(19)
(11)EP 2 962 041 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
13.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/20

(21)Application number: 13876506.0

(22)Date of filing:  13.12.2013
(51)Int. Cl.: 
F23R 3/14  (2006.01)
F23D 11/38  (2006.01)
F02C 7/22  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2013/075047
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/133639 (04.09.2014 Gazette  2014/36)

(54)

COMBUSTOR FOR A GAS TURBINE ENGINE WITH A VARIABLE SWIRL FUEL NOZZLE

GASTURBINENBRENNKAMMER NIT EINER BRENNSTOFFDÜSE MIT VARIABLEM DRALL

CHAMBRE DE COMBUSTION DE TURBINE À GAZ AVEC GICLEUR D'INJECTEUR DE CARBURANT À TURBULENCE VARIABLE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 28.02.2013 US 201361770574 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
06.01.2016 Bulletin 2016/01

(73)Proprietor: United Technologies Corporation
Farmington, CT 06032 (US)

(72)Inventor:
  • KRAMER, Stephen, K.
    Cromwell, CT 06416 (US)

(74)Representative: Dehns 
St. Bride's House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 0 924 460
DE-A1- 10 137 757
US-A- 5 303 554
US-A- 5 934 555
US-A1- 2006 059 914
US-A1- 2009 255 256
US-B1- 6 474 659
EP-A2- 0 121 877
JP-A- 2002 195 511
US-A- 5 931 387
US-A- 6 045 058
US-A1- 2007 029 408
US-B1- 6 474 569
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Field of the Disclosure



    [0001] The present disclosure generally relates to combustors for gas turbine engines with fuel injectors comprising mixing chambers.

    Background of the Disclosure



    [0002] A gas turbine engine, typically used as a source of propulsion in aircraft, operates by drawing in ambient air, combusting that air with a fuel, and then forcing the exhaust from the combustion process out of the engine. A fan and compressor section, having a low and high pressure compressor, rotate to draw in and compress the ambient air. The compressed air is then forced into the combustor, where it is split. A portion of the air is used to cool the combustor while the rest is mixed with a fuel and combusted.

    [0003] The products of the combustion then travel out of the combustor as exhaust and through a turbine section. The turbine section, having a high and low pressure turbine, is forced to rotate as the exhaust passes through the turbine blades. The turbine section, fan, and compressor section are connected by concentrically mounted engine shafts running through the center of the engine. Thus, as the turbines rotate from the exhaust, the fan and corresponding compressor rotate to bring in and compress new air. Once started, it can thereby be seen that this process is self-sustaining.

    [0004] Combustors for gas turbine engines typically have a combustor shell with a combustor liner therein and an air passage between the combustor shell and the combustor liner. In an annular combustor, an outer combustor liner and an inner combustor liner cooperate to define, and are separated by, an annular combustion chamber. The outer combustor liner is positioned radially inside the outer combustor shell and the inner combustor liner is positioned radially outside of the inner combustor shell. In such a combustor, there is at least one igniter for igniting the air-fuel mixture. In some combustor designs, the liners may be segmented into panels.

    [0005] The combustor further has a bulkhead, which may be segmented into panels in some combustor designs, at a forward end of the combustor extending from the outer combustor shell to the inner combustor shell. At least one fuel injector extends through this bulkhead and into the combustion chamber to release the fuel. A swirler is generally positioned around each fuel injector to admit combustion air and create turbulence in said combustion air to mix the combustion air and the fuel before the mixture is combusted.

    [0006] The fuel injector is a device for dispersing fuel into the combustor. However, a fuel injector may be used in other applications as well and not only to disperse fuel in a combustor of a gas turbine engine. Typically, the combustor will have at least one fuel injector nozzle extending through the bulkhead. The fuel enters a nozzle which atomizes the fuel to allow for greater air-fuel mixing before the combustion process.

    [0007] Many prior art fuel nozzles impart swirl to the fuel before injection into the combustor to improve atomization. The swirl may be created by having one or more fuel inlets tangential to the nozzle or one or more vanes which generate swirl. The fuel passes from the inlets into a chamber in the nozzle before being injected into the combustor. Some prior art nozzles also limit the fuel flow into the combustor during low-power conditions thereby providing a smaller flow of fuel into the nozzle during the low-power conditions than during high-power conditions. Additionally, prior art fuel nozzles are fixed in orifice size, which causes atomization to vary as pressure drop and flow rate change.

