(19)
(11)EP 2 953 012 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
18.04.2018 Bulletin 2018/16

(21)Application number: 14746641.1

(22)Date of filing:  28.01.2014
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
G06F 3/041(2006.01)
G01L 1/18(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/CN2014/071631
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/117724 (07.08.2014 Gazette  2014/32)

(54)

ELECTRONIC SKIN, PREPARATION METHOD AND USE THEREOF

ELEKTRONISCHE HAUT, HERSTELLUNGSVERFAHREN UND VERWENDUNG DAVON

PEAU ÉLECTRONIQUE, PROCÉDÉ DE PRÉPARATION ET UTILISATION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 29.01.2013 CN 201310034478
24.10.2013 CN 201310507497
24.10.2013 CN 201310508179
17.12.2013 CN 201310693411

(43)Date of publication of application:
09.12.2015 Bulletin 2015/50

(73)Proprietor: Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics (SINANO) Chinese Academy of Sciences
Suzhou, Jiangsu 215125 (CN)

(72)Inventors:
  • ZHANG, Ting
    Suzhou Jiangsu 215125 (CN)
  • WANG, Xuewen
    Suzhou Jiangsu 215125 (CN)
  • XIONG, Zuoping
    Suzhou Jiangsu 215125 (CN)
  • GU, Yang
    Suzhou Jiangsu 215125 (CN)
  • GU, Wen
    Suzhou Jiangsu 215125 (CN)

(74)Representative: Petraz, Gilberto Luigi et al
GLP S.r.l.
Viale Europa Unita, 171 33100 Udine
Viale Europa Unita, 171 33100 Udine (IT)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A2- 1 480 029
WO-A2-2004/069736
CN-A- 102 749 092
DE-A1- 19 533 756
KR-A- 20130 003 856
US-A1- 2010 295 812
US-A1- 2012 223 454
WO-A1-2011/125408
CN-A- 101 963 864
CN-A- 103 083 007
KR-A- 20110 042 924
US-A1- 2010 050 779
US-A1- 2011 226 069
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention relates to the field of sensors, more particularly to an electronic skin, a preparation method and a use thereof.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0002] As automatic devices with artificial intelligence, robots have been more and more involved in people's daily lives and have replaced human to perform related work in hazardous industries such as high temperature, high pressure, explosive disposal, etc. By the integration of various sensors, the existing robot systems already have achieved a lot of human sensations, like vision, hearing and olfaction. However, the robot systems are faced with one of the most challenging problems all the time: how to get sensitive tactile sensation like human beings. The birth of electronic skin will bring the robot systems tremendous changes and will enable the robots to get more information from the external environment.

    [0003] Since the University of Tokyo first suggested OFET electronic skin, some research groups in Japan and America have constructed the electronic skin based on organic field effect transistor, capacitive electronic skin as well as piezoresistive electronic skin successfully. However, the application ranges of these devices are limited due to complicated processing technic and device structures, bigger driving voltage, lower sensitivity or characteristics such as non- transparency and non-flexibility resulting from the use of rigid silicon-based materials. Therefore, it is necessary to provide an artificial electronic skin which has simple structure, high sensitivity, high accuracy and durability.

    [0004] Along with the advent of conceptual products such as Google glass, Apple Watch, and the like, wearable equipment comes to public attention with advantages such as high sensitivity, low cost, low power consumption, easy portability, more convenient user experience, and so on, extending functions that PC and cell phone do not have. By the deep integration with software and hardware technology and by means of highly integrated intelligent terminal, wearable equipment not only creates smart personal life, but also builds smart city and even smart world, thereby bringing the life-style and consumption concept of human being revolutionary changes. There will be many varieties of wearable equipment in future, but all of which will be combined with sensor technology, taking the human body as a part of input or output process, then connecting the Internet by itself or by APP on the cell phone, and finally achieving intelligent human-machine interaction.

    [0005] The electronic skin with nanostructure, ultrathin thickness, lighter weight, and flexibility similar to human skin is the most suitable material for constructing wearable equipment. Recently, the world-recognized top journal Nature has reported an ultrathin (2µm) electronic skin with OFET structure, which is lighter than feather and still works after being kneaded, stretched out, or drawn back. However, because of low carrier mobility of OFET, the electronic skin needs high working voltage and high power consumption, but has low sensitivity.

    [0006] In addition, with the rapid development of communication technology and continuous progress of computer science and technology, speech recognition becomes a remarkable high-tech intelligent human-computer interaction technology, which involves multi-disciplines comprehensive technologies of phonetics, vocalism principle, microelectronic technology, computer information processing technology, speech processing technology, circuit and system, sense technology, and so on. The application thereof has become a competitive new high-technology industry.

    [0007] The reported speech recognition technologies are usually based on methods of speech template, large vocabulary continuous speech recognition, acoustic model, etc. However, these traditional speech recognition technologies have lots of problems. For example, in circumstances of noisy environment, unclear pronunciation with accent or in dialect, or of a multitude of voices from multi-people at the same time, voice input will have a bad effect, low recognition rate and even will fail to be recognized. The main reason for these problems mentioned above is that traditional voice acquisition modules capture voices by collecting transmitted signals of voices in the air, while other acoustic sources around will interfere the collecting of voice data.

    [0008] Moreover, in order to extract physiological and pathological information from the pulse waves of human body as the basis for clinical diagnose and treatment, a number of pulse monitors appear in recent years, such as portable electronic sphygmomanometer which can measure pulse. However, this kind of portable electronic sphygmomanometers use mini air pump to pressurize rubber pneumatic bag and need pressurizing process and depressurizing process in every single measurement, thereby having some problems, such as big size, uncomfortable user experience during pressurization and depressurization, low accuracy in the detection of pulse, disability of displaying a full waveform of pulse wave, etc. Some large sphygmographes, such as Complior Analyse (France), have accurate measuring results and good repeatability, but are mainly used in specialist treatment and the study of epidemiology and are too expensive to use in household or popular portable medical services.

    [0009] Furthermore, in order to meet the growing needs of people, it is very necessary to explore new applications in various fields for the electronic skin which is an electronic device with extremely high sensitivity.

    [0010] KR 20110042924A discloses a touch panel and manufacturing method thereof. When the panel is pressed, the polymer layer 26 formed with carbon nanotube film patterns 25 is deformed and intrudes into the space of the spacer 31, and thus the resistance value changes.

    [0011] US 2010/050779A1 discloses a load cell, comprising: a block of carbon nanotubes; a first multiplicity of electrodes on a first side of said block; a second multiplicity of electrodes on an opposing side of said block to said first side, and an electrical circuit for measuring the electrical resistance, wherein the substrates 252 and 254 are fixed to the electrodes or the block of carbon nanotubes by adhesive material 256.

    [0012] KR 20130003856A discloses a piezoresistive touch screen panel, comprising a Polymer cover 60, a polymer membrane 30 and a substrate 10, wherein the substrate 10 is arranged with a plurality of holes 20 or grooves, a plurality of grooves 32a, 34a are formed on two sides 32, 34 of the polymer membrane 30 for receiving first and second electrode strips 40 and 50, wherein the first and second electrode strips 40, 50 comprises first and second flexible electrodes 42, 52 at the portions corresponding to holes 20 and first and second metal electrodes 44, 54 at the other portions.

    [0013] US 2012/223454A1 discloses a mold and manufacturing method thereof. The mold has a pattern-formation surface 1A defined by one surface 3, wherein the pattern-formation layer has a projection-and-depression structure area for patterning, and a base surface 4 defined by another surface. At least the pattern-formation layer and the base surface each comprise a polydimethylsiloxane layer.

