(19)
(11)EP 2 950 357 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
29.04.2020 Bulletin 2020/18

(21)Application number: 15169466.8

(22)Date of filing:  27.05.2015
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01B 1/06(2006.01)
C01B 19/00(2006.01)
C22C 30/00(2006.01)
C03C 17/22(2006.01)
C22C 28/00(2006.01)

(54)

CONDUCTIVE MATERIAL AND ELECTRONIC DEVICE INCLUDING THE SAME

LEITFÄHIGES MATERIAL UND ELEKTRONISCHE VORRICHTUNG DAMIT

MATERIAU CONDUCTEUR ET DISPOSITIF ELECTRONIQUE LE CONTENANT


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 27.05.2014 KR 20140064004

(43)Date of publication of application:
02.12.2015 Bulletin 2015/49

(73)Proprietor: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
Gyeonggi-do 443-742 (KR)

(72)Inventors:
  • HWANG, Sungwoo
    Seoul (KR)
  • MOON, Kyoung-Seok
    Gyeonggi-do (KR)
  • CHO, Youngjin
    Gyeonggi-do (KR)
  • SON, Yoon Chul
    Gyeonggi-do (KR)
  • LEE, Kimoon
    Seoul (KR)
  • JUNG, Doh Won
    Seoul (KR)

(74)Representative: Elkington and Fife LLP 
Prospect House 8 Pembroke Road
Sevenoaks, Kent TN13 1XR
Sevenoaks, Kent TN13 1XR (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A2- 0 458 353
US-A- 5 458 865
WO-A1-2009/034572
  
  • HUI-HUI LI ET AL: "Ultrathin PtPdTe Nanowires as Superior Catalysts for Methanol Electrooxidation", ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE INTERNATIONAL EDITION, vol. 52, no. 29, 15 July 2013 (2013-07-15) , pages 7472-7476, XP055217975, ISSN: 1433-7851, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201302090
  • VERMA U P ET AL: "First principle electronic structure calculations of ternary alloys HgMnTe in zinc-blende structure", JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS, vol. 324, no. 19, 17 May 2012 (2012-05-17) , pages 3017-3023, XP028496883, ISSN: 0304-8853, DOI: 10.1016/J.JMMM.2012.04.048 [retrieved on 2012-05-17]
  • ZHU Y ET AL: "Nb-doped WS"2 nanotubes", CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS, ELSEVIER BV, NL, vol. 342, no. 1-2, 6 July 2001 (2001-07-06), pages 15-21, XP027392008, ISSN: 0009-2614, DOI: 10.1016/S0009-2614(01)00534-6 [retrieved on 2001-07-06]
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] A conductive material and an electronic device are disclosed.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] An electronic device such as a liquid crystal display (LCD), an organic light emitting diode device, and a touch screen panel includes a transparent conductor as a transparent electrode.

[0003] The transparent conductor may be broadly classified as three types according to the composition of the material. The first type is an organic-based transparent conductor, such as a conductive polymer, the second type is an oxide-based transparent conductor, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), and the third type is a metal-based transparent conductor such as a metal grid.

[0004] Conductive polymers have high specific resistance and low transparency and may be easily deteriorated when exposed to moisture and air. Indium tin oxide (ITO) may increase the manufacturing cost of a device due to the cost of indium, and ITO may limit a flexibility of a device. The metal-based transparent conductor may increase manufacturing cost due to the complicated manufacturing processes associated with use of a metal-based transparent conductor. Thus there remains a need for an improved conductive material suitable for electrical devices.

[0005] In H-H Li et al., "Ultrathin PtPdTe Nanowires as Superior Catalysts for Methanol Electrooxidation", Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., Volume 52, Issue 29 July 15, 2013, pages 7472-7476, highly uniform, ultrathin (diameter 5-7 nm), and ultralong (aspect ratio >104) PtPdTe nanowires (NWs) were synthesized by using a facile method employing Te NWs as both sacrificial templates and reducing agents.

[0006] US 5,458,865 discloses mixed metal chalcogenides formed of lanthanide chalcogenides having the formula MLnX2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ag, Cu and Au; Ln is one of the elements of the lanthanide family other than Pm and X is selected from the group consisting of S, Se and Te.

[0007] EP 0 458 353 discloses an ohmic contact electrode formed on an n-type semiconductor cubic boron nitride by using a IVa metal; an alloy with a IVa metal; a metal with Si or S; an alloy with Si or S; a metal with B, Al, Ga, or In; an alloy with B, Al, Ga, or In; a Va metal; or an alloy with a Va metal.

[0008] The authors in Verma, U.P. et al., "First principle electronic structure calculations of ternary alloys Hg1-xMnxTe in zinc-blende structure", Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials; v. 324(19); p. 3017-3023, investigated the structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of Hg1-xMnxTe in the zinc-blende phase for 0≤x≤1.

[0009] WO 2009/034572 discloses fullerene-like (IF) nanostructures of the formula A1-x-Bx-chalcognide.

[0010] In Zhu Y. et al., "Nb-doped WS2 nanotubes" Chemical Physics Letters Volume 342, Issues 1-2, 6 July 2001, pages 15-21, Nb-doped WS2 nanotubes were prepared and found to contain more structural defects within the layers than do pure WS2 nanotubes.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0011] An embodiment provides a flexible conductive material which is easily applied in a process, and provides high electrical conductivity and high light transmittance.

[0012] Another embodiment provides an electronic device including the conductive material.

[0013] According to an embodiment, a conductive material includes: a first element selected from a transition metal, a platinum-group element, a rare earth element, and a combination thereof; a second element having an atomic radius which is 10 percent less than to 10 percent greater than an atomic radius of the first element; and a chalcogen element, wherein the conductive material has a layered crystal structure;
and
wherein the conductive material is represented by Chemical Formula 1:

        Chemical Formula 1     M11-a M2aX2

wherein, in Chemical Formula 1,

M1 is the first element,

M2 is the second element,

X is the chalcogen element, and

0<a<0.5;

wherein the conductive material comprises a plurality of nanosheets having a thickness of less than or equal to 200 nm, and

wherein the nanosheets contact to each other to provide an electrical connection.



[0014] The layered crystal structure may comprise a metal dichalcogenide layer including the first element and the chalcogen element, and the second element may be partially substituted in a position of the first element.

[0015] The second element may modify the layered crystal structure of the metal dichalcogenide.

[0016] The second element may be included in an amount of 0.1 to 20 mole percent, based on the total amount of the conductive material.

[0017] In Chemical Formula 1,
X may be sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), or a combination thereof.

[0018] In an embodiment a in Chemical Formula 1 may be 0.01≤a≤0.2.

[0019] The layered crystal structure may include a plurality of unit crystal layers, and each unit crystal layer may include an upper layer and a lower layer, each including the chalcogen element, and the first element and the second element, each of which is disposed between the upper layer and the lower layer.

[0020] The second element may modify a lattice structure of the unit crystal layer.

