(19)
(11)EP 2 938 202 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
22.05.2019 Bulletin 2019/21

(21)Application number: 13817688.8

(22)Date of filing:  23.12.2013
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A23F 5/36  (2006.01)
A23P 30/40  (2016.01)
A23F 5/40  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2013/077883
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/102231 (03.07.2014 Gazette  2014/27)

(54)

PROCESS OF PREPARING A FOAMING AID, THE FOAMING AID AND USES

VERFAHREN ZUM HERSTELLEN EINER SCHÄUMUNGSHILFE, DIE SCHÄUMUNGSHILFE UND VERWENDUNGEN

PROCÉDÉ DE PRÉPARATION D'UN AGENT MOUSSANT, L'AGENT MOUSSANT ET UTILISATIONS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 28.12.2012 EP 12199585

(43)Date of publication of application:
04.11.2015 Bulletin 2015/45

(73)Proprietor: Nestec S.A.
1800 Vevey (CH)

(72)Inventors:
  • LELOUP, Valérie Martine, Jeanine
    CH-1350 Orbe (CH)
  • MORA, Federico
    CH-1110 Morges (CH)
  • DOSSIN, Eric
    F-25370 Jougne (FR)
  • MONTAVON, Philippe
    CH-1112 Echichens (CH)

(74)Representative: Lomholt, Stig Bredsted 
Nestec S.A. Avenue Nestlé 55
1800 Vevey
1800 Vevey (CH)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 021 957
GB-A- 2 486 487
US-A- 3 644 122
US-A1- 2010 215 818
GB-A- 1 073 738
US-A- 3 644 122
US-A1- 2007 248 731
  
  • SIMONE BLUMBERG ET AL: "Quantitative Studies on the Influence of the Bean Roasting Parameters and Hot Water Percolation on the Concentrations of Bitter Compounds in Coffee Brew", JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol. 58, no. 6, 24 February 2010 (2010-02-24), pages 3720-3728, XP055064049, ISSN: 0021-8561, DOI: 10.1021/jf9044606
  • ERNESTO ILLY ET AL: "Neglected Food Bubbles: The Espresso Coffee Foam", FOOD BIOPHYSICS, vol. 6, no. 3, 30 March 2011 (2011-03-30), pages 335-348, XP055064224, ISSN: 1557-1858, DOI: 10.1007/s11483-011-9220-5
  • ALESSANDRA D'AGOSTINA ET AL: "Investigations on the High Molecular Weight Foaming Fractions of Espresso Coffee", JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol. 52, no. 23, 1 November 2004 (2004-11-01), pages 7118-7125, XP055062787, ISSN: 0021-8561, DOI: 10.1021/jf049013c
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

Technical field of the invention



[0001] The present invention relates to a foaming aid and the processes of preparing the same from a coffee extract. The present invention further relates to the use of the foaming aid in the preparation of a beverage including a coffee product such as a soluble coffee product and the related process of making a coffee product.

Background of the invention



[0002] In espresso coffees, persistent foam also referred to as "crema" represents a visual quality criterion. The volume, texture, finesse, color and stability of the crema are distinctive characteristics appealing to the consumer. Crema results from the extraction of surface active coffee components that coat and stabilize the gas bubbles created by blasting the tamped espresso coffee matrix with pressurized heated water.

[0003] The development of a soluble coffee delivering espresso-type crema upon reconstitution would definitively represent a competitive advantage in the field of coffee beverage production. The scientific and technical challenges are considerable since soluble coffee composition and preparation of the same are quite different from espresso extraction.

[0004] As concerns coffee processing, the industrial extraction allows the extraction of additional polysaccharides and nitrogen-rich compounds during the extraction phase. Changes in the physical state of extracted coffee compounds occur upon subsequent concentration leading to aggregation and sedimentation of the compounds. The role of these compounds specific to soluble coffee and the impact of their physical state on foaming properties of coffee are poorly understood.

[0005] WO 2009/040249 and EP 0839457 disclose processes of making an instant coffee, particularly a spray-dried instant coffee, which, when contacted with hot water, produces a foam which simulates espresso crema. As part of the soluble "espresso" coffee generation process, the extract is foamed by pressurized gas injection, and spray dried under sufficient drier outlet temperature and spray pressure conditions to obtain porous particles with gas bubbles incorporated therein. The incorporation of minute size gas bubbles is essential for the delivery of an improved in-cup foam.

[0006] US 2007/248731 discloses an enzymatic process to isolate arabinogalactans and the use of coffee derived arabinogalactans to optimize the sensory characteristics of soluble coffee and to stabilize foam. The soluble fraction containing arabinogalactans obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis requires concentration prior to further manipulation.

[0007] EP 1021957 discloses the isolation of a heavily foaming fraction from defatted and roast and ground coffee beans by precipitation followed by centrifugation of the precipitate.

[0008] US 2010/215818 relates to the improvement of foam stability and amount of foam by providing an instant drink powder comprising porous powder particles having a high porosity of at least 65%, the high porosity being obtained by injecting gas under pressure in the coffee extract before drying. The texture of the foam, stability and volume are improved due to a combination of the pore size with a narrow size distribution and with high porosity.

[0009] GB 2486487 discloses an instant coffee composition comprising soluble coffee particles containing gas under pressure and coated with finely ground insoluble coffee material. The foam texture and taste is improved by the finely ground material being entrained in the foam.

