(19)
(11)EP 2 960 969 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
17.06.2020 Bulletin 2020/25

(21)Application number: 15000552.8

(22)Date of filing:  26.02.2015
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01M 4/36(2006.01)
H01M 4/62(2006.01)
H01M 4/58(2010.01)
H01M 4/02(2006.01)

(54)

Electrode material, paste for electrodes, and lithium ion battery

Elektrodenmaterial, Paste für Elektroden und Lithiumionenbatterie

Matériau d'électrode, pâte pour électrodes et batterie lithium-ion


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 27.06.2014 JP 2014133188

(43)Date of publication of application:
30.12.2015 Bulletin 2015/53

(73)Proprietor: Sumitomo Osaka Cement Co., Ltd.
Tokyo 102-8465 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • Mine, Hiroyuki
    Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima, 7330842 (JP)
  • Yasumiishi, Hirofumi
    Tokyo, 1028465 (JP)
  • Oono, Kouji
    Tokyo, 1028465 (JP)
  • Kitagawa, Takao
    Tokyo, 1028465 (JP)

(74)Representative: Müller-Boré & Partner Patentanwälte PartG mbB 
Friedenheimer Brücke 21
80639 München
80639 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 784 855
JP-A- 2008 311 067
JP-A- 2013 069 564
US-A1- 2010 248 038
JP-A- 2002 141 069
JP-A- 2012 204 150
JP-A- 2013 182 689
US-A1- 2012 286 439
  
     
    Remarks:
    The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
     
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


    Field of the Invention



    [0001] The present invention relates to an electrode material, paste for electrodes, and a lithium ion battery.

    Description of Related Art



    [0002] In recent years, as a battery anticipated to have small size, light weight, and high capacity, a non-aqueous electrolytic solution-based secondary battery such as a lithium ion battery has been proposed and put into practical use. The lithium ion battery is constituted of a positive electrode and a negative electrode which allow the reversible insertion and removal of lithium ions, and a non-aqueous electrolyte.

    [0003] As a negative electrode active material for negative electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, a carbon-based material or lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) is used.

    [0004] On the other hand, as a positive electrode active material for positive electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, a lithium-containing metal oxide such as lithium cobaltate (LiCoO2), a lithium oxoacid salt-based compound such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), or the like is used.

    [0005] Compared with secondary batteries of the related art such as leadbatteries, nickel-cadmiumbatteries, and nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium ion batteries have a lighter weight, a smaller size, and higher energy, and thus are used not only as small-size power supplies used in portable electronic devices such as mobile phones and notebook personal computers but also as large-size stationary emergency power supplies.

    [0006] In addition, recently, studies have been underway regarding the use of lithium ion batteries as high-output power supplies for plug-in hybrid vehicles, hybrid vehicles, industrial devices, and electric power tools. Since batteries used as the above-described high-output power supplies are frequently used in applications that are expected to be used outdoors, the batteries are required to have high-speed charge and discharge characteristics not only at room temperature but also at a low temperature in a case in which the batteries are expected to be used in cold areas.

    [0007] Among the electrode active materials, the lithium oxoacid salt-based compound (particularly, lithium iron phosphate) is attracting attention due to its excellent safety and absence of problems with its resource and cost. However, the lithium oxoacid salt-based compound has a problem with low electron conductivity due to its crystal structure (olivine-type crystal structure).

    [0008] Therefore, in order to increase the electron conductivity of an electrode material for which the lithium oxoacid salt-based compound is used as an electrode active material, means of the patent document 1 has been proposed. In the patent document 1, particle surfaces of an electrode active material made of lithium iron phosphate are covered with an organic compound that is a carbon source, then, the organic compound is carbonized so as to form a carbonaceous film on the surface of the electrode active material, and carbon in the carbonaceous film is made to act as an electron conductive substance.

    [Prior art documents]


    [Patent documents]



    [0009] [Patent document 1] Japanese Patent Laid-Open Publication No. 2001-15111

    [0010] JP 2008/311067 A discloses a method for manufacturing an electrode material in which a slurry containing LiFePO4 as an electrode active material and a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene glycol are sprayed and dried to form granulated products, and the granulated products are baked at 500-1000°C in a non-oxidizing atmosphere.

    [0011] JP 2012/204150 A discloses a method for producing an electrode active material, the electrode active material being high in discharge capacity, excellent in discharge characteristics and also excellent in long-term reliability, and including a lithium-iron-phosphorus composite oxide particle having a surface coated with a carbonaceous material.

    [0012] JP 2013/069564 A and EP 2 760 069 A1 disclose an electrode material made of an agglomerate formed by agglomerating particles of an electrode active material having a carbonaceous coat formed on a surface, wherein an average particle diameter of the agglomerate is in a range of 1.0 µm to 100 µm, a volume density of the agglomerate is in a range of 50% by volume to 80% by volume of a volume density of a solid form of the agglomerate, and a pore size distribution of pores in the agglomerate is mono-modal, and an average pore diameter in the pore size distribution is 0.3 µm or less.

    [0013] US 2012/0286439 A1 discloses a particulate positive electrode material for lithium ion cells which is prepared by dispersing manganese(II) sulfate, iron(II) sulfate, and lithium phosphate and/or lithium hydrogen phosphate in water to form a slurry, effecting hydrothermal reaction in an autoclave to synthesize a lithium compound as primary particles, preparing a dispersion comprising the primary particles and an organic substance, spraying the dispersion, granulating, and drying to form aggregated particles having an average particle size of 0.5-4 µm, and firing the aggregated particles at 600-780°C for carbonizing the organic substance therein, yielding secondary particles having a reduced carbon content.

    [0014] EP 2 784 855 A1, which is prior art according to Art. 54(3) EPC, discloses a positive electrode active material comprising positive electrode active material particles which have an olivine structure, and which are represented by LiMn1-a-yFeaMyPO4, wherein 0<x≤0.5, 0≤y≤0.2 and M is at least one element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Ni, Co, Sn, and Nb.

    [0015] US 2010/0248038 A1 discloses a nonaqueous electrolyte battery comprising a positive electrode comprising a lithium/manganese-containing oxide represented by LiaMnbMcOZ, wherein M is at least one selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co, Al and F, and a, b, c and Z satisfy the following equations: 0≤a≤2.5, 0<b≤1, 0≤c≤1 and 2≤Z≤3, and a Fe-containing phosphorous compound having an olivine structure; a negative electrode comprising a titanium-containing metal oxide into which lithium ions are inserted and from which lithium ions are extracted; and a nonaqueous electrolyte.

    [0016] JP 2002-141069 A discloses an electrode for a lithium secondary battery which contains a carbon material which is covered by an amorphous carbon film.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0017] However, the carbonaceous film acts as a hindrance to the oxidation and reduction reaction of lithium ions, and also hinders the diffusion of lithium ions. Therefore, as the coating ratio of the carbonaceous film increases, and as the film thickness of the carbonaceous film increases, the conductivity of lithium ions is impaired. Therefore, the improvement of electron conductivity and the improvement of lithium ion conductivity have a trade-off relationship with each other. For example, in an electrode active material in which a carbonaceous film is supported, the electron conductivity improves, but the lithium ion conductivity is impaired, and thus the sum of the internal resistance of an electrode increases, and the voltage significantly drops when high-speed discharge is carried out. Particularly, the voltage tends to drop significantly during high-speed discharge in a low-temperature environment.

    [0018] An object of the present invention is to provide an electrode material in which an electrode active material having a carbonaceous film formed on the surface is used and which is capable of suppressing a voltage drop when high-speed discharge is carried out in a low-temperature environment, paste for electrodes, and a lithium ion battery.

    [0019] To solve the above-described problems, the present invention provides an electrode active material as defined in claim 1 and a corresponding method of manufacturing as defined in claim 7. Preferred embodiments are referred to in the dependent claims.

    [0020] The electrode material, electrode, and lithium ion battery of the present invention are capable of suppressing a voltage drop when high-speed discharge is carried out in a low-temperature environment in spite of the fact that the electrode active material having the carbonaceous film formed on the surface is used.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0021] 

    Figs. 1A and 1B are image views describing a migration path of a lithium ion in a carbonaceous film in an electrode material.

    Fig. 2 is a view illustrating an outline of a system for measuring an electrochemical response of a single particle of the electrode material.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION


    [Electrode material]



    [0022] An electrode material of the present invention have a particulate shape, the electrode material is formed a carbonaceous film on surfaces of electrode active material particles, and the carbonaceous film is constituted randomly stacking graphene layers.

    [0023] In the present invention, it is possible to suppress a voltage drop when high-speed discharge is carried out in a low-temperature environment by using an electrode material satisfying the above-described conditions.

    [Electrode active material particles]



    [0024] According to the present invention, the electrode active material constituting the electrode active material particles is LixAyDzPO4 with A being Fe, D represents one or more selected from Mg, Ca, S, Sr, Ba, Ti, Zn, B, Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sc, Y, and rare earth elements, 0<x<2, 0<y<1.5, and 0≤z<1.5.

    [0025] The electrode active material particles have an olivine-type crystal structure, since a voltage drop is likely to occur when high-speed discharge is carried out in a low-temperature environment, and the compounds readily exhibit the effects of the constitution of the present invention.

    [0026] A in LixAyDzPO4 is Fe since it is easy to obtain a high discharge potential. D in LixAyDzPO4 is preferably Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti, Zn, or Al since it is easy to obtain a high discharge potential.

    [0027] In addition, the rare earth elements refer to the 15 elements of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu which belong to the lanthanum series.

    [0028] Among them, the electrode active material is preferably LiFePO4.