[0021] The conductive material may have a conductivity of greater than or equal to about 3.0x104 S/cm.

[0022] The conductive material may have light transmittance of greater than or equal to about 80 % at a wavelength of about 550 nm.

[0023] The conductive material may have exfoliation characteristics.

[0024] The conductive material may have a thickness of less than or equal to about 200 nm.

[0025] According to another embodiment, an electronic device includes the conductive material.

[0026] The electronic device may be a flat panel display, a touch screen panel, a solar cell, an e-window, a heat mirror, or a transparent transistor.

[0027] Also disclosed is a method of preparing a conductive material, the method including: heat treating a first element selected from a transition metal, a platinum-group element, a rare earth element, and a combination thereof, a second element having an atomic radius which is 10 percent less than to 10 percent greater than an atomic radius of the first element, and a chalcogen element to form a compound having a layered crystal structure; and exfoliating the compound having a layered crystal structure to prepare the conductive material.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0028] The above and other aspects, advantages and features of this disclosure will become more apparent by describing in further detail exemplary embodiments thereof with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a graph of intensity (arbitrary units, a. u.) versus diffraction angle (degrees two-theta, 2θ) and is an XRD pattern of Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2, Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2, and PdTe2 powders obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 and 2 and Comparative Synthesis Example 1, respectively;

FIG. 2 is a graph of intensity (arbitrary units, a.u.) versus diffraction angle (degrees two-theta, 2θ) and is an XRD pattern of Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2, Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2, and PdTe2 powders obtained from Synthesis Examples 3 and 4 and Comparative Synthesis Example 1, respectively;

FIG. 3 is a graph of conductivity (Siemens per centimeter, S/cm) versus the stoichiometry of M in Pd1-aMaTe2 showing an electrical conductivity of Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2, Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2, Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2, Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2, and PdTe2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 to 4 and Comparative Synthesis Example 1, respectively;

FIG. 4 is a histogram of counts versus nanosheet thickness (nanometers, nm) showing a thickness of Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Example 1;

FIG. 5 is a histogram of counts versus nanosheet thickness (nanometers, nm) showing a thickness of Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Example 2;

FIG. 6 is a histogram of counts versus nanosheet thickness (nanometers, nm) showing a thickness of Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Example 3;

FIG. 7 is a histogram of counts versus nanosheet thickness (nanometers, nm) showing a thickness of Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Example 4;

FIG. 8 is a histogram of counts versus nanosheet thickness (nanometers, nm) showing a thickness of PdTe2 nanosheets obtained from Comparative Synthesis Example 1; and

FIG. 9 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing an embodiment of an organic light emitting diode device.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS



[0029] Hereinafter, a conductive material is further described. However, the conductive material may be embodied in many different forms and shall not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein.

[0030] "Transition metal" as defined herein refers to an element of Groups 3 to 11 of the Periodic Table of the Elements.

[0031] "Rare earth element" means the fifteen lanthanide elements, i.e., atomic numbers 57 to 71, plus scandium and yttrium.

[0032] The "lanthanide elements" means the chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 to 71.

[0033] A platinum-group element is an element selected from ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, platinum, and a combination thereof.

[0034] A chalcogen element is an element of Group 16 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, i.e., an element selected from O, S, Se, Te, Po, and a combination thereof.

[0035] Atomic radius as used herein refers to an empirically measured covalent radius for the element. See, for example, the radii reported in Slater, J. C., "Atomic Radii in Crystals," Journal of Chemical Physics, 41 (10): 3199-3205 (1964).

[0036] A conductive material comprises a first element selected from a transition metal, a platinum-group element, a rare earth element, or a combination thereof, a second element having an atomic radius which is 10 percent less than to 10 percent greater than, i.e., about within ±10 percent (%) of, an atomic radius of the first element, and a chalcogen element.

[0037] The conductive material has a layered crystal structure, wherein the layered crystal structure is one in which layers are strongly bound and closely arranged between a plurality of the first elements, between a plurality of the second elements, between the first element and the second element, between the first element and the chalcogen element, between the second element and the chalcogen element, and/or between a plurality of the chalcogen elements, and then are parallelly overlapped by a weak binding force such as van der Waals force.

[0038] The layers of the layered crystal structure may slide on each other using the weak binding force between layers, so that the conductive material may be exfoliated along each layer or several hundred layers to provide a plurality of unit crystal layers having a unit of several nanometers to several hundred nanometers. While not wanting to be bound by theory, it is understood that the exfoliating properties of the conductive material make it possible to provide a conductive material with a suitable thickness by exfoliation and to easily perform a solution process, such as an inking process, to provide a suitable layer or film of the conductive material. In addition, and while not wanting to be bound by theory, it is understood that the exfoliating properties of the conductive material provide the desirable flexibility of the conductive material.

[0039] The layered crystal structure of the conductive material may be a modified metal dichalcogenide structure. The conductive material may have a hexagonal, rhombohedral, or monoclinic crystal structure. Representative space groups of the conductive material include C12/m1 (space group number 12), R3m (space group number 160), P32/m1 (space group 164), and P 63/m 2/m 2/c (space group number 194).

[0040] The metal dichalcogenide structure includes a plurality of unit crystal layers, and each of the unit crystal layers may have a structure including, for example, an upper layer and a lower layer, each of the upper layer and the lower layer consisting of the chalcogen element, wherein a first element is positioned between the upper layer and the lower layer.

[0041] A modified metal dichalcogenide structure may be obtained by doping a second element into the metal dichalcogenide structure. In the modified dichalcogenide structure, the second element may partially substitute for the first element. Also, the second element may reside in a position of the first element. In other words, the second element may be doped between the upper and the lower layers which include, for example, the chalcogen element. While not wanting to be bound by theory, it is understood that the presence of the second element in the layered crystal structure causes a structural stress, and as a result the lattice structure of the unit crystal layer may be deformed and have a structural strain between the layers.

[0042] While not wanting to be bound by theory, it is understood that inclusion of the second element results in a change to the interlayer distance in the conductive material. In an embodiment, inclusion of the second element provides an increase in a c axis dimension of 0.1 % to 10%, about 0.5% to about 8%, or about 1% to about 6%, based on a total c axis dimension. In another embodiment, inclusion of the second element provides a decrease in a c axis dimension of 0.1% to 10%, about 0.5% to about 8%, or about 1% to about 6%, based on a total c axis dimension. In an embodiment, an absolute value of a change to the c axis dimension is about 0.1% to about 10%, about 0.5% to about 8%, or about 1% to about 6%, based on a total c axis dimension.

[0043] Thus the conductive material may comprise the modified metal dichalcogenide structure which comprises the second element. While not wanting to be bound by theory, it is understood that inclusion of the second element results in improved the physical properties, such as improved conductivity and the exfoliation characteristics. The physical properties, such as the conductivity characteristics and the exfoliation characteristics, may be controlled depending upon the type of the second element and the doping amount, and specifically, the conductivity and the exfoliation characteristics are understood to be a function of the degree of interlayer structural strain and the binding force between layers.