[0010] Product appearance and pleasure during consumption are key attributes driving consumer preference. Foam volume, stability and appearance play a pivotal role for the perceived quality of coffee beverages. A pure soluble coffee that produces stable espresso-type crema would therefore represent a clear advantage in the field.

Summary of the invention



[0011] Thus, an object of the present invention relates to the provision of a foaming aid suitable for use in beverages in particular coffee beverages. In particular, it is an object of the present invention to provide a foaming aid that improves the foam volume, stability and appearance of a beverage such as a coffee beverage, for example an instant coffee beverage.

[0012] A further object of the present invention relates to the provision of a process of preparing a coffee product having improved foam volume, stability and appearance.

[0013] Thus, one aspect of the invention relates to a process of making a foaming aid comprising the steps of
  1. (i) providing a coffee extract,
  2. (ii) isolating a surface active fraction of said extract to obtain a foaming aid.


[0014] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a foaming aid obtainable from the above mentioned process of the invention.

[0015] Yet another aspect of the present invention relates to the use of a surface active fraction isolated from a coffee extract as a foaming aid.

[0016] A further aspect of the present invention relates to a process of making a coffee product comprising the steps of:
  1. (a) providing a coffee extract,
  2. (b) adding a foaming aid of the invention to said coffee extract provided in step (a).


[0017] Still another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a coffee product obtained by the process of making a coffee of the present invention.

[0018] Finally, one aspect of the present disclosure relates to a container comprising the coffee product of the present invention.

Brief description of the figures



[0019] 

Figure 1 shows foam volumes of reconstituted coffee powders evaluated at 85°C by foam measuring device at 5 (black bar), 30 (grey bar) and 300s (white bar) at 2.5 % TC.

Figure 2 shows the effect of thermal sediments on (i) the initial foam volume of reconstituted coffee and the effect on (ii) drainage rate/stability of the foam. In figure 2 the large dashed line represents the Standard; the solid thick black line represent the Reference, the small dashed line represents a coffee where the sediment has been added and the solid thin black line represents solubilized in KOH.



[0020] The present invention will now be described in more detail in the following.

Detailed description of the invention



[0021] Compared to espresso, industrial coffee manufacture allows for extracting more molecules and favoring physical changes of coffee compounds during extraction, concentration and drying. The impact of these process steps on foaming properties is poorly understood. Building scientific understanding of coffee foam chemistry and physics will enable the development of appropriate process solutions to refine coffee composition and powder structure for optimal foam delivery upon reconstitution.

[0022] Thus, an object of the present invention relates to the provision of processes of making an improved coffee product having improved foam upon reconstitution. The objective of the present inventors was therefore to establish the molecular and structural basis of coffee foam and to develop means for improving foam volume, appearance and stability upon reconstitution of an instant powder.

[0023] As concerns coffee processing, the industrial extraction procedure allows the extraction of additional polysaccharides and nitrogen-rich compounds. The use of high temperature also results in the formation of non-soluble material, the so-called thermal sediments. The present inventors discovered that better foaming performance of the final powdered coffee was obtained with these thermal sediments.

Definitions



[0024] Prior to discussing the present invention in further details, the following terms and conventions will be defined:

Crema



[0025] The term "crema" refers to the froth covering the surface of a high quality cup of espresso the colour of which varies from redish brown to biege. Crema is very important in making a good espresso. The presence of crema is the main difference between drip coffee and espresso. Crema releases potent coffee aroma and flavour compounds remaining in the mouth and throat long after drinking the espresso.

Foaming aid



[0026] As mentioned the present invention relates to the provision of a foaming aid. In the context of the present invention, a foaming aid refers to an agent that can be added to a foaming substance to improve its foaming properties. This foaming substance in the present invention may preferably refer to a coffee beverage for example an instant coffee beverage.

Surface active fraction



[0027] In the context of the present invention the term "surface active fraction" refers to a fraction (or composition) capable of lowering the surface tension of a liquid. The surface active fraction described herein is a composition isolated (or obtainable by isolation) from coffee extract. The "surface active fraction" or "surface active composition" is the thermal sediments described herein that is isolated by centrifugation. The thermal sediments are a composition comprising nitrogen-rich compounds, wherein hydrophobic amino acids account for approximately 50% (w/w) of the composition.

Polyphenols



[0028] In the context of the present invention, "polyphenols" refers to a structural class of natural, synthetic, and semisynthetic organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol units. The number and characteristics of these phenol substructures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological properties of particular members of the class.

Nitrogenous compounds



[0029] In the context of the present invention, "nitrogenous compounds" refers to a structural class of natural, synthetic, and semisynthetic organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large amounts of nitrogen atoms within their structure. The term "large amounts of nitrogen atoms" relates to an increased amount of nitrogen atoms relative to the starting material determined on a dry weight basis and/or on the basis of total solid content.

Melanoidins



[0030] In the context of the present invention, Melanoidins are brown, heterogeneous polymers that are formed either by the Maillard reaction, when sugars and amino acids combine at high temperatures and low water activity or by autoxidation and polymerization of phenolic compounds. Melanoidins are commonly present in foods that have undergone some form of non-enzymatic browning. In the presence of phenolic compounds, as it is the case in coffee, both the Maillard reaction and the autoxidative processes contribute to the formation of melanoidins during heat treatment, e.g. roasting. Melanoidins constitute up to 25% of the coffee beverages' dry matter.

