(19)
(11)EP 2 917 951 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
06.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/19

(21)Application number: 12888128.1

(22)Date of filing:  09.11.2012
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H01M 2/32  (2006.01)
H01M 8/18  (2006.01)
H01M 8/04  (2016.01)
H01M 8/0258  (2016.01)
H01M 4/86  (2006.01)
H01M 8/02  (2016.01)
H01M 8/24  (2016.01)
H01M 8/2485  (2016.01)
H01M 8/2483  (2016.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2012/064328
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/074107 (15.05.2014 Gazette  2014/20)

(54)

ELECTROCHEMICAL DEVICE AND METHOD FOR CONTROLLING CORROSION

ELEKTROCHEMISCHE VORRICHTUNG UND VERFAHREN ZUR KORROSIONSKONTROLLE

DISPOSITIF ET PROCÉDÉ ÉLECTROCHIMIQUE POUR RÉGULER LA CORROSION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(43)Date of publication of application:
16.09.2015 Bulletin 2015/38

(73)Proprietor: United Technologies Corporation
Farmington, CT 06032 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • DARLING, Robert Mason
    South Windsor, Connecticut 06074 (US)
  • PERRY, Michael L.
    Glastonbury, Connecticut 06033 (US)

(74)Representative: Dehns 
St. Bride's House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A2-88/01310
US-A- 4 277 317
US-A- 5 972 181
US-A- 6 033 794
US-A1- 2010 196 800
US-B1- 6 602 626
JP-A- 2006 134 802
US-A- 4 400 448
US-A- 5 972 181
US-A- 6 117 297
US-A1- 2012 282 501
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND



    [0001] This disclosure relates to an electrochemical device having enhanced resistance to internal corrosion.

    [0002] Fuel cells, flow batteries and other electrochemical devices are commonly known and used for generating electric current. An electrochemical device generally includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a separator layer between the anode and cathode electrodes for generating an electric current in a known electrochemical reaction between reactants. Typically, where ionic-conductive reactants are used, differences in voltage potential at different locations in the electrochemical device cause leakage currents, also known as shunt currents, which debit energy efficiency. Additionally, the shunt current can drive corrosion of components of the electrochemical device.

    [0003] A prior art electrochemical device and method for controlling corrosion in the same is disclosed e.g. in JP 2006 134802 A. Other prior art electrochemical devices and methods are disclosed in US 2010/196800 A1, US 4 400 448 A, US 2012/282501 A1, US 5 972 181 A, WO 88/01310 A2, US 6 117 297 A, US 6 033 794 A, US 4 277 317 A and US 6 602 626 B1.

    SUMMARY



    [0004] From one aspect, the present invention provides an electrochemical device in accordance with claim 1.

    [0005] From another aspect, the present invention provides a method for controlling corrosion in an electrochemical device in accordance with claim 9.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0006] The various features and advantages of the present disclosure will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description. The drawings that accompany the detailed description can be briefly described as follows.

    Figure 1 shows an example electrochemical device.

    Figure 2 shows a representative branch passage of the electrochemical device of Figure 1.

    Figure 3 shows another example electrochemical device.

    Figure 4 shows an electrode assembly and a frame used in the electrochemical device of Figure 3.

    Figure 5 shows a bipolar plate and a frame used in the electrochemical device of Figure 3.

    Figure 6 shows bipolar plate channel walls that have tapered ends.

    Figure 7 shows another example of bipolar plate channel walls that have tapered ends.

    Figure 8 shows another example of bipolar plate channel walls that have tapered ends.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0007] Figure 1 schematically shows an example of electrochemical device 20. As will be appreciated, the electrochemical device 20 can be a fuel cell, a flow battery or other type of electrochemical device that utilizes one or more ionic-conductive reactants. As will be described in more detail, the electrochemical device 20 includes features for controlling or limiting corrosion of internal components within the electrochemical device 20, such as carbon- or metal-containing components.

    [0008] In this example, the electrochemical device 20 includes a plurality of electrode assemblies 22 that are arranged in a stack. The electrode assemblies 22 define a plurality of electrochemically active areas 24. The electrochemically active areas 24 are zones where the reactants participate in oxidation/reduction reactions to generate an electric current. The reactants are provided in this example through a non-electrically-conductive manifold 26. For example, the non-electrically-conductive manifold 26 is a nonconductive polymeric material. The example electrochemical device 20 has two such non-electrically-conductive manifolds 26 that serve to supply and discharge a reactant flow F to and from the electrode assemblies 22. The non-electrically-conductive manifolds 26 can be similar or identical at least with regard to the features described herein.

