(19)
(11)EP 2 978 131 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 14768979.8

(22)Date of filing:  20.03.2014
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H03K 17/95(2006.01)
G01R 33/09(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/CN2014/073801
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/146594 (25.09.2014 Gazette  2014/39)

(54)

LOW-POWER MAGNETIC RESISTANCE SWITCH SENSOR

MAGNETWIDERSTANDSSCHALTSENSOR MIT NIEDRIGER LEISTUNG

CAPTEUR DE COMMUTATION À RÉSISTANCE MAGNÉTIQUE DE FAIBLE PUISSANCE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 20.03.2013 CN 201310090198
25.03.2013 CN 201310097268

(43)Date of publication of application:
27.01.2016 Bulletin 2016/04

(73)Proprietor: Multidimension Technology Co., Ltd
Free Trade Zone Zhangjiagang Jiangsu 215600 (CN)

(72)Inventor:
  • ZHONG, Xiaojun
    Zhangjiagang Jiangsu 215634 (CN)

(74)Representative: HGF Limited 
4th Floor Merchant Exchange 17-19 Whitworth Street West
Manchester M1 5WG
Manchester M1 5WG (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 159 587
CN-A- 102 185 600
CN-A- 102 790 613
CN-U- 203 119 864
JP-A- H04 133 221
US-A- 4 857 841
US-A1- 2009 079 411
US-A1- 2012 280 681
CN-A- 101 802 633
CN-A- 102 565 727
CN-A- 102 790 613
CN-Y- 2 501 256
JP-A- 2011 187 211
US-A1- 2006 197 522
US-A1- 2010 045 268
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD



    [0001] The present invention relates to the technical field of sensors, and more particularly to a low-power magnetoresistive switch sensor.

    BACKGROUND



    [0002] Magnetic switch sensors are widely used in consumer electronics, white goods, utility-meters (electricity meter, water meter, gas meter), automotive, and industrial applications. Presently mainstream magnetic switch sensors utilize Hall sensors and AMR (anisotropic magnetoresistive) sensors. For the Applications in consumer electronics and utility meters, Hall switch sensors and AMR switch sensors have power consumption of up to a few microamps. This is obtained at the expense of operating frequency. Hall switch sensors and AMR switch sensors are operate at a frequency of a dozen or so Hz with a switch point in the range of tens of gauss. In the automobile and other industrial fields requiring high frequency operation, Hall switch sensors and AMR switch sensors consume power on the order of mA at the kHz level.

    [0003] In recent years, a new type of magnetoresistive sensor utilizing magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) has found application in industrial fields. These combine magnetic multilayers with the tunneling magnetoresistance effect. The electrical resistance of the magnetic multilayer depends on the magnitude and the orientation of the external magnetic field. In the low-power consumption fields, such as the consumer electronics and utility-meters, the MTJ sensors operating at a frequency of a dozen Hz with a switch point of tens of gauss. In the automobile and other industrial fields requiring high frequency operation, the MTJ sensors consume power on the order of microamps at the MHz level.

    [0004] Some technical descriptions of magnetic switch devices are known in the art. U.S. Patent No. 2010/0026281 A1 discloses a gradiometer comprising two sensors for measuring location and speed of magnetic targets. Another example of magnetic switch device is disclosed in US 2012/0280681 A1. The use of MTJ elements in magnetic switch sensors is described by Chinese patent application# 201110125153.5.

    [0005] The power consumption for the existing switch sensors is high in both sleep working states, and they have low operating frequency. A need therefore exists for a switch sensor with high sensitivity, high frequency response, small volume, and low power consumption in sleep and working states.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0006] A magnetoresistive sensor switch according to the present invention is defined in appended claim 1.

    [0007] Preferred features are defined in the dependent claims.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0008] In order to more clearly illustrate the implementation of technical solutions to the invention, a brief introduction to the relevant diagrams along with technical details are provided below. Obviously, the following descriptions of the diagrams illustrate only some of the practical configurations of the present invention. For a person of ordinary skill in this field, they can easily arrive at other useful configurations from our described diagrams without any creative thinking.

    Figure 1 is a schematic view of a prior art MTJ element material stack.

    Figure 2 is a plot showing the relationship between the applied magnetic field and the resistance of the prior art MTJ element.

    Figure 3 is a plot illustrating an integrated circuit combined with a push-pull half-bridge sensor of the prior art.