Dry weight



[0031] The dry weight refers to the measurement of the mass of matter when completely dried and all fluids are completely removed from the matter. The dry weight % of a substance refers to the relative amount of said substance in the total dry weight matter. For example, if 100 grams (dry weight) matter, e.g. obtained from a coffee extract, contains 30 grams of mannan, then the dry weight% of mannan in said extract is 30%.

Total Solid Content (TC)



[0032] The total solid content (TC) refers to the mass of matter in a solution or a suspension. The TC of a coffee solution or suspension is defined as the weight (w) of the dried coffee residue expressed as a percentage of the original coffee solution or suspension in weight/weight percent (w/w%). Conversely, when preparing a coffee solution or suspension, it is the weight of the dry coffee powder (e.g. coffee extract) used to generate the coffee solution or suspension expressed in weight/weight percent (w/w%). For example, if 5 g (dry weight) of a coffee extract is used to generate 50g of a coffee solution, then the TC of this solution is 10% (w/w%).

Beverage



[0033] In the context of the present invention, a beverage refers to a liquid prepared for human consumption. A powdered beverage refers to a dry matter product (such as an instant powder) which may be reconstituted into a beverage by the addition of a liquid such as water. The term hot beverage refers to a beverage which is served heated. A hot beverage may be obtained by the addition of a heated liquid (for example in the form of water or milk) or by heating the beverage as such. Instant coffee is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. Instant coffee is obtained from the coffee extract, which is dehydrated into the form of powder or granules. These can be rehydrated with hot water or cold to provide a drinkable coffee beverage. Instant coffee may also be provided in the form of a concentrated coffee extract in liquid form.

[0034] At an industrial scale coffee processing typically consists of a number of successively performed operations, as follows:
  • grading, storage, blending of green coffees;
  • roasting and grinding;
  • extraction to obtain a coffee extract;


[0035] While instant coffee manufacturing includes a further step of:
  • drying, by either spray; or freeze-drying.

Process of preparing a foaming aid from a coffee.



[0036] Thermal sediments are nitrogen-rich compounds (6-7 weight%) half of which accounts for hydrophobic amino acids (i.e. LEU/ILE, VAL, PRO, PHE). The sediments also contain other classes of compounds known as melanoidines. Thermal sediments exhibit surface active properties and are formed during the extraction phase of coffee.

[0037] Applying the isolated thermal sediments to instant coffee extract subjected to gas injection, the inventors discovered that the thermal sediments improve the foam stability of the coffee product upon reconstitution of the resulting powder. Indeed, thermal sediments contain surface active compounds that have the ability to easily adsorb at the gas in extract interface. When some time is allowed for the thermal sediments to reorganize at the gas in extract interface of the gassed coffee extract, gas bubbles are efficiently entrapped and stabilized as observed by the higher porosity of the resulting powder and foam volume upon reconstitution of the powder. The solubilization of thermal sediments using an alkali such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) improves Crema stability and appearance although the resulting Crema becomes slightly darker. The drainage rate is decreased resulting in more persistent Crema. Finally, Crema viscosity is enhanced delivering more mouthfeel upon consumption. The instant coffee powders in which thermal sediments were incorporated show a slight increase in nitrogenous compounds.

[0038] A further object of the present invention relates to the provision of processes of making a foaming aid suitable for use in a beverage such as a coffee product.

[0039] Accordingly, the invention relates to a process of making a foaming aid as defined in claim 1.

[0040] The coffee extract referred to herein and employed by the processes of the present invention is obtained by hot extraction of roasted and ground coffee beans. Hot extraction is performed at a temperature in the range of 110 to 200°C, for example 140 to 200°C, such as in the range of 150 to 190°C, preferably in the range of 150 to 180°C. Thus, in one embodiment of the present invention, the coffee extract provided in step (i) and/or in step (a) is/are obtained by hot extraction. In another embodiment, the coffee extract provided in step (i) and/or in step (a) is/are in liquid form (e.g. an aqueous coffee extract). In another embodiment, step (ii) and/or in step (b) is/are performed after said hot extraction.

[0041] The coffee extract provided in step (i) and/or in step (a) is/are an extract of roast and ground coffee beans.

[0042] Thermal sediments are generally high molecular weight compounds.

[0043] The fraction (surface active fraction) isolated from the coffee extract preferably contains polyphenols and nitrogenous compounds, which contribute to the foam aiding activity of the surface active fraction. Thus, in one embodiment, said surface active fraction comprises at least one compound independently selected from the group of polyphenols and nitrogenous compounds.

[0044] It may be advantageous to concentrate the surface active fraction to obtain a composition having high concentration of the foam aiding substances e.g. polyphenols and nitrogenous compounds. The process of making a foaming aid can therefore comprise a further step of concentrating said surface active fraction. Preferably, the concentration of said at least one compound independently selected from the group of polyphenols and nitrogenous compounds in said foaming aid is greater than the concentration of said compound in said coffee extract provided in step (i) of the process of making the foaming aid of the invention. The concentration of polyphenols and nitrogenous compounds can at least be two fold higher in the isolated surface active fraction after it has been subjected to concentration compared to concentration of the compounds in the coffee extract. The concentration of polyphenols and nitrogenous compounds in the isolated surface active fraction after it has been subjected to concentration can at least be 5 fold higher, such as at least 10 fold higher, for example at least 20 fold higher, such at least 50 fold higher, for example at least 100 fold higher than the concentration of the compounds in the coffee extract from which they were obtained.