    [0009] The non-electrically-conductive manifold 26 includes a common manifold passage 28 through which a reactant is distributed into each of the electrochemically active areas 24. A plurality of branch passages 30, which is outside or partially outside of the electrochemically active areas 24, extends between the electrochemically active areas 24 and the common manifold passage 28.

    [0010] Figure 2 shows a representative one of the branch passages 30. As shown, the branch passage 30 includes a first region 32 and a second region 34 that differ in surface area, as represented by the different shading of the first region 32 and the second region 34. According to the present invention, the difference in surface area is due to the relative roughness of the walls of the branch passage 30. That is, the walls of the first region 32 are relatively smooth while the walls of the second region 34 are relatively rough.

    [0011] Fuel cells, flow batteries, and other electrochemical devices, especially those that utilize ionic-conductive reactants, can suffer from inefficiencies due to shunt currents. In some instances, the shunt currents are supported by corrosion reactions that corrode components, especially carbon- or metal-containing components, and ultimately reduce life of the electrochemical device. One approach to addressing shunt currents in electrochemical devices is to increase the length or reduce the width-wise size of branch passages in order to increase the ionic resistance of the pathways for the ionic-conductive reactants. However, increasing the length or reducing the size can debit reactant flow or increase reactant pressure drop and thus adversely impact cell or system performance. The electrochemical device 20 and methodology disclosed herein take a different approach. Rather than limiting resistance, the electrochemical device 20 and methodology herein establish a tendency toward supporting such shunt currents by a self-reaction of the reactants over the corrosion reactions. In other words, the self-reaction of the reactant and the corrosion reactions are competing reactions, and a greater tendency for the self-reaction limits the corrosion reactions. For example, the self-reaction is a change in the oxidation state of the reactant. For a vanadium liquid electrolyte reactant, the self-reaction is the change from V4+ to V5+ in the positive reactant fluid or V2+ to V3+ in the negative reactant fluid. A similar self-reaction would be expected for other reactant species, such as those based on bromine, iron, chromium, zinc, cerium, lead or combinations thereof.

    [0012] Outside of an electrochemically active area, if current density is relatively high and surface area is relatively low in the presence of the reactant, the low surface area provides a relatively low amount of available sites for catalyzing the self-reaction of the reactant. Thus, the competing corrosion reactions are more likely to occur. However, for the same given current density at a higher surface area, there is a greater amount of available surface sites for catalyzing the self-reactions and the tendency shifts to predominantly favor of the self-reaction. This results in a lower amount of corrosion of these solid surfaces.

    [0013] Thus, in the electrochemical device 20, the first region 32 of the branch channel 30 and the second region 34 that differ in surface area tend to promote or establish a tendency towards supporting the self-reaction of the reactant over the corrosion reaction.

    [0014] Figure 3 illustrates another example of an electrochemical device 120, shown in cross-section. In this disclosure, like reference numerals designate like elements where appropriate and reference numerals with the addition of one-hundred or multiples thereof designate modified elements that are understood to incorporate the same features and benefits of the corresponding elements. The electrode assembly 122 includes a first porous electrode 122a, a second porous electrode 122b and a separator layer 122c there between. The separator layer can be a polymer membrane, such as an ion-exchange membrane for example.

    [0015] The electrode assembly 122 is arranged between bipolar plates 140. Each of the bipolar plates 140 has channels 142 to convey reactant to or from the respective common manifold passage 128a/128b of the non-electrically-conductive manifolds 126.

    [0016] Referring also to Figures 4 and 5, with continuing reference to Figure 3, the electrode assembly 122 is mounted in a non-electrically-conductive frame 144 with a plurality of openings that form part of the non-electrically-conductive manifold 126 and common manifold passages 128a/128b. Although the disclosed example has six manifold holes on each part in Figs. 4 and 5, fewer can alternatively be used, such as four (one + and one - on each end for inlets and outlets). A seal 146 is provided around the perimeter of the electrode assembly 122 to limit escape of reactants. The seal 146 can also function as means to integrate the electrodes and separator assembly, a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA), for example. Similarly, each of the electrically-conductive bipolar plates 140 is mounted in a non-conductive frame 148 with a plurality of openings that form part of the non-electrically-conductive manifold 126 and common manifold passage 128a/128b.