    [0014] WO 2004/069736 A2 discloses a conductive article, including a substrate and a conductive layer that is formed on the surface of the substrate.

    [0015] Additional state of the art is known from EP 1480029 A2 and US 201002958120A1.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0016] One of the goals of the present invention is to provide a piezoresistive electronic skin with a completely new structure, which has advantages of low cost, low driving voltage, high sensitivity, short response time, high stability, etc.

    [0017] In order to achieve the above goal, the present invention provides a piezoresistive electronic skin according to claim 1.

    [0018] Preferably, at least one of the flexible substrates uses polydimethylsiloxane film, or, at least one of the flexible substrates is made of one or a combination of more of the follows: polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (Nylon), polycarbonate (PC), polyurethane (PU), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET, PETE), and high-polymer rubber materials.

    [0019] According to the invention, the flexible substrate uses polydimethylsiloxane film, at least one surface of the polydimethylsiloxane film which faces the other substrate is provided with patterns, the sizes of the patterns are between 0.1 and 500µm; and the unit amount of the patterns in a square centimeter is between 1 and 1012.

    [0020] The template is anyone of a silicon substrate provided with microstructure, a glass substrate provided with microstructure, a metallic substrate provided with microstructure, a plastic substrate, fabric or silk article provided with microstructure, and a bio-organ provided with microstructure.

    [0021] Furthermore, the conductive layer is attached with organic polymer material on the surfaces, wherein the organic polymer material is one or a combination of more of the follows: polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (Nylon), polycarbonate (PC), polyurethane (PU), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET, PETE), PDMS, and high-polymer rubber materials.

    [0022] In order to achieve the above goal, the present invention also provides a preparation method of the piezoresistive electronic skin according to claim 10.

    [0023] Compared with the existing technologies, the present invention has advantages as follows: the piezoresistive electronic skin uses carbon nanotube films as the conductive layers and uses materials, such as polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl formal, polyethylene, and so on, as the flexible substrates, allowing the substrate to be high flexible and pliable, and to have low operating voltage, little power consumption, as well as high sensitivity and short response time. Employing the patterned flexible substrate with the increased amount of contact resistances as the basis greatly improves the sensitivity of electronic skin reacting to tiny applied force from the outside. Meanwhile, the template used in the patterning process is a soft template, such as fabric, silk cloth, and the like, which has low-cost, is easy to get, and does not need any complex micromachining process, effectively improving the practicality of the technical solution, saving material resources and decreasing the manufacturing cost of the piezoresistive electronic skin.

    [0024] The present invention also provides a use of the piezoresistive electronic skin in detecting human pulse, cardiac pulsation, tension, breathing, intraocular pressure, vibration of muscle groups in the throat, speech recognition, muscle and skin movement caused by moving, blood pressure, and in medical robot, endoscopic robot system, surgery mechanical arm on the aspect of touching, sensing and protecting human organ. the problems of poor speech input effect and low recognition rate in the existing technology.

    [0025] In order to achieve the above goal, technical solutions are provided as follows:

    [0026] A speech recognition system is provided, which comprises:

    the above-mentioned piezoresistive electronic skin,

    a data processing module for receiving signals from the piezoresistive electronic skin and transmitting the processed signals to display module;

    a display module for receiving and displaying the signals from the data processing module.



    [0027] The present invention also provides a speech recognition method, comprising steps as follows:

    collecting vibration signals of vocal cords by means of the above-mentioned piezoresistive electronic skin; filtering and amplifying the collected vibration signals, and extracting characteristic signals;

    analyzing and recognizing the characteristic signals by time domain analysis method or frequency domain analysis method, and displaying the recognition results by means of a display module.



    [0028] Another goal of the present invention is to provide a pulse detection system and a method respectively on the basis of the piezoresistive electronic skin or the capacitive electronic skin so as to solve the existing technical problems of the pulse detection device, such as big size, high energy consumption, low accuracy, high cost, disability of displaying a full waveform of pulse wave, etc.

    [0029] In order to achieve the above goal, technical solutions are provided as follows:

    A pulse detection system is provided, comprising:

    the piezoresistive electronic skin according to the one of embodiment 1; a filter circuit for filtering the signals received from the piezoresistive electronic skin to obtain valid pulse signals;

    an amplification circuit for amplifying the valid pulse signals and transmitting them to an analog-to-digital conversion circuit;

    a display device for receiving and displaying the signals received from the analog-to-digital conversion circuit.



    [0030] Preferably, the analog-to-digital conversion circuit communicates with the display device by Bluetooth, Zigbee or Wifi.

    [0031] A pulse detection method is also provided, comprising steps as follows:

    collecting pulse signals by means of the above-mentioned piezoresistive electronic skin; filtering the collected pulse signals to obtain valid pulse signals;

    amplifying the valid pulse signals and transmitting them to an analog-to-digital conversion circuit;

    displaying the signals received from the analog-to-digital conversion circuit by means of a displayer.



    [0032] Compared with the existing technologies, the present invention has advantages as follows:

    [0033] By incorporating new micro-nano sensing technology and using the ultrathin, elastic film material which is non-toxic and has good biocompatibility, the piezoresistive electronic skin or the capacitive electronic skin can be well adhered to human skin to form a wearable device and provide excellent user experience. In the meantime, due to the distinctive nanostructure of the sensitive material, the device has high sensitivity, good stability and portability with light weight and small size as well as low cost. Furthermore, the speech recognition system and method obtained on the basis of the above-mentioned piezoresistive electronic skin or the capacitive electronic skin solve the existing technical problems of poor speech detection effect and low recognition rate, having property of synchronized reorganization, high recognition rate, small size and being convenient to carry. Moreover, the pulse detection system and method obtained on the basis of the piezoresistive electronic skin or the capacitive electronic skin solve the existing problems, such as big size, uncomfortable

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0034] 

    Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a piezoresistive electronic skin according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention;

    Fig. 2 is a flow diagram of a preparation method of an electronic skin according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    Fig. 3 is a SEM image of a polydimethylsiloxane film provided with micropattern according to an embodiment of the invention;

    Fig. 4 is a SEM image of a single-walled carbon nanotube film according to an embodiment of the invention;

    Fig. 5 is a plot of resistance versus the change of pressure using an electronic skin according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    Fig. 6 is a schematic diagram of a capacitive electronic skin according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    Fig. 7 is a SEM image of a silicon wafer template according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    Fig. 8 is a SEM image of a flexible PDMS film molded from the template corresponding to figure 7;

    Fig. 9 is a plot of the response of a capacitive electronic skin versus applied force not falling under the scope of the invention;

    Fig. 10 is a schematic diagram of a speech recognition system according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    Fig. 11 is a plot showing the detection results of speech recognition with the use of a capacitive electronic skin not falling under the scope of the invention;

    Fig. 12 is a schematic diagram of a pulse detection system according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    Fig. 13 is a oscillogram of a wrist pulse wave measured by a piezoresistive electronic skin according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    Fig. 14 is a oscillogram of an individual pulse waveform measured by a piezoresistive electronic skin according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    Fig. 15 is a first detection graph of speech recognition, with the use of a piezoresistive electronic skin according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    Fig. 16 is a second detection graph of speech recognition, with the use of a piezoresistive electronic skin according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    Fig. 17 is a response diagram of a capacitive electronic skin detecting external tension not falling under the scope of the invention;

    Fig. 18 is a force-signal acquisition graph of a piezoresistive electronic skin applied on the endoscopic medical system according to an embodiment of the invention.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATED EMBODIMENTS



    [0035] The present invention will be further explained below in detail with reference to figures and particular embodiments.