    [0008] While these prior art fuel nozzles are effective, they may not atomize the fuel adequately at both low-power, or low-flow, and high-power, or high-flow, conditions. Therefore, a fuel nozzle which can effectively atomize fuel during low and high power conditions and flow is needed.

    [0009] EP 0924460 A1 discloses a fuel injector having a mixing chamber into which fuel is supplied through channels to create turbulence and swirl.

    Summary of the Disclosure



    [0010] Viewed from one aspect the present invention provides a combustor in accordance with claim 1.

    [0011] In another refinement, there may be a plurality of tangential fuel inlets.

    [0012] In yet another refinement, there may be a plurality of radial fuel inlets.

    [0013] In a refinement, the fuel injector may further include a valve which may control a flow of fuel to at least one of the first and second fuel lines.

    [0014] In a further refinement, the valve may be a pressure valve having a spring-biased pin and metering slot.

    [0015] In yet another further refinement, the valve may be an electronic valve controlled by a processor.

    [0016] In another further refinement, the fuel injector may further include a manifold which may control fuel flow to each inlet.

    [0017] In still yet another further refinement, the valve may be located distant and separate from the nozzle.

    [0018] Viewed from one aspect the present invention provides a method of supplying fuel to a combustor in accordance with claim 1.

    [0019] In a refinement, the method may further include reducing tangential flow of fuel during a low-power operation.

    [0020] In a refinement, the method may include increasing radial flow of fuel during high-power engine operation.

    [0021] In a further refinement, the method may further include reducing tangential flow of fuel during a high-power operation.

    [0022] In another refinement, the method may further include controlling the flow of fuel to each of the inlets via a valve.

    [0023] In a further refinement, the method may further include gradually transitioning from a tangential flow of fuel during low-power operation to a radial flow of fuel during high-power operation using the valve.

    [0024] In yet another refinement, the method may further include creating an atomized fuel mist during low-power operation by imparting swirl to the fuel.

    [0025] In still yet another refinement, the method may further include creating an atomized fuel mist during high-power operations with a pressure drop in the fuel.

    [0026] These and other aspects and features of the present disclosure will be better understood in light of the following detailed description when read in light of the accompanying drawings.

    Brief Description of the Drawings



    [0027] 

    FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a gas turbine engine constructed in accordance with the present disclosure.

    FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a combustor constructed in accordance with the present disclosure.

    FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of a fuel injector constructed in accordance with the present disclosure and detailing a pressure atomized fuel nozzle.

    FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the fuel nozzle of FIG. 3 taken along the line 4-4 of FIG. 3.

    FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of another fuel nozzle constructed in accordance with the present disclosure and detailing an airblast atomized fuel nozzle.

    FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the fuel nozzle of FIG. 5 taken along the line 6-6 of FIG. 5.

    FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of another fuel nozzle constructed in accordance with the present disclosure and detailing multiple radial and tangential inlets.

    FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of yet another fuel nozzle constructed in accordance with the present disclosure and detailing a simplex fuel nozzle.

    FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view of still another fuel nozzle constructed in accordance with the present disclosure and detailing a simplex fuel nozzle with a pintle.

    FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view of the fuel nozzle of FIG. 9 taken along the line 10-10 of FIG. 9.

    FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view of still yet another fuel nozzle constructed in accordance with the resent disclosure and detailing a pressure atomizing fuel nozzle.

    FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view of the fuel nozzle of FIG. 11 taken along the line 12-12 of FIG. 11.

    FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of a flow valve constructed in accordance with the present disclosure and depicting a low-power operational flow of fuel.

    FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view of another flow valve constructed in accordance with the present disclosure and depicting a high-power operational flow of fuel.

    FIG. 15 is a schematic representation of another embodiment of the present disclosure employing an electronic valve.

    FIG. 16 is a schematic representation of another embodiment of the present disclosure employing manifolds.



    [0028] It should be understood that the drawings are not necessarily to scale and that the disclosed embodiments are sometimes illustrated diagrammatically and in partial views. In certain instances, details which are not necessary for an understanding of this disclosure or which render other details difficult to perceive may have been omitted. It should be understood, of course, that this disclosure is not limited to the particular embodiments illustrated herein.