    [0029] As the lithium oxoacid salt-based compound (olivine-type lithium-based compound) represented by LixAyDzPO4, it is possible to use a compound manufactured using a method of the related art such as a solid phase method, a liquid phase method, or a gas phase method.

    [0030] LixAyDzPO4 can be obtained by, for example, hydrothermally synthesizing a slurry- form mixture obtained by mixing a Li source, an A source, a P source, water, and, if necessary, a D source, washing the obtained sediment using water so as to generate a precursor substance of the electrode active material, and furthermore firing the precursor substance. During the hydrothermal synthesis, a pressure-resistant airtight container is preferably used.

    [0031] Here, examples of the Li source include lithium salts such as lithium acetate (LiCH3COO) and lithium chloride (LiCl), lithium hydroxide (LiOH), and the like, and it is preferable to use at least one selected from a group consisting of lithium acetate, lithium chloride, and lithium hydroxide.

    [0032] Examples of the A source include chlorides, carboxylate salts, hydrosulfate, and the like which include Fe. For example, in a case in which A is Fe, examples of a Fe source include divalent iron salts such as iron (II) chloride (FeCl2), iron (II) acetate (Fe (CH3COO)2), and iron (II) sulfate (FeSO4), and it is preferable to use at least one selected from a group consisting of iron (II) chloride, iron (II) acetate, and iron (II) sulfate.

    [0033] Examples of the D source include chlorides, carboxylate salts, hydrosulfate, and the like which include at least one selected from a group consisting of Mg, Ca, S, Sr, Ba, Ti, Zn, B, Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sc, Y, and rare earth elements.

    [0034] Examples of the P source include phosphoric acid compounds such as phosphoric acid (H3PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4), and diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4), and it is preferable to use at least one selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, and diammonium hydrogen phosphate.

    [0035] The size of the electrode active material particle is not particularly limited, and the average particle diameter of the primary particles is preferably in a range of 10 nm to 20,000 nm, and more preferably in a range of 20 nm to 5,000 nm.

    [0036] When the average particle diameter of the primary particles of the electrode active material particles is 10 nm or more, it becomes possible to sufficiently coat the surfaces of the primary particles with the carbonaceous film, a decrease in the discharge capacity at a high-speed charge and discharge rate is suppressed, and it is possible to facilitate the realization of sufficient charge and discharge rate performance. In addition, when the average particle diameter of the primary particles of the electrode active material particles is 20,000 nm or less, the internal resistance of the primary particles does not easily become high, and the discharge capacity at a high-speed charge and discharge rate is not easily impaired.

    [0037] In the present invention, the average particle diameter refers to the particle diameter D50 at which the cumulative volume percentage reaches 50% in the particle size distribution.

    [0038] The average particle diameter of the primary particles of the electrode active material particles can be obtained by randomly selecting 500 particles, measuring the primary particle diameters of the respective particles using a scanning electron microscope, and calculating the particle diameter at a cumulative volume percentage of 50%. In a case in which the particles are not spherical, the average of the length (long diameter) of the longest line segment among line segments longitudinally traversing the particles and the length (short diameter) of a line segment orthogonally passes through the center point of the long diameter among the line segments longitudinally traversing the particles is used as the primary particle diameter of the respective particles.

    [0039] The shape of the electrode active material particle is not particularly limited, but is preferably spherical, particularly, truly spherical. When the electrode active material particles are spherical, it is possible to reduce the amount of the solvent when paste for positive electrodes is prepared using the electrode material of the present invention, and it becomes easy to apply the paste for positive electrodes to a collector. The paste for positive electrodes can be prepared by, for example, mixing the electrode material of the present invention, a binder resin (binding agent), and a solvent together.

    [0040] In addition, when the shapes of the electrode active material particles are spherical, the surface area of the electrode active material particles is minimized, it is possible to set the blending amount of the binder resin (binding agent) added to the electrode material to the minimum amount, and it is possible to decrease the internal resistance of the obtained positive electrode, which is preferable.

    [0041] Furthermore, when the shapes of the electrode active material particles are spherical, it is easy to closely pack the electrode active material, and thus the amount of a positive electrode material loaded per unit volume increases, and thus it is possible to increase the electrode density. As a result, it is possible to increase the capacity of the lithium ion battery, which is preferable.

    [0042] The electrode active material particles are agglomerated particles that are an agglomerate of the primary particles. The average particle diameter (average secondary particle diameter) of the agglomerated particles is preferably in a range of 0.5 µm to 100.0 µm, and more preferably in a range of 1.0 µm to 50. 0 µm. When the average particle diameter of the agglomerated particles is set to 0.5 µm or more, it is possible to easily prevent a decrease in the discharge capacity at a high-speed charge and discharge rate. Inaddition, when the average particle diameter of the agglomerated particles is set to 100 µm or less, a decrease in the discharge capacity which was triggered by the locally generated charge and discharge routes during high-speed charge and discharge made with uneven positive electrode surface caused by the agglomerate, is easily prevented.

    [0043] Meanwhile, the average particle diameter of the agglomerated particles (average secondary particle diameter) refers to the particle diameter D50 at which the cumulative volume percentage reaches 50% in the particle size distribution, and can be measured using a laser scattering method.

    [Carbonaceous film]



    [0044] The carbonaceous film plays a role of imparting desired electron conductivity to the electrode material, but also serves as a hindrance to the oxidation and reduction reaction of lithium ions, and hinders the diffusion of lithium ions. Therefore, as the coating ratio of the carbonaceous film increases, and as the film thickness of the carbonaceous film increases, the conductivity of lithium ions is impaired. Therefore, the improvement of electron conductivity and the improvement of lithium ion conductivity have a trade-off relationship with each other. For example, in an electrode active material in which a carbonaceous film is supported, the electron conductivity improves, but the lithium ion conductivity is impaired, and thus the sum of the internal resistance of an electrode increases, and the voltage significantly drops when high-speed discharge is carried out. Particularly, the voltage tends to drop significantly during high-speed discharge in a low-temperature environment.

    [0045] In the present invention, the trade-off problem of the carbonaceous film is solved by randomly stacking the graphene layers constituting the carbonaceous film.

    [0046] The carbonaceous film is obtained by carbonizing an organic compound that serves as a raw material for the carbonaceous film. The organic compound that serves as a raw material for the carbonaceous film and means for forming the carbonaceous film will be described in detail.

    [0047] The random lamination of the graphene layers constituting the carbonaceous film can be assessed using, for example, the inflection ratio of the migration path of lithium ions in the carbonaceous film.

    [0048] In a case in which a structure that causes a hindrance to the migration of lithium ions in the carbonaceous film is present, lithium ions bypass the structure, and migrate. The inflection ratio of the migration path of lithium ions (hereinafter, in some cases, referred to as "inflection ratio") refers to a value obtained by dividing the average migration distance of lithium ions that bypass the structure in the carbonaceous film and migrate by the thickness of the carbonaceous film, and is a dimensionless value. Examples of the structure include structures in which electrons are delocalized such as a hexagonal net surface of carbon.

    [0049] Figs. 1A and 1B are image views describing the migration path of a lithium ion in the carbonaceous film. In a case in which the graphene layers constituting the carbonaceous film are laminated in an orderly manner as illustrated in Fig. 1A, the migration path of the lithium ion becomes long. On the other hand, in a case in which the graphene layers constituting the carbonaceous film are laminated in a random manner as illustrated in Fig. 1B, the migration path of the lithium ion becomes short.

    [0050] The inflection ratio of the carbonaceous film is preferably in a range of 1.1 to 100, more preferably in a range of 1.3 to 50, and still more preferably in a range of 1.5 to 10.

    [0051] The average value of the inflection ratios of ten particles of the electrode material is used as the inflection ratio of the carbonaceous film. In addition, the inflection ratio of the single particle of an electrode material is obtained by measuring the inflection ratios at 10 arbitrary positions of the carbonaceous film on the surface of the electrode material, and obtaining the average value of the inflection ratios of the 10 positions. Specifically, the inflection ratio of the carbonaceous film can be calculated using a method described in examples.

    [0052] In addition, the random lamination of the graphene layers constituting the carbonaceous film can also be assessed using the plane intervals between (002) planes in the graphene layers. That is, in a case in which the graphene layers constituting the carbonaceous film are laminated in an orderly manner as illustrated in Fig. 1A, the intervals between the graphene layers become short. On the other hand, in a case in which the graphene layers constituting the carbonaceous film are laminated in a random manner as illustrated in Fig. 1B, the intervals between the graphene layers become long.

    [0053] The average of the plane intervals between the (002) planes of the graphene layers is according the present invention in a range of 0.3466 to 0.370 nm.

    [0054] The average of the plane intervals between the (002) planes of the graphene layers can be measured using a method described in the examples.

    [0055] In addition, the random lamination of the graphene layers constituting the carbonaceous film can also be assessed by measuring the XRD (CuKα ray source) peak of the (002) plane from the graphene layer in the carbonaceous film. That is, in a case in which the graphene layers constituting the carbonaceous film are laminated in an orderly manner as illustrated in Fig. 1A, the XRD (CuKα ray source) peak of the (002) plane from the graphene layer appears almost at 26° that is attributed to graphene. On the other hand, in a case in which the graphene layers constituting the carbonaceous film are laminated in a random manner as illustrated in Fig. 1B, the XRD (CuKα ray source) peak of the (002) plane from the graphene layer appears at a lower angle than 26° attributed to graphene.

    [0056] The XRD (CuKα ray source) peak of the (002) plane from the graphene layer in the carbonaceous film is preferably 2θ=25. 7° or less, and more preferably 2θ=25.4° to 24.0°.

    [0057] The XRD (CuKα ray source) peak of the (002) plane from the graphene layer in the carbonaceous film can be measured using a method described in the examples.