    Embodiment 1



    [0036] This embodiment provides a piezoresistive electronic skin, comprising: a plurality of overlapped flexible substrates; a conductive layer arranged on contact surface of adjacent flexible substrates, at least one contact area of the conductive layer has non-planar structure; and conductive electrodes electrically connected with the conductive layer.

    [0037] Referring to fig. 1, as an embodiment, the electronic skin comprises two flexible substrates 11, 12; two conductive layers 21, 22 respectively coated on the two flexible substrates 11, 12, the two conductive layers 21, 22 are contacted with each other; two conductive electrodes 31, 32 respectively contacted with the two conductive layers 21, 22.

    [0038] In specific implementations, each of the flexible substrates is made of various materials.

    [0039] According to the invention at least one of the flexible substrates uses a polydimethylsiloxane film, at least one surface of the polydimethylsiloxane film is provided with micro-nano patterns, the sizes of the patterns are between 0.1 and 500µm; and the unit amount of the patterns in a square centimeter is between 1 and 1012. In another embodiment, at least one of the flexible substrates is made of one or a combination of more of the follows: polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (Nylon), polycarbonate (PC), polyurethane (PU), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET, PETE), and high-polymer rubber materials.

    [0040] In the present embodiment, the patterns are preferably formed by coating the polydimethylsiloxane onto a template and solidifying it. Particularly, for example, degassing it in vacuum for 1-30 minutes and coating it onto a template. The template is preferably anyone of a silicon substrate provided with microstructure, a glass substrate provided with microstructure, a metallic substrate provided with microstructure, a plastic substrate, fabric or silk article provided with microstructure, and a bio-organ provided with microstructure. In specific implementations, making a template by material which is easy to get will effectively improve the practicality of the piezoresistive electronic skin and greatly decrease the manufacturing cost of the piezoresistive electronic skin.

    [0041] The conductive layers 21, 22 comprise a carbon nanotube film which comprises networks formed by cross-linked carbon nanotubes. The light transmittance of the carbon nanotube film is between 50% and 97%, and the sheet resistance of the carbon nanotube film is between 102Ω/sq and 107Ω/sq. The thickness of the carbon nanotube film is approximately between 10nm and 500nm. The carbon nanotube film is made of one type or a combination of more types of single-walled carbon nanotubes, double-walled carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, wherein the single-walled carbon nanotubes may be metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes, semiconductor-type carbon nanotubes or hybrid single-walled carbon nanotubes containing both metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes and semiconductor-type carbon nanotubes.

    [0042] The carbon nanotube film may also be a carbon nanotube film mixed or modified by nitrogen or boron, precious metal, metal, surface active agent, organic macromolecule compound, and so on. The carbon nanotubes may be carbon nanotubes functionalized by hydroxy (-OH), carboxyl (-COOH), amidogen (-NH2), by high molecular polymer, by metal nanoparticle, by metallic oxide, or by biomolecule.

    [0043] The conductive layers 21, 22 may also be made of one or a combination of more of any conductive metal among copper, silver and gold, and semiconductor materials.

    [0044] In another embodiment, the conductive layer is attached with organic polymer material on the surface.

    [0045] Furthermore, analogized with the material of the flexible substrates, the organic polymer material is preferably likewise one or a combination of more of the follows: polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (Nylon), polycarbonate (PC), polyurethane (PU), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET, PETE), PDMS, and high-polymer rubber materials. Thereinto, the high-polymer rubber materials include, but are not limited to, butyl rubber, cis-polybutadiene rubber, chloroprene rubber, ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber, acrylate rubber, and polyurethane rubber. In the present embodiment, the sensitivity and stability of the conductive layer can be increased by adhering different materials to the surface of the conductive layer.

    [0046] Preferably, in one embodiment, a layer of PVDF piezoelectric material (not limited to PVDF) may be added between the conductive film layers 21, 22 shown in fig. 1, so as to improve the sensitivity and stability of the device.

    [0047] In the embodiment as shown in fig. 1, the conductive electrode 31 is connected with the conductive layer 21 but is not connected with the conductive layer 22, while the conductive electrode 32 is connected with the conductive layer 22 but is not connected with the conductive layer 21, and the thin film of carbon tubes provided with micro-nano patterns can only be connected with one of the conductive electrodes, respectively. Moreover, the conductive electrodes 31, 32 are made of any material or a combination of more materials of gold, platinum, nickel, silver, indium, copper, carbon nanotube and graphene.

    [0048] In the present embodiment, the way the two layers of patterned conductive films are assembled, that is, the way the device is packaged, makes a big impact on the stability of the device. Thereinto, in one embodiment, the device is packaged by adhering the two layers of films from periphery and surroundings to form a stable quasi-single layer structure.

    Embodiment 2



    [0049] Referring to fig. 2, the present invention also provides a preparation method of the piezoresistive electronic skin, the steps are as follows:

    S 1. Preparing two patterned flexible substrates, at least one layer of which is polydimethylsiloxane film.



    [0050] In the step S1, the polydimethylsiloxane film is prepared by the following method, comprising a step S11 and a step S12:

    S11. Degassing polydimethylsiloxane in vacuum for 1-30 minutes and coating it onto a template provided with patterns, wherein the polydimethylsiloxane has a thickness of 0.1mm to 3mm, and then heating it for more than 0.5 hour at a temperature of 50 to 100 to solidify and mold it;

    S12. Removing the solidified and molded polydimethylsiloxane from the template by ultrasound in organic solvent for 5 to 30 minutes.



    [0051] In specific implementations, the template may be anyone of a silicon substrate, a glass substrate, a metallic substrate, a plastic substrate, fabric, silk article, each of which has microstructure, and a bio-organ provided with microstructure. The organic solvent may be methanol, ethyl alcohol or ethylene glycol. One or two surfaces of the prepared polydimethylsiloxane film are placed in the oxygen plasma condition to react for 1 to 60 minutes. The polydimethylsiloxane film may also be high molecular materials, including but not limited to one or a combination of more of the follows: polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (Nylon), polycarbonate (PC), polyurethane (PU), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET, PETE), PDMS, and high-polymer rubber materials. Thereinto, the high-polymer rubber materials include, but are not limited to, butyl rubber, cis-polybutadiene rubber, chloroprene rubber, ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber, acrylate rubber, and polyurethane rubber.

    [0052] In the present embodiment, the density of the microstructure is (X*Y) lines/cm2, wherein 1<X<106, 1<Y<106. Thereinto, the density of the microstructure is defined as a density in a unit area of a square centimeter. The high-density structure refers to a structure with a density more than 44*77 lines/cm2, while the low-density structure refers to a structure with a density less than 27*38 lines/cm2. In the embodiment, the preferred density is 44*77 lines/cm2. In theory, the higher density, the higher sensitivity.

    [0053] In the present embodiment, with the use of the microstructure, the piezoresistive electronic skin has good output capability, wherein the sensitivity may reach up to 1.8KPa-1, the lower limit of detection may reach to 0.6Pa, and the response time may reach to 10ms. Referring to fig. 3, it is a scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the prepared polydimethylsiloxane film provided with micro-nano pattern, showing that the polydimethylsiloxane film is formed with periodic microstructure patterns thereon.