    [0017] Each of the first porous electrode 122a and the second porous electrode 122b spans over an area that is larger than the separator layer 122c, as represented by overhang portions 150 that are outside of the electrochemically active area 24. The areas of the first porous electrode 122a and the second porous electrode 122b are also larger than the bipolar plates 140. The branch passages 130 include the first region 132 that is bounded by the non-conductive frame 148 and the seal 146. The branch passages 130 may operate as either inlets or exits to or from the channels 142 of the bipolar plates 140. The surfaces of the non-conductive frame 148 and the non-conductive seal 146 are relatively smooth. The second region 134 is bounded by the non-conductive frame 148 and the first or second porous electrode 122a/122b, which are conductive. The first and second porous electrodes 122a/122b thus provide a relatively greater surface area than the smooth walls of the non-conductive frame 148 and the seal 146. Thus, the overhang portions 150 provide regions with high surface areas outside of the electrochemically active areas 24 to serve as sources or sinks for the shunt currents, where these shunt current can be supported with the self-reactions rather than the corrosion reactions.

    [0018] In a further example shown in Figure 6, the channels 142 of the bipolar plate 140 extend between channel walls 142a. Each of the channel walls 142a has a tapered end 160. In this example, the tapered end 160 tapers to a point, P. Alternatively, the tapered ends 160 can be rounded as shown in Figure 7. In another alternative shown in Figure 8, the channels 242 are, in accordance with the present invention, interdigitated, with alternating open ends 262 and closed ends 264. The tapered ends 160/260 further facilitate establishing the tendency toward the self-reaction of the reactant over the corrosion reactions. The self-reaction of reactants can be transport limited. The tapered ends 160/260 of the channel walls 142a permit the reactant to continually move at the inlet of the channels 142 and thereby disfavor the self-reaction of the reactant over the corrosion reactions.

    [0019] Although a combination of features is shown in the illustrated examples, not all of them need to be combined to realize the benefits of various embodiments of this disclosure. In other words, a system designed according to an embodiment of this disclosure will not necessarily include all of the features shown in any one of the Figures or all of the portions schematically shown in the Figures. Moreover, selected features of one example embodiment may be combined with selected features of other example embodiments.

    [0020] The preceding description is exemplary rather than limiting in nature. Variations and modifications to the disclosed examples may become apparent to those skilled in the art that do not necessarily depart from the essence of this disclosure. The scope of legal protection given to this disclosure can only be determined by studying the following claims.


    Claims

    1. An electrochemical device (20; 120) comprising:

    a plurality of electrode assemblies (22; 122) defining a plurality of electrochemically active areas (24);

    an electrically non-conductive manifold (26; 126) including a common manifold passage (28; 128a, 128b) configured to transport ionic-conductive fluids; and

    a plurality of branch passages (30; 130) that extend, respectively, between the plurality of electrochemically active areas (24) and the common manifold passage (28; 128a, 128b), each of the plurality of branch passages (30; 130) including a first region (32; 132) and a second region (34; 134) that differ in surface area due to the first region (32; 132) and the second region (34; 134) differing in wall surface roughness; and

    a bipolar plate (140) that includes a plurality of channels (142; 242) that are fluidly connected with the plurality of branch passages (30; 130), the plurality of channels (142; 242) being in the plurality of electrochemically active areas (24), wherein the plurality of channels (142; 242) run between channel walls (142a; 242a) and each of the channel walls (142a; 242a) includes a tapered end (160; 260), and the plurality of channels (142; 242) are interdigitated channels.


     
    2. The electrochemical device as recited in claim 1, wherein each of the plurality of electrode assemblies (22; 122) includes a first porous electrode (122a), a second porous electrode (122b) and a separator layer (122c) between the first porous electrode (122a) and the second porous electrode (122b), wherein the first porous electrode (122a) and the second porous electrode (122b) each span over an area that is larger than the separator layer (122c).
     
    3. The electrochemical device as recited in claim 2, wherein the first porous electrode (122a) and the second porous electrode (122b) include respective overhang portions (150) that extend beyond a side of the separator layer (122c), each of the overhang portions (150) bounding the second region (34; 134) of a respective one of the plurality of branch passages (30; 130) but not bounding the first region (32; 132).
     
    4. The electrochemical device as recited in any preceding claim, wherein the second region (34; 134) is partially bounded by an electrically-conductive surface that is outside of the plurality of electrochemically active areas (24).
     
    5. The electrochemical device as recited in any preceding claim, wherein the first region (32; 132) is bounded by non-conductive polymeric walls.
     