[0045] In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the surface active fraction is a composition comprising polyphenolic compounds obtainable by Maillard and autoxidative polymerization of at least two 4-vinylcatechol monomers obtained from free caffeic acid or the caffeic acid moiety of a chlorogenic acid.

[0046] In another preferred embodiment, said surface active fraction is a composition comprising at least one polyhydroxylated phenylindane. In one embodiment, wherein said surface active fraction is a composition comprising at least one multiply hydroxylated phenylindane selected from the list consisting of trans-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane, cis-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane, 1,3-bis(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)butane, trans-1,3-bis(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)butene, 5,6-Dihydroxy-2-carboxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane, trans-4,5-dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane, cis-4,5-dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane, trans-5,6-dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-[3',4'-dihydroxy-5'-(1-(3",4"-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-ethyl)phenyl] indane, cis-5,6-dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-[3',4'-dihydroxy-5'-(1-(3",4"-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-ethyl)phenyl] indane and 5,6-dihydroxy-1-methyl-2-[1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-ethyl]-3-(3",4"-dihydroxyphenyl) indane.

[0047] In one preferred embodiment, said surface active fraction is a composition comprising trans-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane, cis-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane and trans-1,3-bis(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)butene. In another preferred embodiment, said (surface active fraction) is a composition comprising trans-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane and cis-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane.

[0048] In one preferred embodiment of the process of making a foaming aid, the surface active fraction is a composition comprising brown-coloured, high molecular weight nitrogenous compounds derived from proteins, amino acids, sugars and chlorogenic acids from said extract obtained via Maillard and autooxidative reactions.

[0049] In another preferred embodiment, the nitrogenous compounds of the surface active fraction are melanoidins. In one preferred embodiment, the surface active fraction comprises at least 5% carbohydrates, 5% free chlorogenic acids, 25% free amino acids, and 75% brown-coloured, high molecular weight melanoidins.

[0050] The inventors discovered that the foam aiding activities of the isolated surface active fraction may be improved by treating the surface active fraction with an alkali. Thus, in a preferred embodiment, the process of preparing the foaming aid of the invention comprises a further step of treating said surface active fraction with an alkali. Preferably, the alkali is potassium hydroxide.

[0051] A foaming aid derived from coffee extract and use thereof.

[0052] The inventors have discovered that the surface active fraction isolated from coffee extract (e.g. in the form of thermal sediments as described herein) has surface active properties and may be used as a foaming aid for example in beverages such as a coffee beverage.

[0053] Accordingly, another aspect of the present invention relates to a foaming aid obtainable from the process of making a foaming aid as described herein.

[0054] The foaming aid may be provided in different forms in order to adapt to the further uses thereof. In one embodiment of the present invention, the foaming aid is in liquid form. In another embodiment, the foaming aid is in dry form such as a power or a granulate.

[0055] A further aspect of the present invention relates to the use of a surface active fraction isolated from a coffee extract as a foaming aid. In one embodiment, the surface active fraction is a surface active fraction obtainable by the process of the present invention relating to the making of a foaming aid. Accordingly, in one embodiment the surface active fraction is having the physio/chemical characteristics as referred herein for the process of making of a foaming aid.

[0056] In a further embodiment, the surface active fraction is used as foaming aid in a beverage. The beverage may be in various forms were foaming is desirable such as beer or coffee. In a preferred embodiment, the surface active fraction of the invention is used as a foaming aid in a coffee product, preferably an instant coffee product.

[0057] Process of preparing a coffee extract.

[0058] Yet a further object of the present invention relates to the provision of processes of making an improved coffee product having improved foam upon reconstitution.

[0059] Thus, a further aspect of the present invention provides a process of making a coffee product comprising the steps of:
  1. (a) providing a coffee extract,
  2. (b) adding a foaming aid of the present invention to said coffee extract provided in step (a).


[0060] In the process the foaming aid of the invention may be added to the coffee extract. However, in a preferred approach a surface active fraction as described herein is removed from the coffee extract prior to (re)introducing the surface active fraction as a foaming aid later in the coffee manufacturing process.

[0061] Thus, in one embodiment of the present invention, a surface active fraction has been removed from the coffee extract provided in step (a). Preferably the surface active fraction referred to this embodiment contains or essentially contains the same combination of compounds present in the foaming aid of the present invention.

[0062] The process of making a coffee product according to the present invention preferably further comprises at least one step of concentrating said coffee extract.

[0063] Since the thermal sediments can contribute to fouling in the process, it is preferred that they are removed from the coffee extract. Accordingly, in a preferred embodiment, said surface active fraction has been removed from the coffee extract provided in step (a) prior to said at least one step of concentrating said coffee extract.

[0064] In another preferred embodiment, the at least one step of concentration of said coffee extract is a step of evaporation. Typically the coffee product is dried to dry coffee product, for example in the form of a powder or granulate. The dehydration may be performed using means known to the person skilled in the art such as spray drying, freeze drying or thermal evaporation. Preferably, the coffee product is dehydrated to obtain a coffee product having a moisture content of 6% (weight %) or below, such as 5 % (weight %) or below, preferably 4 % (weight %) or below.

