(19)
(11)EP 2 924 727 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
17.06.2020 Bulletin 2020/25

(21)Application number: 15155702.2

(22)Date of filing:  19.02.2015
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01L 23/00(2006.01)

(54)

Thin NiB or CoB capping layer for non-noble metal bond pads

Dünne NiB- oder CoB-Deckschicht für Bondflächen aus unedlen Metallen

Fine couche de recouvrement en CoB ou NiB pour plots de connexions en métal non noble


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 01.03.2014 EP 14157400

(43)Date of publication of application:
30.09.2015 Bulletin 2015/40

(73)Proprietor: IMEC VZW
3001 Leuven (BE)

(72)Inventors:
  • Beyne, Eric
    3001 Leuven (BE)
  • De Vos, Joeri
    3001 Leuven (BE)
  • Derakhshandeh, Jaber
    3001 Leuven (BE)
  • England, Luke
    3001 Leuven (BE)
  • Vakanas, George
    3001 Leuven (BE)

(74)Representative: Patent Department IMEC 
IMEC vzw Patent Department Kapeldreef 75
3001 Leuven
3001 Leuven (BE)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A1- 2002 058 150
US-A1- 2003 113 576
US-B1- 8 039 379
US-A1- 2002 113 322
US-B1- 6 287 896
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Field



    [0001] The present invention relates to a capping layer covering non-noble metallic bonding pads on a substrate.

    State of the art



    [0002] As new technologies employing bonded structures are developed, the use of Thermo Compression Bonding (TCB) is becoming more prevalent. TCB can for example be used for wire bonding, Flip Chip bonding or die stacking. It needs protruding contacts, e.g. stud bumps created from Au or Cu wires or Cu pillars with Sn based solder tips. These protruding contacts can be located on either the substrate or on another component of the bonded structure. Opposite to the protruding contacts flat contacts, preferably of the same material as the protruding contacts, serve as bonding partners and are called bonding landing pads. This material can be non-noble metals.

    [0003] The TCB process realizes a final bond between these two components of the bonded structure by applying a pressure force profile and a heat profile on the two components to be bonded. Typically an underfill material is present between the two components during the TCB process.

    [0004] In general there is a storage time between the manufacturing of the components to be bonded in a bonded structure, prior to them being bonded. It should be further noted that the assembly process itself and the storage is not necessary a non-oxidizing environment. These factors ultimately may lead to the oxidation of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pads. It is a well-known fact that oxidation of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad often causes solder joint formation issues during the bonding process. This is especially true when the underfill material does not have enough fluxing capability to remove the non-noble metal oxides during the bonding process.

    [0005] US 2003/113576 A1 relates to cobalt electroless plating for microelectronic device fabrication.

    [0006] Coating or capping the metallic bonding landing pad with a thick (>0.5um) Electro Less Deposition (ELD) of NiP, NiB with low (up to 5% by weight) Boron content, Au, Pd or stacked combinations thereof, are used to prevent oxidation of the metallic bond landing pad. An example can be found in US 7,078,796 B2. These solutions require noble metals like Au or Pd having excellent non oxidizing properties, but which are expensive. These noble metals have excellent anti-oxidation properties, but are rare materials and expensive. It is an aim of the invention to replace these materials by cheaper alternatives that are commonly available.

    Brief description of the figures



    [0007] Figures la,b,c,d shows possible implementations according to the first aspect of the present invention where the capping layer fully covers the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad.

    Figures 2a,b,c shows possible implementations according to the second aspect of the present invention where the capping layer partially covers the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad.

    Figure 3 shows the surface concentration (Atomic percentage: At%) of Cu-oxides and NiB oxides for different thickness of a NiB capping layer according to embodiments of this disclosure.

    Figure 4 shows the yield of a contact daisy chain for different thickness of a NiB capping layer according to embodiments of this disclosure.


    Summary of the invention



    [0008] According to the invention there is provided a substrate as set forth in claim 1. Preferred embodiments are set forth in the dependent claims.

    Detailed description



    [0009] The present disclosure will be described with respect to particular embodiments and with reference to certain drawings but the disclosure is not limited thereto. The drawings described are only schematic and are nonlimiting. In the drawings, the size of some of the elements may be exaggerated and not drawn on scale for illustrative purposes. The dimensions and the relative dimensions do not necessarily correspond to actual reductions to practice of the disclosure.

    [0010] Furthermore, the terms first, second, third and the like in the description and in the claims, are used for distinguishing between similar elements and not necessarily for describing a sequential or chronological order. The terms are interchangeable under appropriate circumstances and the embodiments of the disclosure can operate in other sequences than described or illustrated herein.

    [0011] Moreover, the terms top, bottom, over, under and the like in the description and the claims are used for descriptive purposes and not necessarily for describing relative positions. The terms so used are interchangeable under appropriate circumstances and the embodiments of the disclosure described herein can operate in other orientations than described or illustrated herein.

    [0012] The term "comprising", used in the claims, should not be interpreted as being restricted to the means listed thereafter; it does not exclude other elements or steps. It needs to be interpreted as specifying the presence of the stated features, integers, steps or components as referred to, but does not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps or components, or groups thereof. Thus, the scope of the expression "a device comprising means A and B" should not be limited to devices consisting of only components A and B. It means that with respect to the present disclosure, the only relevant components of the device are A and B.