    [0058] In the present invention, when the lamination states of the graphene layers in the carbonaceous film on the electrode active material particles having the olivine-type crystal structure are compared on a (001) plane, a (010) plane, and a (100) plane of the olivine-type crystal structure, the lamination state on the (010) plane is preferably most random.

    [0059] In the electrode active material particles having the olivine-type crystal structure, the insertion and removal of lithium ions is only possible on the (010) plane, and thus the structure of the carbonaceous film on the (010) plane becomes important. The insertion and removal of lithium ions occurs in neither the (001) plane nor the (100) plane.

    [0060]  The thickness of the carbonaceous film is according to the present invention in a range of 0.5 nm to 20 nm, preferably in a range of 1 nm to 10 nm, and more preferably in a range of 1 nm to 5 nm.

    [0061] When the thickness of the carbonaceous film is 0.5 nm or more, the sum of the migration resistances of electrons in the carbonaceous film does not easily become high, an increase in the internal resistance of the battery is suppressed, and it is possible to facilitate the prevention of a voltage drop at a high-speed charge and discharge rate. When the thickness of the carbonaceous film is 20 nm or less, the steric hindrance is suppressed when lithium ions diffuse in the carbonaceous film, and the migration resistance of lithium ions becomes small, and consequently, an increase in the internal resistance of the battery is suppressed, and it is possible to facilitate the prevention of a voltage drop at a high-speed charge and discharge rate.

    [0062] The average value of the thicknesses of the carbonaceous films in ten particles of the electrode material is used as the thickness of the carbonaceous film. In addition, the thickness of the carbonaceous film in a single particle of the electrode material is obtained by measuring the thicknesses at 10 arbitrary positions of the carbonaceous film on the surface of the electrode material, and obtaining the average value of the thicknesses of the 10 positions. Specifically, the thickness of the carbonaceous film can be calculated using a method described in the examples.

    [0063] The coating ratio of the carbonaceous film on the electrode material surface is preferably 50% or more, more preferably 80% or more, and still more preferably 90% or more. When the coating ratio of the carbonaceous film is set to 50% or more, it is possible to facilitate a decrease in the resistance of the electrode material by increasing the electron conductivity of the electrode material, and consequently, it is possible to facilitate an increase in the discharge capacity at a high-speed charge and discharge rate.

    [0064] The coating ratio can be calculated using a method described in the examples.

    [0065] The content ratio of the carbonaceous film with respect to the total mass of the electrode material (hereinafter, in some cases, referred to as "the amount of carbon in the electrode material") is according to the present invention in a range of 0.5% by mass to 5.0% by mass, preferably in a range of 0.6% by mass to 4.0% by mass, more preferably in a range of 0.7% by mass to 2.5% by mass, and still more preferably in a range of 0.8% by mass to 1.5% by mass.

    [0066] When the amount of carbon in the electrode material is set to 0.5% by mass or more, it is possible to facilitate a decrease in the resistance of the electrode material by increasing the electron conductivity of the electrode material, and consequently, it is possible to facilitate an increase in the discharge capacity at a high-speed charge and discharge rate. In addition, when the content ratio of the carbonaceous film is set to 5.0% by mass or less, the mass proportion of the electrode active material in the carbonaceous film is maintained, and it is possible to facilitate the maintenance of the characteristics of the electrode active material.

    [0067] The amount of carbon in the electrode material can be calculated using a method described in the examples.

    [Raw materials of the carbonaceous film and means for forming the carbonaceous film]



    [0068] The organic compound that serves as a raw material for the carbonaceous film is not particularly limited as long as the compound is capable of forming the carbonaceous film on the surfaces of the electrode active material particles, and examples thereof include polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone, cellulose such as methyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose, starch, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, sugars such as grape sugar (D-glucose), fruit sugar (D-fructose), sucrose, and lactose, higher monovalent alcohols such as hexanol and octanol, unsaturated monovalent alcohols such as allyl alcohols, propynol (propargyl alcohol), and terpineol, polyvinyl acetate, polyethers, and the like.

    [0069]  The carbonaceous film can be formed on the surface of the electrode active material particles through the following steps (1) and (2). In other words, the electrode material of the present invention can be manufactured through the following steps (1) and (2):
    1. (1) a slurry preparation step for preparing a slurry including the electrode active material particles and/or a precursor of the electrode active material particles and the organic compound, and
    2. (2) the step in which the slurry is dried so as to generate a granulated body having a film including the organic compound on the surface, the granulated body is fired in a non-oxidative atmosphere, thereby carbonizing the organic compound, and thus forming a carbonaceous film made of a carbonaceous material coming from the organic compound on the surface of the granulated body.


    [0070] In Step (1), a solvent such as water is preferably further added to the slurry.

    [0071] The organic compound is preferably used so that the amount of carbon in the organic compound reaches a predetermined amount with respect to the electrode active material particles and/or the precursor of the electrode active material particles. Specifically, the organic compound is blended so that the amount of carbon in the organic compound preferably falls in a range of 0.6 parts by mass to 8.0 parts by mass, and more preferably falls in a range of 1.1 parts by mass to 4.0 parts by mass with respect to a total of 100 parts by mass of the electrode active material particles and/or the precursor of the electrode active material particles.

    [0072] When the blending ratio of the organic compound in terms of the amount of carbon is 0.6 parts by mass or more, the discharge capacity at a high-speed charge and discharge rate does not easily become low in a case in which a battery is formed, and it is possible to realize sufficient charge and discharge rate performance. When the blending ratio of the organic compound in terms of the amount of carbon is 8.0 parts by mass or less, the steric hindrance is small when lithium ions diffuse in the carbonaceous film, and the lithium ion migration resistance becomes small. As a result, the internal resistance of the battery does not easily increase in a case in which a battery is formed, and it is possible to suppress a voltage drop at a high-speed charge and discharge rate.

    [0073] When the slurry is prepared, the electrode active material particles and/or the precursor of the electrode active material particles and the organic compound need to be dissolved or dispersed in water. During the dissolution or dispersion, a dispersant is preferably added, and a dispersion apparatus such as a planetary ball mill, an oscillation ball mill, a bead mill, a paint shaker, or an attritor is preferably used.

    [0074] During the dissolution or dispersion, it is preferable to disperse in water the electrode active material particles and/or the precursor of the electrode active material particles in a primary particle form, and then add and stir the organic compound so as to be dissolved. Therefore, it is possible to facilitate the coating of the surfaces of the primary particles of the electrode active material particles with the organic compound.

    [0075] In Step (2), a step in which the slurry prepared in Step (1) is dried so as to generate a granulated body having a film including the organic compound on the surface, the granulated body is fired in a non-oxidative atmosphere, thereby carbonizing the organic compound, and thus forming a carbonaceous film made of a carbonaceous material coming from the organic compound on the surface of the granulated body is carried out. The granulated body generally has a form of agglomerated particles that are an agglomerate of the primary particles of the electrode active material particles. The precursor of the electrode active material particles change into the electrode active material particles by firing

    [0076] Examples of means for generating the granulated body by drying the slurry include means for spraying the slurry in a high-temperature atmosphere. Here, the high-temperature atmosphere refers to an atmosphere at, for example, approximately 70°C to 250°C.

    [0077] The non-oxidative atmosphere is preferably an inert atmosphere in which an inert gas such as nitrogen (N2), argon (Ar), or the like is used, and in a case in which it is necessary to further suppress oxidization, a reducing atmosphere including approximately several % by volume of a reducing gas such as hydrogen (H2) is preferred.

    [0078] The firing temperature is preferably in a range of 500°C to 1000°C, and more preferably in a range of 600°C to 900°C, and the firing time is in a range of approximately 0.1 hours to 40 hours.

    [0079] When the firing temperature is set to 500°C or higher, it is easy to sufficiently carbonize the organic compound. When the firing temperature is set to 1000°Cor lower, Li in the electrode active material is not easily evaporated, and the grain growth of the electrode active material is suppressed. As a result, it is possible to prevent the discharge capacity at a high-speed charge and discharge rate from becoming low, and it is possible to realize sufficient charge and discharge rate performance.

    [0080] The carbonaceous film is preferably formed on the surfaces of the electrode active material particles through the following steps (1') and (2'). In other words, the electrode material of the present invention is preferably manufactured through the following steps (1') and (2') :

    (1') a slurry preparation step for preparing a slurry including the electrode active material particles and/or the precursor of the electrode active material particles, an organic compound i, and an organic compound ii, and

    (2') a step in which the slurry is dried so as to generate a granulated body having a film including the organic compounds i and ii on a surface, the granulated body is fired in a non-oxidative atmosphere, thereby removing the organic compound ii from the film and carbonizing the organic compound i, thereby forming a carbonaceous film made of a carbonaceous material coming from the organic compound i on a surface of the granulated body.



    [0081] In the electrode material obtained through Steps (1') and (2'), it is possible to facilitate the random lamination of the graphene layers in the carbonaceous film, and it is possible to facilitate the suppression of a voltage drop when high-speed charge and discharge (particularly, high-speed discharge in a low-temperature environment) is carried out.

    [0082] This is considered to be because, in the stage of the formation of the granulated body, the film including the organic compounds i and ii is present on the surface of the granulated body; however, in the firing stage for forming the carbonaceous film, the organic compound ii that is one of the components constituting the film on the granulated body is removed, and thus the lamination state of the graphene layers constituting the carbonaceous filmbecomes random, and the migration of lithium ions becomes easy.

    [0083] Meanwhile, the organic compound ii is considered to be removed from the film on the granulated body since, in the firing stage, the organic compound ii or the decomposed substance thereof is combusted or evaporated.