    6. The electrochemical device as recited in any preceding claim, wherein the tapered end (160) tapers to a point.
     
    7. The electrochemical device as recited in any preceding claim, wherein the tapered end (160) tapers to a rounded end.
     
    8. The electrochemical device as recited in any preceding claim, wherein the ionic-conductive fluids contain one or more reactants that readily undergo oxidation and reduction reactions that result in different oxidation states and enable the storage of energy.
     
    9. A method for controlling corrosion in an electrochemical device (20; 120), the method comprising:

    providing a reactant fluid flow between a common manifold passage (28; 128a, 128b) and a plurality of electrode assemblies (22; 122), wherein the reactant fluid generates a shunt current that can be supported by self-reactions of the reactant fluid and corrosion reactions of components of the electrochemical device (20; 120); and

    establishing a tendency toward supporting the shunt current by the self-reactions over the corrosion reactions to thereby limit corrosion of the components, by providing a plurality of branch passages (30; 130) between the common manifold passage (28; 128a, 128b) and a plurality of electrochemically active areas (24) of the plurality of electrode assemblies (22; 122), each of the plurality of branch passages (30; 130) including a first region (32; 132) and a second region (34; 134) that differ in surface area due to the first region (32; 132) and the second region (34; 134) differing in wall surface roughness; and

    providing a bipolar plate (140) that includes a plurality of channels (142; 242) that are fluidly connected with the plurality of branch passages (30; 130), the plurality of channels (142; 242) being in the plurality of electrochemically active areas (24), wherein the plurality of channels (142; 242) run between channel walls (142a; 242a) and each of the channel walls (142a; 242a) includes a tapered end (160; 260), and the plurality of channels (142; 242) are interdigitated channels.


     
    10. The method as recited in claim 9, wherein the establishing includes providing a bipolar plate (140) that includes a plurality of channels (142) that run between channel walls (142a), each of the channel walls including a tapered end (160).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Elektrochemische Vorrichtung (20; 120), umfassend:

    eine Vielzahl von Elektrodenanordnungen (22; 122), die eine Vielzahl von elektrochemisch aktiven Bereichen (24) definieren;

    einen elektrisch nicht leitenden Verteiler (26; 126), der einen gemeinsamen Verteilerkanal (28; 128a, 128b) beinhaltet, der dazu konfiguriert ist, ionenleitende Fluide zu transportieren; und

    eine Vielzahl von Zweigkanälen (30; 130), die jeweils zwischen der Vielzahl von elektrochemisch aktiven Bereichen (24) und dem gemeinsamen Verteilerkanal (28; 128a, 128b) verlaufen, wobei jeder aus der Vielzahl von Zweigkanälen (30; 130) eine erste Region (32; 132) und eine zweite Region (34; 134) beinhaltet, die sich in der Oberflächengröße aufgrund der Tatsache unterscheiden, dass die erste Region (32; 132) und die zweite Region (34; 134) in der Wandoberflächenrauheit unterscheiden; und

    eine Bipolarplatte (140), die eine Vielzahl von Durchgängen (142; 242) beinhaltet, die in Fluidverbindung mit der Vielzahl von Zweigkanälen (30; 130) stehen, wobei sich die Vielzahl von Durchgängen (142; 242) in der Vielzahl von elektrochemisch aktiven Bereichen (24) befinden, wobei die Vielzahl von Durchgängen (142; 242) zwischen Durchgangswänden (142a; 242a) verlaufen und jede der Durchgangswände (142a; 242a) ein verjüngtes Ende (160; 260) beinhaltet, und wobei die Vielzahl von Durchgängen (142; 242) verzahnte Durchgänge sind.


     
    2. Elektrochemische Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei jede aus der Vielzahl von Elektrodenanordnungen (22; 122) eine erste poröse Elektrode (122a), eine zweite poröse Elektrode (122b) und eine Trennschicht (122c) zwischen der ersten porösen Elektrode (122a) und der zweiten poröse Elektrode (122b) beinhaltet, wobei sich die erste poröse Elektrode (122a) und die zweite poröse Elektrode (122b) jeweils über einen Bereich erstrecken, der größer als die Trennschicht (122c) ist.
     
    3. Elektrochemische Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 2, wobei die erste poröse Elektrode (122a) und die zweite poröse Elektrode (122b) jeweilige Überhangbereiche (150) beinhalten, die sich über eine Seite der Trennschicht (122c) hinaus erstrecken, wobei jeder der Überhangbereiche (150) die zweite Region (34; 134) eines entsprechenden aus der Vielzahl von Zweigkanälen (30; 130) beschränkt, aber die erste Region (32; 132) nicht beschränkt.
     