    [0013] Figure 1a illustrates, according to a first aspect of the invention, a substrate 1 having at least one main surface 11 comprising at least one non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 covered by a capping layer 3 shielding the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 from the environment. This capping layer 3 comprises an alloy, the alloy being NiB or CoB and containing an atomic concentration percentage of boron in the range of 10% to 50%.

    [0014] Figures lb-lc demonstrate other alternative implementations of the first aspect of the invention. It is readily understood that alternative implementations are possible.

    [0015] The substrate 1 of figures la,b,c,d can be selected from the list of a semiconductor substrate, a printed circuit board, a glass panel, a flexible substrate, a reconstructed wafer or any substrate comprising a non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 on a main surface 11. The semiconductor substrate can comprise at least one semiconductor device and an interconnect structure, the at least one semiconductor device being electrically connected to the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad through at least part of the interconnect structure. The substrate 1 can comprise a stack of at least two bonded dies, a stack of at least one bonded die on an interposer substrate or a stack of at least one bonded die on a wafer.

    [0016] The main surface 11 of the substrate 1 in figures la,b,c,d is a surface which is flat, as this is the surface where bonding is done, for instance 'flipchip thermo compression bonding on a silicon interposer substrate'. Note that this main surface can be the top or the bottom flat surface of the substrate 11 or both.

    [0017] The non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 in figures la,b,c,d is configured as the receiving entity in a bonding process. Typically a certain stand-off height is required between the two entities or components to be bonded for various reasons well known in the art such as stress relief, underfill dispense F dispense or fluxing. The non-receiving entity in the bonding process typically has the bonding material whereas the receiving entity has a landing pad to accommodate the bonding material during the bonding process. The bonding material can be but is not limited to: solder, bondwire, metallic pillar, etc.

    [0018] The non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 related to the first aspect of the invention, does exclude noble metals, like Au and Pd. These noble metals have excellent anti-oxidation properties, but are rare materials and expensive. It is an aim of the invention to replace these materials by cheaper alternatives that are commonly available.

    [0019] As noble metallic bonding layers are excluded from the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2, a capping layer 3 is required to avoid oxidation of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pads 2. The capping layer 3 covers the non-noble metallic bonding landing pads 2 thereby shielding the non-noble metallic bonding landing pads 2 from the oxidizing environment. Note that the metallic bonding landing pad, where covered by the capping layer 3, is in direct contact with this capping layer 3.

    [0020] The environment may contain oxygen that even in small amounts, e.g. as low as 30ppm, will lead to oxidation of a non-noble metal. This oxidation can occur even in tools using a nitrogen ambient and/or fluid vapour-phase atmospheres during soldering, as the partial pressure of oxygen in such ambient might still significant and hence results in oxidation of a non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2. The oxidation of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad can take place during storage or in the bonding facility or assembly house of the substrate containing this metallic bonding landing pad. The capping layer 3 acts as a diffusion barrier layer preventing oxygen from the environment from traversing the capping layer 3 and reaching the non-noble metal of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2. Vice versa, the capping layer 3 also prevents metal from the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 to diffuse outwards traversing the capping layer 3 and reaching the environment where it will readily oxidize when oxygen is encountered.

    [0021] It is well-known that oxidation of non-noble metallic bonding landing pads 2 leads to inferior bonds and must be avoided to maintain a high bonding yield, a good bonding reliability and a cost efficiency of the bonded structure.

    [0022] It was surprisingly found in accordance that using a NiB or CoB alloy with an atomic concentration percentage of B from 10% to 50% as a capping layer 3 covering the non-noble metallic bonding landing pads 2 yielded excellent diffusion barrier properties effectively preventing diffusion through the capping layer and thus preventing oxidation of the non-noble metal of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 covered by the capping layer 3.

    [0023] It was surprisingly found in accordance with the first aspect of the invention, that using a NiB or CoB alloy with an atomic concentration percentage of B from 10% to 50% as a capping layer 3 covering non-noble metallic bonding landing pads 2 yielded excellent wetting properties of the part of the non-noble bonding landing pad 2 covered by the capping layer, allowing good solderability with typically solders such as Sn.

    [0024] It was surprisingly found in accordance with the first aspect of the invention, that using a NiB or CoB alloy with an atomic concentration percentage of B from 10% to 50% as a capping 3 layer covering a non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2, this pad 2 did not readily oxidize when in contact with the normal environment being air, which contains oxygen. It is currently believed that this is might be due to the high atomic concentration percentage of B in the NiB or CoB alloy, the B acts as an interstitial element in the Ni or Co metal thereby preventing oxidation of the Ni or Co present in the capping layer 3. B is small enough, in physical size, to fit into the spaces in the Ni or Co Lattice. As such, the NiB or CoB behaves as a noble metal but at a lower cost. Lower atomic concentration percentages of B have been found not sufficient to prevent oxidation of the NiB or CoB itself. This is believed to be related to vacancies in the Ni or Co lattices, that would still be present thereby allowing the oxygen from the ambient to oxidize the Ni or Co.