    Figure 4 is a plot of the output voltage as a function of applied magnetic field of a push-pull half-bridge magneto-resistive sensor measured at two different temperatures.

    Figure 5 is a schematic diagram of a reference voltage circuit used for the bridge circuit simulation.

    Figure 6 is an analog filter and a comparator circuit diagram of bipolar and unipolar switch magnetoresistance sensor;

    Figure 7 is a circuit diagram of bipolar and unipolar switch magnetoresistive switch sensors.

    Figure 8 is a graph showing the relationship between magnetoresistive bipolar switch sensor output voltage and the applied magnetic field;

    Figure 9 is a graph showing the relationship between the output voltage and the applied magnetic field for a unipolar magnetoresistive switch sensor;

    Figure 10 is a diagram showing the relationship between the output voltage and the applied magnetic field of a push-pull bridge sensor;

    Figure 11 is a graph showing the relationship between the output voltage and the applied magnetic field of an omnipolar magnetoresistive switch sensor.

    Figure 12 illustrates a circuit diagram of a preferred implementation of the present invention of the analog filters and comparators of an omnipolar magnetoresistive switch sensor.

    Figure 13 is a circuit diagram of an omnipolar magnetoresistive sensor switch according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention;

    Figure 14 is a timing chart for an omnipolar magnetoresistive switch sensor operating in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0009] The following diagrams illustrate the implementation of technical solutions of the present invention, with specific examples of the present invention described clearly and completely.

    Implementation Example



    [0010] As shown in Figure 1, the MTJ magnetic tunnel junction structure is made by the nano-scale multilayers: the anti-ferromagnetic layer 1, a magnetic pinning layer 2, non-magnetic oxide layer 3, the magnetic free layer 4. The orientation of the magnetic moment 5 of the magnetic pinning layer 2 is perpendicular or has an angle to the orientation of the magnetic moment 6 of the magnetic free layer 4. The orientation of the magnetic moment 6 of the magnetic free layer 4 depends on the magnitude and the orientation of the external magnetic field 7. The mechanism for the MTJ structure is shown below: the resistance of the MTJ structure depends on the angle between the orientation of the magnetic moment 5 of the magnetic pinning layer 2 and the orientation of the magnetic moment 6 of the magnetic free layer 4. When the orientation of the magnetic moment 6 of the magnetic free layer 4 rotates under the external magnetic field 7, the resistance of the structure also changes.

    [0011] Shown in Figure 2, when the external magnetic field 7 is parallel with the magnetic pinned layer 2 and the applied magnetic field strength is greater than H1, the orientation of the magnetic free layer 4 is also parallel with the external magnetic field 7. Therefore, it is parallel with the magnetic pinning layer 2. Under this circumstance, the MTJ structure demonstrates the minimum resistance. When the external magnetic field 7 is anti-parallel with the magnetic pinned layer 2 and the applied magnetic field strength is greater than H2, the orientation of the magnetic free layer 4 is also anti-parallel with the external magnetic field 7. Therefore, it is anti-parallel with the magnetic pinning layer 2. Under this circumstance, the MTJ structure demonstrates the maximum resistance. The magnetic field range between H1 and H2 is the measuring range of the MTJ.

    [0012] The present invention uses the following ways or a combination of the following ways to bias the direction of the magnetic moment of the magnetic free layer. The following orientation of the magnetic moment of the magnetic free layer is perpendicular to or at an angle and magnetic with that of the magnetic pinning layer: With the deposition of a thin layer of anti-ferromagnetic material above or underneath the free layer, the direction of the magnetic moment is biased by the exchange coupling; The direction of the magnetic moment is biased by the Neel coupling between the magnetic free layer and the magnetic pinning layer; By the integration of the current coil with the sensor, the direction of the magnetic moment is biased by the following current in the same direction; The direction of the magnetic moment is biased by the permanent magnetic nearby.