    Detailed Description



    [0029] Referring now to the drawings, and with specific reference to FIG. 1, a gas turbine engine is generally referred to by numeral 20. While the gas turbine engine 20 is depicted as a turbofan type of gas turbine engine, it is to be understood that the teachings of the present invention are applicable to other types of engines, or other types of spray systems, as well. The engine 20, as presented, has a fan 22 and compressor section 24 positioned at a forward end of the engine 20 to draw in and compress ambient air. The compressor section 24 depicted in FIG. 1 is a dual-spool compressor having a forward low-pressure compressor 26 and an aftward high-pressure compressor 28. Air from the fan 22 is compressed by the low-pressure compressor 26 and then further compressed by the high-pressure compressor 28 as the air travels aftward through the engine 20. The compressed air from the high-pressure compressor 28 then travels through a diffuser 30 positioned aft of the compressor section 24 and forward of a combustor 32, to reduce the speed of the compressed air before reaching the combustor 32. As best shown in FIG. 2, the compressed air enters into the combustor 32, primarily at a forward section 34 of the combustor 32, but also through air admittance holes (not shown) typically communicating through an aft section 36 of the combustor 32, to be combusted with a fuel. The compressed air also enters the combustor 32 throughout the combustor 32 for cooling purposes. Exhaust from the combustion process exits the combustor 32 at an aft section 36 of the combustor 32 and passes into a turbine section 38.

    [0030] The turbine section 38 is positioned at an aft end of the engine 20 and is depicted in FIG. 1 as a dual-spool turbine having a forward high-pressure turbine 40 and an aftward low-pressure turbine 42. As the exhaust expands aftward through the turbine section 38, the turbines rotate on a pair of concentrically mounted engine shafts 44 and 46 around a central axis 48 extending axially through the engine 20 from fore to aft. The first shaft 44 is associated with the fan 22 and the low-pressure compressor 26 and turbine 42 while the second shaft 46 is associated with the high-pressure compressor 28 and turbine 40. As the engine shafts 44 and 46 are rotated by the exhaust expanding through the turbine section 38, the fan 12 and the compressor section 24 are rotated to draw in and compress more air. Thus, it can be seen that this process is self-sustaining once it has begun.

    [0031] Referring now to FIG. 2, the combustor 32 is depicted as a double-walled annular combustor, centered on the central axis 48. However, any form of combustor may be utilized with the present disclosure such as, but not limited to, a single-wall annular combustor or a can combustor. The annular combustor 32 has an outer wall 50 and an inner wall 52 radially interior to and circumscribed by the outer wall 50. The walls 50 and 52 define, and are separated by, an annular combustion chamber 54. The outer wall 50 includes an outer shell 56 and an outer liner 58, while and the inner wall 52 includes an inner shell 60 and an inner liner 62. Each of the liners 58 and 62 are positioned within the combustion chamber 54 and connected to its associated shell to protect the shells 56 and 60 from high temperatures in the combustion chamber 54. A bulkhead 64 extends from the inner wall 52 to the outer wall 50 at a forward end of the forward section 34 of the combustor 32 and has a heat shield 66 mounted thereupon to protect the bulkhead 64 from high temperatures in the combustion chamber 54. The aft section 36 of the combustor 32 is open to allow exhaust from the combustion process to exit the combustor 32 and enter into the turbine section 38.

    [0032] At least one fuel injector 68 extends into the combustion chamber 54 through the bulkhead 64. A swirler 70 may be generally positioned around the fuel injector 68 such that compressed air may be admitted through the swirler 70 to be mixed with a fuel 72 provided by the fuel injector 68. The swirler 70 may increase the turbulence in the air traveling through the swirler 70, which may increase the mixing of the air and fuel 72.

    [0033] The fuel injector 68, as shown in FIG. 3, has a mount 74 to secure the fuel injector 68 to the engine 20 and a radial support 76 extending radially inward from the mount 72 to a nozzle 78, which extends axially through the bulkhead 68 to the combustion chamber 54. As depicted in FIGS. 3 and 4, the nozzle 78 is a pressure atomizing nozzle, but other types of nozzles such as air blast nozzles and others as described below, are possible as well. The support 76 incorporates a fuel line 80 to communicate fuel 72 to the nozzle 78. The fuel line 80 communicates fuel to a mixing chamber 82 of the nozzle 78 provided as a pressure chamber at a tip 83 of the nozzle 78 in the illustrated embodiment. The mixing chamber 82 of FIGS. 3 and 4 is cylindrical-shaped and defined by a surrounding nozzle outer wall 86, but it is to be understood that the mixing chamber 82 can be other shapes as well including, but not limited to, annular, or dumb-bell shaped in cross-section. The mixing chamber 82 may extend axially around a centerline 88 of the nozzle 78 all the way from a fuel inlet, further described below, to a nozzle outlet 90 positioned proximate to the centerline 88. In some embodiments, the outlet 90 may be centered directly on the center line 88, while in other embodiments, the outlet 90 may be otherwise proximate the centerline such as, but not limited to, at positions radially about the centerline 88.