    [0025] It was surprisingly found in accordance with the first aspect of the invention, that using a NiB or CoB alloy with an atomic concentration percentage of B from 10% to 50% as a capping 3 layer covering a non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2, this pad did not readily corrode when in contact with the normal environment, which contains H2O. It is currently believed that this is might be due to the high atomic concentration percentage of B in the NiB or CoB alloy, the B actsg as an interstitial element in the Ni or Co metal thereby preventing corrosion of the Ni or Co in the capping layer 3. B is small enough, in physical size, to fit into the spaces in the Ni or Co lattice. As such, the NiB or CoB effectively behaves as a noble metal but at a lower cost. Lower atomic concentration percentages of B have been found not sufficient to prevent corrosion of the NiB or CoB itself. This is believed to be related to vacancies in the Ni or Co lattices, that would still be present thereby allowing the H2O to corrode the Ni or Co.

    [0026] It was surprisingly found in accordance with the first aspect of the invention, that using an NiB or CoB alloy with an atomic concentration percentage of B from 10% to 50% as a capping layer 3 covering a none-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 a hard and smooth outer surface of the capping layer was obtained which prevents the capping layer 3 from being damaged during, for instance, probe tests. Substrates 1 according to the embodiments of the invention are generally tested by probe needles which are being pressed against the bonding landing pad to establish an electrical contact during production testing to check if the substrates 1 are functional prior to bonding or during the assembly process. This prior testing avoids that erroneous substrates are being populated with expensive bonding entities. So probe test is needed to control costs. A further advantage of the increased hardness of capping layer 3, compared to the hardness of noble metals or not capped non-noble metallic bonding landing pads, is that the pressure in the bonding process can be reduced when using compression type bonding. This improves manufacturability of the bonds, as less pressure means less risk of damaged devices located in the vicinity of the none-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2, and as such being subjected to the local pressure applied during the bonding process. The hardness of the capping layer generally increases with increasing B atomic concentration. The minimum thickness guarantees a uniform capping layer with uniform properties including hardness.

    [0027] An advantage of a capping layer of the first aspect of the invention is that a single capping layer 3 combines required functions such as diffusion barrier properties, constituting a non-oxidizing capping layer, increased hardness, being readily available, being cheap and having good wetting properties. This gives a cost advantage as well as a performance advantage due to these non-oxidizing properties.

    [0028] The upper limit of the B atomic concentration percentage in accordance with the first aspect of the invention, is 50%. This corresponds to Ni1B1 or Co1B1. So in the upper limit, the complete capping layer 3 consists of Ni1B1 or Co1B1. At lower concentrations other borides are formed, for instance Ni3B this corresponds to a B atomic concentration percentage of 25%. The final composition of the capping layer 3 is a mix of metallic Ni and Ni borides or a mix of metallic Co with Co borides depending on material used for the capping layer.

    [0029] According to the invention, the thickness of the capping layer 3 is greater than 9nm and smaller than 50nm. Reducing the thickness of the capping layer 3 covering a non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 enables further down scaling of, for instance but not limited to, pbumps used in thermo compression bonding during flipchip assembly. It should be noted that the disclosed thickness range of the capping layer 3 is much less than what is normally applied for instance for Au or Pd capping layers. This gives a clear advantage for current and future scaling. A thinner capping layer 3 also allow for a shorter deposition time and a higher throughput during manufacturing. It was found that a capping layer 3 thickness greater than 9nm is required to have a uniform thickness of the capping layer 3 covering the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2. The upper limit is put to limit the amount of capping layer 3 material in the final bond. For wire bonding, a thick capping layer 3 is not required. Thicker layers will take more time to deposit. Most preferably the thickness of the capping layer for thermo compression bonding is in the range of 15nm to 25nm. Most preferably the thickness of the capping layer 3 for wire bonding is in the range of 9nm to 15nm.

    [0030] In an embodiment, the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 contains Cu, Co, Ni, Mo or Mn. These metals are non-noble and have the advantage of being known in the substrate manufacturing industry and are therefore compatible with the state-of-the-art infrastructure. In addition they allow for good electrical and thermal conduction so that the final bonding yields good electrical and thermal connections between the bonding entities. They also offer a good adhesion to the capping layer 3.

    [0031] A second aspect, illustrated in figure 2a, relates to a substrate 1 having at least one main surface 11 comprising at least one non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 partially covered by a capping layer shielding the covered part 12 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 from the environment. This capping layer 3 comprises an alloy, the alloy being NiB or CoB and containing an atomic percentage of boron in the range of 10% to 50%.

    [0032] Figures 2a-2b demonstrate alternatives implementations for the second aspect of the invention. It is readily understood that other alternative implementations are possible.

    [0033] The substrate 1 of figures 2a,b,c can be selected from the list: a semiconductor substrate, a printed circuit board, a glass panel, a flexible substrate, or any substrate comprising a non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 on its main surfaces 11. The semiconductor substrate can comprise at least one semiconductor device and an interconnect structure, the at least one semiconductor device being electrically connected to the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad through at least part the interconnect structure. The substrate 1 can comprise a stack of at least two bonded dies or; a stack of at least one bonded die on an interposer substrate or; a stack of at least one bonded die on a wafer.

    [0034] The main surface 11 of the substrate 1 in figures 2a,b is one having a flat surface. This is the surface where bonding is done, for instance 'flipchip thermo compression bonding is done on a silicon interposer substrate'. Note that this main surface can be the top or the bottom flat surface of the substrate 11 or both.