[0065] The surface active fraction in the form of the foaming aid of the present invention is (re)introduced in the process of making a coffee product as referred to in step (b), for example at the stage where the coffee extract is in the form of a heavy liquor (after concentration of the coffee extract, e.g. by evaporation, and before final drying, e.g. by spray drying or freeze drying). As mentioned, it is preferred but not essential that a surface active fraction, e.g. in the form of thermal sediments, was removed from the coffee extract earlier in the process, preferably before the concentration of the coffee extract.

[0066] The foaming aid may be introduced at various stages in the coffee making process; however, it is preferably introduced after the concentration of the coffee extract.

[0067] Thus, in one embodiment, the foaming aid is added prior to drying said coffee extract. In a second embodiment, said foaming aid is added after drying said coffee extract, for example by adding the foaming aid to the coffee powder/granulate or the final coffee liquid concentrate.

[0068] The foaming aid introduced may originate from the same coffee extract for which it is used (thus a true add-back). Alternatively and typically, the foaming aid is prepared in advance from one batch of coffee extract and used in the preparation of a coffee product. In the latter scenario, the foaming aid thus does not originate (at least not entirely) from the same coffee extract into which it is introduced.

[0069] The process of the present invention may be applied for the manufacturing of various types of coffee products. In one embodiment, said coffee product is a soluble coffee product. In another embodiment, said coffee product is in the form of a water-soluble powder or granulate. In a further embodiment, said coffee product is in a liquid form, such as a coffee concentrate.

[0070] One embodiment of the present invention concerns the process of making a coffee product, wherein said coffee products is a coffee product selected from the list consisting of instant coffee, instant espresso coffee, liquid coffee concentrate, coffee mixes, coffee mixtures, roast and ground coffee with or without capsules, mixes of roast and ground and instant coffee, and ready-to-drink coffee beverages.

Coffee extract



[0071] The present disclosure further provides a coffee product obtained by the process of the invention. Thus, one aspect of the present disclosure relates to a coffee product obtained by the process (coffee manufacturing process) of the present invention.

[0072] The coffee products of the disclosure may be provided in the form a soluble coffee product. The coffee products of the disclosure may be in the form of a water-soluble powder or granulate. The coffee products of the disclosure may be in a liquid form, such a coffee concentrate. In one embodiment, the coffee products is a coffee product selected from the list consisting of instant coffee, instant espresso coffee, liquid coffee concentrate, coffee mixes, coffee mixtures, roast and ground coffee with or without capsules, mixes of roast and ground and instant coffee, and ready-to-drink coffee beverages.

[0073] For all of the preparations described herein, the resulting coffee product (the end product of the process) can also be used in combination with one or more other ingredients such as flavours, milk, creamers, chicory, cereals and sugar.

[0074] The coffee product of the disclosure is typically packed into containers such as jars, tins, bags or capsules. Thus, still another aspect of the present disclosure is to provide a container comprising the coffee product of the present disclosure. The container may be in various forms depending on the application and nature of the content. In one embodiment, the container is a capsule.

[0075] The invention will now be described in further details in the following non-limiting examples.

Examples



[0076] The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of thermal sediments on foaming properties of soluble coffee by comparing trials with or without prior removal of thermal sediments. In order to combine optimized process performance (i.e. thermal sediment removal) and product foaming properties (i.e. thermal sediment add-back), different sediment removal/add-back strategies were also investigated. The present study compares the foaming performances of these different trials.

[0077] Accordingly, pilot trials were conducted with/without thermal sediment removal and with/without thermal sediment reincorporation in concentrated extract. In one of the trials, thermal sediments were solubilized in potassium hydroxide (KOH) prior to their reincorporation. The concentrated extracts were further dried. The powders were characterized for their foaming performance. Foaming properties were evaluated using the foam measurement device (FMD) (auto-foaming), KOMO (foamability), and sugar test (foam viscosity). Surface active properties were evaluated at short (BPA) and long time (Tracker).

[0078] Soluble coffee was produced by extraction of roast and ground coffee beans by methods generally known in the art of producing soluble coffee, involving extraction temperatures up to 170°C. In the experiments with sediment removal, this was removed by centrifugation of the coffee extract after extraction. The coffee extract was concentrated by evaporation, by methods generally known in the art of producing soluble coffee. In the experiments where sediment was
added, it was added to the concentrated extract after evaporation and before drying. The concentrated extracts were dried by spray drying, wherein gas was injected into the extract before spraying to produce a porous powder able to produce crema upon dissolution, using the method disclosed in WO 2009/040249.

[0079] A series of four trials were performed to assess the effect of thermal sediments on the foaming performance of the soluble powders. The trials consisted of:
  1. 1. Coffee manufacturing process with centrifugation (Standard), (referred to as trial ref# a);
  2. 2. Coffee manufacturing process without centrifugation (Reference), (referred to as trial ref# b);
  3. 3. Coffee manufacturing process with centrifugation and sediment add-back (+ sediments), (referred to as trial ref# c);
  4. 4. Coffee manufacturing process with centrifugation and solubilized sediment add-back (+KOH sediments), (referred to as trial ref# d).

Trial conditions:



[0080] Sediment handling - At the exception of the Reference trial, the thermal sediments were recovered by centrifugation.

[0081] Sediment reincorporation - Thermal sediments (89.6 Kg, TC 20%) were added batchwise to the thick extract (TC 57%) before gas injection, accounting for about 14% of the dried final powder (weight %).