[0044] For example, the second element may be included in an amount of 0.1 mole percent (mol%) to 20 mol%, about 0.5 mol% to about 15 mol%, or about 1 mol% to about 10 mol%, based on the total amount of the conductive material. Within the range, the conductivity characteristics and the exfoliation characteristics of the conductive material may be further improved.

[0045] The first element may be selected from a transition metal, a platinum-group element, a rare earth element, and a combination thereof, and may be, for example, selected from nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), molybdenum (Mo), technetium (Tc), silver (Ag), hafnium (Hf), tantalum (Ta), tungsten (W), rhenium (Re), gold (Au), iridium (Ir), osmium (Os), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), and ytterbium (Yb). An embodiment in which the first element is selected from Ce, Ni, Pt, and Pd is mentioned. In another embodiment, the first element is Pd.

[0046] The chalcogen element may be, for example, selected from sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and a combination thereof. An embodiment in which the chalcogen element is Te is mentioned.

[0047] The second element is determined depending upon the first element, and is selected from elements having an atomic radius which is about within ±10 % of the atomic radius of the first element. In an embodiment, the second element has an atomic radius that is about -9% to about 9%, about - 8% to about 8%, about -7% to about 7%, or about -6% to about 6% of the atomic radius of the first element. In an embodiment the first element has an atomic radius of about 130 picometers (pm) to about 195 pm, about 132 pm to about 190 pm, about 134 pm to about 185 pm, or about 136 to about 180 pm, and the second element has an atomic radius of about 115 picometers (pm) to about 215 pm, about 120 pm to about 210 pm, about 125 pm to about 205 pm, or about 130 to about 200 pm. Use of a first element having an atomic radius of about 140 pm and a second element having an atomic radius of about 130 pm to about 154 pm, or about 132 pm to about 153 pm is mentioned.

[0048] For example, when the first element is nickel (Ni), the second element may be, for example, magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), cadmium (Cd), indium (In), tin (Sn), antimony (Sb), thallium (TI), lead (Pb), bismuth (Bi), or polonium (Po), but is not limited thereto.

[0049] For example, when the first element is palladium (Pd), the second element may be, for example, lithium (Li), scandium (Sc), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), technetium (Tc), ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), indium(In), osmium (Os), iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), gold (Au), mercury (Hg), thallium (TI), or lead (Pb), but is not limited thereto.

[0050] For example, when the first element is cerium (Ce), the second element may be, for example, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), scandium (Sc), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), niobium (Nb), molybdenum (Mo), technetium (Tc), ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd), tantalum (Ta), tungsten (W), rhenium (Re), osmium (Os), iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), gold (Au), mercury (Hg), or lanthanum (La), but is not limited thereto.

[0051] Use of Pd as the first element and Pt or Mn as the second element is specifically mentioned.

[0052] The conductive material is represented by Chemical Formula 1.

        Chemical Formula 1     M11-a M2aX2



[0053] In Chemical Formula 1,
M1 is a first element selected from a transition metal, a platinum-group element, a rare earth element, and a combination thereof,
M2 is a second element having an atomic radius which is ±10 % of an atomic radius of the first element,
X is a chalcogen element selected from sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and a combination thereof, and
0<a<0.5.

[0054] The first element and the second element in Chemical Formula 1 may be the same as disclosed above.

[0055] In Chemical Formula 1, a refers to the degree of substitution with the second element, and for example, 0.01≤a≤0.2, 0.02≤a≤0.19, 0.04≤a≤0.18, 0.06≤a≤0.17, or 0.08≤a≤0.16.

[0056] The conductive material may be applied to provide a conductor such as an electrode of an electronic device to improve electrical conductivity. In addition, the conductive material may provide suitable electrical conductivity and light transmittance for a transparent electrode of an electronic device.

[0057] The conductive material may have, for example, electrical conductivity of greater than or equal to about 1.0x104 Siemens per centimeter (S/cm), greater than or equal to about 2.0x104 S/cm, greater than or equal to about 3.0x104 S/cm, about 1.0x104 S/cm to about 9.0x104 S/cm, about 2.0x104 S/cm to about 8.0x104 S/cm, about 3.0x104 S/cm to about 7.0x104 S/cm, or about 4.0x104 S/cm to about 6.0x104 S/cm.

[0058] The conductive material may have light transmittance of greater than or equal to about 80 % at a thickness of less than or equal to about 50 nm based on a wavelength of about 550 nm, for example, light transmittance of greater than or equal to about 85 %, or about 80% to about 99%, about 85% to about 98%, or about 90% to about 97%, at a thickness of less than or equal to about 50 nm and based on a wavelength of about 550 nm.

[0059] Table 1 shows electrical conductivity (σ), specific resistance (ρ), an extinction coefficient (α), a product of the specific resistance (ρ) and the absorption coefficient (α), and sheet resistance (Rs) of PdTe2 and a compound of Chemical Formula 1 wherein M1 is Pd and M2 is Pt.
Table 1
 electrical conductivity (σ, S/cm)specific resistance (ρ, Ω·cm)absorption coefficient (α, cm-1)α*ρ (Ω/sq.)sheet resistance (Rs,Ω/sq.,T≥90%)
PdTe2 27,300 3.663×10-5 158486 5.806 55.1
PdTe2:Pt (4 wt%) 57,000 1.754×10-5 158581.4 2.782 26.4


[0060] Table 1 shows that an electrical conductivity and an extinction coefficient calculated according to the following method and sequence, and sequentially a simulation process, and also sheet resistance calculated under transmittance of greater than or equal to about 90 % when each compound is applied. The simulation program VASP and Boltztrap is used.
  • A band structure of a material is calculated through a first-principles electronic structure calculation.
  • Conductivity and plasma frequency are calculated by calculating intra-band transition by free electrons from the band structure.
  • Inter-band transition is calculated by bound electrons from the band structure.
  • A dielectric function is calculated by considering the free electrons and the bound electrons.
  • The square root of the dielectric function is taken to calculate a complex refractive function (n+ik), and then a refractive index for visible light and an absorption rate for the visible light are calculated from the refractive function.


[0061] The conductive material may be prepared as a transparent thin film by preparing a powder from, for example, a starting material, a polycrystalline or monocrystalline bulk material obtained therefrom, or a powder obtained from the bulk material, and disposing a transparent thin film from the starting material, the obtained bulk material, or the powder thereof according to deposition and the like.

[0062] The polycrystalline bulk material may be prepared from the starting material by using, for example, a quartz ampoule method, an arc melting method, a solid-state reaction method, or the like. The starting material may comprise, for example, the first element, the second element, and the chalcogen element, and may be in the form of a powder. For example, the quartz ampoule method may include disposing the starting material into a quartz tube or a metal ampoule, sealing the same under vacuum, and heating the same to effect a solid state reaction or a melting reaction. The arc melting method may include disposing the starting material into a chamber, arc discharging the same under the inert gas atmosphere, melting the starting material, and solidifying the same. The solid state reaction method may be performed by mixing the starting material to provide a pellet and heating the same, or mixing the starting material and heating the same to provide a pellet.