    [0035] The non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 in figures 2a,b,c is configured as the receiving entity in a bonding process. Typically a certain stand-off height is required between the two entities to be bonded for various reasons well known in the art such as stress relief, underfull dispense or, fluxing. The non-receiving entity in the bonding process typically has the bonding material whereas the receiving entity has a landing pad to accommodate the bonding material during the bonding process. The bonding material can be but is not limited to solder, bondwire, metallic pillar, etc.

    [0036] The non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 does exclude noble metals, like Au and Pd. These noble metals have excellent anti-oxidation properties but are rare materials which are expensive. It is an aim of the invention to replace them by cheaper alternatives that are commonly available.

    [0037] As noble metallic bonding layers are excluded from the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2, a capping layer 3 is required to avoid oxidation of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pads 2. The capping layer 3 partially covers the none-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 thereby shielding the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 from the environment at the location on the pad were the bonding will take place. Note that the metallic bonding landing pad, where covered by the capping layer 3, is in direct contact with this capping layer 3. The region of the non-noble metallic bonding pad 2 not covered by the capping layer 3 is not shielded from the environment and is hence exposed to the environment.

    [0038] The environment containing oxygen can even in small amounts down to 30ppm, lead to oxidation of a non-noble metal. This oxidation can occur even in tools using a nitrogen ambient and/or fluid vapour-phase atmospheres during soldering, as the partial pressure of oxygen in these ambient is still significant resulting in oxidation of non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2. This oxidation can take place during storage or in the bonding facility or assembly house. The capping layer 3 acts as a diffusion barrier layer preventing oxygen from the environment from traversing the capping layer 3 and reaching the non-noble metal of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2. Vice versa the capping layer 3 also prevents the metal from the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 to diffuse outwards traversing the capping layer 3 and reaching the environment where it will readily oxidize when oxygen is encountered.

    [0039] It is a well-known fact that oxidation of non-noble metallic bonding landing pads 2 leads to inferior bonds and must hence be avoided to maintain a high bonding yield, a good bonding reliability and a cost efficiency of the bonded structure.

    [0040] It was surprisingly found that using a NiB or CoB alloy with an atomic concentration percentage of B from 10% to 50% as a capping layer 3 partially covering the non-noble metallic bonding landing pads 2 yielded excellent diffusion barrier properties effectively preventing diffusion through the capping layer and thus preventing oxidation of the non-noble metal of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 covered by the capping layer 3.

    [0041] It was surprisingly found that using a NiB or CoB alloy with an atomic concentration percentage of B from 10% to 50% as a capping layer 3 partially covering non-noble metallic bonding landing pads 2 yielded excellent wetting properties of the part of the non-noble bonding landing pad 2 covered by the capping layer, allowing good solderability with known solders such as Sn.

    [0042] It was surprisingly found that using a NiB or CoB alloy with an atomic concentration percentage of B from 10% to 50% as a capping 3 layer partially covering a non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2, this pad 2 did not readily oxidize when in contact with the normal environment being air, which contains oxygen. It is currently believed that this is might be due to the high atomic concentration percentage of B in the NiB or CoB alloy, the B acting as an interstitial element in the Ni or Co metal prevents oxidation of the Ni or Co in the capping layer 3. B is small enough, in physical size, to fit into the spaces in the Ni or Co Lattice. As such, the NiB or CoB effectively behaves as a noble metal but at a lower cost. Lower atomic concentration percentages of B have been found not sufficient to prevent oxidation of the NiB or CoB itself. This is believed to be related to vacancies in the Ni or Co lattices that would still be present, allowing the oxygen to oxidize the Ni or Co.

    [0043] It was surprisingly found that using a NiB or CoB alloy with an atomic concentration percentage of B from 10% to 50% as a capping 3 layer partially covering a non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2, this pad 2 did not readily corrode when in contact with the normal environment, which contains H2O. It is currently believed that due to the high atomic concentration percentage of B in the NiB or CoB alloy, the B acts as an interstitial element in the Ni or Co metal preventing corrosion of the Ni or Co in the capping layer 3. B is small enough, in physical size, to fit into the spaces in the Ni or Co Lattice. As such the NiB or CoB effectively behaves as a noble metal but at a lower cost. Lower atomic concentration percentages of B have been found not sufficient to prevent corrosion of the NiB or CoB itself. This is believed to be related to vacancies in the Ni or Co lattices that would still be present, allowing the H2O to corrode the Ni or Co.

    [0044] It was surprisingly found that using an NiB or CoB alloy with an atomic concentration percentage of B from 10% to 50% as a capping layer 3 partially covering a non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 provide a hard and smooth surface of the capping layer. This prevents the capping layer 3 from being damaged during for instance probe test. Substrates 1 are generally tested by probe needles which are being pressed against the bonding landing pad thereby establishing an electrical contact during production testing to check if the substrates 1 are functional prior to bonding or during the assembly process. This prior testing avoids that erroneous substrates are being populated with expensive bonding entities. So probe test is needed to control costs. A further advantage of the increased hardness of capping layer 3, compared to the hardness of noble metals or not capped non-noble metallic bonding landing pads, is that the pressure in the bonding process can be reduced when using compression type bonding. This improves manufacturability of the bonds, as less pressure means less risk of damaged devices located in the vicinity of the none-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2, and as such subjected to the local pressure applied during the bonding process. The hardness of the capping layer generally increases with increasing B atomic concentration. The minimum thickness guarantees a uniform capping layer with uniform properties including hardness.