[0082] Sediment solubilisation - 9kg of food-grade KOH (∼9%) is added to 87.8 kg of thermal sediments (TC 20%) in a tank. The mixture was mechanically stirred for about 15 minutes until the pH stabilized to 8. The resulting mixture was reincorporated to the thick extract as described, corresponding to an addition of 13.5% of dry sediments and 0.2% potassium on dry final powder.

Characterization of foam properties



[0083] The foaming properties were evaluated as follows:
Foam measuring device (FMD) analysis - The auto-foaming properties of the powder were measured: The powder is reconstituted at 2.5% TC and 85°C. The foam volume is measured at time 5s, 30s and 300s.

[0084] KOMO analysis - The foamability of the extract was measured: Coffee extracts (i.e. 0.1-2%) were prepared by solubilization of instant powder in MilliQ water at 75°C; 84mL of coffee extracts were whipped in the KOMO machine and the foamed liquid was recovered in a volumetric cylinder. The foam volume was recorded every 30s up to 3min. The initial foam volume and foam decay rate were extrapolated from the foam volume curves using a logarithmic model.

Example 1 - Powder porosity



[0085] The analysis of the powder porosity of the powders produced in example 1, revealed that the powder porosity is higher for powders containing thermal sediments, i.e. d (61.2%), c (64.8%), b (66.1%) versus a (59.4%). Thermal sediments most likely increase the amount of surface active compounds allowing for more efficient trapping and retention of nitrogen gas within the powder.

Example 2 - Auto-foaming properties (Figure 1)



[0086] The auto-foaming properties of powders produced in example 1 were measured with FMD on extracts reconstituted at 2.0 % TC at 85°C. The values were further corrected for a 2.5% TC extract (Figure 1). Analysis of the auto-foaming properties revealed that the lowest foam volume was found when sediments had been removed by centrifugation and not added back (i.e. a, 8.4mL foam). The highest foam volume was found when sediments had been removed by centrifugation and further reincorporated into the heavy liquor sediments, (i.e. d, 10.3-10.6mL foam). Intermediate volumes were obtained for the non-centrifuged extract (i.e b, 9.1mL foam).

[0087] In conclusion, thermal sediments positively contribute to the formation of a foam interface that can effectively trap nitrogen to deliver larger foam volumes.

Example 3 - Crema appearance and viscosity (Figure 1).



[0088] The analysis of foam volume, stability and appearance revealed that the powders from trials containing thermal sediments, i.e. d (10.6mL), c (10.3mL), b (9.1mL) versus a (8.4mL) delivered more foam volume at cup surface. The foam was more persistent for trials in which sediments have been first removed by centrifugation and then added back to the heavy liquor (i.e. c, d). When solubilized in potassium hydroxide (i.e. b), the foam was fine, homogenous and more viscous although of darker color.

Example 4 - Drainage rate of coffee extracts (Figure 2).



[0089] The foamability of reconstituted extracts was evaluated by whipping (high energy input) using a KOMO machine. The analysis of the foam revealed that the highest foam volume was found for the reference coffee (i.e. b, 30mL). However, it also exhibited the fastest foam drainage rate (i.e. 1.3mL/min). The presence of thermal sediments in the powder (i.e. d, c) results in lower foam volume (i.e. 23-24mL) but improved foam stability (i.e. 1.1-1.3mL/min), i.e. decreased drainage (see Figure 2). In conclusion, thermal sediments improve foam stability.

Example 5 - Surface tension



[0090] The surface tension of the reconstituted powders was measured at short time scale and at equilibrium. At short time scale, all products, b excepted, display more or less the same kinetics with rapid adsorption of surface active material. The b trial shows unexpectedly slower adsorption kinetics. At equilibrium all extracts behaved similarly, indicating that molecular reorganisation processes occurring at interfaces were completed.

[0091] In conclusion, the thermal sediments contain surface active compounds that have the ability to easily adsorb at interfaces. When some time is allowed for the thermal sediments to reorganize at the interface, gas bubble can be efficiently entrapped and stabilized as observed by the higher porosity and foam volume of trials d and c. However, the benefit of sediment addition is not observed for more instantaneous foam generation as in the whipping test (i.e. high energy input, short time). The solubilization of thermal sediments (d) improves foam homogeneity and appearance although the resulting crema becomes slightly darker. The drainage rate is decreased resulting in more persistent crema. Finally, crema viscosity is enhanced delivering more mouthfeel upon consumption.


Claims

1. A process of making a foaming aid comprising the steps of

(i) providing a coffee extract obtained by extraction of roast and ground coffee beans at a temperature in the range of 110 to 200°C,

(ii) isolating a surface active fraction of said extract by centrifugation to obtain a foaming aid, wherein the isolated surface active fraction is in the form of thermal sediments generated in the extraction phase.


 
2. The process of claim 1, wherein said surface active fraction comprises at least one compound independently selected from the group of polyphenols and nitrogenous compounds.
 
3. The process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said surface active fraction is a composition comprising polyphenolic compounds obtainable by Maillard and autoxidative polymerization of at least two 4-vinylcatechol monomers obtained from free caffeic acid or the caffeic acid moiety of a chlorogenic acid.
 
4. The process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said surface active fraction is a composition comprising at least one multiply hydroxylated phenylindane selected from the list consisting of trans-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane, cis-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane, 1,3-bis(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)butane, trans-1,3-bis(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)butene, 5,6-Dihydroxy-2-carboxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane, trans-4,5-dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane, cis-4,5-dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane, trans-5,6-dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-[3',4'-dihydroxy-5'-(1-(3",4"-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-ethyl)phenyl] indane, cis-5,6-dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-[3',4'-dihydroxy-5'-(1-(3",4"-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-ethyl)phenyl] indane and 5,6-dihydroxy-1-methyl-2-[1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-ethyl]-3-(3",4"-dihydroxyphenyl) indane.
 