    [0084] For the electrode material obtained through Steps (1') and (2'), it is possible to facilitate the setting of "the powder resistance value" and "the ratio between the powder resistance value and the amount of carbon in the electrode material" in ranges described below.

    [0085] This is considered to be because the organic compound ii or the decomposed substance thereof is combusted, and heat from the combustion increases the degree of crystallinity of the carbonaceous material coming from the organic compound i.

    [0086] While the specific structure of the carbonaceous film after Step (2') is not clear, the schematic illustration of the structure is considered to look like the state of Fig. 1B.

    [0087] Meanwhile, the carbonaceous film after Step (2') is made of the carbonaceous material coming from the organic compound i, but the carbonaceous film may include a small amount of a carbonaceous material made of a carbonaceous material coming from the organic compound ii to the extent that the effects of the present invention are not impaired.

    [0088] The firing in Step (2') is carried out in a non-oxidative atmosphere in which an inert gas and a reducing gas, which is added if necessary, are used, and, in order to facilitate the removal of the organic compound ii, it is preferable to introduce a small amount of susceptible and/or burnable gases such as oxygen (O2) and lower alcohols. The proportion of the susceptible and/or burnable gases accounting for the total gas components constituting the non-oxidative atmosphere is preferably in a range of 1.0% by volume to 8.0% by volume, and more preferably in a range of 2.0% by volume to 4.0% by volume.

    [0089] The firing temperature in Step (2') is preferably in a range of 500°C to 1000°C, and more preferably in a range of 600°C to 900°C. In addition, the firing temperature is preferably 100°C or more higher than the thermal decomposition temperature in the non-oxidative atmosphere of the organic compound ii. The firing time is in a range of approximately 0.1 hours to 40 hours.

    [0090] As the organic compound i, any organic compound can be used without any particular limitation as long as the organic compound is capable of forming the carbonaceous film without being removed from the film on the granulated body through the firing step.

    [0091] The organic compound i is preferably polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone, starch, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, sugars such as grape sugar (D-glucose), fruit sugar (D-fructose), sucrose, or lactose, or polyvinyl acetate. The weight-average molecular weight of a macromolecular material is preferably 5000 or more, and more preferably in a range of 8000 to 100000.

    [0092] As the organic compound ii, any organic compound can be used without any particular limitation as long as the organic compound is removed from the film on the granulated body through the firing step.

    [0093] Particularly, the organic compound ii is preferably a higher saturated monovalent alcohol such as octanol, nonanol, decanol, or dodecanol, an unsaturated monovalent alcohol such as allyl alcohol, propynol (propargyl alcohol), or terpineol, polyethylene, polypropylene, polybutylene, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, polybutylene glycol, polyether glycol, polytetramethylene ether glycol, a cellulose such as carboxyl methyl cellulose or ethyl cellulose, a plant fiber, fibrin, a chemical fiber, or the like.

    [0094] When the blending amount of the organic compound i in the slurry is set to 100 parts by mass, the blending amount of the organic compound ii is preferably set in a range of 5 parts by mass to 100 parts by mass, more preferably set in a range of 10 parts by mass to 80 parts by mass, and still more preferably set in a range of 15 parts by mass to 60 parts by mass. When the blending amount is set in the above-described range, it is possible to facilitate the setting of "the discharge capacity ratio at -10°C", "the powder resistance value", and "the ratio between the powder resistance value and the amount of carbon in the electrode material" described below in ranges described below.

    [Physical properties of the electrode material]



    [0095] In the present invention, 35C, 35C discharge capacity, 1C, and 1C discharge capacity are defined as described below.

    [0096] When a discharge capacity (nAh) obtained when the electrode material is constant-current-charged at 0.1 nA up to an appropriate potential of the electrode material so as to be in the full charge state, and then is discharged, similarly, at 0.1 nA to 2.0 V is considered as the maximum discharge capacity, the discharge speed obtained when a current value at which the maximum discharge capacity is fully discharged in 1/35 hours is applied to the electrode material is defined as 35C. The 35C discharge capacity refers to a discharge capacity obtained when the electrode material is discharged from the full charge state to 2.0 V at the discharge speed 35C.

    [0097] When a discharge capacity (nAh) obtained when the electrode material is constant-current-charged at 0.1 nA up to an appropriate potential of the electrode material so as to be in the full charge state, and then is discharged, similarly, at 0.1 nA to 2.0 V is considered as the maximum discharge capacity, the discharge speed obtained when a current value at which the maximum discharge capacity is fully discharged in 1 hour is applied to the electrode material is defined as 1C. The 1C discharge capacity refers to a discharge capacity obtained when the electrode material is discharged from the full charge state to 2.0 V at the discharge speed 1C.

    [0098] Hereinafter, "the discharge capacity ratio between the 35C discharge capacity at X°C of a single particle of the electrode material and the 1C discharge capacity at X°C of a single particle of the electrode material" will be referred to as "the discharge capacity ratio at X°C" or "35C/1C at X°C" in some cases. For example, there are cases in which "the discharge capacity ratio between the 35C discharge capacity at -10°C of a single particle of the electrode material and the 1C discharge capacity at -10°C of a single particle of the electrode material" will be referred to as "the discharge capacity ratio at -10°C" or "35C/1C at -10°C".

    [0099] In the electrode material of the present invention, the average of the discharge capacity ratios between the 35Cdischarge capacity at -10°C of a single particle of the electrode material and the 1C discharge capacity at -10°C of a single particle of the electrode material is preferably 0.50 or more, more preferably 0.55 or more, still more preferably 0.60 or more, and far still more preferably 0.65 or more. When the discharge capacity ratio at -10°C is set to 0.50 or more, it is possible to suppress a voltage drop when high-speed discharge is carried out in a low-temperature environment.

    [0100] The discharge capacity ratio at -10°C is preferably 0.80 or less, and more preferably 0.75 or less.

    [0101] The discharge capacity of a single particle of the electrode material can be obtained by sampling a single particle from the electrode material, and measuring the discharge capacity using a microelectrode, and specifically, can be measured using a method described in the examples.

    [0102] In the electrode material of the present invention, the 35C/1C at 20°C of a single particle of the electrode material is preferably 0.60 or more, more preferably 0.65 or more, and still more preferably in a range of 0.65 to 0.90.

    [0103] In the electrode material of the present invention, from the viewpoint of improvement in electron conductivity, the powder resistance value is preferably 300 Ω·cm or less, more preferably 250 Ω·cm or less, still more preferably 230 Ω·cm or less, and far still more preferably in a range of 100 Ω·cm to 220 Ω·cm.

    [0104] The powder resistance value can be measured from a specimen obtained by pressing the electrode material at a pressure of 50 MPa, and specifically, can be measured using a method described in the examples.

    [0105] In the electrode material of the present invention, the ratio between the powder resistance value (Ω·cm) and the amount of carbon in the electrode material (% by mass) is preferably 300 or less, more preferably 250 or less, and still more preferably in a range of 1 to 230. In electrode materials satisfying the above-described conditions, the amount of carbon in the electrode material necessary to increase the electron conductivity is small, electron conductivity and lithium ion conductivity are both satisfied, and the trade-off problem can be solved.

    [Paste for electrodes]



    [0106] The paste for electrodes in the present invention includes the electrode material of the present invention and a binding agent.

    [0107] As the binding agent, for example, a macromolecular resin such as a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) resin, a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) resin, or fluorine rubber is preferably used.

    [0108] The blending ratio of the binding agent to the electrode material is not particularly limited, and, for example, the amount of the binding agent blended is preferably in a range of 1 part by mass to 30 parts by mass, and more preferably in a range of 3 parts by mass to 20 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of the electrode material.

    [0109] The paste for electrodes preferably further includes a solvent and a conductive auxiliary agent.

    [0110] The solvent used for paint for electrode formation or paste for electrode formation may be appropriately selected in accordance with the properties of the binder resin.

    [0111] Examples thereof include water, alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol: IPA), butanol, pentanol, hexanol, octanol, and diacetone alcohol, esters such as ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl lactate, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, propylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, and γ-butyrolactone, ethers such as diethyl ether, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (methyl cellosolve), ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (ethyl cellosolve), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (butyl cellosolve), diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and diehtylene glycol monoethyl ether, ketones such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutylketone (MIBK), acetylacetone, and cyclohexanone, amides such as dimethyl formamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and N-methyl pyrrolidone, glycols such as ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, and the like. The solvent may be singly used, or a mixture of two or more solvents may be used.

    [Electrode and lithium ion battery]



    [0112] An electrode of the present invention can be obtained by applying the paste for electrodes in the present invention to one surface of a metal foil, and drying the paste so as to form a coated film, and then bonding the coated film by pressing so as to produce an electrode material layer.

    [0113] Through the above-described steps, the electrode having excellent output characteristics can be produced. The electrode is useful as positive electrodes for lithium ion batteries.

    [0114] In addition, a lithium ion battery of the present invention includes a positive electrode collector having the electrode material layer formed of the paste for electrodes of the present embodiment on a metal foil.

    [0115] In the electrode and lithium ion battery of the present invention, the internal resistance of the electrode can be decreased by producing the electrode using the electrode material of the present invention. Therefore, it is possible to suppress the internal resistance of the battery at a low level, and consequently, it is possible to provide a lithium ion battery capable of carrying out high-speed charge and discharge without any concern of a significant voltage drop.

    [0116] In the lithium ion battery of the present invention, there is no particular limitation regarding the negative electrode, an electrolytic solution, a separator, and the like. For example, for the negative electrode, it is possible to use a negative electrode material such as Li metal, a carbon material, a Li alloy, or Li4Ti5O12. In addition, a solid electrolyte may be used in place of the electrolytic solution and the separator.