    [0013] A shown in Figure 3, the prior art push-pull magnetoresistive switch sensor comprises a first magnetoresistive element 11, a second magnetoresistive element 12 and an ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) chip 13. Wherein the ASIC and the first magnetoresistive element 11 and the second magnetoresistive element form an assembly, the two magnetoresistive elements, 11 and 12, are also connected to form a push-pull half-bridge circuit. The sensing elements of 11 and 12 consist by one or more MTJ magnetoresistive elements in series and/or parallel. The MTJ magnetoresistive element is a multilayer nanoscale structure including a ferromagnetic free layer and a ferromagnetic pinned layer. The magnetic moments of the free layers inside two MTJ elements, 121 and 122 are set to the anti-parallel orientation. Similarly, the magnetic moments of the pinning layers inside two MTJ elements, 111 and 112 are set to the anti-parallel orientation. The magnetic moments of the pinned layer 111 and pinned layer 112 are rotated perpendicularly to the direction of the magnetic moments of the free layer 121 and free layer 122 for each MTJ element. The sensing direction 70 of the pull-push half-bridge circuit is parallel with the magnetic moments 11 and 12 of the pining layers. When an external magnetic field is applied along the sensing direction 70, the magnetic moment of one magnetoresistive element tends to be parallel with the external field and the pinned layer, thus its resistance will be reduced. Meanwhile, the magnetic moment of the other magnetoresistive element tends to be anti-parallel with the pinned layer, so that its resistance will be increased, resulting in the push-pull output VOUT (VOUT = VBridge in all remaining diagrams). The output curve is shown in Figure 4.

    [0014] The corresponding ASIC Chip 13is connected to the push-pull half-bridge in order to provide a steady voltage VDD (VBias in remaining figures), and to convert the push-pull half-bridge output voltage signal to a switching signal. ASIC chip 13 can be varied according to different technical requirements of different switch signal output signals. ASIC chip 13 can be configured to output a bipolar switching signal as shown in FIG. 8, a unipolar signal as shown in FIG. 9 or an omnipolar switching signal as shown in Figure 11.

    [0015] The foregoing example and Figure 1, Figure 2, and Figure 3, are provided as detailed background information, and they come from Chinese Patent Application No. 201110125153.5, which is herein included for reference.

    [0016] At high and low temperatures in both cases, the relationship between the push-pull half-bridge output voltage and the applied magnetic field between the curves shown in Figure 4, Where the present embodiment magnetoresistance switch sensor the high temperature and low temperature range limits operation. In this example, the high temperature is 100°C, denoted HT; the low temperature is 0°C, denoted LT. In Figure 4, curve 35 corresponds to that in Figure 2, but the curve in Figure 4 but with a 180 degree rotation of the element pinning direction with respect to the sensing axis 7. As a result, first magneto resistive element 11 of the push-pull half-bridge has a magneto resistive transfer curve with negative slope, and second magneto resistive element 12 of the push-pull half-bridge has a magnetoresistive transfer curve with positive slope, so in Figure 4 push-pull half-bridge output, VBridge transfer curve, is balanced at midpoint VMid 24, and VBridge due to this relationship has a positive slope with respect to applied magnetic field. ,

    [0017] Push-pull half-bridge output voltage at low temperatures VBndge is indicated by the solid line curve 21, from curve 21 we can see output 20, the output voltage VBridge has the minimum VMin LT 23 and it gradually increase to the maximum VMax LT 25. First push-pull half-bridge magnetoresistive element 11 and the second magnetoresistive element 12 having a negative temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR: Temperature Coefficient of Resistance) and the corresponding negative temperature coefficient resister Sensitivity (TCRS: Temperature Coefficient of Resistance Sensitivity). When using a push-pull bridge structure, the corresponding temperature coefficient voltage sensitivity (TCV) is -1000 ppm / °C. This means that over the 100 C temperature difference, the VBridge would change - 10% for a fixed Vbias and Applied Magnetic Field 7. The high temperature curve for VBridge is plotted as dashed curve 22, and Curve 22 goes from a minimum value of VMin HT, 26 to a maximum value of VMax HT, 27. At half of Vbias is the midpoint of the curve is, VMid 24. A typical value for Vbias is 1 Volt, so VMid is 0.5 V.

