H), 3.72 - 3.68 (m, 4H), 3.67 -3.64 (m, 10H), 3.61-3.55 (m, 5H), 3.53-3.50 (m, 2H), 3.44-3.89 (m, 1H), 3.30-3.24 (m, 1H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, MeOD) δ 105.0, 104.3, 80.5, 77.0, 76.4, 76.2, 74.8, 74.7, 73.6, 72.5, 71.5, 71.4, 71.4, 71.4, 71.3, 70.3, 69.7, 62.5, 62.2, 61.9.

Example 3 - Tetraethylene glycol β-glycoside of 2'-FL



[0073] Plasmids and strain, suitable for performing the fermentation, were constructed, and the techniques with regard to cloning were performed in accordance with WO 01/04341 and Drouillard et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Eng. 45, 1778 (2006), where the general culturing conditions have also been described. Engineered E. coli used in this example was constructed from E. coli K12 strain by deleting genes that are liable to degrade the acceptor, the oligosaccharide product and its metabolic intermediates, inter alia the lacZ, lacA and wcaJ genes, maintaining manB, manC, gmd and wcaG genes involved in the GDP-fucose biosynthesis, and inserting H. pylori futC gene for α-1,2-fucosyl transferase.

[0074] The culture was carried out in a 1 l fermenter containing 0.75 l of mineral culture medium (Samain et al. J. Biotechnol. 72, 33 (1999)). The temperature was kept at around 33 °C and the pH regulated at 6.8 with aqueous NH4OH solution. The inoculum (1 % of the volume of the basal medium) consisted in a LB medium and the culture of the producing strain. The exponential growth phase started with the inoculation and stopped until exhaustion of the carbon source (glucose 17.5 g/l) initially added to the medium. Tetraethylene glycol β-lactoside (5.95 g dissolved in 50 ml of water) and the inducer (IPTG, 1-2 ml of a 50 mg/ml solution) were added at the end of the exponential phase. Then a fed-batch was realized, using a 500 g/l aqueous glycerol solution, with a high substrate feeding rate of ≈4.5 g/h of glycerol for 1 l of culture for 5-6 hours followed by a lower glycerol feeding rate of ≈3 g/h for 1 l culture for 20 hours.

[0075] At the end of the fermentation, the culture was centrifuged for 20-30 min at 6000 rpm at 25 °C. The supernatant was kept. The cells were acidified to pH ≈3 using a H+ form resin or treated in water at 80-100 °C for 20-30 min. This resulted in the precipitation of the proteins. The resin was recovered by decantation and precipitated proteins were removed by centrifugation for 20-30 min at 6000 rpm at 25 °C. The combined supernatants were subjected to standard chromatographic techniques to give the title compound (4.8 g).

[0076] LC-MS (instrument: Bruker microQTof II MS coupled with Dionex Ultimate 3000 UHPLC; ionization: ESI negative, dry temperature: 200 °C; mode: LC-MS, 1:1 split of flow; calibration: with Na-format cluster solution): 663.2744 Da [M-H]-. 1H NMR (300 MHz, D2O) δ 5.29 (brs, 1H, H-1"), 4.48 (ddd, J = 11.7, 7.8, 1.9 Hz, 2H), 4.21 (td, J = 7.5, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.10-3.48 (m, 29H), 3.48-3.40 (m, 1H), 3.33 (ddd, J = 9.5, 7.9, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 1.21 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.9 Hz, 3H, H-6"). 13C NMR (75 MHz, D2O) δ 102.4, 100.4 and 99.5 (C-1, C-1' and C-1"), 76.4, 76.0, 75.4, 75.3, 74.3, 73.7, 73.0, 71.8, 69.8, 69.7, 69.6, 69.5, 69.2, 68.9, 68.3, 67.0, 61.2, 60.4, 60.3, 15.4 (C-6").

Example 4 - Octyl β-glycoside of 2'-FL (Reference Example)



[0077] The culture was carried out as described in Example 3 with the following differences:
  • the starting volume of the mineral culture medium was 0.5 I,
  • the acceptor was octyl β-lactoside (5 g, ref.) which was added as neat material to the medium at the end of the exponential phase,
  • glycerol feeding lasted 93 hours.