    S2. Preparing a solution for the conductive layer. In one embodiment, the solution for the conductive layer is a solution of carbon nanotubes, and the conductive layer is preferably a carbon nanotube film. Coating it to the patterned surfaces of the two flexible substrates to form carbon nanotube films, respectively. Assembling the carbon nanotube films by making the patterned surfaces face to face to form a film device with carbon nanotube films being contacted with each other.



    [0054] The step S2 may particularly comprise steps S21- S23:

    S21. Adding single-walled carbon nanotubes and/or double-walled carbon nanotubes, few-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes into an aqueous solution containing 1wt%-10wt% of surfactant until the concentration of carbon nanotubes reaches to 0.01-50mg/ml, then, pre-dispersing the mixed solution by ultrasound for 1min-10h to form carbon nanotube dispersion solution. In the present embodiment, the surfactant may be common ionic surfactant or non-ionic surfactant, preferably is ionic surfactant, more preferably, but is not limited to, sodium dodecylsulphate, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and so on, with a preferred concentration of 1-10wt%.

    S22. Centrifuging the carbon nanotube dispersion solution at a speed of 1000-20000rpm for more than 0.1h, and taking the supernatant as pre-filmed solution.

    S23. Diluting the pre-filmed solution for 1-100 times by deionized water, and then evenly spraying the diluted solution of carbon nanotubes to the patterned surfaces of the two flexible substrates by sprayer to form carbon nanotube films. Assembling the carbon nanotube films by making the patterned surfaces face to face to form a film device with carbon nanotube films being contacted with each other. It should be explained that, the thickness and the electrical conductivity of the carbon nanotube film depend on the amount of carbon nanotubes contained therein and the time of spraying. The more content of carbon nanotubes and time of spraying, the better strength and electrical conductivity. In the present embodiment, the film-forming process may be performed in common film-forming manners, such as by vacuum filtration or spin coating, spray coating, printing, etc. For example, if the film is formed by spray coating, the process is as follows in detail: spraying the diluted carbon nanotube dispersion solution to the patterned polydimethylsiloxane film at a pressure of 0.1-1psi by sprayer, and then putting the film in heating furnace and heating it to 80-120°C to speed up the evaporation of water, after that, washing off the residual surfactant in the carbon nanotube film by deionized water so as to form a carbon nanotube film coated on the patterned polydimethylsiloxane film. If the film is formed by printing, coating and so on, the process is as follows in detail: coating the diluted carbon nanotube dispersion solution, by spin coating, spray coating and so on, to the material having flat surface, such as glass, mica, silicon wafer, and the like, so as to form a film. Accordingly, a method for removing the base is as follows: steeping it in water or aqueous solution containing acid, alkali, salt and so on until the carbon nanotube film falls off from the base, then shifting the carbon nanotube film onto the patterned polydimethylsiloxane film.



    [0055] Furthermore, before the assembling of the film device, step S23 comprises steeping the film which has the carbon nanotube film on the surface for several times by deionized water so as to remove the surfactant, disposing the carbon nanotube film in strong acid with a concentration of 3-8M for 0.1-24h after drying it. In the present embodiment, the strong acid may be anyone or a combination of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid.

    [0056] Referring to fig. 4, it is a SEM image with single-walled carbon nanotubes affixed to the polydimethylsiloxane film, showing that single-walled carbon nanotubes are cross-linked with each other and are affixed to the surface of the polydimethylsiloxane film.

    S3. Forming upper, lower conductive electrodes respectively on the two carbon nanotube films by conductive material and leading wires from the conductive electrodes, thereby obtaining a piezoresistive electronic skin.



    [0057] In the step S3, the conductive materials for electrodes may be silver paste or fulmargin, or may be gas electrode such as gold, silver, copper, aluminum, or the like, which is made by steaming, ion sputtering and so on.

    [0058] Referring to fig. 5, at an operating voltage of 1V and in air atmosphere, the resistance value of the piezoresistive sensor is measured as 110-120kΩ. At time points of 30 seconds, 60 seconds, 90 seconds, the resistance values are decreased fast when pressures of 60Pa, 120Pa and 180Pa are accordingly applied respectively. For example, when a pressure of 60Pa is applied, the resistance value is rapidly decreased to 95-105kΩ. The result indicates that the piezoresistive sensor has high sensitivity and very short response time.

    [0059] Compared with the existing technologies, the present invention has advantages as follows: the piezoresistive electronic skin uses carbon nanotube film as the conductive layer and uses materials, such as polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl formal, polyethylene, and so on, as the flexible substrates, enabling the substrate has advantages of high flexibility and being pliable, and it needs low operating voltage and little power consumption, but has high sensitivity and short response time. Moreover, the electronic skin uses the micro-patterned flexible substrate as the basis, with increased amount of contact resistances and obtains improved sensitivity to tiny applied force from the outside. Meanwhile, the template used in the patterning process is a soft template, such as fabric, silk cloth, and the like, which has low-cost and is easy to get, does not need any complex micromachining process, effectively improving the practicality of the piezoresistive electronic skin and greatly decreasing the manufacturing cost of the piezoresistive electronic skin.

    Embodiment 3



    [0060] The international competition of information industry has been shown increasingly as the battle over science and technology. The speech recognition industry, as a strategic, forward-looking and important technology industry, has been the focus of scientific community and the industrial community. One embodiment of the present invention provides a new speech recognition technology and the relevant device. A simple, feasible and systematic method for recognizing vibration signals is also provided, comprising the steps as follows: collecting vibration signals generated by vocal cords during speaking by means of micro/nano sensor instead of collecting transmitted sound signals of voices in the air by means of acquisition module in traditional speech recognition technology, pre-treating the vibration signals, such as amplifying the vibration signals, filtering the vibration signals and the like, extracting characteristic signals, recognizing and analyzing by time domain analysis, frequency domain analysis and the like, and finally displaying the results.

    [0061] This embodiment makes innovations on the basis of traditional speech recognition technology, mainly focused on the method for collecting speech signals and on the extracting device. It has advantages of synchronized recognition, high recognition rate, small size and being convenient to carry. In the meantime, due to the use of flexible thin film material, it's convenient to construct the present device as wearable equipment.

    [0062] As shown in fig. 10, in an embodiment of the present invention, a speech recognition system comprises an electronic skin 101, a data processing module 102 and a display module 103. The electronic skin 101 includes piezoresistive electronic skin and capacitive electronic skin.

    [0063] In this embodiment, the piezoresistive electronic skin is used for collecting vibration signals of vocal cords, the data processing module 102 is used for filtering and amplifying the collected vibration signals, extracting characteristic signals, analyzing and recognizing the characteristic signals by time domain analysis method or frequency domain analysis method, and the display module 103 is used for displaying the recognition results.

    [0064] In one embodiment, the piezoresistive electronic skin may be the piezoresistive electronic skin provided in the above embodiment 1, the detail structure of which refers to embodiment 1 and need not be repeated here.

    [0065] In addition, the preparation method of the piezoresistive electronic skin may take the preparation method of the piezoresistive electronic skin provided in the above embodiment 2 for reference.

    Embodiment 4



    [0066] Another embodiment of the present invention provides a speech recognition method, comprising:

    Collecting vibration signals of vocal cords by means of the piezoresistive electronic skin according to embodiment 1; Filtering and amplifying the collected vibration signals, and extracting characteristic signals;

    Analyzing and recognizing the characteristic signals by time domain analysis method or frequency domain analysis method, and displaying the recognition results by means of a display module.



    [0067] In an embodiment, the speech recognition method provided in the present embodiment may use the speech recognition system according to embodiment 3 to detect signals. Due to the high sensitivity of the piezoresistive electronic skin and the portability of the speech recognition system, the speech recognition method is feasible, practicable and efficient.