    [0018] The output of the comparator circuit described below depends on two voltage input signals at its input, which is a voltage signal in Figure 4 push-pull half-bridge 87 provides an output voltage VBndge, another voltage signal is provided by the internal voltage reference circuit, reference voltage VRef. The value of VRef is controlled by Digital Control circuitry described later. The value of VRef is controlled by Digital Control circuitry described later. One possible value for VRef is shown in Figure 4 as 29, Voltage Operate Point South (VOPS), another possible value for VRef is 28, shown in Figure 4, Voltage Operate Point North (VOPN). The low temperature curve for VBridge 21, crosses the voltage level VOPS 29 at Applied Magnetic Field value HOPS-LT 30; it crosses the voltage level VOPN 28 at Applied Magnetic Field value HOPN-LT 31. The high temperature curve for VBridge 22, crosses the voltage level VOPS 29 at Applied Magnetic Field value HOPS-HT 32; it crosses the voltage level VOPN 28 at Applied Magnetic Field value HOPN-HT 33.

    [0019] Thus, the circuit switching action of the comparator happens at Applied Magnetic Fields of increasing absolute value in proportion to the operating temperature of the magnetoresistive bridge sensor. This is called "temperature dependence of output" and is usually an undesirable effect for sensing applications.

    [0020] A detailed circuit schematic of the temperature compensation and push-pull bridge circuit is shown in Figure 5. The right half of the bridge is formed as a push-pull half bridge magnetoresistive sensor enclosed by the dashed box 87. This half bridge has two magnetoresistors, 56 and 56' with characteristics that result in output 59, VBridge, following the curve 21 in Figure 4. The left half of the bridge is set up as a voltage divider, enclosed by dotted line 86, made of a series of 10 resistors 131 - 140 and these resistors 131-140 values do not change with magnetic field; it is on a circuit chip represented by dashed outline 86. Internal reference circuit constitutes a half-bridge. Internal reference circuit 86 and push-pull half-bridge 87 form a full bridge. Internal voltage reference circuit 86 includes 7 voltage outputs, and these 7 voltage outputs output 7 different voltage signals, inside the circuit 86, there are 9 Voltage Outputs available from the left side. Of these, 6 are used as switching thresholds: Voltage Operate Point South (VOPS), Voltage Reset Point South (VRPS), Voltage Standby Threshold South (VSTS), Voltage Standby Threshold North (VSTN), Voltage Reset Point North (VRPN), Voltage Operate Point North (VOPN), and are taken from connection nodes as shown in Figure 5; Another output is for Voltage Midpoint (VMid). The two dashed boxes 86 and 87 have components that may be integrated onto the same silicon chip. Or 87 could be one or more separate chips containing magnetoresistors. Wire bonds and other methods well known in the art are used to make electrical connection from one chip to another when needed. The entire bridge is powered between Ground and VBias 63, and VBias 63 is a fixed voltage controlled by circuitry that is described later in this patent application.

    [0021] Unipolar, bipolar and omnipolar are three types of magnetoresistive switches have different behavior and values for VRefS and magnetic field switching values. Table 1 below summarizes the names and values for thresholds. Note that the values shown are merely a representative example and can be tuned to meet specific requirements of a given application or user. This generality holds true so long as the Applied Field values are within the active, that is non-saturated, range of the magnetoresistive sensing elements 11 and 12, and the VRef are less than 63, VBias. Take the Bipolar values for example. HOPS is set to be 59% of Vbias. Suppose VBias = 1.0 Volts, then HOPS is 590 mV. This switching occurs at an applied field value of + 30 Oe.
    Table 1: Bipolar, unipolar and omnipolar type magnetoresistive switch sensors with VBias corresponding reference voltage and magnetic field strength
    Output TypeThreshold NameVariable NameVoltage Reference NameRoom Temperature Voltage (% ×VBias)Voltage Value (V Bias = 1 V) (mV)Magnetic Field Strength (Oe)
    Bipolar south magnetic field operate point HOPS VOPS 59.0 590 +30
    Bipolar north magnetic field release point HRPN VRPN 41.0 410 -30
     
    Unipolar south magnetic field operate point HOPS VOPS 59.0 590 +30
    Unipolar south magnetic field release point HRPS VRPS 56.0 560 +20
     
    Omnipolar south magnetic field operate point HOPS VOPS 59.0 590 +30
    Omnipolar south magnetic field release point HRPS VRPS 56.0 560 +20
    Omnipolar south standby threshold magnetic field HSTS VSTS 53.6 536 +12
    Omnipolar north standby threshold magnetic field HSTN VSTN 46.4 464 -12
    Omnipolar north magnetic field release point HRPN VRPN 44.0 440 -20
    Omnipolar north magnetic field operate point HOPN VOPN 41.0 410 -30


    [0022] Through a simple linear relationship, in Figure 4 it can be seen the output voltage VOUT and magnetic field have a linear relationship curve 21 from the magnetic field in units of Oe can be converted into a percentage of VBias, as shown in Table 1, column 5; Table 1 column 6 "voltage value (mV)(VBias= 1.0V)" shows the condition VBias= 1 V under this circumstance, the voltage value changes with differing reference voltage output. It is important to notice that VBias is not necessarily fixed at 1V, that is just a typical value. Table 1 column 7 is a compilation of necessary switch sensor magnetic field value, with typical units of Oe.