[0063] The obtained polycrystalline bulk material may be highly densified by sintering or the like. The highly densified material may be used as a specimen for measuring electrical conductivity. The high densification may be performed by a hot press method, a spark plasma sintering method, a hot forging method, or the like, but is not limited thereto. The hot press method is used to shape the material and may be performed by disposing the starting material into a mold having a predetermined shape and shaping at a high temperature of, for example, about 300 °C to about 800 °C under a high pressure of, for example, about 30 Pascals (Pa) to about 300 MPa. The spark plasma sintering method may include flowing a current of, for example, about 50 amperes (A) to about 500 A into the starting material under a pressure of, for example, about 30 MPa to about 300 MPa, and sintering the material within a short time. The hot forging method may include pressing and sintering the raw material at a high temperature of, for example, about 300 °C to about 700 °C.

[0064] The monocrystalline bulk material may be obtained by providing crystalline ingots or growing single crystals.

[0065] The crystalline ingot may be obtained by heating the congruent melting material at a temperature of higher than the melting point and slowly cooling the same. For example, the starting materials may be mixed and disposed in a quartz ampoule, the quartz ampoule sealed under vacuum, the mixture melted to provide the conductive material, then the conductive material slowly cooled to provide a crystalline ingot of the conductive material. In this case, the size of crystals may be controlled by adjusting the cooling speed of the melted solution.

[0066] The monocrystalline growth may be performed by a metal flux method, a Bridgman method, an optical floating zone method, a vapor transport method, or the like.

[0067] The metal flux method may include introducing the mixture into a crucible and heat-treating the same at a high temperature under an atmosphere in which the starting material may be grown to provide crystals at a high temperature to grow the crystals. The Bridgman method may include introducing the starting material into a crucible, heating the starting material at a high temperature until the starting material is dissolved from the end of the crucible, slowly moving the high temperature zone and locally melting the sample, and passing the entire sample through the high temperature zone to grow the crystal. The optical floating zone method may include forming the starting material into a seed rod and a feed rod having a rod shape, focusing a heat source, e.g., a lamp, onto the feed rod, locally melting the sample at a high temperature, and slowly pulling up the melted portion to grow the crystal. The vapor transport method may include introducing the starting material into a bottom part of a quartz tube, and heating the starting material, and leaving the upper portion of the quartz tube at a low temperature to gasify the starting material causing a solid-phase reaction at a low temperature. The electrical conductivity of the obtained monocrystalline material may be measured by, for example, a DC 4 terminal method or a micro 4-point probe method.

[0068] The obtained monocrystalline or polycrystalline bulk material may be pulverized to provide crystalline powder. The pulverization may be performed by any suitable method such, as ball milling, without specific limitation. After the pulverization, a powder having a uniform size may be provided, using, for example, a sieve.

[0069] The particles of the conductive material may have a dimension of about 5 nm to about 500 nm, from about 10 nm to about 450 nm, or from about 20 nm to about 400 nm. In an embodiment, the conductive material has a particle size, e.g., an average particle diameter as determined by light scattering, of about 5 nm to about 500 nm, from about 10 nm to about 450 nm, or from about 20 nm to about 400 nm. Also, the particles of the conductive material may have a thickness of about 1 nm to about 500 nm, from about 2 nm to about 250 nm, or from about 3 nm to about 125 nm.

[0070] The obtained polycrystalline or monocrystalline bulk material may be used as a target for vapor deposition to provide a thin film. The vapor deposition may be performed by, for example, physical vapor deposition such as thermal evaporation and sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition (ALD), or pulsed laser deposition. The deposition may be performed using any suitable device. The deposition conditions may be selected according to the properties of the compound and the characteristics of deposition method, are not particularly limited, and can be selected by one of skill in the art without undue experimentation.

[0071] Alternatively, the obtained polycrystalline or monocrystalline bulk material may be produced as a transparent thin film by preparing, for example, a plurality of nanosheets from the bulk material powder by liquid phase exfoliation and inking the obtained nanosheets.

[0072] The liquid phase exfoliation may be performed by ultrasonicating the bulk material or the powder obtained from the bulk material in an appropriate solvent.

[0073] The solvent may be selected from a carbonate, an ester, an ether, a ketone, an alcohol, an aldehyde, an acetate, and combinations thereof. The carbonate may be linear or cyclic, and may be fluorinated. Representative carbonates include diethyl carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, dipropyl carbonate, methyl propyl carbonate, ethyl propyl carbonate ("EPC"), and methyl ethyl carbonate. Representative cyclic carbonates include ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, butylene carbonate, vinyl ethylene carbonate, fluoroethylene carbonate, 4,5-difluoroethylene carbonate, 4,4-difluoroethylene carbonate, 4,4,5-trifluoroethylene carbonate, 4,4,5,5-tetrafluoroethylene carbonate, 4-fluoro-5-methylethylene carbonate, 4-fluoro-4-methylethylene carbonate, 4,5-difluoro-4-methyl ethylene carbonate, 4,4,5-trifluoro-5-methylethylene carbonate, and trifluoromethyl ethylene carbonate. Representative esters include methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, n-propyl acetate, dimethyl acetate, methyl propionate, ethyl propionate, γ-butyrolactone, decanolide, valerolactone, mevalonolactone, caprolactone, and methyl formate. Representative ethers include dibutyl ether, tetraglyme, diglyme, 1,2-dimethoxy ethane, 1,2-diethoxy ethane, ethoxy methoxy ethane, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran, and tetrahydrofuran. Representative ketones include acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, β-bromoethyl isopropyl ketone, and cyclohexanone. Representative alcohols include methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and butanol. The aldehyde my comprise acetaldehyde or propionaldehyde, for example. Representative acetates include ethylene glycol diacetate, n-hexyl acetate, and 2-ethylhexyl acetate. Alternatively, the solvent may comprise a nitrile, such as a C1 to C20 nitrile; an amide such as formamide or dimethyl formamide; a dioxolane such as 1,2-dioxolane or 1,3-dioxolane; a sulfoxide such as dimethyl sulfoxide; a sulfolane such as sulfolane, or methyl sulfolane; 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolinone; N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone; nitromethane; trimethyl phosphate; triethyl phosphate; trioctyl phosphate; or triester phosphate.

[0074] In an embodiment, the solvent may be selected from, for example, water, an alcohol (e.g., isopropanol, ethanol, or methanol), N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), hexane, benzene, dichlorobenzene, toluene, chloroform, diethylether, dichloromethane (DCM), tetrahydrofuran (THF), ethylacetate, acetone, dimethylformamide (DMF), acetonitrile (MeCN), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, γ-butyrolactone, γ-valerolactone, a perfluorinated aromatic solvent, and a combination thereof, but is not limited thereto.