    [0034] Referring now to FIG. 4, the fuel nozzle 78 is shown to define a first fuel line 94 and a second fuel line 97, both of which receive fuel 72 from the main fuel line 80. The first fuel line 94 terminates in tangential fuel inlet 96, while the second fuel line 97 terminates in radial fuel inlet 98. As used herein, "tangential" and "radial" are used as directional modifiers relative to the axial centerline 88.

    [0035] The tangential fuel inlet 96 supplies a tangential flow 100 of fuel 72 to the mixing chamber 82. This tangential flow 100 increases the swirl of the fuel 72 before exiting the nozzle 78, which in turn assists in atomizing the fuel 72 during low-power, or low-flow, operations.

    [0036] On the other hand, the radial inlet 98 supplies a radial flow 102 of fuel 72 to the mixing chamber 82. This radial flow 102 creates a flow which has less swirl and fewer flow restrictions than the tangential flow 100. This is helpful during high-power operation in that the increased fuel flow and resulting pressure drop assist in improved atomization of the fuel 72.

    [0037] While the fuel nozzle 78 has been described above as having only one tangential inlet 96 and one radial inlet 98, this is in no way limiting and any desired number of tangential or radial inlets may communicate fuel 72 into the fuel nozzle 78. For example, in FIG. 7 a pair of tangential inlets 96 and four radial inlets 98 communicate fuel 72 to the nozzle 78. Such additional inlets 96 and 98 may allow tailoring of the fuel flow into the combustor 32 during low-power, high-power, or both operations.

    [0038] Turning now to FIGS. 5 and 6, the nozzle 78 is illustrated as an airblast fuel nozzle. The mixing chamber 82 may extend the length of the nozzle 78 and may be annular in shape, defined by an annular central wall 84 and the surrounding nozzle outer wall 86. The outlet 90 is depicted in FIG. 3 as an annulus, but other shapes are possible including, but not limited to, cylindrical or dumb-bell shapes in cross-section, or a centralized hole in a disk-shaped chamber.

    [0039] The nozzle 78 may also include an air channel 92 defined by annular central wall 84. The air channel 92 may also extend along the centerline 88, and allows compressed air to flow from the diffuser 30, through the nozzle 78 and outlet 90, and into the combustion chamber 54. A plurality of swirler vanes 93 may be positioned in the channel 92 to impart a swirl to the compressed air traveling through the channel 92 and increase mixing of the fuel 72 and air.

    [0040] Another form of nozzle is depicted in FIGS. 8, 9, and 10. The nozzle 78 shown therein is a simplex nozzle where the mixing chamber 82 is provided at the tip 83 and is defined by the nozzle outer wall 86. Similar to the above embodiments though, the fuel line 80 communicates fuel 72 thereto through a tangential inlet 96 and a radial inlet 98. The nozzle outlet 90 allows the fuel 72 to flow from the tip cavity 104 into the combustor 54. As can be seen in FIGS. 9 and 10, a pintle 105 may also be used in conjunction with the radial inlet 98 as is known in the art to further affect flow.

    [0041] Another embodiment of the fuel nozzle 78 is depicted in FIGS. 11 and 12. As shown, the fuel nozzle may be another pressure atomizing fuel nozzle 78. In such an embodiment, the mixing chamber 82 is provided as a pressure chamber. Similar to the above embodiments though, the fuel line 80 communicates fuel 72 thereto via a tangential inlet 96 and a radial inlet 98. A nozzle outlet 90 in turn communicates the fuel 72 from the mixing chamber 82 to the combustion chamber 54.

    [0042] The fuel flow to each of the inlets 96 and 98 may be controlled by one or more flow valves 108, such as those depicted in FIGS. 13 and 14. The flow valve 108 may regulate the flow of fuel to each inlet 96 and 98 based on an operational power of the engine 20. The valve 108 of FIGS. 13 and 14 is a spring-loaded pressure valve having a pin 110 biased by a spring 112 to cover a first metering slot 114 and/or a second metering slot 116, but this is only exemplary, and of course any number of different types of valves may be employed. With this embodiment, however, the first metering slot 114 communicates with the radial inlet 98 and the second metering slot 116 communicates with the tangential inlet 96. The valve 108, as depicted in FIG. 13, is shown in a low-power state and thus only allows a flow 118 of fuel 72 to flow through the second metering slot 116 to the tangential inlet 96. However, as seen in FIG. 14, the valve 108 has moved to a high-power state which allows flow 118 through the first metering slot 114 to the radial inlet 98 as well.