    4. Elektrochemische Vorrichtung nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei die zweite Region (34; 134) teilweise durch eine elektrisch leitende Fläche beschränkt wird, die sich außerhalb der Vielzahl von elektrochemisch aktiven Bereichen (24) befindet.
     
    5. Elektrochemische Vorrichtung nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei die erste Region (32; 132) durch nicht leitende polymere Wände beschränkt wird.
     
    6. Elektrochemische Vorrichtung nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei sich das verjüngte Ende (160) zu einer Spitze verjüngt.
     
    7. Elektrochemische Vorrichtung nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei sich das verjüngte Ende (160) zu einem gerundeten Ende verjüngt.
     
    8. Elektrochemische Vorrichtung nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei die ionenleitenden Fluide einen oder mehrere Reaktanten enthalten, die leicht Oxidations- und Reduktionsreaktionen eingehen, die zu verschiedenen Oxidationsstufen führen und das Speichern von Energie ermöglichen.
     
    9. Verfahren zur Korrosionskontrolle in einer elektrochemischen Vorrichtung (20; 120), wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:

    Bereitstellen eines Reaktantenfluidstroms zwischen einem gemeinsamen Verteilerkanal (28; 128a, 128b) und einer Vielzahl von Elektrodenanordnungen (22; 122), wobei das Reaktantenfluid einen Nebenschlussstrom erzeugt, der durch Eigenreaktionen des Reaktantenfluids und Korrosionsreaktionen von Komponenten der elektrochemischen Vorrichtung (20; 120) unterstützt werden kann; und

    Herstellen einer Tendenz zum Unterstützen des Nebenschlussstroms durch die Eigenreaktionen vor den Korrosionsreaktionen, um somit die Korrosion der Komponenten zu begrenzen, dadurch dass eine Vielzahl von Zweigkanälen (30; 130) zwischen dem gemeinsamen Verteilerkanal (28; 128a, 128b) und einer Vielzahl von elektrochemisch aktiven Bereichen (24) der Vielzahl von Elektrodenanordnungen (22; 122) bereitgestellt wird, wobei jeder aus der Vielzahl von Zweigkanälen (30; 130) eine erste Region (32; 132) und eine zweite Region (34; 134) beinhaltet, die sich in der Oberflächengröße aufgrund der Tatsache unterscheiden, dass sich die erste Region (32; 132) und die zweite Region (34; 134) in der Wandoberflächenrauheit unterscheiden; und

    Bereitstellen einer Bipolarplatte (140), die eine Vielzahl von Durchgängen (142; 242) beinhaltet, die in Fluidverbindung mit der Vielzahl von Zweigkanälen (30; 130) stehen, wobei sich die Vielzahl von Durchgängen (142; 242) in der Vielzahl von elektrochemisch aktiven Bereichen (24) befinden, wobei die Vielzahl von Durchgängen (142; 242) zwischen Durchgangswänden (142a; 242a) verlaufen und jede der Durchgangswände (142a; 242a) ein verjüngtes Ende (160; 260) beinhaltet, und die Vielzahl von Durchgängen (142; 242) verzahnte Durchgänge sind.


     
    10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei das Herstellen das Bereitstellen einer Bipolarplatte (140) beinhaltet, die eine Vielzahl von Durchgängen (142) beinhaltet, die zwischen Durchgangswänden (142a) verlaufen, wobei jede der Durchgangswände ein verjüngtes Ende (160) beinhaltet.
     


    Revendications

    1. Dispositif électrochimique (20 ; 120) comprenant :

    une pluralité d'ensembles d'électrodes (22 ; 122) définissant une pluralité de zones électrochimiquement actives (24) ;

    un collecteur électriquement non conducteur (26 ; 126) comprenant un passage de collecteur commun (28 ; 128a, 128b) configuré pour transporter des fluides conducteurs d'ions ; et

    une pluralité de passages de dérivation (30 ; 130) qui s'étendent, respectivement, entre la pluralité de zones électrochimiquement actives (24) et le passage de collecteur commun (28 ; 128a, 128b), chacun de la pluralité de passages de dérivation (30 ; 130) comprenant une première région (32 ; 132) et une seconde région (34 ; 134) qui diffèrent par la superficie du fait que la première région (32 ; 132) et la seconde région (34 ; 134) diffèrent par la rugosité de la surface de la paroi ; et

    une plaque bipolaire (140) qui comprend une pluralité de canaux (142 ; 242) qui sont reliés fluidiquement avec la pluralité de passages de dérivation (30 ; 130), la pluralité de canaux (142 ; 242) étant dans la pluralité de zones électrochimiquement actives (24), dans lequel la pluralité de canaux (142 ; 242) s'étendent entre des parois de canal (142a ; 242a) et chacune des parois de canal (142a ; 242a) comprend une extrémité effilée (160 ; 260), et la pluralité de canaux (142 ; 242) sont des canaux interdigités.