[0075] In an embodiment, a high boiling solvent is used. Suitable high boiling solvents may include mononitriles, such as valeronitrile, capronitrile, and benzonitrile; a glyme, such as diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diglyme), or trimethylene glycol dimethyl ether (triglyme); and alcohol such as butanol; an aldehydes such as acetaldehyde or propionaldehyde, or N,N-dimethylformamide; a ketone such as β-bromoethyl isopropyl ketone; acetonitrile; a sulfoxide such as dimethylsulfoxide, diphenylsulfoxide, or ethyl phenyl sulfoxide; a sulfone such as diethyl sulfone or phenyl 7-quinolylsulfone; a thiophene such as thiophene 1-oxide; an acetate such as ethylene glycol diacetate, n-hexyl acetate, or 2-ethylhexyl acetate; an amides such as propanamide, or benzamide.

[0076] A combination comprising at least two of the foregoing solvents may be used.

[0077] In addition to the solvent, an additive such as a surfactant and a dispersing agent may be further included in order to facilitate the exfoliation and to prevent the aggregation of the exfoliated nanosheets.

[0078] The surfactants may be anionic, cationic, or nonionic surfactants having a hydrophilic head group and at least one oleophilic tail wherein the tails are selected from the group of hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl groups having about 4 to about 30 carbon atoms. Representative surfactants include quaternary ammonium, phosphonium, maleate, succinate, molecules having carboxyl containing groups, acrylate, benzylic hydrogens, benzylic halogens, aliphatic halogens, and oxazoline. Other representative surfactants include sodium lauryl sulfate and other alkyl sulfates; sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and other alkyl and aryl sulfonates; sodium stearate and other fatty acid salts; and polyvinyl alcohol and other non-ionic surfactants. When a combination of surfactants is used, the combination may include an anionic or a cationic surfactant, plus a non-ionic surfactant, or two or more anionic or cationic surfactants, or two or more non-ionic surfactants.

[0079] Representative dispersing agents include an alkylolammonium salt of a copolymer having acid groups, for example CAS No. 162627-23-8 (polyphosphoric acids, esters with 2-oxepanone-polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one reaction product, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino)ethanol); an alkylammonium salt of a phosphoric acid ester of a copolymer; a copolymer containing phosphoric acid groups; a copolymer containing carboxylic acid groups; a polyester containing phosphoric acid groups; a poly(oxy(C1-C3)alkylene (C6-C32)) alkyl ether, for example CAS No. 9002-92-0 (poly(oxyethylene)(4) lauryl ether); and the like. Commercially available dispersants include DISPERBYK®-180, DISPERBYK®-145, DISPERBYK®-2163, and DISPERBYK®-110 (each available from BYK-Chemie GmbH, Wesel, Germany), and BRIJ 30 (available from Acros).

[0080] The surfactant and the dispersing agent may each independently be included in an amount of about 0.01 weight percent (wt%) to about 15 wt%, based on a total weight of the solvent.

[0081] The obtained nanosheets are physically connected to provide an electrical connection. When the nanosheets are physically connected to provide a thin film, the light transmittance may be further enhanced. The nanosheet may be processed into a transparent thin film by, for example, dip coating, spray coating, slit coating, inkjet coating, and the like. The obtained transparent thin film may have coverage of greater than or equal to about 50 %, or greater than or equal to about 70 % within the range, or greater than or equal to about 90 % within the range, and for example, may be about 100 %, or about 50% to 100%, or about 60% to about 95%, based on a total area of a substrate on which the transparent thin film is formed.

[0082] The transparent thin film may have a thickness of 1 nanometer (nm) to 500 nm, from about 2 nm to about 250 nm, or from about 3 nm to about 125 nm.

[0083] In an embodiment a thin film of the conductive material is transparent. The transparent thin film of the conductive material may have a thickness of, for example, less than or equal to about 200 nm. The thickness of the transparent thin film comprising the conductive material may range from about 5 nm to about 200 nm, from about 10 nm to about 100 nm, from about 10 nm to about 80 nm, or from about 15 nm to about 60 nm. A light transmittance of a transparent thin film comprising the conductive material may be about 80% to about 99%, or about 85% to about 98%, or about 90% to about 97% for a film having a thickness of 50 nm for light having a wavelength of 550 nm. In an embodiment the transparent thin film comprises 80 weight percent (wt%) to 100 wt%, or 90 wt% to 99 wt% of the conductive material, based on a total weight of the transparent thin film. A thin film consisting of the conductive material is mentioned.

[0084] The conductive material may be applied to an electrode for various electronic devices. Examples of the electronic devices may include a flat panel display such as a liquid crystal display (LCD), an organic light emitting diode device, a touch panel screen, a solar cell, an e-window, a heat mirror, or a transparent transistor, but is not limited thereto.

[0085] In addition, as the conductive material has sufficient flexibility as described in above, it may be usefully applied to a flexible electronic device. The conductive material may have a Young's modulus, i.e., a tensile modulus, of about 0.01 gigapascals (GPa) to about 10 GPa, about 0.05 GPa to about 8 GPa, about 0.1 GPa to about 6 GPa, or about 0.5 GPa to about 4 GPa. Also the conductive material maintains its conductive properties after being flexed. For example a film of the conductive material, e.g., a 100 nm thick film of the conductive material on a polyethyleneterephthalate substrate, has a conductivity after bending 180° around a rod having a diameter 10 millimeters which is about 80% to 100%, about 85% to about 99%, or about 90% to about 98% of a conductivity before the bending when determined by a DC (constant current) four-probe method.

[0086] Hereinafter, as one example of the electronic device, an organic light emitting diode device in which the conductive material is applied to a transparent electrode is described with reference to the drawings.

[0087] In the drawings, the thickness of layers, films, panels, regions, etc., are exaggerated for clarity. Like reference numerals designate like elements throughout the specification. It will be understood that when an element such as a layer, film, region, or substrate is referred to as being "on" another element, it can be directly on the other element or intervening elements may also be present. In contrast, when an element is referred to as being "directly on" another element, there are no intervening elements present.

[0088] FIG. 9 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing an organic light emitting diode device according to one embodiment.

[0089] Referring to FIG. 9, the organic light emitting diode device according to an embodiment includes a substrate 10, a lower electrode 20, an upper electrode 40 facing the lower electrode 20, and an emission layer 30 interposed between the lower electrode 20 and the upper electrode 40.

[0090] The substrate 10 may include, for example, an inorganic material such as glass, silicon, or an organic material such as a polymeric material selected from polycarbonate, polymethylmethacrylate, polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene naphthalate, polyamide, and polyethersulfone. The combination comprising at least one of the foregoing substrates may be used.

[0091] One of the lower electrode 20 and the upper electrode 40 is a cathode, and the other is an anode. For example, the lower electrode 20 may be an anode, and the upper electrode 40 may be a cathode.