    [0045] An advantage of a capping layer of the second aspect of the invention is that a single capping layer 3 combines required functions such as a diffusion barrier properties, constituting a non-oxidizing capping layer, increased hardness, being readily available, cheap and having good wetting properties. This gives a cost advantage as well as a performance advantage due to non-oxidizing properties.

    [0046] The upper limit of the B atomic concentration percentage in accordance with the second aspect of the invention, is 50%. This corresponds to Ni1B1 or Co1B1. So in the upper limit the complete capping layer 3 consists of Ni1B1 or Co1B1. At lower concentrations other borides are formed, for instance Ni3B which corresponds to a B atomic concentration percentage of 25%. The final composition of the capping layer 3 is a mix of metallic Ni and Ni borides or a mix of metallic Co with Co borides depending on the capping layer used.

    [0047] According to the invention, the thickness of the capping layer 3 is greater than 9nm and smaller than 50nm. Reducing the thickness of the capping layer 3 partially covering non-noble metallic bonding landing pads 2 enables further downscaling of, for instance but not limited to, µbumps used in thermo compression bonding during flipchip assembly. It should be noted that the thickness of the capping layer 3 is much less than what is normally applied for instance for Au or Pd capping layers. This gives a clear advantage for current and future scaling. A thinner capping layer 3 also allows for shorter deposition time and a higher throughput during manufacturing. It was found that a capping layer 3 thickness greater than 9nm is required to obtain a uniform thickness of the capping layer 3 covering the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2. The upper limit is put to limit the amount of capping layer 3 material in the final bond. For wire bonding a thick capping layer 3 is not required. Thicker layers will take more time to deposit. Most preferably, the thickness of the capping layer for thermo compression bonding is in the range of 15nm to 25nm. Most preferably, the thickness of the capping layer 3 for wire bonding is in the range of 9nm to 15nm.

    [0048] In an embodiment the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 contains Cu, Co, Ni, Mo or Mn. These metals are non-noble and have the advantage of being known in the substrate manufacturing industry. Hence they are compatible with the state-of-the-art infrastructure. In addition they allow for a good electrical and thermal conduction so that the final bonding yield good electrical and thermal connections between the bonding entities. They also offer a good adhesion to the capping layer 3.

    [0049] In an embodiment, the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 at least partially extends above the main surface 11 and the capping layer 3 only covers the topside 13 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2. This is a particular case where a raised non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 is provided extending above the main surface. This can be useful to create a stand-off height between the two bonding entities. The capping layer 3 on the topside 13 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 provides a landing pad to the bonding by for instance wire bonding. Covering the complete topside 13 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 allows for maximum bonding area and can be used to decrease the pitch between adjacent non-noble metallic bonding landing pads 2 thereby allowing for further scaling. Using the complete topside 13 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 allows for a larger misalignment error between the two bonding entities.

    [0050] In an embodiment the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 at least partially extends above the main surface 11 and the capping layer 3 only covers the sidewalls 14 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2. This is a particular case where the topside 13 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 is not covered by the capping layer 3. This is the case for instance after thermo compression bonding was performed. The thermo compression bonding causes the capping layer 3 on the topside 13 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 to be dissolved in the solder, but leaves the sidewalls 14 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 intact. An advantage is that the sidewalls 14 remain shielded from the environment after bonding, whilst the topside 13 allows good wettability to the solder and thus good solderability.

    [0051] In an embodiment the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 at least partially extends above the main surface 11 and the capping layer 3 only covers the sidewalls 14 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2. The pad 2 further contains a material layer 4 that at least partially covers the topside 13 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2, the material layer 4 comprises intermetallic compounds and interstitial B. These intermetallic compounds comprise a combination of a metal of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 and a main solder metal and Ni or Co. This is a particular case where the topside 13 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 is not covered by the capping layer 3. This is the case for instance after thermo compression bonding was performed, the thermo compression bonding causing the capping layer 3 on the topside 13 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 to dissolve in the solder, but leaving the side walls intact. The thermocompression bonding further leaves a material layer 4 on the topside 13 of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2. The material layer comprises interstitial B, as B atoms are small enough to fit between the crystalline lattice locations of the different components of the material layer 4. The material layer also comprises intermetallic compounds formed due to the bonding process, the intermetallic compounds refers to solid-state phases involving metals. In intermetallic compounds, different elements are ordered into different sites in the structure, with distinct local environments. The intermetallic compounds comprised in the material layer are a combination of a metal of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 and a main solder metal and Ni or Co. So all three components can be detected including the Ni or Co used in the capping layer 3. An advantage is that the sidewalls remain shielded from the environment after bonding, whilst the topside 13 has a material layer that forms a good electrical and physical bond between the solder and the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2.

    [0052] In an embodiment a substrate according to foregoing embodiments further comprises a material layer 4 that at least partially covers the part of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 not covered by the capping layer 3, whereby the material layer 4 comprises intermetallic compounds and interstitial B. The intermetallic compounds comprises a combination of a metal of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 and a main solder metal and Ni or Co. This allows the material layer, which is formed during the bonding process to be present at the regions of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 that are not covered by the capping layer 3. It is not required that the regions of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 that are not covered by the capping layer 3 are fully covered by the material layer 4. A partial coverage is sufficient, as the case where misalignment occurred between the two bonding entities and the top surfaces was not fully covered by the material layer. This does not exclude that a good bond can been made.