    [0043] The valve 108 transitions from the low-power state to the high-power state as the flow of fuel through the valve 108 increases, which increases the pressure on the pin 110 and depresses the spring 112. As the pin 110 and spring 112 are depressed a greater percentage of the fuel 72 is allowed to pass through the first metering slot 114. This gradual shift from low-power operation to high-power operation allows the fuel 72 to be supplied to each of the slots 114 and 116 in the necessary quantities to produce adequate atomization of the fuel for combustion at all engine power and fuel flow operations.

    [0044] The flow valve 108 may alternately be any known valve in the art which may accomplish the task of allowing a flow of fuel 72 to pass to the tangential inlet 96 during low-power operation, and a separate larger flow of fuel to pass to the radial inlet 98 during high-power operation such as, but not limited to, an electronic valve 122 controlled by a processor 24. In such a case, shown schematically in FIG. 15, the processor 124 could use a sensor 126 to monitor an operational power or fuel flow of the engine, and open or close the valve 122 accordingly.

    [0045] Another exemplary embodiment, shown schematically in FIG. 16, may include separate manifolds 128 which communicate fuel 72 separately to each of the tangential and radial inlets 96 and 98. The manifolds 128 may be regulated by a processor 130 as with the electronic valve, or by any other known apparatus, to provide fuel 72 to one or both of the inlets 96 and 98 during high and low power engine operation.

    [0046] As described herein, the flow valve 108 may be positioned either at the fuel nozzle 78, or distant, and as a separate element, from the fuel nozzle 78. In the exemplary embodiment presented in FIG. 3, the valve 108 is positioned at a radially distal end 132 of the fuel injector support 76. Such placement of the valve 108 has multiple advantages over the prior art. One such advantage is reducing the thermal stresses on the valve 108, caused by repetitive heating and cooling of the moving parts of the valve 108, which may reduce wear on, and increase longevity of the valve 108. Additionally, should the valve 108 malfunction or fail entirely, the placement of the valve 104 away from the fuel nozzle 78 allows for easier access to repair or replace the valve 108. Another advantage to such a configuration of the valve 108 and nozzle 78 is the removal of all moving parts from the nozzle 78, which also reduces wear on, and increases longevity of, the nozzle 78 since the nozzle 78 no longer contains any moving parts which can fail due to heat stress or age.

    [0047] In operation, the fuel 72 may pass through the tangential inlet 96, the radial inlet 98, or both. While the engine 20 is operating at a low-power, a small flow of fuel 72 primarily enters the mixing chamber 82 through the tangential inlet 96, which increases the swirl and the atomization of the fuel 72 as the fuel 72 exits the nozzle 78 through the outlet 90. While the engine 20 is operating at a high-power, however, a large flow of fuel 72 primarily enters the mixing chamber 82 through the radial inlet 98 creating less swirl as well as reducing the restriction on the flow of the fuel 72. The large amount of fuel 72 flowing through the radial inlet 98 at the high operating power also creates a high pressure drop in the fuel 72, which creates good atomization as the fuel 72 exits the outlet 90. While the primary flow path of the fuel 72 during high operating power is through the radial inlet 98, a small flow of fuel 72 may also flow through the tangential inlet 96 into the mixing chamber as well. As a result, it can be seen that the flow exiting through the nozzle outlet 90 may have less swirl at high power, with an accompanying greater effective area, or higher swirl at low power with an accompanying lower effective are.

    Industrial Applicability



    [0048] An engine utilizing this design may be used in conjunction with aircraft to generate power and thrust, with land based systems to generate power, or the like. Using the teachings of the present disclosure, a fuel injector and more specifically, a fuel nozzle may be constructed to provide a variable swirl and/or variable effective area. This improvement over the prior art may provide good atomization of the fuel during high and low power operations of an engine. Additionally, all moving parts may be removed from the fuel nozzle to reduce wear on, and increase longevity of, the fuel nozzle.