     
    2. Dispositif électrochimique selon la revendication 1, dans lequel chacun de la pluralité d'ensembles d'électrodes (22 ; 122) comprend une première électrode poreuse (122a), une seconde électrode poreuse (122b) et une couche séparatrice (122c) entre la première électrode poreuse (122a) et la seconde électrode poreuse (122b), dans lequel la première électrode poreuse (122a) et la seconde électrode poreuse (122b) s'étendent chacune sur une zone qui est plus grande que la couche séparatrice (122c).
     
    3. Dispositif électrochimique selon la revendication 2, dans lequel la première électrode poreuse (122a) et la seconde électrode poreuse (122b) comprennent des parties en surplomb respectives (150) qui s'étendent au-delà d'un côté de la couche séparatrice (122c), chacune des parties en surplomb (150) délimitant la seconde région (34 ; 134) d'un passage respectif de la pluralité de passages de dérivation (30 ; 130) mais ne délimitant pas la première région (32 ; 132).
     
    4. Dispositif électrochimique selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel la seconde région (34 ; 134) est partiellement délimitée par une surface électriquement conductrice qui est à l'extérieur de la pluralité de zones électrochimiquement actives (24).
     
    5. Dispositif électrochimique selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel la première région (32 ; 132) est délimitée par des parois polymères non conductrices.
     
    6. Dispositif électrochimique selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel l'extrémité effilée (160) se rétrécit en un point.
     
    7. Dispositif électrochimique selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel l'extrémité effilée (160) se rétrécit en une extrémité arrondie.
     
    8. Dispositif électrochimique selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel les fluides conducteurs d'ions contiennent un ou plusieurs réactifs qui subissent facilement des réactions d'oxydation et de réduction qui entraînent différents états d'oxydation et permettent le stockage d'énergie.
     
    9. Procédé pour réguler la corrosion dans un dispositif électrochimique (20 ; 120), le procédé comprenant :

    la fourniture d'un écoulement de fluide réactif entre un passage de collecteur commun (28 ; 128a, 128b) et une pluralité d'ensembles d'électrodes (22 ; 122), dans lequel le fluide réactif génère un courant de dérivation qui peut être supporté par des auto-réactions du fluide réactif et des réactions de corrosion des composants du dispositif électrochimique (20 ; 120) ; et

    l'établissement d'une tendance à supporter le courant de dérivation par les auto-réactions plutôt que les réactions de corrosion pour limiter ainsi la corrosion des composants, en fournissant une pluralité de passages de dérivation (30 ; 130) entre le passage de collecteur commun (28 ; 128a, 128b) et une pluralité de zones électrochimiquement actives (24) de la pluralité d'ensembles d'électrodes (22 ; 122), chacun de la pluralité de passages de dérivation (30 ; 130) comprenant une première région (32 ; 132) et une seconde région (34 ; 134) qui diffèrent par la superficie du fait que la première région (32 ; 132) et la seconde région (34 ; 134) diffèrent par la rugosité de la surface de la paroi ; et

    la fourniture d'une plaque bipolaire (140) qui comprend une pluralité de canaux (142 ; 242) qui sont reliés fluidiquement avec la pluralité de passages de dérivation (30 ; 130), la pluralité de canaux (142 ; 242) étant dans la pluralité de zones électrochimiquement actives (24), dans lequel la pluralité de canaux (142 ; 242) s'étendent entre des parois de canal (142a ; 242a) et chacune des parois de canal (142a ; 242a) comprend une extrémité effilée (160 ; 260), et la pluralité de canaux (142 ; 242) sont des canaux interdigités.


     
    10. Procédé selon la revendication 9, dans lequel l'établissement comprend la fourniture d'une plaque bipolaire (140) qui comprend une pluralité de canaux (142) qui s'étendent entre des parois de canal (142a), chacune des parois de canal comprenant une extrémité effilée (160).
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description