[0078] The course of the fermentation was followed by LC-MS. A new compound was detected at 599.2937 Da [M-H]-, corresponding to the title product (for LC-MS conditions see Example 3). The acceptor/product ratio measured is given in the following table:
 20 hours93 hours
supernatant 66/34 34/66
intracellular 48/52 7/93


[0079] The culture was centrifuged for 20-30 min at 6000 rpm at 25 °C. The supernatant was acidified to pH ≈3 using a H+ form resin or treated in water at 80-100 °C for 20-30 min. The resin was recovered by decantation and precipitated proteins were removed by centrifugation for 20-30 min at 6000 rpm at 25 °C. A part of the supernatant was subjected to standard chromatographic techniques to give the title compound, the 1H-NMR spectrum of which was in good agreement with that reported in Meloncelli et al. Aust. J. Chem. 62, 558 (2009).

Example 5 - O-L-serine-β-glycoside of 2'-FL (Reference Example)



[0080] The culture was carried out as described in Example 4 with the following difference:
  • the acceptor was O-β-lactosyl-L-serine (5 g, Rude et al. Carbohydr. Res. 8, 219 (1968)) which was dissolved in water and added to the medium at the end of the exponential phase,
  • glycerol feeding lasted 48 hours.


[0081] The course of the fermentation was followed by LC-MS. A new compound was detected at 574.1916 Da [M-H]-, corresponding to the title product (for LC-MS conditions see Example 3). After 22 hours from its addition practically no acceptor could be detected in the intracellular matrix and the supernatant.

Example 6 - N-acryl-β-N-glycoside of 2'-FL (Reference Example)



[0082] The culture was carried out as described in Example 4 with the following difference:

[0083] The course of the fermentation was followed by LC-MS. A new compound was detected at 540.1933 Da [M-H]-, corresponding to the title product (for LC-MS conditions see Example 3). The acceptor/product ratio measured is given in the following table:
 21 hours94 hours
supernatant 52/48 24/76
intracellular 34/66 22/78



Claims

1. A method for producing a glycoconjugate , the method comprising:

(i) providing a genetically modified E. coli cell of LacZ-, LacY+ genotype comprising a gene encoding a glycosyl transferase enzyme that is able to transfer the glycosyl residue of an activated sugar nucleotide to an internalized acceptor, wherein the glycosyl transferase is a fucosyl transferase, and/or a sialyl transferase, and/or an N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase and/or a galactosyl transferase, and the activated sugar nucleotide is GDP-Fuc, CMP-sialic acid, UDP-GlcNAc or UDP-Gal,

(ii) culturing said genetically modified cell in the presence of an exogenous acceptor which is a compound of formula 7

wherein n is an integer from 2 to 10, inducing

(a) internalization of the exogenous acceptor by the genetically modified cell, and

(b) formation of said glycoconjugate from said internalized acceptor molecule by a glycosyl transfer mediated by said glycosyl transferase enzyme expressed by said cell, and then

(iii) collecting said glycoconjugate from the fermentation broth,
wherein the glycoconjugate produced by the method is a fucosylated and/or sialylated and/or N-acetylglucosaminylated and/or galactosylated compound of formula 7a

wherein n is as defined above and Y is a human milk oligosaccharide glycosyl residue.


 
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein n is an integer from 2 to 6.
 
3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein said genetically modified cell provided in step (i) further comprises a set of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of said activated sugar nucleotide by a de novo pathway, and wherein said culturing step (ii) further induces producing said activated sugar nucleotide by a de novo pathway.
 
4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein said glycosyl transferase enzyme is selected from the group consisting of β-1,3-N-acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase, β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase, β-1,3-galactosyl transferase, β-1,4-galactosyl transferase, α-2,3-sialyl transferase, α-2,6-sialyl transferase, α-1,2-fucosyl transferase, α-1,3-fucosyl transferase and α-1,4-fucosyl transferase.
 
5. The method according to any of claims 1 to 4, wherein the human milk oligosaccharide is 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, difucosyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose or lacto-N-neotetraose.
 
6. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the compound of formula 7a is that of formula 8d

wherein R1 is fucosyl or H, R2 is fucosyl or H, n is an integer from 2 to 10, provided that at least one of the R1 and R2 groups is fucosyl.
 