    [0023] Figure 6 is a circuit block diagram of the analog filter and comparator stage for the Bipolar and Unipolar type magnetoresistive switch. The comparator 61 is a high-gain amplifier. When comparator 61 output, VA 67, is H or 1, the output voltage VA 67, is in the high state. When comparator 61 output, VA 67, is L or 0, the output voltage VA 67, is in the low state. The High state occurs when the voltage present at the positive input 65 is greater than the voltage present at negative input 66. The high voltage value for VA is less than but nearly equal to VCC 81, the low voltage is greater than but nearly equal to ground 64 or 0 volts. The comparator is connected to power supply VCC through its positive power input 62.

    [0024] The voltage inputs are 71' VRef that comes from the voltage reference portion 86 of figure 5, and 71 VBridge from the right side magnetoresistive chip 87. VRef can be either VOP or VRP depending on the state of a multiplexer MUX1 88 shown in Figure 7. Each input passes through a standard RC low pass filter 72 and 72'. Each filter has a resistance 73, 73', and a capacitor 74, 74'. The 3dB roll off frequency is calculated by the usual

    where R and C are resistance and capacitance in Ohms and Farads, respectively. A typical cutoff frequency for this product is 100 kHz. This filter serves a few purposes: 1) it eliminates high frequency noise signals, 2) it reduces switching "bounce" where the high gain comparator bounces back and forth between its high and low output values when VRef is equal to or near VBridge.

    [0025] The comparator 61 and filter 72, 72' (together labeled Low Pass Filter 91) are part of a larger circuit whose block diagram is in Figure 7. Power is connected between VCC 81 and Ground 64. Voltage regulator 83 provides a steady analog voltage bias, 63 VBias. Multiplexer 88 MUX1 is a switch that connects one of the reference voltage outputs from 86 Internal Reference circuit to 71' input to the Low Pass Filter 91. The bridge output VBridge is connected to input 71 of Low Pass Filter 91. Low-pass filter circuit 91 output terminal and the input of the comparator 61 are electrically connected. The comparator 61 utput VA is connected to the input of Digital Control Circuit 92.. There are two outputs from Digital Control Circuit 92: one is MUX1, 88, the other is a connection to Latch and Driver circuit 93. This, in turn, drives the output stage. The output stage has a dual transistor 94 and 95 which is capable of switching rapidly without large power use. The circuit output is at 85, VOUT.

    [0026] A digital control system 92 and a set of "logical operating modes" are two parts of the present invention. A "logical operating mode" has the following properties:
    1. 1) an abstract logical or binary representation in "1"s and "0"s,
    2. 2) an electronic circuit representation of the same mode, such as in digital memory,
    3. 3) a set of "electronic operations" that occur as a result of being in a particular "logical operating mode". Most interesting digital control systems have more than one "logical operating mode." When this is the case, additional requirements are
    4. 4) a well defined and finite set of distinct modes, and
    5. 5) a well defined and self consistent set of "trigger conditions" that, when they are realized, cause the logical operating mode to switch from one to another well defined mode.


    [0027] Digital Control Circuit 92 contains the electronic representation of the binary mode names and the logical programs that carry out required "electronic operations" upon entering a logical mode, and also the programs that carry out switching from one mode to another upon realization of the "trigger conditions".

    [0028] Figure 8 shows Output Voltage vs. Applied Magnetic Field for Bipolar magnetic switch sensors. The magneto resistive switch circuit shown in Figure 7 can put out two forms of output vs. an applied magnetic field 7. The first form, Bipolar, is shown in Figure 8. The output switches between two voltage values, VHIGH 103, and VLOW 104. The switching transitions 101 and 102 happen at magnetic field values HOPS and HRPN. For this behavior, the digital control circuit 92 must use MUX1 88 to select VOPS and VOPN as the two reference voltages passed along to the comparator. A logic truth table is shown below in the top half of Table 2 for the Bipolar Switch operation.