    [0053] In an embodiments the main solder metal is selected from the group: Sn, Zn, Bi, Pb or In. This main solder metal is the metal that is most present in a solder as most solders are composed of different materials including metals. The metal that is most common in the solder is the main solder metal. These solders show good wettability on the capping layer as disclosed in the second aspect of the invention.

    [0054] According to an example useful for understanding the invention, the description describes a method to manufacture substrate according to the first or the second aspect, whereby a capping layer (3) at least partially covering a non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) at the main surface (11) of the substrate (1) is formed, the method comprising the following steps:
    • providing a substrate comprising on a main surface thereof at least one non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2),
    • cleaning the main surface (11) of the substrate (1), and
    • depositing a capping layer on the cleaned surface of the metallic bonding landing pad.


    [0055] The capping layer can be deposited using Electro Less Deposition (ELD). The step of cleaning can be performed with an organic acid based cleaner and a DeIonized (DI) water rinse. The ELD plating can be performed on LAM ELD2300 single wafer tool, with a typical plating rate of about lAngstrom per second. Optional the substrate can be rinsed with DI wager and dried by air.

    [0056] The substrate 1 disclosed in the first and second aspect, is rigid and comprises: one or more layers of wiring, interconnecting at least one non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 to devices comprised within the substrate. These devices can comprise active devices (e.g. transistors, diodes), passive devices or components (resistors, capacitors, inductors), MEMS devices (e.g. Pressure sensors, accelerometers, gyroscopes). The substrate 1 further comprises at least non-noble metallic pad configured to contact external components. These non-noble metallic pad may be present on all surfaces of the substrate 1 (top, bottom and side surfaces). The substrate 1 may also contain wiring between different non-noble metallic pads, the wiring being located on the outer surface 11 of the substrate 1 e.g. when no components are internal to the substrate such as for PCB interconnect substrate. The substrate 1 can comprise a surface metallization pattern and a non-noble metallic pad that is subject to oxidation or corrosion if left unprotected. Typical materials of such a surface metallization pattern are Cu, Ni and Co. This surface metallization may be at a level higher than the substrate 1 main surface 11, e.g. bumps, add-on interconnect, at the same level, e.g. a planarized surface 11 by e.g. CMP, fly-cut,..., or at a lower surface than the surface 11 e.g. inside a cavity present in the substrate.
    The at least one non-noble metallic bonding landing pad of this metallic surface can be connected to at least one electronic component or electronic subsystem. These connections are realized by soldering, thermo-compression, ultrasonic welding or bonding.

    [0057] According to an example useful for understanding the invention, a substrate 1 having at least one main surface 11 comprising at least one non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 covered by a material layer 4 is disclosed. The material layer 4 comprises intermetallic compounds and interstitial B, the intermetallic compounds comprising a combination of a metal of the metallic bonding landing pad and a main solder metal and Ni or Co. The substrate 1 comprises interconnection wiring between at least one non-noble metallic contact to devices present within the substrate 1. These devices can be: active devices (e.g. transistors, diodes) passive components (resistors, capacitors, inductors), MEMS devices (eg. Pressure sensors, accelerometers, gyroscopes). The substrate 1 may also comprise only wiring between the different none-noble metallic contact points on its main surface 11, as is the case on a printed circuit board. The substrate 1 comprises a surface metallization on at least one main surface 11 and at least one none-noble metallic contact pad that is subject to oxidation or corrosion if left unprotected. Typical materials of such surface metallization are Cu, Ni and Co. This metallization may be at a level higher than the substrate surface 11 (bumps, add-on interconnect), at the same level (planarized surface by e.g. CMP, fly-cut) or at a lower surface than the main surface 11 of the substrate 1 (e.g. inside a cavity present in the substrate). The at least one none-noble metallic contact pad related this metallic surface is to be connected to non-noble metallic contacts of other electronic components or electronic subsystems. These connections are realized by soldering, thermo-compression, ultrasonic welding or bonding.

    [0058] The invention is related to the use of a 10 to 50nm thick electroless deposited NiB or CoB capping layer 3 with an atomic B concentration of 10 to 50 %, deposited selectively on the exposed surface metallization prone to oxidation and corrosion, thereby preventing oxidation and/or corrosion of this surface metallization. This protection is achieved without the subsequent deposition of additional protection, such as the traditionally used noble metals Pd and Au. This thin layer capping layer 3 has following functionality:
    • passivation: avoids the oxidation and corrosion of all exposed metal surfaces (traces, pads).
    • soldering: allows for the successful soldering attachment of components due to the good wettability of solder to the NiB or CoB surfaces of the capping layer 3. During soldering, this capping layer 3 will be dissolved in the solder or be transformed intermetallic compounds. This allows for the interaction and formation of intermetallic compounds between the solder and the underlying non-oxidized metal. (Soldering is the connection of two metallic bodies through the formation of intermetallic compounds between both materials, one of the materials (the solder) is heated close to or above its melting point to obtain a fast interdiffusion and alloying of the solder and the second body surface material)
    • thermocompression bonding: during thermocompression, mechanical pressure is used to connect two metallic bodies without melting. Through the use of heat and pressure, interdiffusion of material at the interface is promoted to obtain a solid connection between both bodies also known as the bonding entities. To be successful, clean, non-oxidized surfaces are required.
    • ultrasonic bonding: ultrasonic energy is applied during bonding thereby creating an intimate contact between the surface first metallic element (e.g. a bonding wire (Al, Au, Cu) or metallic bumps (Au)) and the surface of a second element also known as the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad 2 (= the bond pad, an exposed metallic surface). To be successful, clean, non-oxidized metal surfaces are required.
    • thermo-sonic bonding: a combination of thermocompression and ultrasonic bonding. The addition of ultrasonic energy during thermocompression is used to enhance the intermixing at atomic level at the surface of the two joining materials. In electronics, this method is mainly used for gold or copper wire bonding.