7. The method according to claim 6, wherein n is an integer from 2 to 6.
 
8. A compound of formula 6

wherein n is an integer from 2 to 10 and

X is the moiety of formula 1

wherein R1 is fucosyl or H,

R2 is fucosyl or H,

R3 is selected from H, sialyl, N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and lacto-N-biosyl groups, wherein the N-acetyl lactosaminyl group may carry a glycosyl residue comprising one or more N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and/or one or more lacto-N-biosyl groups; each of the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and lacto-N-biosyl groups can be substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue,

R4 is selected from H, sialyl and N-acetyl-lactosaminyl groups optionally substituted with a glycosyl residue comprising one or more N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and/or one or more lacto-N-biosyl groups; each of the N-acetyl-lactosaminyl and lacto-N-biosyl groups can be substituted with one or more sialyl and/or fucosyl residue,

provided that at least one of the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups is different from H,

or a salt thereof.


 
9. The compound according to claim 8, wherein n is an integer from 2 to 6.
 
10. The compound according to claim 8 or 9, wherein X is a human milk oligosaccharide glycosyl residue.
 
11. The compound according to claim 10, wherein the human milk oligosaccharide glycosyl residue is that of 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, 2',3-difucosyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose or lacto-N-neotetraose.
 
12. The compound according to claim 8 characterized by formula 6d

wherein R1 is fucosyl or H, R2 is fucosyl or H, n is an integer from 2 to 10, provided that at least one of the R1 and R2 groups is fucosyl.
 
13. The compound according to claim 12, wherein n is an integer from 2 to 6.
 


Ansprüche

1. Ein Verfahren zum Herstellen eines Glycokonjugats, wobei das Verfahren:

(i) das Bereitstellen einer gentechnisch veränderten E. coli-Zelle vom Genotyp LacZ-, LacY+, umfassend ein Gen, das ein Glycosyltransferaseenzym codiert, das fähig ist, den Glycosylrest eines aktivierten Zuckernukleotids auf einen internalisierten Akzeptor zu übertragen, wobei die Glycosyltransferase eine Fucosyltransferase und/oder eine Sialyltransferase und/oder eine N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase und/oder eine Galactosyltransferase ist und das aktivierte Zuckernukleotid GDP-Fuc, CMP-Sialinsäure, UDP-GlcNAc oder UDP-Gal ist,

(ii) das Kultivieren der gentechnisch veränderten Zelle in Gegenwart eines exogenen Akzeptors, der eine Verbindung mit der Formel 7 ist,

wobei n eine ganze Zahl von 2 bis 10 ist, welche

(a) eine Internalisierung des exogenen Akzeptors durch die gentechnisch veränderte Zelle und

(b) eine Bildung des Glycokonjugats aus dem internalisierten Akzeptormolekül durch eine Glycosylübertragung, die durch das Glycosyltransferaseenzym vermittelt wird, das von der Zelle exprimiert wird, auslöst, und dann

(iii) das Auffangen des Glycokonjugats aus der Fermentationsbrühe, umfasst,
wobei das Glycokonjugat, das durch das Verfahren hergestellt wird, eine fucosylierte und/oder sialylierte und/oder N-acetylglucosaminylierte und/oder galactosylierte Verbindung mit der Formel 7a ist,

wobei n wie oben definiert ist und Y ein humaner Milch-Oligosaccharidglycosylrest ist.


 
2. Das Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei n eine ganze Zahl von 2 bis 6 ist.
 
3. Das Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die gentechnisch veränderte Zelle, die in Schritt (i) bereitgestellt wird, ferner einen Gensatz umfasst, der Enzyme codiert, die für die Synthese des aktivierten Zuckernukleotids mittels eines De-novo-Weges verantwortlich sind, und wobei der Kultivierungsschritt (ii) ferner das Herstellen des aktivierten Zuckernukleotids mittels eines De-novo-Weges auslöst.
 
4. Das Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei das Glycosyltransferaseenzym aus der Gruppe ausgewählt wird, die aus β-1,3-N-Acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase, ß-1,6-N-Acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase, β-1,3-Galactosyltransferase, β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase, α-2,3-Sialyltransferase, α-2,6-Sialyltransferase, α-1,2-Fucosyltransferase, α-1,3-Fucosyltransferase und α-1,4-Fucosyltransferase besteht.
 
5. Das Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei das humane Milch-Oligosaccharid 2'-Fucosyllactose, 3-Fucosyllactose, Difucosyllactose, 3'-Sialyllactose, 6'-Sialyllactose, 3'-Sialyl-3-fucosyllactose, Lacto-N-tetraose oder Lacto-N-neotetraose ist.
 