    [0029] Figure 9 shows Output Voltage vs. Applied Magnetic Field for Unipolar switch. The second possible form of output from the magnetoresistive switch circuit in Figure 7 is the Unipolar form, shown in Figure 9. The output switches between two voltage values, 103 VHigh, and 104 VLow. The switching transitions 106 and 107 happen at magnetic field values HOPS and HRPS. For this behavior, the digital control circuit 92 must use MUX1 88 to select VOPS and VOPS as the two reference voltages passed along to the comparator 61. A logic truth table is shown below in the bottom half of Table 2 for the Unipolar Switch operation.
    Table 2: bipolar and unipolar magnetoresistive sensor ASIC digital circuit switch truth table.
    SymbolVBridge Bridge VoltageVA trigger condition(Mux1) V reference selectVOUT output voltage
    Bipolar Switch
    Power on default =1/2 Vbias 1 VOP 1
    HOPS >VOPS 1→0 →VRPS →0
    HRPN <VRPN 1 →VOPN →1
    Unipolar Switch
    Power on default =1/2 Vbias 1 VOP 1
    HOPS >VOPS 1→0 →VRPS →0
    HRPS <VRPS 1 →VOPS →1


    [0030] When the behavior of Voltage A (VA) matches the trigger condition, MUX1 maintains, or switches to, the indicated reference voltage (VREF.) The character " → " indicates a change in value.

    [0031] The "logical operating modes" in the circuit examples so far are limited to two modes, "0" and "1" or "high" and "low". The "electronic operations" that occur upon entering these modes are: Digital Control Circuit 92 uses MUX1 88 to switch to a new Reference Voltage. The "trigger conditions" are defined in terms of observing the output of comparator 61 from High to Low, or Low to High. These trigger conditions are directly related to the externally applied magnetic field because the MR Sensor 87 VBridge is one of the comparator 61 input signals. These are called "applied magnetic field trigger conditions".

    [0032] Figure 10 is a graph showing the relationship between the output voltage and the applied magnetic field push-pull between the resistor bridge. The output VBridge 59 from the tunneling magnetoresistive bridge sensor 87 is plotted as curve 21. This is the same curve as in Figure 4, but only one temperature is shown, and more switching field thresholds are shown. Curve 21 is antisymmetrical about the H = 0 axis. The voltage midpoint, VMid 24, is approximately half way between VMax 25 and VMin 23. Field values at which comparators switch are indicated as H Standby Threshold South HSTS 41, H Reset Point South HRPS 43, H Operate South HOPS 45, H Standby Threshold North HSTN 42, H Reset Point North HRPN 44, H Operate Point North HOPN 46.

    [0033] Figure 11 shows the VOUT vs. Output Voltage vs. Applied Magnetic Field 7 for of the Omnipolar magnetoresistive switch. This circuit uses the same analog bridge and reference voltage stages as the Bipolar and Unipolar. However, a different comparator and logic circuits are needed, they are shown below in Figures 12 and 13. The output switches between two voltage values, 103 VHigh, and 104 VLow. Switching transitions 47 and 48 happen at magnetic field values HOPS and HRPS. Switching transitions 47' and 48' happen at magnetic field values HOPN and HRPN. For this behavior, the digital control circuit 192 must use MUX1 188 to select VSTS, VRPS, or VOPS as the reference voltages passed along to the comparators; and MUX2 189 to select VSTN, VRPN, or VOPN as the reference voltages passed along to comparator 61.