    Examples



    [0117] Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in more detail using the examples, but the present invention is not limited by the examples.

    1. Measurement



    [0118] The following measurements were carried out on electrode materials of examples and comparative examples . The results are described in Tables 1 to 3.

    (1) Inflection ratio



    [0119] The inflection ratio of the migration path of lithium ions in the carbonaceous film in the electrode material was calculated under the following conditions.

    Calculation of the film thickness



    [0120] First, the film thickness of the carbonaceous film on a single electrode active material particle in the electrode material was calculated using a transmission electron microscope . Specifically, a normal line was drawn at an arbitrary position on the surface of the electrode active material particle, and the interval between the intersection point of the normal line and the surface of the active material particle and the intersection point of the normal line and the surface of the carbonaceous film was considered as the film thickness of the carbonaceous film at the position.

    Calculation of the migration path of lithium ions



    [0121] After the film thickness was calculated, the migration path of lithium ions between the two intersection points was calculated. The shortest distance of lithium ions migrating between the two intersection points was considered as the migration path of lithium ions. When the migration path of lithium ions was calculated, the fact that "lithium ions are incapable of passing through a structure in which electrons are delocalized such as graphene, and thus are forced to bypass the graphene" and the fact that "lithium ions are forced to bypass steric hindrances generated by carbon atoms and/or a chain-shaped or cyclic structured substance including carbon atoms" were taken into account.

    Calculation of the inflection ratio of lithium ions



    [0122] The above-described processes (the Calculation of the film thickness and the calculation of the migration path) were carried out at 10 positions in each of 10 particles (a total of 100 positions). The inflection ratios of lithium ions at a total of 100 positions were calculated using the formula [1] described below, and the average value thereof was considered as the inflection ratio of each electrode material.

    [0123] The inflection ratio of lithium ions= [the distance of the migration path of lithium ions/the film thickness of the carbonaceous film] Formula [1]

    (2) The XRD (CuKα ray source) peak from the graphene layer in the carbonaceous film and the average of the plane intervals between the graphene layers in the carbonaceous film



    [0124] An XRD (CuKα ray source) measurement was carried out under the following conditions using an X' Pert PRO MPS (trade name, manufactured by PANalytical), and thus the peaks of the (002) planes of the graphene layers were measured. In addition, the plane intervals between the (002) planes in the respective graphene layers were calculated using Bragg's equation by profile-fitting the obtained peaks, and furthermore, the average value of the plane intervals was calculated.
    (Ray source: CuKα ray source, scan speed: 0.01°/s, scan step: 0.01°, and measurement range: 2θ=15° to 30°)

    (3) The discharge capacity and discharge capacity ratio of a single particle of the electrode material



    [0125] The electrode material was scattered on a glass separator 4, and the separator was fixed in an electrolytic solution 5 in a cell. The cell was placed on a microscope, the front end of a probe 7 and a single particle 8 of the electrode material were brought into contact with each other by operating a micro manipulator so as to obtain an electric contact while watching an image from a CCD camera 6 attached to the microscope, and discharge capacities were measured under four conditions (1C at -10°C, 35C at -10°C, 1C at 20°C, and 35C at 20°C) . For the respective electrode materials, the discharge capacities of 100 particles were measured, and the average of the discharge capacity ratio at -10°C and the discharge capacity ratio at 20°C was calculated. A reference electrode 9 was a lithium foil 10 (1 cm2) bonded by being pressed to a nickel mesh. Since the microelectrode has a weak current value, measurement was carried out in a two-electrode mode. As the electrolytic solution, a mixed solvent of propylene carbonate and ethylene carbonate (at a volume ratio of 3:7) including 1.0 mol/dm3 of LiPF6 was used. In addition, a schematic view of the cell used in the measurement is illustrated in Fig. 2.

    (4) Amount of carbon



    [0126] The amount (% by mass) of carbon in the electrode material was measured using a carbon analyzer.

    (5) Powder resistance value



    [0127] The electrode material was injected into a mold, and was pressed at a pressure of 50 MPa, thereby producing a specimen. The powder resistance value (Ω·cm) of the specimen was measured using a low resistivity meter (manufactured by Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, trade name: Loresta-GP) through a four-terminal method at 25°C.

    (6) Average particle diameter (D50)



    [0128] The average particle diameter (D50) of the electrode material was measured using a laser diffraction-type particle size distribution measurement instrument (manufactured by Shimadzu Corporation, trade name: SALD-1000).

    (7) Specific surface area



    [0129] The specific surface area of the electrode material was measured using a specific surface area meter (manufactured by BEL Japan, Inc., trade name: BELSORP-mini) through a BET method through the adsorption of nitrogen (N2).

    (8) Thickness of the carbonaceous film



    [0130] The film thickness of the carbonaceous film at 10 arbitrary positions on a single electrode active material particle in the electrode material was calculated using a transmission electron microscope, and the average of the thicknesses at the 10 positions was calculated. The processes were carried in each of 10 particles, and the average value thereof was considered as the thickness of the carbonaceous film.

    (9) Coating ratio of the carbonaceous film



    [0131] The carbonaceous film in the electrode material was observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), and the proportion of portions coated with the carbonaceous film in the surface of the electrode material was calculated, and was considered as the coating ratio.

    2. Production of the electrode material


    Example 1



    [0132] 4 mol of lithium acetate (LiCH3COO), 2 mol of iron (II) sulfate (FeSO4), and 2 mol of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were mixed with 2 L (liters) of water so that the total amount reached 4 L, thereby preparing a homogeneous slurry-form mixture. Next, the mixture was accommodated in a pressure-resistant airtight container having a capacity of 8 L, and was hydrothermally synthesized for 1 hour at 200°C. Next, the obtained sediment was washed using water, thereby obtaining a cake-form precursor of an electrode active material.

    [0133] Next, an aqueous solution obtained by dissolving 1.5 g of sucrose and 0.075 g of allyl alcohol in 100 g of water and 100 g of the precursor of the electrode active material (in terms of the solid content) were mixed so as to produce a slurry, and a dispersion treatment was carried out on the slurry using a binary fluid-type wet jet crusher so that the average particle diameter (D50) of the primary particles of precursor particles of the electrode active material in the slurry reached 50 nm. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 1, the amount of allyl alcohol (organic compound ii) was 5 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of sucrose (organic compound i).

    [0134] Next, the slurry on which the dispersion treatment had been carried out was sprayed and dried in the atmosphere at 180°C, thereby obtaining a granulated body having a film including sucrose and allyl alcohol on the surface.

    [0135] Next, the obtained granulated body was fired at 700°C for 0.1 hours in a non-oxidative atmosphere (100% by volume of nitrogen and 0% by volume of oxygen) so as to remove allyl alcohol from the film and carbonize sucrose, thereby obtaining an electrode material having a carbonaceous film formed on the surface of a carbonaceous film made of LiFePO4 having an olivine-type crystal structure.

    Example 2



    [0136] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except for the fact that the amount of ally alcohol added to produce a slurry was changed to 0.3 g. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 2, the amount of allyl alcohol (organic compound ii) was 20 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of sucrose (organic compound i).

    Example 3



    [0137] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except for the fact that the amount of ally alcohol added to produce a slurry was changed to 0.75 g. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 3, the amount of allyl alcohol (organic compound ii) was 50 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of sucrose (organic compound i).

    Example 4



    [0138] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except for the fact that the amount of ally alcohol added to produce a slurry was changed to 1.2 g. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 4, the amount of allyl alcohol (organic compound ii) was 80 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of sucrose (organic compound i).

    Example 5



    [0139] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except for the fact that the amount of ally alcohol added to produce a slurry was changed to 1.5 g. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 5, the amount of allyl alcohol (organic compound ii) was 100 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of sucrose (organic compound i).

    Example 6



    [0140] 4 mol of lithium acetate (LiCH3COO), 2 mol of iron (II) sulfate (FeSO4), and 2 mol of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were mixed with 2 L (liters) of water so that the total amount reached 4 L, thereby preparing a homogeneous slurry-form mixture. Next, the mixture was accommodated in a pressure-resistant airtight container having a capacity of 8 L, and was hydrothermally synthesized for 1 hour at 200°C. Next, the obtained sediment was washed using water, thereby obtaining a cake-form precursor of an electrode active material.

    [0141] Next, an aqueous solution obtained by dissolving 3.0 g of lactose and 0.15 g of polypropylene in 100 g of water and 100 g of the precursor of the electrode active material (in terms of the solid content) were mixed so as to produce a slurry, and a dispersion treatment was carried out on the slurry using a binary fluid-type wet jet crusher so that the average particle diameter (D50) of the primary particles of precursor particles of the electrode active material in the slurry reached 50 nm. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 6, the amount of polypropylene (organic compound ii) was 5 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of lactose (organic compound i).

    [0142] Next, the slurry on which the dispersion treatment had been carried out was sprayed and dried in the atmosphere at 180°C, thereby obtaining a granulated body having a film including lactose and polypropylene on the surface.

    [0143] Next, the obtained granulated body was fired at 700°C for 10 hours in a non-oxidative atmosphere (98% by volume of nitrogen and 2% by volume of oxygen) so as to remove polypropylene from the film and carbonize lactose, thereby obtaining an electrode material having a carbonaceous film formed on the surface of a carbonaceous film made of LiFePO4 having an olivine-type crystal structure.

    Example 7



    [0144] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 6 except for the fact that the amount of polypropylene added to produce a slurry was changed to 0.6 g. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 7, the amount of polypropylene (organic compound ii) was 20 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of lactose (organic compound i).