6. Das Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei die Verbindung mit der Formel 7a diejenige mit der Formel 8d ist

wobei R1 Fucosyl oder H ist, R2 Fucosyl oder H ist, n eine ganze Zahl von 2 bis 10 ist, mit der Maßgabe, dass mindestens eine von der R1- und der R2-Gruppe Fucosyl ist.
 
7. Das Verfahren nach Anspruch 6, wobei n eine ganze Zahl von 2 bis 6 ist.
 
8. Eine Verbindung mit der Formel 6

wobei n eine ganze Zahl von 2 bis 10 ist und

X der Molekülteil mit der Formel 1 ist,

wobei R1 Fucosyl oder H ist,

R2 Fucosyl oder H ist,

R3 aus H, Sialyl-, N-Acetyl-lactosaminyl- und Lacto-N-biosylgruppen ausgewählt ist, wobei die N-Acetyllactosaminylgruppe einen Glycosylrest tragen kann, der eine oder mehrere N-Acetyl-lactosaminyl- und/oder eine oder mehrere Lacto-N-biosylgruppen umfasst; wobei jede von den N-Acetyl-lactosaminyl- und Lacto-N-biosylgruppen mit einem oder mehreren Sialyl- und/oder Fucosylresten substituiert sein kann,

R4 aus H, Sialyl- und N-Acetyl-lactosaminylgruppen, wahlweise mit einem Glycosylrest substituiert, der eine oder mehrere N-Acetyl-lactosaminyl- und/oder eine oder mehrere Lacto-N-biosylgruppen umfasst, ausgewählt ist; wobei jede von den N-Acetyl-lactosaminyl- und Lacto-N-biosylgruppen mit einem oder mehreren Sialyl-und/oder Fucosylresten substituiert sein kann,

mit der Maßgabe, dass mindestens eine von der R1-, R2-, R3- und der R4-Gruppe von H verschieden ist,

oder ein Salz davon.


 
9. Die Verbindung nach Anspruch 8, wobei n eine ganze Zahl von 2 bis 6 ist.
 
10. Die Verbindung nach Anspruch 8 oder 9, wobei X ein humaner Milch-Oligosaccharidglycosylrest ist.
 
11. Die Verbindung nach Anspruch 10, wobei der humane Milch-Oligosaccharidglycosylrest der von 2'-Fucosyllactose, 3-Fucosyllactose, 2',3-Difucosyllactose, 3'-Sialyllactose, 6'-Sialyllactose, 3'-Sialyl-3-fucosyllactose, Lacto-N-tetraose oder Lacto-N-neotetraose ist.
 
12. Die Verbindung nach Anspruch 8, gekennzeichnet durch Formel 6d

wobei R1 Fucosyl oder H ist, R2 Fucosyl oder H ist, n eine ganze Zahl von 2 bis 10 ist, mit der Maßgabe, dass mindestens eine von der R1- und der R2-Gruppe Fucosyl ist.
 
13. Die Verbindung nach Anspruch 12, wobei n eine ganze Zahl von 2 bis 6 ist.
 


Revendications

1. Un procédé de production d'un glyco-conjugué, le procédé comprenant les étapes consistant à :

(i) fournir une cellule d'E. Coli génétiquement modifiée de génotype LacZ-, LacY+ comprenant un gène codant pour une enzyme glycosyl transférase qui est capable de transférer le résidu glycosyle d'un nucléotide à sucre activé à un accepteur internalisé, où la glycosyl transférase est une fucosyl transférase et/ou une sialyl transférase et/ou une N-acétylglucosaminyl transférase et/ou une galactosyl transférase, et le nucléotide à sucre activé est le GDP-Fuc, l'acide sialique-CMP, l'UDP-GlNAc ou l'UDP-Gal,

(ii) cultiver ladite cellule génétiquement modifiée en présence d'un accepteur exogène qui est un

composé de formule 7
où n est un nombre entier de 2 à 10, induisant

(a) l'internalisation de l'accepteur exogène par la cellule génétiquement modifiée, et

(b) la formation dudit glyco-conjugué de ladite molécule acceptrice internalisée par un transfert de glycosyle médié par ladite enzyme glycosyl transférase exprimée par ladite cellule, puis

(iii) collecter ledit glyco-conjugué du bouillon de fermentation,
où le glyco-conjugué produit par le procédé est un composé fucosylé et/ou sialylé et/ou N-acétylglucosaminylé et/ou galactosylé de formule 7a

dans laquelle n est tel que défini ci-dessus et Y est un résidu glycosyle oligosaccharidique de lait humain.