    [0059] In all these applications, the use of the thin NiB or CoB capping layer 3 allows us to create:
    • non-oxidized surfaces that do not require coating with noble metals for assembly processes such as: soldering (Flip chip bonding, solder ball attach, surface mount assembly); thermo-compression (flip-chip) or Wire bonding (Ultrasonic or thermosonic Al, Au or Cu wire),
    • oxidation and corrosion prevention of metal surfaces exposed on the device surface that does not require additional coating with protective layers. (E.g. parts of the metallic surfaces not covered solder during the soldering process or not covered by the bonded material (bump or wire) during the thermo-compression or wire bonding processes.
    The relevant surface metallization to be protected by NiB or CoB capping layer 3 are: Cu, Ni, Co or Mo.

    [0060] Figure 3 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of this invention. Test samples were prepared with a, respectively 5nm, 10nm and 20nm thick, NiB capping layer 3 containing 30 atomic % B, covering a Cu bonding landing pad 2. These test samples were then subjected to a number of thermal cycles ranging from 0 (no reflow) to 10 in an oxygen-containing ambient. During the reflow the temperature was as high as 300°C. Afterwards the presence of oxides was investigated using XPS. Figure 3 shows the concentration of Cu, Ni and B and their oxides for blanket NiB coupons. The NiB layer of 10 or 20nm thick was remarkably free of oxidation even after 10 reflows. The 5nm NiB layer could not prevent oxidation of the underlying Cu, in particular, when subjected to a number of reflows.

    [0061] Figure 4 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of this invention. Test interpose samples containing a Cu contact daisy chain were prepared with respectively a 10nm and 16nm thick NiB capping layer 3 containing 20 atomic % B, a 10nm and 20nm thick, NiB capping layer 3 containing 30 atomic % B or no capping layer. Figure 4 shows the yield of the different daisy chains. Having a NiB capping layer improved the yield. The thickness of the NiB capping layer had less impact on the yield than the B concentration.


    Claims

    1. A substrate (1) having at least one main surface (11) comprising at least one non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) either fully covered by a capping layer (3) thereby shielding the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) from the environment, or partially covered by a capping layer thereby shielding the covered part (12) of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad from the environment; wherein the capping layer (3) is an alloy; characterized in that the alloy has a thickness greater than 9nm and smaller than 50nm, the alloy being NiB or CoB and containing an atomic concentration percentage of boron in the range of 10% to 50%.
     
    2. The substrate (1) according to claim 1 wherein the capping layer fully covers the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2).
     
    3. The substrate (1) according to any of the previous claims wherein the none-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) contains Cu, Co, Ni, Mo or Mn.
     
    4. A substrate (1) according to claim 1 wherein the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) is partially covered by a capping layer thereby shielding the covered part (12) of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) from the environment.
     
    5. The substrate (1) according to claims 4 wherein the none-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) contains Cu, Co, Ni, Mo or Mn.
     
    6. The substrate (1) according to claim 4 or 5 wherein the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) is at least partially extending above the main surface (11) and the capping layer (3) only covers the topside (13) of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2).
     
    7. The substrate (1) according to claim 4 or 5 wherein the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) is at least partially extending above the main surface (11) and the capping layer (3) only covers the sidewalls (14) of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) that extends above the main surface (11).
     
    8. The substrate (1) according to claim 7 further comprising a material layer (4) that at least partially covers the topside (13) of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) the material layer (4) comprises intermetallic compounds and interstitial B, the intermetallic compounds comprising a combination of a metal of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) and a main solder metal and Ni or Co.
     
    9. The substrate according to claim 4 or 5 further comprising a material layer (4) that at least partially covers the part of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) not covered by the capping layer(3), the material layer (4) comprises intermetallic compounds and interstitial B, the intermetallic compounds comprising a combination of a metal of the non-noble metallic bonding landing pad (2) and a main solder metal and Ni or Co.
     
    10. The substrate (1) according to claim 8, 9 wherein the main solder metal is selected from the group: Sn, Zn, Bi, Pb or In.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Substrat (1) mit mindestens einer Oberfläche (11) umfassend mindestens ein Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pad (2), das entweder vollständig durch eine Deckschicht (3) bedeckt ist, wodurch das Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pad (2) von der Umgebung abgeschirmt ist, oder das teilweise durch eine Deckschicht bedeckt ist, wodurch der bedeckte Teil (12) des Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pad von der Umgebung abgeschirmt ist;
    wobei die Deckschicht (3) eine Legierung ist;
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Legierung eine Dicke von mehr als 9 nm und weniger als 50 nm hat, die Legierung NiB oder CoB ist und eine atomaren Konzentrationsprozentsatz von Bor im Bereich von 10 % bis 50 % enthält.
     
    2. Substrat (1) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Deckschicht das Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pad (2) vollständig bedeckt.
     