    Claims

    1. A combustor of a gas turbine engine, comprising:

    an outer wall (50);

    an inner wall (52);

    a bulkhead (64) spanning between the inner and outer walls (50,52), the outer wall (50), inner wall (52) and bulkhead (64) defining an annular combustion chamber (54); and

    a fuel injector (68) extending through the bulkhead (64) to the combustor chamber (54), the fuel injector comprising:

    a nozzle (78) having an outer wall (86) defining a mixing chamber (82) having an exit proximate a centerline (88) of the nozzle (78);

    a first fuel line (94) in fluid communication with the mixing chamber (82), the first fuel line (94) terminating in a tangential fuel inlet (96) located in the outer wall (86), the tangential fuel inlet (96) being positioned tangential to the centerline (88) extending axially through the nozzle (78) so as to generate a circumferential swirl around said centerline (88); and

    a second fuel line (97) in fluid communication with the mixing chamber (82), the second fuel line (97) terminating in a radial fuel inlet (98) located in the outer wall (86), the radial fuel inlet (98) being positioned radial to the centerline (88) of the nozzle (78);

    the tangential fuel inlet (96) being orthogonal to the radial fuel inlet (98) and to said centerline (88).


     
    2. The combustor of claim 1, wherein the fuel injector (68) further includes a plurality of tangential fuel inlets (96) or a plurality of radial fuel inlets (98).
     
    3. The combustor of claim 1, wherein the fuel injector (68) further includes a valve (108;122), the valve controlling a flow of fuel (72) to at least one of the first and second fuel lines (94,97).
     
    4. The combustor of claim 3, wherein the valve is a pressure valve (108) having a spring-biased pin (112) and metering slot (114,116).
     
    5. The combustor of claim 3, wherein the valve is an electronic valve (122) controlled by a processor (124).
     
    6. The combustor of any preceding claim, wherein the fuel injector (68) further includes a manifold (128), the manifold (128) controlling fuel flow to each inlet (96,98).
     
    7. The combustor of claim 3, wherein the valve (108;122) is located distant and separate from the nozzle (78).
     
    8. A method of supplying fuel to a combustor (32) as claimed in claim 1, the method comprising:

    directing a tangential flow (100) of fuel to the mixing chamber (82) of the fuel nozzle (78), the tangential flow (100) of fuel flowing from the tangential fuel inlet (96) located in the outer wall (86) of the fuel nozzle that defines the mixing chamber (82);

    directing a radial flow (102) of fuel to the mixing chamber (82) of the fuel nozzle (78), the radial flow (102) of fuel flowing from the radial fuel inlet (98) located in the outer wall (86) of the fuel nozzle;

    mixing the tangential flow (100) and radial flow (102) in the mixing chamber (82) of the fuel nozzle (78); and

    exiting the fuel through an outlet (90) of the fuel nozzle (78).


     
    9. The method of claim 8, further comprising reducing tangential flow (100) of fuel during a low-power engine operation.
     
    10. The method of claim 8, further comprising increasing radial flow (102) of fuel during a high-power engine operation.
     
    11. The method of claim 10, further comprising reducing tangential flow (100) of fuel during the high-power engine operation.
     
    12. The method of claim 8, further comprising controlling the flow of fuel to each of the inlets (96,98) via a valve (108;122).
     
    13. The method of claim 12, further comprising gradually transitioning from a tangential flow (100) of fuel during low-power operation to a radial flow (102) of fuel during high-power operation using the valve (108;122).
     
    14. The method of claim 8, further comprising creating an atomized fuel mist during low-power operations by imparting a swirl to the fuel or creating an atomized fuel mist during high-power operations by creating a pressure drop in the fuel.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Brennkammer eines Gasturbinentriebwerks, umfassend:

    eine Außenwand (50);

    eine Innenwand (52);

    eine Schottwand (64), die sich zwischen der Innen- und Außenwand (50, 52) spannt, wobei die Außenwand (50), die Innenwand (52) und die Schottwand (64) einen ringförmigen Verbrennungsraum (54) definieren; und

    einen Kraftstoffeinspritzer (68), der sich durch die Schottwand (64) zu dem Verbrennungsraum (54) erstreckt, wobei der Kraftstoffeinspritzer Folgendes umfasst:
    eine Düse (78) mit einer Außenwand (86), die eine Mischkammer (82) mit einem Ausgang in der Nähe einer Mittellinie (88) der Düse (78) definiert;

    eine erste Kraftstoffleitung (94) in Fluidverbindung mit der Mischkammer (82), wobei die erste Kraftstoffleitung (94) in einem tangentialen Kraftstoffeinlass (96) endet, der sich in der Außenwand (86) befindet, wobei der tangentiale Kraftstoffeinlass (96) tangential zu der Mittellinie (88) positioniert ist, die sich axial durch die Düse (78) erstreckt, um einen Drall in Umfangsrichtung um die Mittellinie (88) herum zu generieren; und

    eine zweite Kraftstoffleitung (97) in Fluidverbindung mit der Mischkammer (82), wobei die zweite Kraftstoffleitung (97) in einem radialen Kraftstoffeinlass (98) endet, der sich in der Außenwand (86) befindet, wobei der radiale Kraftstoffeinlass (98) radial zu der Mittellinie (88) der Düse (78) positioniert ist;

    wobei der tangentiale Kraftstoffeinlass (96) orthogonal zu dem radialen Kraftstoffeinlass (98) und zu der Mittellinie (88) liegt.