    Embodiment 5



    [0068] Referring to fig. 12, an embodiment of the present invention provides a pulse detection system.

    [0069] The pulse detection system comprises an electronic skin 201, a filter circuit 202, an amplification circuit 203, an analog-to-digital conversion circuit 204 and a display device 205. In the present embodiment, the electronic skin 201 includes piezoresistive electronic skin.

    [0070] Thereinto, the electronic skin in the present embodiment may be the piezoresistive electronic skin provided in embodiment 1 the detail structures thereof refer to the above embodiments, and need not be repeated here.

    [0071] Pulse is formed by the flow of the blood shot into aorta by ventricle and flowed along the arterial system from aorta root in the form of waves during the periodic expansion and contraction of the heart. When the above wearable pulse detection device is put on the area with aterial pulse, the signals of pulse pulsation with good integrality, small distortion, stable baseline and moderate amplitude are automatically collected by the piezoresistive electronic skin, then the pulse signals output by the electronic skin are filtered out the background noise signals by means of the filter circuit 202 to get valid pulse wave signals, then the signals are amplified by amplifying circuit and transmitted to ADC circuit 203 (further comprises an analog-to-digital conversion circuit) to be switched, after that, the signals are transmitted to the receiving device on the display device 205 by wireless Bluetooth transmitting technology, Zigbee technology or Wifi technology, and finally the pulse waves are displayed on the displayer in real-time.

    [0072] The analog-to-digital conversion circuit 204 and the display device 205 may communicate by GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), GSM (Global System of Mobile communication), WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networks), CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), TV communication network, Zigbee technology or Wifi technology, or other telecommunication networks. Obviously, the analog-to-digital conversion circuit 204 and the display device 205 may also be connected in a wired manner.

    [0073] In addition, the preparation method for the above piezoresistive electronic skin may refer to the preparation method for the piezoresistive electronic skin provided in the above embodiment.

    [0074] The pulse detection system provided in the present embodiment has advantages as follows: as the result of using the above piezoresistive electronic skin, it has advantages of toxic free and good biocompatibility. So it can be adhered to human skin and bring the user excellent experience. In the meantime, due to the distinctive nanostructure of sensitive materials of electronic skin, the pulse detection system has high sensitivity and good stability, has portability as being light, small and flexible on the whole, and has low cost in fabrication, and thus it has good practicability.

    Embodiment 6



    [0075] An embodiment of the present invention provides a pulse detection method as follows:

    Collecting pulse signals by means of the piezoresistive electronic skin according to the embodiment 1; Filtering the collected pulse signals to get valid pulse signals;

    Amplifying the valid pulse signals and transmitting them to an analog-to-digital conversion circuit;

    Displaying the signals received from the analog-to-digital conversion circuit by means of a displayer.



    [0076] In this embodiment, the pulse detection system according to embodiment 7 is used to detect pulse signals. When the device is put on the pulse, sensor capacitance changes with the beat of pulse. Then, filtering out the background noise signals by means of a filter circuit to get valid pulse wave signals, amplifying the signals by amplifying circuit and transmitting them to ADC circuit to be switched, transmitting the signals to a receiving device on a displayer by wireless Bluetooth transmitting technology, thereby displaying the pulse waves on the displayer in real-time.

    Embodiment 7



    [0077] An embodiment of the present invention provides multiple new uses of the electronic skin in a variety of fields.

    [0078] The electronic skin provided in the present invention may be used for detecting human physiology signals comprising arterial pulsation, cardiac pulsation, tension detection, intraocular pressure, vibration of muscle groups in the throat caused by talking, speech recognition caused by contact and non-contact vibration, muscle and skin movement of other parts of the body caused by moving. For example, when detecting arterial pulsation at wrist, P-peak, T-peak and D-peak in the pulse can be accurately recognized. The arterial pulsation comprises the pulse in each part of the body beating with the arterial pulsation. Furthermore, the electronic skin has potential applications on the aspect of touching, sensing and protecting human organ, in respects such as blood pressure, breathing, medical robot, endoscopic robot system, surgery mechanical arm, etc.

    [0079] In the present embodiment, the electronic skin comprises: the piezoresistive electronic skin according to embodiment 1.

    [0080] New uses of the piezoresistive electronic skin, in a variety of fields, provided by the present invention are explained by four particular embodiments as follows.

    1) The application of the piezoresistive electronic skin on the detection of pulse signals.



    [0081] Putting the prepared piezoresistive/capacitive electronic skin on the wrist, the detection of human pulse signals can be achieved by measuring current signals in real-time when the voltage is at 2V. Particularly, when using the piezoresistive electronic skin to detect an individual pulse wave, the oscillogram of wrist pulse measured by the piezoresistive electronic skin is shown in fig. 13. Fig. 14 is a typical curve of a single waveform of the pulse wave measured by the piezoresistive electronic skin of the present invention. The result indicates that, the device not only achieves a quick and accurate real-time measurement of human pulse signals, but also may accurately distinguish P-peak, T-peak and D-peak in human pulse waves. Theses pulse waves are relevant to information of heart rate, cardiac pulsation, blood viscosity and the like of human body. By accurate detection of the pulse waves, previous diagnosis of human diseases may be achieved. The use of the device for measuring pulse at wrist is one embodiment, and the device may also be used for real-time measuring arterial pulsation at other parts of the body, such as at neck, head and the like.

    2) The application of the piezoresistive electronic skin on speech recognition.



    [0082] Putting the prepared piezoresistive electronic skin on neck, the recognition of human speech may be achieved by measuring current signals in real-time when the voltage is at 2V. In one embodiment , when using the piezoresistive electronic skin to detect speech, the real-time I-t curve obtained when a subject says hello is shown in fig. 15. When the subject talks, the vibration of vocal cords may cause a vibration of skin, thereby resulting in that the resistance value of the device changes and the current flowed through the device also changes in the meantime. In this way, the relationship between speech and current is established. The waveforms of different speech and the changes thereof may be measured and obtained by the conversion of several physical quantities. Referring to fig. 16, it is another detection graph of speech recognition, with the use of a piezoresistive electronic skin of the present invention. As shown in fig. 16, when the piezoresistive electronic skin is put above a stereo without contact, the device vibrates in response to sound waves from the stereo. So the current value of the device changes. Besides, each type of sound vibration will have its own changing curve of current.

    3) The application of the piezoresistive electronic skin on tension detection.



    [0083] The piezoresistive electronic skin of the present invention may be applied to the detection of tension. In specific implementations, when the prepared piezoresistive electronic skin is applied to the detection of tension, the deformation of the flexible piezoresistive electronic skin caused under the outside tension is precisely controlled by a high-precision stepping platform. The dielectric thickness, electrode area and the structure of the piezoresistive electronic skin change under the outside tension, and thus the resistance value of the electronic skin device changes.

    4) The application of the piezoresistive electronic skin on medical robot system.



    [0084] The electronic skin of the present invention may be applied on medical robot system and realizes functions of medical robot or surgery mechanical arm, touching, sensing and protecting human organ. Thereinto, the electronic skin includes the piezoresistive electronic skin. Thereinto, the piezoresistive electronic skin has same structure with the piezoresistive electronic skin according to embodiment 1.