[0092] At least either one of the lower electrode 20 and the upper electrode 40 is transparent. When the lower electrode 20 is transparent, an organic light emitting diode device may have bottom emission in which light is emitted toward the substrate 10, while when the upper electrode 40 is transparent, the organic light emitting diode device may have top emission in which a light is emitted opposite the substrate 10. In addition, when the lower electrode 20 and upper electrode 40 are both transparent, light may be emitted both toward the substrate 10 and opposite the substrate 10.

[0093] The transparent electrode may comprise the conductive material as disclosed herein.

[0094] The emission layer 30 may comprise an organic material emitting a primary colors such as red, green, blue, and the like, or may comprise a mixture of an inorganic material and an organic material, for example, a polyfluorene compound, a (poly)paraphenylenevinylene compound, a polyphenylene compound, a polyfluorene compound, polyvinylcarbazole, a polythiophene compound, or a compound prepared by doping such polymer materials with a perylene-based pigment, a coumarin-based pigment, a rhodamine-based pigment, rubrene, perylene, 9,10-diphenylanthracene, tetraphenylbutadiene, Nile red, coumarin, quinacridone, and the like. An organic light emitting diode device displays a desirable image by a spatial combination of primary colors emitted by an emission layer therein.

[0095] The emission layer 30 may emit white light by combining three primary colors such as red, green, and blue. Specifically, the emission layer 30 may emit white light by combining colors of neighboring sub-pixels or by combining laminated colors in a vertical direction.

[0096] An auxiliary layer 50 may be positioned between the emission layer 30 and the upper electrode 40 to improve luminous efficiency. In the drawing, the auxiliary layer 50 is shown only between the emission layer 30 and the upper electrode 40 but is not limited thereto and may be positioned between the emission layer 30 and the lower electrode 20, or may be positioned between the emission layer 30 and the upper electrode 40, and between the emission layer 30 and the lower electrode 20.

[0097] The auxiliary layer 50 may include an electron transport layer (ETL) and a hole transport layer (HTL) for balancing between electrons and holes, an electron injection layer (EIL) and a hole injection layer (HIL) for reinforcing injection of electrons and holes, and the like. It may include one or more layers selected therefrom.

[0098] An embodiment in which the conductive material is applied to an organic light emitting diode device is described herein, but this disclosure is not limited thereto. The conductive material may be used for an electrode for all electronic devices including an electrode, for example, a pixel electrode and/or a common electrode of a liquid crystal display (LCD), a display electrode of a plasma display device, and a transparent electrode of a touch screen panel device.

[0099] Hereinafter, the embodiments are illustrated in more detail with reference to examples. These examples, however, are not in any sense to be interpreted as limiting the scope of this disclosure.

EXAMPLES


Synthesis Examples


Synthesis Example 1



[0100] 2.7977 grams (g) (0.0263 moles (mol)) of Pd powder (purity: 99.99 %, manufacturer: Heraeus), 0.2137 g (0.000109 mol) of Pt powder (purity: 99.99 %, manufacturer: Heraeus), and 6.9886 g (0.05477 mol) of Te powder (purity: 99.99 %, manufacturer: 5N Plus) are mixed in a glove box to provide a mixture. The mixture is introduced into a quartz glass tube and input into a box furnace and melted by heating to 1250°C, and then slowly cooled at a speed of about 2 °C per hour (°C/h) to grow a monocrystalline ingot.

[0101] The monocrystalline ingot is pulverized by a ball mill to provide Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2 powder.

[0102] In addition, when the monocrystalline ingot is pulverized, it is confirmed that the crystalline surface is widely formed with relatively few defects, and then a mechanical exfoliation process is performed greater than or equal to 10 times using a 3M transparent tape to provide a Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2 nanosheet.

[0103] The Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2 powder is ultrasonicated in ethanol to provide a dispersion including Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2 nanosheet. The obtained dispersion including Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2 nanosheets are centrifuged, and the precipitates are washed with water and then centrifuged. The obtained nanosheet precipitate is input into a vial and added with 3 milliliters (mL) of deionized water and treated by ultrasonication. 2-3 mL of toluene is added thereto, and the vial is agitated to provide a thin film including Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2 nanosheets on the interface between the aqueous layer and the toluene layer. A glass substrate treated with oxygen plasma is lightly dipped and taken out to prepare a Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2 nanosheet formed on the glass substrate.

Synthesis Example 2



[0104] Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2 powder and Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2 nanosheets are prepared in accordance with the same procedure as in Synthesis Example 1, except that 2.6554 g (0.02496 mol) of Pd powder, 0.4233 g (0.0022 mol) of Pt powder, and 6.9214 g (0.0542 mol) of Te powder are used as starting materials.

Synthesis Example 3



[0105] Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2 powder and Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2 nanosheets are prepared in accordance with the same procedure as in Synthesis Example 1, except that 2.8413 g (0.0267 mol) of Pd powder, 0.061 g (0.0011 mol) of Mn powder (purity: 99.9 %, manufacturer: Aldrich), and 7.0975 g (0.0556 mol) of Te powder are used as starting materials.

Synthesis Example 4



[0106] Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2 powder and Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2 nanosheets are prepared in accordance with the same procedure as in Synthesis Example 1, except that 2.7836 g (0.0257 mol) of Pd powder, 0.1229 g (0.0022 mol) of Mn powder (purity: 99.9 %, manufacturer: Aldrich), and 7.1384 g (0.0559 mol) of Te powder are used as starting materials.

Comparative Synthesis Example 1



[0107] PdTe2 powder and PdTe2 nanosheets are prepared in accordance with the same procedure as in Synthesis Example 1, except that 2.9429 g (0.0277 mol) of Pd powder and 7.0571 g (0.0553 mol) of Te powder are used as starting materials without Pt powder.

Evaluation


Evaluation 1



[0108] In order to confirm the crystal structure of the powders obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 to 4 and Comparative Synthesis Example 1, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is carried out.

[0109] FIG. 1 is a graph showing the results of XRD analysis of the Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2, Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2, and PdTe2 powders obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 and 2 and Comparative Synthesis Example 1, and FIG. 2 is a graph showing the results of XRD analysis of the Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2, Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2, and PdTe2 powders obtained from Synthesis Examples 3 and 4 and Comparative Synthesis Example 1.

[0110] Referring to FIG. 1, it is confirmed that the Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2 and Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2 powders obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 and 2 have (003) peaks which are shifted relative to the (003) peaks of the PdTe2 powder obtained from Comparative Synthesis Example 1. From the XRD analysis, and while not wanting to be bound by theory, it is confirmed that the Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2 and Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2 powders obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 and 2 have a modified crystal structure compared to the PdTe2 powder obtained from Comparative Synthesis Example 1, and the platinum included in the crystal structure provides an increased interlayer dimension of about 4% in a direction parallel to the c axis direction.

[0111] Referring to FIG. 2, it is confirmed that the Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2 and Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2 powders obtained from Synthesis Examples 3 and 4 have (003) peaks which are shifted relative to the (003) peaks of the PdTe2 powder obtained from Comparative Synthesis Example 1. From the results, it is confirmed that the Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2 and Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2 powders obtained from Synthesis Examples 3 and 4 have a modified crystal structure compared to the PdTe2 powder obtained from Comparative Synthesis Example 1, and the manganese included in the crystal structure provides a smaller interlayer dimension of about 1% in a direction parallel to the c axis direction.