5. The process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said surface active fraction is a composition comprising trans-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane, cis-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane and trans-1,3-bis(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)butene.
 
6. The process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said surface active fraction is a composition comprising trans-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane and cis-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl) indane.
 
7. The process according to any of the preceding claims further comprising a step of treating said surface active fraction with an alkali.
 
8. A foaming aid obtainable from the process according to any of the preceding claims.
 
9. Use of a surface active fraction isolated from a coffee extract as a foaming aid, wherein surface active fraction is obtained as defined in any of the preceding claims.
 
10. The use according to claim 9, wherein said surface active fraction is used as a foaming aid in a beverage such as a coffee product.
 
11. A process of making a coffee product comprising the steps of:

(a) providing a coffee extract,

(b) adding a foaming aid according to any one of claims 1-8 to said coffee extract provided in step (a).


 
12. The process of making a coffee product of claim 11, wherein a surface active fraction has been removed from the coffee extract provided in step (a).
 
13. The process of making a coffee product according to any one of claims 11-12, wherein the process further comprise at least one step of concentrating the coffee extract and wherein said surface active fraction has been removed from the coffee extract provided in step (a) prior to said at least one step of concentrating said coffee extract.
 
14. The process of making a coffee product according to any one of claims 11-13, wherein said coffee products is a coffee product selected from the list consisting of instant coffee, instant espresso coffee, liquid coffee concentrate, coffee mixes, coffee mixtures, roast and ground coffee with or without capsules, mixes of roast and ground and instant coffee, and ready-to-drink coffee beverages.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines Schaumbildungshilfsmittels, wobei das Verfahren die folgenden Schritte umfasst

(i) Bereitstellen eines Kaffeeextrakts, der durch Extraktion von gerösteten und gemahlenen Kaffeebohnen bei einer Temperatur im Bereich von 110 bis 200 °C erhalten wird,

(ii) Isolieren einer oberflächenaktiven Fraktion des Extrakts durch Zentrifugieren, um ein Schaumbildungshilfsmittel zu erhalten, wobei die isolierte oberflächenaktive Fraktion in Form von in der Extraktionsphase erzeugten, thermischen Sedimenten vorliegt.


 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die oberflächenaktive Fraktion mindestens eine Verbindung umfasst, die unabhängig aus der Gruppe von Polyphenolen und stickstoffhaltigen Verbindungen ausgewählt ist.
 
3. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei es sich bei der oberflächenaktiven Fraktion um eine Zusammensetzung handelt, die polyphenole Verbindungen, erhältlich durch Maillard-Reaktion, und eine autoxidative Polymerisation von mindestens zwei 4-Vinylcatecholmonomeren, erhalten aus freier Koffeinsäure oder der Koffeinsäuregruppe einer Chlorogensäure, umfasst.
 
4. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei es sich bei der oberflächenaktiven Fraktion um eine Zusammensetzung handelt, die mindestens ein mehrfach hydroxyliertes Phenylindan umfasst, das ausgewählt ist aus der Liste bestehend aus trans-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-indan, cis-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)indan, 1,3-bis(3'-4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)butan, trans-1,3-bis(3'-4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)buten, 5,6-Dihydroxy-2-carboxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)indan, trans-4,5-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)indan, cis-4,5-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)indan, trans-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-[3',4'-dihydroxy-5'-(1-(3",4"-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-ethyl)phenyl]indan, cis-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-[3',4'-dihydroxy-5'-(1-(3",4"-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-ethyl)phenyl]indan und 5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-2-[1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-ethyl]-3-(3",4"-dihydroxyphenyl)indan.
 
5. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei es sich bei der oberflächenaktiven Fraktion um eine Zusammensetzung handelt, die trans-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)indan, cis-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)indan und trans-1,3-bis(3'-4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)buten umfasst.
 
6. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei es sich bei der oberflächenaktiven Fraktion um eine Zusammensetzung handelt, die trans-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)indan und cis-5,6-Dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphenyl)indan umfasst.
 
7. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, das ferner einen Schritt des Behandelns der oberflächenaktiven Fraktion mit einem Alkali umfasst.
 
8. Schaumbildungshilfsmittel, das aus dem Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche erhältlich ist.
 
9. Verwendung einer oberflächenaktiven Fraktion, die aus einem Kaffeeextrakt isoliert ist, als Schaumbildungshilfsmittel, wobei die oberflächenaktive Fraktion wie in einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche definiert erhalten wird.
 
10. Verwendung nach Anspruch 9, wobei die oberflächenaktive Fraktion als Schaumbildungshilfsmittel in einem Getränk, wie einem Kaffeeprodukt, verwendet wird.
 
11. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines Kaffeeprodukts, das die folgenden Schritte umfasst:

(a) Bereitstellen eines Kaffeeextrakts,

(b) Zugeben eines Schaumbildungshilfsmittels nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 zu dem in Schritt (a) bereitgestellten Kaffeeextrakt.


 
12. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines Kaffeeprodukts nach Anspruch 11, wobei eine oberflächenaktive Fraktion aus dem in Schritt (a) bereitgestellten Kaffeeextrakt entfernt wurde.
 
13. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines Kaffeeprodukts nach einem der Ansprüche 11 bis 12, wobei das Verfahren ferner mindestens einen Schritt des Konzentrierens des Kaffeeextrakts umfasst, und wobei die oberflächenaktive Fraktion aus dem in Schritt (a) bereitgestellten Kaffeeextrakt vor dem mindestens einen Schritt des Konzentrierens des Kaffeeextrakts entfernt wurde.
 
14. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines Kaffeeprodukts nach einem der Ansprüche 11 bis 13, wobei die Kaffeeprodukte ein Kaffeeprodukt ist, das ausgewählt ist aus der Liste bestehend aus Instant-Kaffee, Instant-Espressokaffee, flüssigem Kaffeekonzentrat, Kaffeegemischen, Kaffeemischungen, geröstetem und gemahlenem Kaffee mit oder ohne Kapseln, Gemischen aus geröstetem und Instant-Kaffee und trinkfertigen Kaffeegetränken.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé de fabrication d'un auxiliaire de moussage comprenant les étapes de

(i) fourniture d'un extrait de café obtenu par extraction de grains de café torréfiés et moulus à une température dans l'intervalle de 110 à 200 °C,

(ii) isolement d'une fraction tensioactive dudit extrait par centrifugation pour obtenir un auxiliaire de moussage, dans lequel la fraction tensioactive isolée est sous la forme de sédiments thermiques produits pendant la phase d'extraction.


 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ladite fraction tensioactive comprend au moins un composé choisi indépendamment dans le groupe de polyphénols et de composés azotés.
 
3. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel ladite fraction tensioactive est une composition comprenant des composés polyphénoliques pouvant être obtenus par polymérisation de Maillard et auto-oxydative d'au moins deux monomères de 4-vinylcatéchol obtenus à partir d'acide caféique libre ou de la fraction acide caféique d'un acide chlorogénique.
 
4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel ladite fraction tensioactive est une composition comprenant au moins un phénylindane multiplement hydroxylé choisi dans la liste constituée de trans-5,6-dihydroxy-1-méthyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphényl) indane, cis-5,6-dihydroxy-1-méthyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphényl) indane, 1,3-bis(3'-4'-dihydroxyphényl)butane, trans-1,3-bis(3'-4'-dihydroxyphényl)butène, 5,6-dihydroxy-2-carboxy-1-méthyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphényl) indane, trans-4,5-dihydroxy-1-méthyl-3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphényl)indane, cis-4,5-dihydroxy-1-méthyl-3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphényl) indane, trans-5,6-dihydroxy-1-méthyl-3-[3',4'-dihydroxy-5'-(1-(3",4"-dihydroxyphényl)-1-éthyl)phényl] indane, cis-5,6-dihydroxy-1-méthyl-3-[3',4'-dihydroxy-5'-(1-(3",4"-dihydroxyphényl)-1-éthyl)phényl] indane et 5,6-dihydroxy-1-méthyl-2-[1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphényl)-1-éthyl]-3-(3",4"-dihydroxyphényl) indane.
 
5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel ladite fraction tensioactive est une composition comprenant du trans-5,6-dihydroxy-1-méthyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphényl) indane, du cis-5,6-dihydroxy-1-méthyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphényl)indane et du trans-1,3-bis(3'-4'-dihydroxyphényl)butène.
 
6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel ladite fraction tensioactive est une composition comprenant du trans-5,6-dihydroxy-1-méthyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphényl)indane et du cis-5,6-dihydroxy-1-méthyl-3-(3'-4'-dihydroxyphényl)indane.
 
7. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes comprenant en outre une étape consistant à traiter ladite fraction tensioactive avec un alcali.
 
8. Auxiliaire de moussage pouvant être obtenu à partir du procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes.
 
9. Utilisation d'une fraction tensioactive isolée d'un extrait de café comme auxiliaire de moussage, dans laquelle la fraction tensioactive est obtenue comme défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes.
 
10. Utilisation selon la revendication 9, dans laquelle ladite fraction tensioactive est utilisée comme auxiliaire de moussage dans une boisson telle qu'un produit de café.
 
11. Procédé de préparation d'un produit de café comprenant les étapes de :

(a) fourniture d'un extrait de café,

(b) ajout d'un auxiliaire de moussage selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8 audit extrait de café fourni à l'étape (a).


 
12. Procédé de préparation d'un produit de café selon la revendication 11, dans lequel une fraction tensioactive a été retirée de l'extrait de café fourni à l'étape (a).
 
13. Procédé de préparation d'un produit de café selon l'une quelconque des revendications 11 à 12, dans lequel le procédé comprend en outre au moins une étape de concentration de l'extrait de café et dans lequel ladite fraction tensioactive a été éliminée de l'extrait de café fourni à l'étape (a) avant ladite au moins une étape de concentration dudit extrait de café.
 
14. Procédé de préparation d'un produit de café selon l'une quelconque des revendications 11 à 13, dans lequel lesdits produits de café sont un produit de café choisi dans la liste constituée par un café soluble, un café expresso soluble, un concentré de café liquide, des mélanges pour café, des mélanges de cafés, des cafés torréfiés et moulus avec ou sans capsules, des mélanges de cafés torréfiés et moulus et solubles, et des boissons à base de café prêtes à boire.
 




Drawing









REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description