    3. Substrat (1) nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pad (2) Cu, Co, Ni, Mo oder Mn enthält.
     
    4. Substrat (1) nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pad (2) teilweise durch eine Deckschicht bedeckt ist, wodurch der bedeckte Teil (12) des Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pads (2) von der Umgebung abgeschirmt ist.
     
    5. Substrat (1) nach Anspruch 4, wobei das Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pad (2) Cu, Co, Ni, Mo oder Mn enthält.
     
    6. Substrat (1) nach Anspruch 4 oder 5, wobei sich das Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pad (2) mindestens teilweise über die Hauptoberfläche (11) erstreckt und die Deckschicht (3) nur die Oberseite (13) des Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pads (2) bedeckt.
     
    7. Substrat (1) nach Anspruch 4 oder 5, wobei sich das Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pad (2) mindestens teilweise über die Hauptoberfläche (11) erstreckt und die Deckschicht (3) nur die Seitenwände (14) des Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pads (2) bedeckt, das sich über der Hauptoberfläche (11) erstreckt.
     
    8. Substrat (1) nach Anspruch 7, ferner umfassend eine Materialschicht (4), die die Oberseite (13) des Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pads (2) zumindest teilweise bedeckt, wobei die Materialschicht (4) intermetallische Verbindungen und Zwischengitterplatz B umfasst, wobei die intermetallischen Verbindungen eine Kombination aus einem Metall des Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pads (2) und einem Hauptlötmetall und Ni oder Co umfasst.
     
    9. Substrat nach Anspruch 4 oder 5, ferner umfassend eine Materialschicht (4), die den nicht durch die Deckschicht (3) bedeckten Teil des Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pads (2) mindestens teilweise bedeckt, wobei die Materialschicht (4) intermetallische Verbindungen und Zwischengitterplatz B umfasst, wobei die intermetallischen Verbindungen eine Kombination aus einem Metall des Nicht-Edelmetall-Bonding-Landing-Pads (2) und einem Hauptlötmetall und Ni oder Co umfasst.
     
    10. Substrat (1) nach Anspruch 8, 9, wobei das Hauptlötmetall ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe: Sn, Zn, Bi, Pb oder In.
     


    Revendications

    1. Substrat (1) ayant au moins une surface principale (11) comprenant au moins un plot de connexion en métal non noble (2) soit complètement recouvert par une couche de recouvrement (3), ce qui permet de protéger le plot de connexion en métal non noble (2) de l'environnement, soit partiellement recouvert par une couche de recouvrement, ce qui permet de protéger la partie recouverte (12) du plot de connexion en métal non noble de l'environnement ;
    dans lequel la couche de recouvrement (3) est un alliage ;
    caractérisé en ce que l'alliage a une épaisseur supérieure à 9 nm et inférieure à 50 nm, l'alliage étant du NiB ou du CoB et contenant un pourcentage de concentration atomique de bore dans la plage de 10 % à 50 %.
     
    2. Substrat (1) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la couche de recouvrement recouvre complètement le plot de connexion en métal non noble (2).
     
    3. Substrat (1) selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le plot de connexion en métal non noble (2) contient du Cu, du Co, du Ni, du Mo ou du Mn.
     
    4. Substrat (1) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le plot de connexion en métal non noble (2) est partiellement recouvert par une couche de recouvrement, ce qui permet de protéger la partie recouverte (12) du plot de connexion en métal non noble (2) de l'environnement.
     
    5. Substrat (1) selon la revendication 4, dans lequel le plot de connexion en métal non noble (2) contient du Cu, du Co, du Ni, du Mo ou du Mn.
     
    6. Substrat (1) selon la revendication 4 ou 5, dans lequel le plot de connexion en métal non noble (2) s'étend au moins partiellement au-dessus de la surface principale (11) et la couche de recouvrement (3) recouvre uniquement le côté supérieur (13) du plot de connexion en métal non noble (2).
     
    7. Substrat (1) selon la revendication 4 ou 5, dans lequel le plot de connexion en métal non noble (2) s'étend au moins partiellement au-dessus de la surface principale (11) et la couche de recouvrement (3) recouvre uniquement les parois latérales (14) du plot de connexion en métal non noble (2) qui s'étend au-dessus de la surface principale (11).
     
    8. Substrat (1) selon la revendication 7, comprenant en outre une couche de matériau (4) qui recouvre au moins partiellement le côté supérieur (13) du plot de connexion en métal non noble (2), la couche de matériau (4) comprend des composés intermétalliques et un B interstitiel, les composés intermétalliques comprenant une combinaison d'un métal du plot de connexion en métal non noble (2) et d'un métal de soudure principal et du Ni ou du Co.
     
    9. Substrat selon la revendication 4 ou 5, comprenant en outre une couche de matériau (4) qui recouvre au moins partiellement la partie du plot de connexion en métal non noble (2) non recouverte par la couche de recouvrement (3), la couche de matériau (4) comprend des composés intermétalliques et un B interstitiel, les composés intermétalliques comprenant une combinaison d'un métal du plot de connexion en métal non noble (2) et d'un métal de soudure principal et du Ni ou du Co.
     
    10. Substrat (1) selon la revendication 8, 9, dans lequel le métal de soudure principal est choisi dans le groupe : Sn, Zn, Bi, Pb ou In.
     




    Drawing














    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description