     
    2. Brennkammer nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Kraftstoffeinspritzer (68) ferner eine Vielzahl von tangentialen Kraftstoffeinlässen (96) oder eine Vielzahl von radialen Kraftstoffeinlässen (98) beinhaltet.
     
    3. Brennkammer nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Kraftstoffeinspritzer (68) ferner ein Ventil (108; 122) beinhaltet, wobei das Ventil einen Strom von Kraftstoff (72) zu mindestens einer von der ersten und zweiten Kraftstoffleitung (94, 97) steuert.
     
    4. Brennkammer nach Anspruch 3, wobei das Ventil ein Druckventil (108) ist, das einen mittels Feder vorgespannten Stift (112) und eine Dosierungsnut (114, 116) aufweist.
     
    5. Brennkammer nach Anspruch 3, wobei das Ventil ein elektronisches Ventil (122) ist, das durch einen Prozessor (124) gesteuert ist.
     
    6. Brennkammer nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei der Kraftstoffeinspritzer (68) ferner einen Verteiler (128) beinhaltet, wobei der Verteiler (128) den Kraftstoffstrom zu jedem Einlass (96, 98) steuert.
     
    7. Brennkammer nach Anspruch 3, wobei das Ventil (108; 122) entfernt und getrennt von der Düse (78) angeordnet ist.
     
    8. Verfahren zum Zuführen von Kraftstoff zu einer Brennkammer (32) nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:

    Richten eines tangentialen Stroms (100) von Kraftstoff zu der Mischkammer (82) der Kraftstoffdüse (78), wobei der tangentiale Strom (100) von Kraftstoff von dem tangentialen Kraftstoffeinlass (96) strömt, der sich in der Außenwand (86) der Kraftstoffdüse, die die Mischkammer (82) definiert, befindet;

    Richten eines radialen Stroms (102) von Kraftstoff zu der Mischkammer (82) der Kraftstoffdüse (78), wobei der radiale Strom (102) von Kraftstoff von dem radialen Kraftstoffeinlass (98), der sich in der Außenwand (86) der Kraftstoffdüse befindet, strömt;

    Mischen des tangentialen Stroms (100) und des radialen Stroms (102) in der Mischkammer (82) der Kraftstoffdüse (78); und

    Austreten des Kraftstoffs durch einen Auslass (90) der Kraftstoffdüse (78).


     
    9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, ferner umfassend Reduzieren des tangentialen Stroms (100) von Kraftstoff während eines Triebwerkbetriebs mit niedriger Leistung.
     
    10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, ferner umfassend Erhöhen des radialen Stroms (102) von Kraftstoff während eines Triebwerkbetriebs mit hoher Leistung.
     
    11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, ferner umfassend Reduzieren des tangentialen Stroms (100) von Kraftstoff während des Triebwerkbetriebs mit hoher Leistung.
     
    12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, ferner umfassend Steuern des Stroms von Kraftstoff zu jedem der Einlässe (96, 98) über ein Ventil (108; 122).
     
    13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 12, ferner umfassend stufenweises Übergehen von einem tangentialen Strom (100) von Kraftstoff während des Betriebs mit niedriger Leistung zu einem radialen Strom (102) von Kraftstoff während des Betriebs mit hoher Leistung unter Verwendung des Ventils (108; 122).
     
    14. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, ferner umfassend Erzeugen eines verdüsten Kraftstoffnebels während des Betriebs mit niedriger Leistung durch Aufbringen eines Dralls auf den Kraftstoff oder Erzeugen eines verdüsten Kraftstoffnebels während des Betriebs mit hoher Leistung durch Erzeugen eines Druckabfalls im Kraftstoff.
     