    [0085] For example, applying the piezoresistive electronic skin to endoscopic robot and enabling the endoscopic robot to have ability to detect small applied force from outside. When performing endoscopic operation, the endoscopic robot system may obtain the touching signal of the human internal organ and input the information into the control center of the endoscopic robot system, and then the control center may adjust the postures and movements of the robot, reducing the pain of the patient and the damage for the human internal organ. In one embodiment, the piezoresistive electronic skin of the present invention may be applied on the self-guide endoscopic medical system.

    [0086] Referring to fig. 18, it is a signal acquisition graph of the endoscopic robot touching human internal organ, which is sensed by the electronic skin quickly, accurately and in real-time when the piezoresistive electronic skin of the present invention is applied on the endoscopic medical system.

    [0087] When implementing the embodiments of the invention, by the combination of nanostructure and new type nano-material, a sentient electronic skin device with high sensitivity, low energy consumption and high portability (wearable, attachable) may be formed, and new applications thereof, in various fields, may be researched and developed on the basis of physical characteristics of the piezoresistive electronic skin and the capacitive electronic skin. Thereinto, in the respect of sensing information from outside, the piezoresistive electronic skin has high-sensitivity sensing of small applied force from the outside, and the capacitive electronic skin may be applied on attachable electronic device and system to realize the acquisition of speech information, human physiology signals and the like. Therefore, the piezoresistive electronic skin and the ultrathin capacitive electronic device may be applied for achieving the real-time detection of human physiology signals (such as pulse, heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, and the like), and thereby achieving assessment of human health and previous diagnosis of diseases.


    Claims

    1. A piezoresistive electronic skin, comprising two overlapping flexible substrates (11; 12); conductive layers (21; 22) arranged on contact surfaces of adjacent flexible substrates (11; 12); and
    conductive electrodes (31; 32) electrically connected with said conductive layers (21; 22),
    characterized in that:

    at least one flexible substrate is a polydimethylsiloxane film, and at least one surface of said polydimethylsiloxane film which faces the other flexible substrate (11; 12) is provided with micro-nano patterns, the sizes of said patterns are between 0.1 and 500µm, and the unit amount of said patterns in a square centimeter is between 1 and 1012,

    wherein said conductive layers (21; 22) are coated on patterned contact surface of adjacent flexible substrates (11; 12) and being contacted with each other,

    wherein said conductive layers are micro-nano patterned carbon nanotube films.


     
    2. The piezoresistive electronic skin according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one of said flexible substrates (11; 12) is made of one or a combination of more of the following materials: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), nylon (Nylon), polycarbonate (PC), polyurethane (PU), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET, PETE), and high-polymer rubber materials.
     
    3. The piezoresistive electronic skin according to claim 2, characterized in that said patterns are formed from said polydimethylsiloxane which is solidified after being coated onto a template,
    said template is anyone of a silicon substrate provided with microstructure, a glass substrate provided with microstructure, a metallic substrate provided with microstructure, a plastic substrate, fabric or silk article provided with microstructure, and a bio-organ provided with microstructure.
     
    4. The piezoresistive electronic skin according to claim 1, characterized in that said conductive layer (21; 22) comprises networks formed by cross-linked carbon nanotubes.
     
    5. The piezoresistive electronic skin according to claim 4, characterized in that the light transmittance of said carbon nanotube film is between 50% and 97%, and the sheet resistance is between 102Ω/sq and 107Ω/sq.
     
    6. The piezoresistive electronic skin according to claim 5, characterized in that the thickness of said carbon nanotube film is between 10nm and 500nm, said carbon nanotube film is made of one type or a combination of more types of single-walled carbon nanotubes, double-walled carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, wherein said single-walled carbon nanotubes are metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes, semiconductor-type carbon nanotubes or hybrid single-walled carbon nanotubes containing both metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes and semiconductor-type carbon nanotubes.
     
    7. The piezoresistive electronic skin according to claim 1, characterized in that said conductive layer (21; 22) is made of one or a combination of more of any conductive metal among copper, silver and gold, and semiconductor materials.
     
    8. The piezoresistive electronic skin according to anyone of claims 1-7, characterized in that said conductive layer (21; 22) is attached with organic polymer material on the surfaces, said organic polymer material is one or a combination of more of materials as follows: polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), nylon (Nylon), polycarbonate (PC), polyurethane (PU), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET, PETE), polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS), and high-polymer rubber materials.
     
    9. The piezoresistive electronic skin according to claim 1, characterized in that said conductive electrodes (31; 32) are made of one or a combination of more materials of gold, platinum, nickel, silver, indium, copper, carbon nanotube and graphene.
     
    10. A preparation method of the piezoresistive electronic skin according to one of claims 1-9, comprising steps as follows:

    S1. preparing the substrates (11; 12);

    S2. forming the conductive layers (21; 22) on said substrates (11; 12);

    S3. forming upper, lower conductive electrodes (31; 32) respectively on the two conductive layers (21; 22) by conductive material, and leading the wires from the conductive electrodes (31; 32), thereby obtaining the piezoresistive electronic skin,

    characterized in that:

    in step S 1, preparing the two patterned flexible substrates (11; 12), and

    in step S2, forming the

    patterned conductive layers (21; 22) on the flexible substrates (11; 12) by preparing a solution for the conductive layer and respectively coating it to the patterned surfaces of the two flexible substrates (11; 12), and then assembling the two conductive layers (21; 22) by making the patterned surfaces face to face to form a film device with the patterned conductive layers (21; 22) being contacted with each other.
     
    11. The preparation method of the piezoresistive electronic skin according to claim 10, characterized in that said flexible substrates (11; 12) in said step S1 are prepared by steps as follows:

    S11. degassing the polydimethylsiloxane in vacuum for 1-30 minutes and coating it onto a template provided with patterns, wherein the polydimethylsiloxane has a thickness of 0.1mm to 3mm, and then heating it for more than 0.5 hour at a temperature of 50°C to 100°C to solidify and mold it;

    S12. removing the solidified and molded polydimethylsiloxane from the template by ultrasound in organic solvent for 5 to 30 minutes.


     
    12. The preparation method of the piezoresistive electronic skin according to claim 11, characterized in that said template is chosen from a silicon substrate provided with microstructure, a glass substrate provided with microstructure, a metallic substrate provided with microstructure, a plastic substrate, fabric or silk article provided with microstructure, and a bio-organ provided with microstructure; said organic solvent may be methanol, ethyl alcohol and ethylene glycol.
     
    13. A use of the piezoresistive electronic skin according to anyone of claims 1-9 in detecting human pulse, cardiac pulsation, tension, breathing, intraocular pressure, vibration of muscle groups in the throat, speech recognition, muscle and skin movement caused by moving, blood pressure, and in medical robot, endoscopic robot system, surgery mechanical arm on the aspect of touching, sensing and protecting human organ.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Piezoresistive elektronische Haut, umfassend zwei überlappende flexible Substrate (11; 12); leitfähige Schichten (21; 22), die an Kontaktflächen angrenzender flexibler Substrate (11; 12) angeordnet sind; und
    leitfähige Elektroden (31; 32), die mit den leitfähigen Schichten (21; 22) elektrisch verbunden sind,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass:

    mindestens ein flexibles Substrat ein Film aus Polydimethylsiloxan ist, und mindestens eine Oberfläche des Films aus Polydimethylsiloxan, die dem anderen flexiblen Substrat (11; 12) gegenüberliegt, mit Mikro-Nanomustern versehen ist, wobei die Größen dieser Muster 0,1 bis 500 µm betragen und die Einheitsmenge dieser Muster in einem Quadratzentimeter 1 bis 1012 beträgt,

    worin die leitfähigen Schichten (21; 22) an der gemusterten Kontaktfläche angrenzender flexibler Substrate (11; 12) beschichtet sind und miteinander in Kontakt gebracht sind,

    worin die leitfähigen Schichten mikro-nano-gemusterte Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhren-Filme sind.