 
2. Le procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel n est un nombre entier de 2 à 6.
 
3. Le procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel ladite cellule génétiquement modifiée fournie dans l'étape (i) comprend en outre un ensemble de gènes codant pour des enzymes responsables de la synthèse dudit nucléotide à sucre activé par une voie de novo, et où ladite étape de culture (ii) induit en outre la production dudit nucléotide à sucre activé par une voie de novo.
 
4. Le procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans lequel ladite enzyme glycosyl transférase est choisie dans le groupe constitué par la β-1,3-N-acétyl-glucosaminyl transférase, la β-1,6-N-acétylglucosaminyl transférase, la β-1,3-galactosyl transférase, la β-1,4-galactosyl transférase, l'α-2,3-sialyl transférase, l'α-2,6-sialyl transférase, l'α-1,2-fucosyl transférase, l'α-1,3-fucosyl transférase et l'α-1,4-fucosyl transférase.
 
5. Le procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel l'oligosaccharide de lait humain est le 2'-fucosyllactose, le 3-fucosyllactose, le difucosyllactose, le 3'-sialyllactose, le 6'-sialyllactose, le 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose, le lacto-N-tétraose ou le lacto-N-néotétraose.
 
6. Le procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel le composé de formule 7a est celui de formule 8d

dans laquelle R1 est un groupe fucosyle ou H, R2 est un groupe fucosyle ou H, n est un nombre entier de 2 à 10, pourvu qu'un des groupes R1 et R2 soit un groupe fucosyle.
 
7. Le procédé selon la revendication 6, dans lequel n est un nombre entier de 2 à 6.
 
8. Un composé de formule 6

dans laquelle n est un nombre entier de 2 à 10 et

X est la fraction de formule 1

dans laquelle R1 est un groupe fucosyle ou H,

R2 est un groupe fucosyle ou H,

R3 est choisi parmi H, les groupes sialyle, N-acétyl-lactosaminyle et lacto-N-biosyle, où le groupe N-acétyl-lactosaminyle peut porter un résidu glycosyle comprenant un ou plusieurs groupes N-acétyl-lactosaminyle et/ou un ou plusieurs groupes lacto-N-biosyle ; chacun des groupes N-acétyl-lactosaminyle et lacto-N-biosyle peut être substitué avec un ou plusieurs résidus sialyle et/ou fucosyle,

R4 est choisi parmi H, les groupe sialyle et N-acétyl-lactosaminyle éventuellement substitués avec un résidu glycosyle comprenant un ou plusieurs groupes N-acétyl-lactosaminyle et/ou un ou plusieurs groupes lacto-N-bisoyle ;

chacun des groupes N-acétyl-lactosaminyle et lacto-N-biosyle peut être substitué avec un ou plusieurs résidus sialyle et/ou fucosyle,

pourvu qu'au moins un des groupes R1, R2, R3 et R4 soit différent de H,

ou un de ses sels.


 
9. Le composé selon la revendication 8, dans lequel n est un nombre entier de 2 à 6.
 
10. Le composé selon la revendication 8 ou 9, dans lequel X est un résidu glycosyle oligosaccharidique de lait humain.
 
11. Le composé selon la revendication 10, dans lequel le résidu glycosyle oligosaccharidique de lait humain est celui du 2'-fucosyllactose, du 3-fucosyllactose, du 2',3-difucosyllactose, du 3'-sialyllactose, du 6'-sialyllactose, du 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose, du lacto-N-tétraose ou du lacto-N-néotétraose.
 
12. Le composé selon la revendication 8 caractérisé par la formule 6d

dans laquelle R1 est un groupe fucosyle ou H, R2 est un groupe fucosyle ou H, n est un nombre entier de 2 à 10, pourvu qu'au moins un des groupes R1 et R2 soit un groupe fucosyle.
 
13. Le composé selon la revendication 12, dans lequel n est un nombre entier de 2 à 6.
 






Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




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