    Example 8



    [0145] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 6 except for the fact that the amount of polypropylene added to produce a slurry was changed to 1.5 g. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 8, the amount of polypropylene (organic compound ii) was 50 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of lactose (organic compound i).

    Example 9



    [0146] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 6 except for the fact that the amount of polypropylene added to produce a slurry was changed to 2.4 g. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 9, the amount of polypropylene (organic compound ii) was 80 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of lactose (organic compound i).

    Example 10



    [0147] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 6 except for the fact that the amount of polypropylene added to produce a slurry was changed to 3.0 g. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 10, the amount of polypropylene (organic compound ii) was 100 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of lactose (organic compound i).

    Example 11



    [0148] 4 mol of lithium acetate (LiCH3COO), 2 mol of iron (II) sulfate (FeSO4), and 2 mol of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were mixed with 2 L (liters) of water so that the total amount reached 4 L, thereby preparing a homogeneous slurry-form mixture. Next, the mixture was accommodated in a pressure-resistant airtight container having a capacity of 8 L, and was hydrothermally synthesized for 1 hour at 200°C. Next, the obtained sediment was washed using water, thereby obtaining a cake-form precursor of an electrode active material.

    [0149] Next, an aqueous solution obtained by dissolving 6.0 g of polyvinyl alcohol and 3.0 g of terpineol in 100 g of water and 100 g of a precursor of the electrode active material (in terms of the solid content) were mixed so as to produce a slurry, and a dispersion treatment was carried out on the slurry using a binary fluid-type wet jet crusher so that the average particle diameter (D50) of the primary particles of precursor particles of the electrode active material in the slurry reached 50 nm. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 11, the amount of terpineol (organic compound ii) was 50 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of polyvinyl alcohol (organic compound i).

    [0150] Next, the slurry on which the dispersion treatment had been carried out was sprayed and dried in the atmosphere at 180°C, thereby obtaining a granulated body having a film including polyvinyl alcohol and terpineol on the surface.

    [0151] Next, the obtained granulated body was fired at 700°C for 20 hours in a non-oxidative atmosphere (98% by volume of nitrogen, 1% by volume of hydrogen, and 1% by volume of oxygen) so as to remove terpineol from the film and carbonize polyvinyl alcohol, thereby obtaining an electrode material having a carbonaceous film formed on the surface of a carbonaceous film made of LiFePO4 having an olivine-type crystal structure.

    Example 12



    [0152] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 11 except for the fact that the organic compound i used to produce a slurry was changed to grape sugar. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 12, the amount of terpineol (organic compound ii) was 50 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of grape sugar (organic compound i).

    Example 13



    [0153] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 11 except for the fact that the organic compound i used to produce a slurry was changed to polyvinyl pyrrolidone. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 13, the amount of terpineol (organic compound ii) was 50 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (organic compound i).

    Example 14



    [0154] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 11 except for the fact that the organic compound ii used to produce a slurry was changed to polyethylene glycol. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 14, the amount of polyethylene glycol (organic compound ii) was 50 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of polyvinyl alcohol (organic compound i).

    Example 15



    [0155] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 11 except for the fact that the organic compound ii used to produce a slurry was changed to carboxymethyl cellulsoe. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 15, the amount of carboxymethyl cellulose (organic compound ii) was 50 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of polyvinyl alcohol (organic compound i).

    Example 16



    [0156] 4 mol of lithium acetate (LiCH3COO), 2 mol of iron (II) sulfate (FeSO4), and 2 mol of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were mixed with 2 L (liters) of water so that the total amount reached 4 L, thereby preparing a homogeneous slurry-form mixture. Next, the mixture was accommodated in a pressure-resistant airtight container having a capacity of 8 L, and was hydrothermally synthesized for 1 hour at 200°C. Next, the obtained sediment was washed using water, thereby obtaining a cake-form precursor of an electrode active material.

    [0157] Next, an aqueous solution obtained by dissolving 8.0 g of fruit sugar and 8.0 g of hydroxyethyl cellulose in 100 g of water and 100 g of the precursor of the electrode active material (in terms of the solid content) were mixed so as to produce a slurry, and a dispersion treatment was carried out on the slurry using a binary fluid-type wet jet crusher so that the average particle diameter (D50) of the primary particles of precursor particles of the electrode active material in the slurry reached 50 nm. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 16, the amount of hydroxyethyl cellulose (organic compound ii) was 50 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of fruit sugar (organic compound i).

    [0158] Next, the slurry on which the dispersion treatment had been carried out was sprayed and dried in the atmosphere at 180°C, thereby obtaining a granulated body having a film including fruit sugar and hydroxyethyl cellulose on the surface.

    [0159] Next, the obtained granulated body was fired at 700°C for 40 hours in a non-oxidative atmosphere (95% by volume of nitrogen, 3% by volume of hydrogen, and 2% by volume of oxygen) so as to remove hydroxyethyl cellulose from the film and carbonize fruit sugar, thereby obtaining an electrode material having a carbonaceous film formed on the surface of a carbonaceous film made of LiFePO4 having an olivine-type crystal structure.

    Example 17



    [0160] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 16 except for the fact that the organic compound i used to produce a slurry was changed to polyvinyl pyrrolidone. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 17, the amount of hydroxyethyl cellulose (organic compound ii) was 50 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (organic compound i).

    Example 18



    [0161] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 16 except for the fact that the organic compound i used to produce a slurry was changed to lactose. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 18, the amount of hydroxyethyl cellulose (organic compound ii) was 50 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of lactose (organic compound i).

    Example 19



    [0162] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 16 except for the fact that the organic compound ii used to produce a slurry was changed to allyl alcohol. Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 19, the amount of allyl alcohol (organic compound ii) was 50 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of fruit sugar (organic compound i).

    Example 20



    [0163] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 16 except for the fact that the organic compound ii used to produce a slurry was changed to polypropylene . Regarding the content of the organic compound in the slurry of Example 20, the amount of polypropylene (organic compound ii) was 50 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of fruit sugar (organic compound i).

    Comparative Example 1



    [0164] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except for the fact that the organic compound ii used to produce a slurry was not added.

    Comparative Example 2



    [0165] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 6 except for the fact that the organic compound ii used to produce a slurry was not added.

    Comparative Example 3



    [0166] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 11 except for the fact that the organic compound ii used to produce a slurry was not added.

    Comparative Example 4



    [0167] An electrode material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 16 except for the fact that the organic compound ii used to produce a slurry was not added.

    3. Production of slurries for electrodes and electrodes



    [0168] The electrode material, a binder resin (polyvinylidene fluoride), and a conductive auxiliary agent (acetylene black) were mixed so that the mass ratio reached 90:5:5, and furthermore, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was added as a solvent so as to impart fluidity, thereby producing a slurry for electrodes.

    [0169] Next, the slurry for electrodes was applied onto a 15 µm-thick aluminum (Al) foil, and was dried. After that, the slurry was pressurized at a pressure of 600 kgf/cm2, thereby producing a positive electrode of a lithium ion battery.

    4. Production of an electrode



    [0170] Lithium metal was disposed as a negative electrode against the positive electrode of the lithium ion battery, and a separator made of porous polypropylene was disposed between the positive electrode and the negative electrode, thereby producing a battery member.

    [0171] Meanwhile, ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate were mixed together in (a mass ratio of) 1:1, and furthermore 1 M of a LiPF6 solution was added, thereby producing an electrolyte solution having lithium ion conductivity.

    [0172] Next, the battery member was immersed in the electrolyte solution, thereby producing the lithium ion battery.
    [Table 1]
     Example 1Example 2Example 3Example 4Example 5Example 6Example 7Example 8Example 9Example 10
    Content (parts by mass) of organic compound ii with respect to 100 parts by mass of organic compound i 5 20 50 80 100 5 20 50 80 100
    Inflection ratio (%) 94 76 55 32 16 78 56 38 6 2
    XRD peak of (002) plane (°) 25.1 24.9 24.7 24.6 24.2 25.7 25.0 24.8 24.4 24.3
    Plane intervals between graphene layers (nm) 0.3548 0.3576 0.3604 0.3619 0.3678 0.3466 0.3562 0.3590 0.3648 0.3663
    Amount of carbon (% by mass) 0.8 0.8 0.9 1 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 1
    Powder resistance value (Ω·cm) 240 234 224 238 241 154 163 151 143 140
    Average particle diameter (µm) 20 23 21 25 18 22 24 15 17 20
    Specific surface area (m2/g) 9.81 9.92 9.84 10.31 10.26 10.64 10.51 10.63 10.94 10.53
    Thickness of carbonaceous film (nm) 3.3 3.7 3.8 4.0 5.0 2.8 3.1 3.3 3.4 4.8
    Coating ratio (%) 85 87 87 90 89 89 91 87 93 95
    Powder resistance/amount of carbon 300 293 249 238 201 193 204 189 159 140
    Discharge capacity ratio (35C/1C) -10°C 0.53 0.66 0.70 0.72 0.71 0.55 0.64 0.71 0.70 0.70
    20°C 0.70 0.81 0.85 0.83 0.84 0.74 0.77 0.84 0.86 0.85
    [Table 2]
     Example 11Example 12Example 13Example 14Example 15Example 16Example 17Example 18Example 19Example 20
    Content (parts by mass) of organic compound ii with respect to 100 parts by mass of organic compound i 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
    Inflection ratio (%) 46 63 51 47 78 68 61 54 42 51
    XRD peak of (002) plane (°) 24.6 24.5 24.5 24.7 24.6 24.4 24.3 24.5 24.4 24.8
    Plane intervals between graphene layers (nm) 0.3619 0.3633 0.3633 0.3604 0.3619 0.3648 0.3663 0.3633 0.3648 0.3590
    Amount of carbon (% by mass) 1.6 2.2 3.4 1.8 1.7 4.1 3.5 4.3 4.4 4.1
    Powder resistance value (Ω·cm) 128 113 15 134 110 17 13 8 11 15
    Average particle diameter (µm) 11 14 24 21 18 31 27 14 18 25
    Specific surface area (m2/g) 12.41 13.37 14.58 13.16 13.54 16.87 15.57 16.62 16.44 16.18
    Thickness of carbonaceous film (nm) 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.2 3.0 2.5 2.7 2.2 2.1 2.5
    Coating ratio (%) 92 94 95 93 94 95 91 93 99 95
    Powder resistance/amount of carbon 80 51 4 74 65 4 4 2 3 4
    Discharge capacity ratio (35C/1C) -10°C 0.65 0.61 0.55 0.67 0.70 0.65 0.52 0.51 0.55 0.53
    20°C 0.81 0.75 0.67 0.81 0.82 0.78 0.74 0.70 0.74 0.75
    [Table 3]
     Comparative Example 1Comparative Example 2Comparative Example 3Comparative Example 4
    Content (parts by mass) of organic compound ii with respect to 100 parts by mass of organic compound i 0 0 0 0
    Inflection ratio (%) 181 164 105 112
    XRD peak of (002) plane (°) 26.0 25.8 25.9 26.1
    Plane intervals between graphene layers (nm) 0.3427 0.3453 0.3440 0.3414
    Amount of carbon (% by mass) 0.4 0.5 1.5 3.8
    Powder resistance value (Ω·cm) 1142 382 98 12
    Average particle diameter (µm) 22 25 18 28
    Specific surface area (m2/g) 9.78 11.5 112.16 15.49
    Thickness of carbonaceous film (nm) 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3
    Coating ratio (%) 85 92 90 93
    Powder resistance/amount of carbon 2855 764 65 3
    Discharge capacity ratio (35C/1C) -10°C 0.24 0.38 0.26 0.31
    20°C 0.44 0.48 0.45 0.46