     
    2. Piezoresistive elektronische Haut nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass mindestens eines der genannten flexiblen Substrate (11; 12) aus einem oder aus einer Kombination von mehreren der folgenden Materialien besteht: Film aus Polydimethylsiloxan (PDMS), Polyvinylidenfluorid (PVDF), Polyvinylfluorid (PVF), Polyvinylchlorid (PVC), Polyethylen (PE), Polypropylen (PP), Polystyrol (PS), Polymethylmethacrylat (PMMA), Nylon (Nylon), Polycarbonat (PC), Polyurethan (PU), Polytetrafluorethylen (PTFE), Polyethylenterephthalat (PET, PETE) und hochpolymeren Gummistoffen.
     
    3. Piezoresistive elektronische Haut nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die genannten Muster aus dem genannten Polydimethylsiloxan gebildet sind, das nach dem Überzug auf einer Schablone gefestigt ist, wobei die Schablone eine von einem Siliziumsubstrat, das mit Mikrostruktur versehen ist, einem Glassubstrat, das mit Mikrostruktur versehen ist, einem Metallsubstrat, das mit Mikrostruktur versehen ist, einem Kunststoffsubstrat, Gewebe oder Seidenartikel, der mit Mikrostruktur versehen ist, und einem Bio-organ, das mit Mikrostruktur versehen ist, ist.
     
    4. Piezoresistive elektronische Haut nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die leitfähige Schicht (21; 22) Netzwerke umfasst, die aus quervernetzten Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhren gebildet sind.
     
    5. Piezoresistive elektronische Haut nach Anspruch 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Lichtdurchlässigkeit des Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhren-Films 50% bis 97% beträgt und der Schichtwiderstand 102Ω/sq und 107Ω/sq beträgt.
     
    6. Piezoresistive elektronische Haut nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Dicke des Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhren-Films 10nm bis 500nm beträgt, wobei der genannte Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhren-Film aus einem Typ oder aus einer Kombination mehrerer Typen von einwandigen Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhren, doppelwandigen Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhren und mehrwandigen Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhren besteht, worin die genannten einwandigen Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhre metallische einwandige Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhre, halbleiterartige Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhre oder hybride einwandige Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhre sind, die sowohl metallische einwandige Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhre als auch halbleiterartige Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhre enthalten.
     
    7. Piezoresistive elektronische Haut nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die genannte leitfähige Schicht (21; 22) aus einem oder aus einer Kombination von mehreren leitfähigen Metallen wie Kupfer, Silber und Gold, und Halbleitermaterialien besteht.
     
    8. Piezoresistive elektronische Haut nach einem der Ansprüche 1-7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die genannte leitfähige Schicht (21; 22) mit einem organischen Polymermaterial an den Oberflächen angebracht ist, wobei das organische Polymermaterial eines oder eine Kombination von mehreren der folgenden Materialien ist: Polyvinylidenfluorid (PVDF), Polyvinylfluorid (PVF), Polyvinylchlorid (PVC), Polyethylen (PE), Polypropylen (PP), Polystyrol (PS), Polymethylmethacrylat (PMMA), Nylon (Nylon), Polycarbonat (PC), Polyurethan (PU), Polytetrafluorethylen (PTFE), Polyethylenterephthalat (PET, PETE), Polydimethylsiloxan (PDMS) und hochpolymeren Gummistoffen.
     
    9. Piezoresistive elektronische Haut nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die leitfähigen Elektroden (31; 32) aus einem oder aus einer Kombination von mehreren Materialien wie Gold, Platin, Nickel, Silber, Indium, Kupfer, Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhre und Graphen bestehen.
     
    10. Herstellungsverfahren der piezoresistiven elektronischen Haut nach einem der Ansprüche 1-9, umfassend die folgenden Schritte:

    S1. Herstellung der Substrate (11; 12);

    S2. Bildung der leitfähigen Schichten (21; 22) an den Substraten (11; 12);

    S3. Bildung von oberen, unteren leitfähigen Elektroden (31; 32) jeweils an den zwei leitfähigen Schichten (21; 22) mittels leitfähigen Materials, und Führung der Drähte aus den leitfähigen Elektroden (31; 32), wodurch die piezoresistive elektronische Haut erhalten wird,

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass:

    im Schritt S1, Herstellen der beiden gemusterten flexiblen Substrate (11; 12), und

    im Schritt S2, Bilden der gemusterten leitfähigen Schichten (21; 22) an den flexiblen Substraten (11; 12) durch Zubereitung einer Lösung für die leitfähige Schicht und Beschichten jeweils der gemusterten Flächen der beiden flexiblen Substrate (11; 12) mit ihr, und dann Zusammenfügen der beiden leitfähigen Schichten (21; 22) dadurch, dass die gemusterten Flächen einander gegenüberliegen, um eine Filmvorrichtung mit den gemusterten leitfähigen Schichten (21; 22) zu bilden, die miteinander in Kontakt gebracht sind.


     
    11. Herstellungsverfahren der piezoresistiven elektronischen Haut nach Anspruch 10, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die genannten flexiblen Substrate (11; 12) im Schritt S1 durch Schritte wie folgt hergestellt werden:

    S11. Entgasen des Polydimethylsiloxans im Vakuum 1-30 Minuten lang und Beschichten einer mit Mustern versehenen Schablone mit ihm, worin das Polydimethylsiloxan eine Dicke von 0,1 mm bis 3 mm aufweist, und dann Erwärmen desselben über 0,5 Stunden lang bei einer Temperatur von 50°C bis 100°C, damit es sich festigt und um es zu formen;

    S12. Entnehmen des gefestigten und geformten Polydimethylsiloxans von der Schablone durch Ultraschall im organischen Lösungsmittel 5 bis 30 Minuten lang.


     
    12. Herstellungsverfahren der piezoresistiven elektronischen Haut nach Anspruch 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Schablone unter einem Siliziumsubstrat, das mit Mikrostruktur versehen ist, einem Glassubstrat, das mit Mikrostruktur versehen ist, einem Metallsubstrat, das mit Mikrostruktur versehen ist, einem Kunststoffsubstrat, Gewebe oder Seidenartikel, der mit Mikrostruktur versehen ist, und einem Bio-organ, das mit Mikrostruktur versehen ist, ausgewählt wird; das genannte organische Lösungsmittel Methanol, Ethylalkohol und Ethylenglykol sein kann.
     
    13. Verwendung der piezoresistiven elektronischen Haut nach einem der Ansprüche 1-9 bei der Erfassung des menschlichen Pulses, der Herzpulsation, der Spannung, der Atmung, des intraokularen Drucks, der Vibration von Muskelgruppen im Hals, der Spracherkennung, der Muskel- und Hautbewegung, die von der Bewegung verursacht sind, des Blutdrucks, und im medizinischen Roboter, im endoskopischen Robotersystem, im chirurgischen mechanischen Arm unter dem Aspekt des Berührens, des Fühlens und des Schützens eines Menschenorgans.
     