Evaluation 2



[0112] The nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 to 4 and Comparative Synthesis Example 1 are evaluated for electrical conductivity. The electrical conductivity is evaluated by physically attaching the nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 to 4 and Comparative Synthesis Example 1 on a predetermined pattern-printed substrate to provide a specimen, and then measuring the conductivity according to a DC 4-point probe method at room temperature.

[0113] FIG. 3 is a graph showing the electrical conductivity of Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2, Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2, Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2, Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2, and PdTe2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 to 4 and Comparative Synthesis Example 1.

[0114] Referring to FIG. 3, it is confirmed that Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2, Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2, Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2, and Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 to 4 have highly increased electrical conductivity compared to the PdTe2 nanosheet obtained from Comparative Synthesis Example 1. Specifically, it is confirmed that all the Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2, Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2, Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2, and Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 to 4 have electrical conductivity of greater than or equal to about 3.0x104 S/cm.

Evaluation 3



[0115] The nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 to 4 and Comparative Synthesis Example 1 are measured for thickness using atomic force microscopy.

[0116] FIG. 4 is a graph showing a thickness of Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Example 1, FIG. 5 is a graph showing a thickness of Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Example 2, FIG. 6 is a graph showing a thickness of Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Example 3; FIG. 7 is a graph showing a thickness of Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Example 4; and FIG. 8 is a graph showing a thickness of PdTe2 nanosheets obtained from Comparative Synthesis Example 1.

[0117] Referring to FIG. 4 to FIG. 8, it is confirmed that the Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2, Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2, Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2, and Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 to 4 comprise primarily nanosheets having a thickness of less than about 200nm; whereas the PdTe2 nanosheets obtained from Comparative Synthesis Example 1 contain few nanosheets having a thickness of less than about 200 nm and primarily have nanosheets with a thickness of about 200 nm to about 400 nm.

[0118] From these results, it is confirmed that the Pd0.96Pt0.04Te2, Pd0.92Pt0.08Te2, Pd0.96Mn0.04Te2, and Pd0.92Mn0.08Te2 nanosheets obtained from Synthesis Examples 1 to 4 have a thickness of less than or equal to about 50 % of the thickness of the PdTe2 nanosheets obtained from Comparative Synthesis Example 1. From these results, it is confirmed that the disclosed conductive material provides improved exfoliation characteristics.

[0119] While this disclosure has been described in connection with what is presently considered to be practical embodiments, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the disclosed embodiments, but, on the contrary, is intended to include various modifications and equivalent arrangements included within the scope of the appended claims.


Claims

1. A conductive material, comprising:

a first element selected from a transition metal, a platinum-group element, a rare earth element, and a combination thereof;

a second element having an atomic radius which is 10 percent less than to 10 percent greater than an atomic radius of the first element; and

a chalcogen element,

wherein the conductive material has a layered crystal structure; and

wherein the conductive material is represented by Chemical Formula 1:

        Chemical Formula 1     M11-a M2aX2

wherein, in Chemical Formula 1,

M1 is the first element,

M2 is the second element,

X is the chalcogen element, and

0<a<0.5;

wherein the conductive material comprises a plurality of nanosheets having a thickness of less than or equal to 200 nm, and

wherein the nanosheets contact to each other to provide an electrical connection.


 
2. The conductive material of claim 1, wherein the layered crystal structure comprises a metal dichalcogenide layer comprising the first element and the chalcogen element, and
wherein the second element is partially substituted at a position of the first element.
 
3. The conductive material of claim 2, wherein the second element is disposed between adjacent metal dichalcogenide layers.
 
4. The conductive material of any of claims 1-3, wherein the second element is included in an amount of 0.1 to 20 mole percent, based on a total amount of the conductive material.
 
5. The conductive material of any of claims 1-4, wherein a in Chemical Formula 1 is 0.01≤a≤0.2.
 
6. The conductive material of any of claims 1-5, wherein the layered crystal structure comprises a plurality of unit crystal layers, wherein each unit crystal layer comprises:

an upper layer and a lower layer, each comprising the chalcogen element, and

the first element and the second element, each disposed between the upper layer and the lower layer.


 
7. The conductive material of any of claims 1-6, wherein conductive material has a c axis dimension which is 0.1% to 10% greater than or 0.1% to 10% less than a c axis dimension of a metal dichalcogenide consisting of the first element and the chalcogen element.
 
8. The conductive material of any of claims 1-7, wherein the conductive material has a thickness of 1 nanometer to 500 nanometers.
 
9. A transparent film comprising the conductive material of any of claims 1-7, wherein the transparent film has a thickness of less than or equal to 200 nm.
 
10. An electronic device comprising the conductive material of any of claims 1-8 or the transparent film of claim 9
 
11. The electronic device of claim 10, wherein the electronic device is a flat panel display, a touch screen panel, a solar cell, an e-window, a heat mirror, or a transparent transistor.
 
12. A method of preparing a conductive material, the method comprising:

heat treating

a first element selected from a transition metal, a platinum-group element, a rare earth element, and a combination thereof,

a second element having an atomic radius which is 10 percent less than to 10 percent greater than an atomic radius of the first element, and

a chalcogen element to form a compound having a layered crystal structure;

wherein the compound is represented by Chemical Formula 1:

        Chemical Formula 1     M11-a M2aX2

wherein, in Chemical Formula 1,

M1 is the first element,

M2 is the second element,

X is the chalcogen element, and

0<a<0.5; and

exfoliating the compound having a layered crystal structure to prepare the conductive material.


 
13. The method of claim 12, wherein the method further comprises disposing the conductive material on a substrate to manufacture a transparent film.
 


Ansprüche

1. Leitfähiges Material, umfassend:

ein erstes Element, das ausgewählt ist aus einem Übergangsmetall, einem Platinmetallelement, einem Seltenerdelement und einer Kombination dieser;

ein zweites Element mit einem Atomradius, der zwischen 10 Prozent kleiner und 10 Prozent größer ist als ein Atomradius des ersten Elements; und

ein Chalkogenelement,

wobei das leitfähige Material eine geschichtete Kristallstruktur aufweist; und

wobei das leitfähige Material durch die chemische Formel 1 dargestellt ist:

        Chemische Formel 1     M11-aM2aX2,

wobei in der chemischen Formel 1 folgendes gilt:

M1 ist das erste Element,

M2 ist das zweite Element,

X ist das Chalkogenelement, und

0<a<0,5;

wobei das leitfähige Material eine Mehrzahl von Nanolagen mit einer Dicke von kleiner oder gleich 200 nm umfasst, und

wobei sich die Nanolagen gegenseitig berühren, so dass eine elektrische Verbindung bereitgestellt wird.