    [0173] As is clear from Tables 1 to 3, it has been found that, in the electrode materials of Examples 1 to 20, the graphene layers constituting the carbonaceous film are randomly laminated (the inflection ratios are small, or the plane intervals in the graphene layers are wide), and thus the voltage drops slightly during high-speed discharge. Particularly, it is possible to confirm that the electrode materials of Examples 1 to 20 have a high discharge capacity ratio at -10°C, and exhibit excellent battery characteristics even in a low-temperature environment.

    [0174] The present invention is available for electrode materials that are used as positive electrode materials for batteries, and furthermore, positive electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, electrodes including the electrode material, and lithium ion batteries including a positive electrode made using the electrode.

    Reference Numerals



    [0175] 
    1:
    electrode active material particle
    2:
    carbonaceous film
    3:
    lithium ion
    4:
    glass separator
    5:
    electrolytic solution
    6:
    CCD camera
    7:
    probe
    8:
    single particle of an electrode material
    9:
    reference electrode
    10:
    lithium foil
    11:
    action electrode



    Claims

    1. An electrode material,
    wherein the electrode material has a particulate shape, the electrode material is formed of a carbonaceous film on surfaces of electrode active material particles, each of the electrode active material particles is an agglomerated particle that is an agglomerate of primary particles, the carbonaceous film is constituted by randomly stacked graphene layers, and an average of plane intervals between (002) planes in the graphene layers is 0.3466 nm to 0.370 nm, wherein a thickness of the carbonaceous film is in a range of 0.5 nm to 20 nm, and wherein a content ratio of the carbonaceous film with respect to a total mass of the electrode material is in a range of 0.5% by mass to 5.0% by mass, and the electrode active material particles are LixFeyDzPO4, wherein D represents one or more selected from Mg, Ca, S, Sr, Ba, Ti, Zn, B, Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sc, Y, and rare earth elements, 0<x<2, 0<y<1.5, and 0≤z<1.5,
    so that an average of discharge capacity ratios between a 35C discharge capacity at -10°C of a single particle of the electrode material and a 1C discharge capacity at -10°C of a single particle of the electrode material is 0.50 or more, wherein the 35C discharge capacity refers to a discharge capacity obtained when the electrode material is discharged from the full charge state to 2.0 V when a current value at which the maximum discharge capacity is fully discharged in 1/35 hours is applied to the electrode material, and the 1C discharge capacity refers to a discharge capacity obtained when the electrode material is discharged from the full charge state to 2.0 V when a current value at which the maximum discharge capacity is fully discharged in 1 hour is applied to the electrode material, wherein the maximum discharge capacity refers to the discharge capacity (nAh) obtained when the electrode material is constant-current-charged at 0.1 nA up to an appropriate potential of the electrode material so as to be in the full charge state, and then is discharged at 0.1 nA to 2.0 V.
     
    2. The electrode material according to claim 1,
    wherein an XRD (CuKα ray source) peak of the (002) plane from the graphene layer in the carbonaceous film appears at 2θ=24.0° to 25.7°.
     
    3. The electrode material according to claim 1 or 2,
    wherein the electrode active material particles have an olivine-type crystal structure.
     
    4. The electrode material according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the electrode material is manufactured by the following steps (1) and (2),

    (1) a slurry preparation step for preparing a slurry including the electrode active material particles and/or a precursor of the electrode active material particles, an organic compound i, and an organic compound ii, wherein the blending amount of the organic compound ii is in a range of 5 parts by mass to 100 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of the organic compound i, and

    (2) a step in which the slurry is dried so as to generate a granulated body having a film including the organic compounds i and ii on a surface, the granulated body is fired in a non-oxidative atmosphere, thereby removing the organic compound ii from the film and carbonizing the organic compound i, thereby forming a carbonaceous film made of a carbonaceous material coming from the organic compound i on a surface of the granulated body, wherein susceptible and/or burnable gases are introduced into the non-oxidative atmosphere and a proportion of the susceptible and/or burnable gases accounting for the total gas components constituting the non-oxidative atmosphere is in a range of 1.0% by volume to 8.0% by volume.


     
    5. Paste for electrodes comprising: the electrode material according to any one of claims 1 to 4 and a binding agent.
     
    6. A lithium ion battery comprising: a positive electrode collector having an electrode material layer formed of the paste for electrodes according to claim 5 on a metal foil.
     
    7. A method for manufacturing an electrode material comprising the following steps (1) and (2),

    (1) a slurry preparation step for preparing a slurry including electrode active material particles and/or a precursor of the electrode active material particles, an organic compound i, and an organic compound ii, wherein the blending amount of the organic compound ii is in a range of 5 parts by mass to 100 parts by mass with respect to 100 parts by mass of the organic compound i, and

    (2) a step in which the slurry is dried so as to generate a granulated body having a film including the organic compounds i and ii on a surface, the granulated body is fired in a non-oxidative atmosphere, thereby removing the organic compound ii from the film and carbonizing the organic compound i, thereby forming a carbonaceous film made of a carbonaceous material coming from the organic compound i on a surface of the granulated body, wherein susceptible and/or burnable gases are introduced into the non-oxidative atmosphere and a proportion of the susceptible and/or burnable gases accounting for the total gas components constituting the non-oxidative atmosphere is in a range of 1.0% by volume to 8.0% by volume.


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Elektrodenmaterial,
    wobei das Elektrodenmaterial eine teilchenförmige Form aufweist, das Elektrodenmaterial aus einem kohlenstoffhaltigen Film auf Oberflächen von Teilchen von aktivem Elektrodenmaterial gebildet ist, wobei jedes der Teilchen von aktivem Elektrodenmaterial ein agglomeriertes Teilchen ist, welches ein Agglomerat von primären Teilchen ist, der kohlenstoffhaltige Film durch statistisch gestapelte Graphenschichten konstituiert ist und ein Durchschnitt von ebenen Intervallen zwischen (002) Ebenen in den Graphenschichten 0,3466 nm bis 0,370 nm ist, wobei eine Dicke des kohlenstoffhaltigen Films in einem Bereich von 0,5 nm bis 20 nm ist, und wobei ein Anteilsverhältnis des kohlenstoffhaltigen Films bezüglich einer Gesamtmasse des Elektrodenmaterials in einem Bereich von 0,5 Masse-% bis 5,0 Masse-% ist, und die Teilchen von aktivem Elektrodenmaterial LixFeyDzPO4 sind, wobei D eines oder mehrere, ausgewählt aus Mg, Ca, S, Sr, Ba, Ti, Zn, B, Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sc, Y und Seltenerdelemente, darstellt,
    0<x<2, 0<y<1,5 und 0≤z<1,5, so dass
    ein Durchschnitt der Entladekapazitätsverhältnisse zwischen einer 35C Entladungskapazität bei -10°C eines einzelnen Teilchens des Elektrodenmaterials und einer 1C Entladungskapazität bei -10°C eines einzelnen Teilchens des Elektrodenmaterials 0,50 oder mehr ist, wobei sich die 35C Ladungskapazität auf eine Entladungskapazität bezieht, erhalten wenn das Elektrodenmaterial von dem vollen Ladungszustand auf 2,0 V entladen wird, wenn ein Stromwert, bei welchem die maximale Entladungskapazität in 1/35 Stunden vollständig entladen ist, an das Elektrodenmaterial angelegt wird, und sich die 1C Entladungskapazität auf eine Entladungskapazität bezieht, erhalten wenn das Elektrodenmaterial von dem vollständigen Ladungszustand auf 2,0 V entladen wird, wenn ein Stromwert, bei welchem die maximale Entladungskapazität in 1 Stunde vollständig entladen ist, an das Elektrodenmaterial angelegt wird, wobei sich die maximale Entladungskapazität auf die Entladungskapazität (nAh) bezieht, erhalten wenn das Elektrodenmaterial bei konstantem Strom bei 0,1 nA bis zu einem angemessenen Potential des Elektrodenmaterials geladen wird, so dass es in vollem Ladungszustand ist und anschließend bei 0,1 nA bis 2,0 V entladen wird.
     