    Revendications

    1. Chambre de combustion d'un moteur à turbine à gaz, comprenant :

    une paroi extérieure (50) ;

    une paroi intérieure (52) ;

    une cloison (64) se déployant entre les parois intérieure et extérieure (50, 52), les paroi extérieure (50), paroi intérieure (52) et cloison (64) définissant une chambre de combustion annulaire (54) ; et

    un injecteur de carburant (68) s'étendant à travers la cloison (64) jusqu'à la chambre de combustion (54), l'injecteur de carburant comprenant :

    un gicleur (78) ayant une paroi extérieure (86) définissant une chambre de mélange (82) ayant une sortie à proximité d'une ligne centrale (88) du gicleur (78) ;

    une première canalisation de carburant (94) en communication fluidique avec la chambre de mélange (82), la première canalisation de carburant (94) se terminant dans une entrée de carburant tangentielle (96) située dans la paroi extérieure (86), l'entrée de carburant tangentielle (96) étant positionnée tangentielle par rapport à la ligne centrale (88) s'étendant axialement à travers le gicleur (78) de façon à générer une turbulence circonférentielle autour de ladite ligne centrale (88) ; et

    une seconde canalisation de carburant (97) en communication fluidique avec la chambre de mélange (82), la seconde canalisation de carburant (97) se terminant dans une entrée de carburant radiale (98) située dans la paroi extérieure (86), l'entrée de carburant radiale (98) étant positionnée radiale par rapport à la ligne centrale (88) du gicleur (78) ;

    l'entrée de carburant tangentielle (96) étant orthogonale par rapport à l'entrée de carburant radiale (98) et à ladite ligne centrale (88).


     
    2. Chambre de combustion selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle l'injecteur de carburant (68) comprend en outre une pluralité d'entrées de carburant tangentielles (96) ou une pluralité d'entrées de carburant radiales (98).
     
    3. Chambre de combustion selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle l'injecteur de carburant (68) comprend en outre une soupape (108 ; 122), la soupape commandant un écoulement de carburant (72) vers au moins l'une des première et seconde canalisations de carburant (94, 97).
     
    4. Chambre de combustion selon la revendication 3, dans laquelle la soupape est une soupape de pression (108) ayant une tige sollicitée par ressort (112) et une fente de mesure (114, 116).
     
    5. Chambre de combustion selon la revendication 3, dans laquelle la soupape est une soupape électronique (122) commandée par un processeur (124).
     
    6. Chambre de combustion selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans laquelle l'injecteur de carburant (68) comprend en outre un collecteur (128), le collecteur (128) commandant un écoulement de carburant vers chaque entrée (96, 98).
     
    7. Chambre de combustion selon la revendication 3, dans laquelle la soupape (108 ; 122) est située éloignée et séparée du gicleur (78).
     
    8. Procédé d'alimentation en carburant d'une chambre de combustion (32) selon la revendication 1, le procédé comprenant :

    la direction d'un écoulement tangentiel (100) de carburant vers la chambre de mélange (82) du gicleur (78) de carburant, l'écoulement tangentiel (100) de carburant s'écoulant à partir de l'entrée de carburant tangentielle (96) située dans la paroi extérieure (86) du gicleur de carburant qui définit la chambre de mélange (82) ;

    la direction d'un écoulement radial (102) de carburant vers la chambre de mélange (82) du gicleur (78) de carburant, l'écoulement radial (102) de carburant s'écoulant à partir de l'entrée de carburant radiale (98) située dans la paroi extérieure (86) du gicleur de carburant ;

    le mélange des écoulement tangentiel (100) et écoulement radial (102) dans la chambre de mélange (82) du gicleur (78) de carburant ; et

    l'échappement du carburant à travers une sortie (90) du gicleur (78) de carburant.


     
    9. Procédé selon la revendication 8, comprenant en outre la réduction d'un écoulement tangentiel (100) de carburant durant une opération de moteur à basse puissance.
     
    10. Procédé selon la revendication 8, comprenant en outre l'augmentation d'un écoulement radial (102) de carburant durant une opération de moteur à haute puissance.
     
    11. Procédé selon la revendication 10, comprenant en outre la réduction d'un écoulement tangentiel (100) de carburant durant l'opération de moteur à haute puissance.
     
    12. Procédé selon la revendication 8, comprenant en outre la commande de l'écoulement de carburant vers chacune des entrées (96, 98) via une soupape (108 ; 122).
     
    13. Procédé selon la revendication 12, comprenant en outre la transition de manière progressive à partir d'un écoulement tangentiel (100) de carburant durant une opération à basse puissance jusqu'à un écoulement radial (102) de carburant durant une opération à haute puissance à l'aide de la soupape (108 ; 122) .
     
    14. Procédé selon la revendication 8, comprenant en outre la création d'un brouillard de carburant atomisé durant des opérations à basse puissance en conférant une turbulence au carburant ou la création d'un brouillard de carburant atomisé durant des opérations à haute puissance en créant une chute de pression dans le carburant.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description