 
2. Leitfähiges Material nach Anspruch 1, wobei die geschichtete Kristallstruktur eine Metalldichalkogenidschicht umfasst, die das erste Element und das Chalkogenelement umfasst, und
wobei das zweite Element an einer Position des ersten Elements teilweise substituiert ist.
 
3. Leitfähiges Material nach Anspruch 2, wobei sich das zweite Element zwischen benachbarten Metalldichalkogenidschichten befindet.
 
4. Leitfähiges Material nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei das zweite Element in einer Menge von 0,1 bis 20 Molprozent auf der Basis einer Gesamtmenge des leitfähigen Materials enthalten ist.
 
5. Leitfähiges Material nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei für a in der chemischen Formel 1 folgendes gilt: 0,01≤a≤0,2.
 
6. Leitfähiges Material nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei die geschichtete Kristallstruktur eine Mehrzahl von Einzelkristallschichten umfasst, wobei jede Einzelkristallschicht folgendes umfasst:

eine obere Schicht und eine untere Schicht, die jeweils das Chalkogenelement umfassen, und

das erste Element und das zweite Element, die sich jeweils zwischen der oberen Schicht und der unteren Schicht befinden.


 
7. Leitfähiges Material nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, wobei das leitfähige Material eine C-Achsendimension aufweist, die um 0,1% bis 10% größer ist als oder um 0,1% bis 10% kleiner ist als eine C-Achsendimension eines Metalldichalkogenids, bestehend aus dem ersten Element und dem Chalkogenelement.
 
8. Leitfähiges Material nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, wobei das leitfähige Material eine Dicke von 1 Nanometer bis 500 Nanometern aufweist.
 
9. Transparente Folie, welche das leitfähige Element nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7 umfasst, wobei die transparente Folie eine Dicke von kleiner oder gleich 200 nm aufweist.
 
10. Elektronische Vorrichtung, die das leitfähige Material nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 oder die transparente Folie nach Anspruch 9 umfasst.
 
11. Elektronische Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 10, wobei die elektronische Vorrichtung ein Flachbildschirm, ein Touchscreen, eine Solarzelle, ein E-Fenster, ein Heat Mirror oder ein transparenter Transistor ist.
 
12. Verfahren für die Herstellung eines leitfähigen Materials, wobei das Verfahren folgendes umfasst:

Wärmebehandeln

eines ersten Elements, das ausgewählt ist aus einem Übergangsmetall, einem Platinmetallelement, einem Seltenerdelement und einer Kombination dieser;

eines zweiten Elements mit einem Atomradius, der zwischen 10 Prozent kleiner und 10 Prozent größer ist als ein Atomradius des ersten Elements; und

eines Chalkogenelements, um eine Verbindung mit einer geschichteten Kristallstruktur zu bilden;

wobei die Verbindung durch die chemische Formel 1 dargestellt ist:

        Chemische Formel 1     M11-a M2aX2,

wobei in der chemischen Formel 1 folgendes gilt:

M1 ist das erste Element,

M2 ist das zweite Element,

X ist das Chalkogenelement, und

0<a<0,5; und

Exfoliation der Verbindung mit der geschichteten Kristallstruktur, um das leitfähige Material zu erzeugen.


 
13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 12, wobei das Verfahren ferner das Platzieren des leitfähigen Materials auf einem Substrat zur Herstellung einer transparenten Folie umfasst.
 


Revendications

1. Matériau conducteur, comprenant :

un premier élément choisi parmi un métal de transition, un élément du groupe du platine, un élément des terres rares et une combinaison de ceux-ci ;

un second élément ayant un rayon atomique compris entre 10 % de moins et 10 % de plus que le rayon atomique du premier élément ; et

un élément chalcogène,

le matériau conducteur ayant une structure cristalline en couches ; et

le matériau conducteur étant représenté par la formule chimique 1 :

        formule chimique 1     M11-a M2aX2

dans la formule chimique 1,

M1 est le premier élément,

M2 est le second élément,

X est l'élément chalcogène, et

0<a<0,5 ;

le matériau conducteur comprenant une pluralité de nanofeuilles ayant une épaisseur inférieure ou égale à 200 nm, et

les nanofeuilles étant en contact les unes avec les autres pour assurer une connexion électrique.


 
2. Matériau conducteur selon la revendication 1, la structure cristalline en couches comprenant une couche de dichalcogénure métallique comprenant le premier élément et l'élément chalcogène, et
le second élément étant partiellement substitué à une position du premier élément.
 
3. Matériau conducteur selon la revendication 2, le second élément étant disposé entre des couches de dichalcogénure métallique adjacentes.
 
4. Matériau conducteur selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, le second élément étant inclus dans une quantité de 0,1 à 20 % en moles, sur la base d'une quantité totale du matériau conducteur.
 
5. Matériau conducteur selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, a dans la formule chimique 1 étant 0,01≤a≤0,2.
 
6. Matériau conducteur selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, la structure cristalline en couches comprenant une pluralité de couches cristallines unitaires, chaque couche cristalline unitaire comprenant :

une couche supérieure et une couche inférieure, chacune comprenant l'élément chalcogène, et

le premier élément et le second élément, chacun étant disposé entre la couche supérieure et la couche inférieure.


 
7. Matériau conducteur selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, le matériau conducteur ayant une dimension d'axe c qui est de 0,1 % à 10 % supérieure ou de 0,1 % à 10 % inférieure à une dimension d'axe c d'un dichalcogénure métallique constitué du premier élément et de l'élément chalcogène.
 
8. Matériau conducteur selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, le matériau conducteur ayant une épaisseur comprise entre 1 nanomètre et 500 nanomètres.
 
9. Film transparent comprenant le matériau conducteur selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, le film transparent ayant une épaisseur inférieure ou égale à 200 nm.
 
10. Dispositif électronique comprenant le matériau conducteur selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8 ou le film transparent selon la revendication 9.
 
11. Dispositif électronique selon la revendication 10, le dispositif électronique étant un écran plat, un écran tactile, une cellule solaire, une fenêtre électronique, un miroir électrochromique, un miroir thermique ou un transistor transparent.
 
12. Procédé de préparation d'un matériau conducteur, le procédé comprenant les étapes consistant à :

soumettre à un traitement thermique

un premier élément choisi parmi un métal de transition, un élément du groupe du platine, un élément des terres rares et une combinaison de ceux-ci,

un second élément ayant un rayon atomique compris entre 10 % de moins et 10 % de plus que le rayon atomique du premier élément, et

un élément chalcogène pour former un composé ayant une structure cristalline en couches ;

le composé étant représenté par la formule chimique 1 :

        formule chimique 1     M11-a M2aX2

dans la formule chimique 1,

M1 est le premier élément,

M2 est le second élément,

X est l'élément chalcogène, et

0<a<0,5 ; et

exfolier le composé ayant une structure cristalline en couches pour préparer le matériau conducteur.


 
13. Procédé selon la revendication 12, le procédé comprenant en outre l'étape consistant à disposer le matériau conducteur sur un substrat pour fabriquer un film transparent.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description