    Revendications

    1. Peau électronique piézo-résistive, comprenant deux substrats souples superposés (11 ; 12) ;
    des couches conductrices (21 ; 22) agencées sur des surfaces de contact de substrats souples adjacents (11 ; 12) ; et
    des électrodes conductrices (31 ; 32) connectées électriquement avec lesdites couches conductrices (21 ; 22),
    caractérisé en ce que:

    au moins un substrat souple est un film en polydiméthylsiloxane ;

    et au moins une surface dudit film en polydiméthylsiloxane faisant face à l'autre substrat souple (11 ; 12) est pourvu de micro-nano-motifs, les dimensions desdits motifs sont de 0,1 à 500 µm, et la quantité unitaire desdits motifs dans un centimètre carré est d'1 à 1012,

    dans laquelle lesdites couches conductrices (21 ; 22) sont appliquées sur la surface de contact à motifs de substrats souples adjacents (11 ; 12) et sont en contact l'une avec l'autre,

    dans laquelle lesdites couches conductrices sont des films en nanotubes de carbone avec des micro-nano motifs.


     
    2. Peau électronique piézo-résistive selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce qu'au moins l'un desdits substrats souples (11 ; 12) est constitué de l'un ou d'une combinaison de plusieurs des matériaux suivants: un film en polydiméthylsiloxane (PDMS), fluorure de polyvinylidène (PVDF), fluorure de polyvinyle (PVF), chlorure de polyvinyle (PVC), polyéthylène (PE), polypropylène (PP), polystyrène (PS), polyméthacrylate de méthyle (PMMA), nylon (Nylon), polycarbonate (PC), polyuréthane (PU), polytétrafluoroéthylène (PTFE), téréphtalate polyéthylène (PET, PETE), et des matériaux à base de caoutchouc haut-polymère.
     
    3. Peau électronique piézo-résistive selon la revendication 2, caractérisée en ce que lesdits motifs sont formés avec ledit polydiméthylsiloxane qui est solidifié après son application sur un gabarit, ledit gabarit étant n'importe lequel parmi un substrat de silicium pourvu d'une microstructure, un substrat de verre pourvu d'une microstructure, un substrat métallique pourvu d'une microstructure, un substrat plastique, un article textile ont en soie pourvu d'une microstructure, et un organe bio-artificiel pourvue d'une microstructure.
     
    4. Peau électronique piézo-résistive selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que ladite couche conductrice (21 ; 22) comprend des réseaux formés par des nanotubes de carbone réticulés.
     
    5. Peau électronique piézo-résistive selon la revendication 4, caractérisée en ce que le facteur de transmission de la lumière dudit film de nanotubes de carbone film est de 50 % à 97 %, et la résistance par carré est de 102 Ω/carré à 107 Ω/carré.
     
    6. Peau électronique piézo-résistive selon la revendication 5, caractérisée en ce que l'épaisseur dudit film de nanotubes de carbone est de 10 nm à 500 nm, ledit film de nanotubes de carbone est constitué d'un type ou d'une combinaison de plusieurs types de nanotubes de carbone à paroi unique, de nanotubes de carbone à paroi double et de nanotubes de carbone à parois multiples, dans laquelle lesdits nanotubes de carbone à paroi unique sont es nanotubes de carbone à paroi unique métalliques, des nanotubes de carbone de type semi-conducteur ou des nanotubes de carbone à paroi unique hybrides contenant des nanotubes de carbone à paroi unique métalliques et des nanotubes de carbone de type semi-conducteur.
     
    7. Peau électronique piézo-résistive selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que ladite couche conductrice (21 ; 22) est constituée d'un ou plusieurs métaux conducteurs dans le groupe constitué de cuivre, argent et or, et des matériaux semi-conducteurs.
     
    8. Peau électronique piézo-résistive selon n'importe laquelle des revendications 1 à 7, caractérisée en ce que ladite couche conductrice (21; 22) est fixée aux surfaces avec du matériau polymère organique, ledit matériau polymère organique est l'un ou une combinaison de plusieurs des matériaux suivants : un film en polydiméthylsiloxane (PDMS), fluorure de polyvinylidène (PVDF), fluorure de polyvinyle (PVF), chlorure de polyvinyle (PVC), polyéthylène (PE), polypropylène (PP), polystyrène (PS), polyméthacrylate de méthyle (PMMA), nylon (Nylon), polycarbonate (PC), polyuréthane (PU), polytétrafluoroéthylène (PTFE), téréphtalate polyéthylène (PET, PETE), polydiméthylsiloxane et des matériaux à base de caoutchouc haut-polymère.
     
    9. Peau électronique piézo-résistive selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que lesdites électrodes conductrices (31 ; 32) sont constituées d'un ou d'une combinaison de plusieurs matériaux dans le groupe constitué d'or, platine, nickel, argent, indium, cuivre, nanotubes de carbone et graphène.
     
    10. Procédé de préparation de la peau électronique piézo-résistive selon l'une des revendications 1 à 9, comprenant les étapes consistant à :

    S1. préparer les substrats (11 ; 12) ;

    S2. former les couches conductrices (21 ; 22) sur lesdits substrats (11 ; 12) ;

    S3. former les électrodes conductrices supérieure et inférieure (31 ; 32) respectivement sur les deux couches conductrices (21 ; 22) avec un matériau conducteur et conduire les fils des électrodes conductrices (31; 32), pour obtenir ainsi la peau électronique piézo-résistive, caractérisé en ce que :

    l'étape S1, consistant à préparer les deux substrats souples à motifs (11 ; 12), et

    l'étape S2, consistant à former les couches conductrices à motifs (21 ; 22) sur les substrats souples (11 ; 12) comportent la préparation d'une solution pour la couche conductrice et l'application de celle-ci respectivement sur les surfaces à motifs des deux substrats souples (11 ; 12) et l'assemblage des deux couches conductrices (21 ; 22) de façon que les surfaces à motifs fassent face l'une à l'autre pour former un dispositifs en film avec les couches conductrices à motifs (21 ; 22) l'une en contact avec l'autre.


     
    11. Procédé de préparation de la peau électronique piézo-résistive selon la revendication 10, caractérisé en ce que lesdits substrats souples (11; 12), dans ladite étape S1, sont préparés par étapes consistant à :

    S11. dégazer le polydiméthylsiloxane sous vide pour 1-30 minutes et l'appliquer sur un gabarit pourvu de motifs, dans lequel le polydiméthylsiloxane a une épaisseur de 0,1 mm à 3 mm, et en suite le chauffer pour plus de 0,5 heures à une température de 50°C à 100°C afin de le solidifier et de le mouler ;

    S12. éliminer le polydiméthylsiloxane solidifié et moulé du gabarit au moyen d'ultrasons dans un solvant organique pendant une durée de 5 à 30 minutes.


     
    12. Procédé de préparation de la peau électronique piézo-résistive selon la revendication 11, caractérisé en ce que ledit gabarit est choisi dans le groupe constitué d'un substrat de silicium pourvu d'une microstructure, un substrat de verre pourvu d'une microstructure, un substrat métallique pourvu d'une microstructure, un substrat plastique, un article textile ont en soie pourvu d'une microstructure, et un organe bio-artificiel pourvue d'une microstructure ledit ; ledit solvant organique pouvant être méthanol, alcool éthylique et éthylène glycol.
     
    13. Emploi de la peau électronique piézo-résistive selon n'importe laquelle des revendications 1 à 9 dans la détection du pouls humain, de la pulsation cardiaque, de la tension, de la respiration, de la pression intraoculaire, de la vibration de groupes musculaires dans la gorge, la reconnaissance vocale, les mouvements des muscles et de la peau causée par un déplacement, la détection de la pression sanguine, et dans un robot médical, un système robotique endoscopique, un bras mécanique chirurgical avec des fonctions de touche, de détection et de protection d'un organe humain.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description