    2. Elektrodenmaterial gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei ein XRD (CuKα Strahlungsquelle) Peak der (002) Ebene von der Graphenschicht in dem kohlenstoffhaltigen Film bei 2θ = 24.0° bis 25,7° erscheint.
     
    3. Elektrodenmaterial gemäß Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die Teilchen von aktivem Elektrodenmaterial eine Kristallstruktur vom Olivin-Typ aufweisen.
     
    4. Elektrodenmaterial gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei das Elektrodenmaterial durch die folgenden Schritte (1) und (2) hergestellt worden ist,

    (1) einen Aufschlämmungsherstellungsschritt zum Herstellen einer Aufschlämmung, welche die Teilchen von aktivem Elektrodenmaterial und/oder einen Vorläufer der Teilchen von aktivem Elektrodenmaterial, eine organische Verbindung i und eine organische Verbindung ii einschließt, wobei die Mischmenge der organischen Verbindung ii in einem Bereich von 5 Masseteilen bis 100 Masseteilen bezüglich 100 Masseteilen der organischen Verbindung i ist, und

    (2) einen Schritt, worin die Aufschlämmung getrocknet wird, um derart einen granulierten Körper mit einem Film, einschließlich der organischen Verbindung i und ii auf einer Oberfläche, zu erzeugen, der granulierte Körper in einer nichtoxidativen Atmosphäre gebrannt wird, wobei die organische Verbindung ii von dem Film entfernt wird und die organische Verbindung i carbonisiert wird, wodurch ein kohlenstoffhaltiger Film aus einem kohlenstoffhaltigen Material, kommend von der organischen Verbindung i auf einer Oberfläche des granulierten Körpers, gebildet wird, wodurch empfindliche und/oder brennbare Gase in die nicht-oxidative Atmosphäre eingeführt werden und ein Anteil der empfindlichen und/oder brennbaren Gase, ausweisend für die Gesamtgaskomponenten, welche die nicht-oxidative Atmosphäre konstituieren, in einem Bereich von 1,0 Vol.-% bis 8,0 Vol.-% ist.


     
    5. Paste für Elektroden, umfassend:
    das Elektrodenmaterial gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 und ein Bindemittel.
     
    6. Lithiumionenbatterie, umfassend:
    einen positiven Elektrodensammler mit einer Elektrodenmaterialschicht, gebildet aus der Paste für Elektroden gemäß Anspruch 5 auf einer Metallfolie.
     
    7. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Elektrodenmaterials, umfassend die Schritte (1) und (2),

    (1) einen Aufschlämmungsherstellungsschritt zum Herstellen einer Aufschlämmung, welche die Teilchen von aktivem Elektrodenmaterial und/oder einen Vorläufer der Teilchen von aktivem Elektrodenmaterial, eine organische Verbindung i und eine organische Verbindung ii einschließt, wobei die Mischmenge der organischen Verbindung ii in einem Bereich von 5 Masseteilen bis 100 Masseteilen bezüglich 100 Masseteilen der organischen Verbindung i ist, und

    (2) einen Schritt, worin die Aufschlämmung getrocknet wird, um derart einen granulierten Körper mit einem Film, einschließlich der organischen Verbindung i und ii auf einer Oberfläche, zu erzeugen, der granulierte Körper in einer nichtoxidativen Atmosphäre gebrannt wird, wobei die organische Verbindung ii von dem Film entfernt wird und die organische Verbindung i carbonisiert wird, wodurch ein kohlenstoffhaltiger Film aus einem kohlenstoffhaltigen Material, kommend von der organischen Verbindung i auf einer Oberfläche des granulierten Körpers, gebildet wird, wodurch empfindliche und/oder brennbare Gase in die nicht-oxidative Atmosphäre eingeführt werden und ein Anteil der empfindlichen und/oder brennbaren Gase, ausweisend für die Gesamtgaskomponenten, welche die nicht-oxidative Atmosphäre konstituieren, in einem Bereich von 1,0 Vol.-% bis 8,0 Vol.-% ist.


     


    Revendications

    1. Matériau d'électrode,
    dans lequel le matériau d'électrode présente une forme particulaire, le matériau d'électrode est formé d'un film carboné sur des surfaces des particules de matériau actif d'électrode, chacune des particules de matériau actif d'électrode est une particule agglomérée qui est un agglomérat de particules primaires, le film carboné est constitué de couches de graphène empilées de manière aléatoire, et la moyenne des intervalles plans entre les plans (002) dans les couches de graphène, va de 0,3466 nm à 0,370 nm, dans lequel l'épaisseur du film carboné est comprise dans l'intervalle entre 0,5 nm et 20 nm, et dans lequel le rapport des teneurs du film carboné par rapport à la masse totale du matériau d'électrode est compris dans l'intervalle entre 0,5% en masse et 5,0% en masse, et les particules de matériau actif d'électrode sont LixFeyDzPO4, dans laquelle D représente un ou plusieurs sélectionnés parmi les Mg, Ca, S, Sr, Ba, Ti, Zn, B, Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sc, Y et des éléments des terres rares, 0<x<2, 0<y<1,5 et 0≤z<1,5,
    de sorte que
    la moyenne des rapports de capacité de décharge entre une capacité de décharge 35C à -10°C d'une seule particule du matériau d'électrode et une capacité de décharge 1C à -10°C d'une seule particule du matériau d'électrode, est 0,50 ou plus, dans lequel la capacité de décharge 35C se réfère à une capacité de décharge obtenue quand le matériau d'électrode est déchargé de l'état de charge totale à 2,0 V quand une valeur de courant à laquelle la capacité de décharge maximale est entièrement déchargée en 1/35 heures est appliquée au matériau d'électrode, et la capacité de décharge 1C se réfère à une capacité de décharge obtenue quand le matériau d'électrode est déchargée de l'état de charge totale à 2,0 V quand une valeur de courant à laquelle la capacité de décharge maximale est entièrement déchargée en 1 heure, est appliquée au matériau d'électrode, dans lequel la capacité de décharge maximale se réfère à la capacité de décharge (nAh) obtenue quand le matériau d'électrode est chargé à courant constant à 0,1 nA jusqu'à un potentiel approprié du matériau d'électrode pour être dans l'état de charge totale, puis est déchargé à 0,1 nA à 2,0 V.
     
    2. Matériau d'électrode selon la revendication 1, dans lequel un pic XRD (source de rayons CuKα) du plan (002) de la couche de graphène dans le film carboné apparaît à 2θ=de 24,0° à 25,7°.
     
    3. Matériau d'électrode selon la revendication 1 ou 2,
    dans lequel les particules de matériau actif d'électrode présentent une structure cristalline de type olivine.
     
    4. Matériau d'électrode selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3,
    dans lequel le matériau d'électrode est fabriqué par les étapes suivantes (1) et (2),

    (1) une étape de préparation de suspension pour préparer une suspension comprenant les particules de matériau actif d'électrode et/ou un précurseur des particules de matériau actif d'électrode, un composé organique i et un composé organique ii, dans laquelle la quantité de mélange du composé organique ii se situe dans l'intervalle compris entre 5 parties en masse et 100 parties en masse, sur base de 100 parties en masse du composé organique i, et

    (2) une étape dans laquelle la suspension est séchée de manière à générer un corps granulé présentant un film comprenant les composés organiques i et ii sur une surface, le corps granulé est calciné dans une atmosphère non oxydante, éliminant ainsi le composé organique ii du film et carbonisant le composé organique i, formant de ce fait un film carboné constitué d'un matériau carboné venant du composé organique i sur une surface du corps granulé, dans laquelle des gaz sensibles et/ou combustibles sont introduits dans l'atmosphère non oxydante et une part des gaz sensibles et/ou combustibles comptant pour les composants gazeux totaux constituant l'atmosphère non oxydante se situe dans l'intervalle compris entre 1,0% en volume et 8,0% en volume.


     
    5. Pâte pour électrodes, comprenant:
    le matériau d'électrode selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, et un liant.
     
    6. Batterie aux ions lithium, comprenant:
    un collecteur d'électrode positive présentant une couche de matériau d'électrode constituée de la pâte pour électrodes selon la revendication 5 sur une feuille métallique.
     
    7. Procédé de fabrication d'un matériau d'électrode comprenant les étapes suivantes (1) et (2),

    (1) une étape de préparation de suspension pour préparer une suspension comprenant les particules de matériau actif d'électrode et/ou un précurseur des particules de matériau actif d'électrode, un composé organique i et un composé organique ii, dans laquelle la quantité de mélange du composé organique ii se situe dans l'intervalle allant de 5 parties en masse à 100 parties en masse, sur base de 100 parties en masse du composé organique i, et

    (2) une étape dans laquelle la suspension est séchée de manière à générer un corps granulé présentant un film comprenant les composés organiques i et ii sur une surface, le corps granulé est calciné dans une atmosphère non oxydante, éliminant ainsi le composé organique ii du film et carbonisant le composé organique i, formant de ce fait un film carboné constitué d'un matériau carboné venant du composé organique i sur une surface du corps granulé, dans laquelle des gaz sensibles et/ou combustibles sont introduits dans l'atmosphère non oxydante et une part des gaz sensibles et/ou combustibles comptant pour les composants gazeux totaux constituant l'atmosphère non oxydante se situe dans l'intervalle compris entre 1,0% en volume et 8,0% en volume.


     




    Drawing











    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description