    [0034] The total magnetic field range is divided into six logical operating modes: Operate North, Reset North, Standby North, Standby South, Operate South, and Reset South. The Standby modes occur at fields between HSTN and HSTS. These standby modes have inventive properties. Specifically, they have new "electronic operations" that save power by actuating switches SW1 170 and SW2 270. This is in addition to causing MUX1 188, and MUX2 189, to select new Reference Voltages. The digital labels [(111), (110), (101), (001), (010), (011)] for distinct logical operating modes for the 6 field regions are shown at the bottom of Figure 11 in their corresponding field range. A logic truth table is shown below Table 4 for the Omnipolar Switch operation. The "electronic operations" of MUX 1, MUX 2, SW 1, SW 2; and, "trigger conditions" needed to switch from one mode to another, are shown in the table of logic modes in Table 5. A table of current consumption vs. operation mode is in Table 4.
    Table 3: Omnipolar switch sensor truth table.
    SymbolVBridgeTrigger ConditionVS (Mux1)VN (Mux2)SW1SW2VOUTOperation Mode
    VAVB
    Standby (power on default) =1/2vbias 0 0 001 101 0 0 1 Standby
    S Out of standby >VSTS 0→1 0 →011 →001 →1 0 1 South pole switch mode
    BOPS >BOPS 1 0 →010 001 1 0 →0
    BRPS <BRPS 1→0 0 →011 001 1 0 →1
    Re-standby <VATS 0 0 →001 →101 →0 0 1 Standby
    Standby VSTN <VBridge <VSTS 0 0 001 101 0 0 1
    N Out of standby <VSTN 0 0→1 →101 →111 0 →1 1 North pole Switch mode
    BOPN <BOPN 0 1 101 →110 0 1 →0
    BRPN >BRPN 0 1→0 101 →111 0 1 →1
    Re-standby >VSTN 0 0 →001 →101 0 →0 1 Standby


    [0035] Table 3, when the voltage A and B (VA and VB) in columns 3 and 4 match the trigger conditions, MUX1 and MUX2 maintain or switch to the state shown in columns 5 and 6. In addition, SW1 and SW2 maintain or switch to the conditions shown in columns 7 and 8. The "→" character represents a change of values. In the SW1 and SW2 columns, "0" and "1" denote the "open switch" and "closed switch" states.
    Table 4; MUX logic symbols related to reference voltage values for Omnipolar Switch.
    Mux1VRefSMux2VRefN
    001 VSTS 000 -
    010 VRPS 101 VSTN
    011 VOPS 110 VRPN
    100 - 111 VOPN


    [0036] Do not need to care about states 101, 000 and 100, in the two stage floating output design.

    [0037] A circuit diagram of the Analog Filter and Comparator for the Omnipolar magnetoresistive switch is shown in Figure 12. It performs similar functions to the comparator circuit in Figure 6. But an additional comparator is needed for Omnipolar operation, and power saving features are added.

    [0038] The left side of Figure 12 shows an analog input filter. South pole reference voltage VREF 171 is connected to the low-pass filter 172, a low-pass filter 172 includes a resistor 173 and a capacitor 174. The output of Low pass filter 172 is electrically connected to negative input 166 of the comparator 161. VBndge 171' is connected to the low-pass filter 172', a low-pass filter 172 'includes a resistor 173' and the capacitor 174 '. Low-pass filter 172' is electrically connected to the negative input 266 of the second comparator 261 and to the first comparator 161 positive input 165. VBridge opposite polarity and electrical connection between the comparator, make VOUT versus applied magnetic field and having anti-symmetry. North pole reference voltage VREF 271 is electrically connected to a low pass filter 272, low pass filter 272 includes a resistor 273 and a capacitor 274, a filter 272 is electrically connected to the output of the second comparator 261 positive input 265.

    [0039] Two comparator implementations of the present embodiment are given, a first Comparator 161, and a second comparator 261. The first comparator 161 has positive input 165 and negative input 166. It has output VA at 167. It draws power between VBias 163 and Ground 64. Positive power supply 162 carries electrical current from current supplies 168 and 169, which supply 0.05 µA and 2.0 µA, respectively. The first switch SW1 170 determines whether the current supply 169 is connected or not. Current supply 168 is always connected. The second comparator 261 has positive input 265 and negative input 266. It has output VB at 267. It draws power between VBias 263 and Ground 64. Positive power supply 262 carries electrical current from current supplies 268 and 269, which supply 0.05 µA and 2.0 µA, respectively. The second switch SW2 270 determines whether the current supply 269 is connected or not. Current supply 268 is always connected.

    [0040] The current supply first switch SW1 and second switch SW2 provide a way to reduce the amount of electrical power consumed during operation. Table 5 below shows totals of current consumed in various modes.
    Table 5: Current consumption in the modes of Omnipolar type magnetoresistive switch.
    Magnetic field (Oersted)Switch 1 (SW1)Switch 2 (SW2)Total I in comparator (uA)
    Magnetic field South
    H < 12 open open 0.1uA
    H > 12 connect open 2.05uA
    H < 30 (BOPS)
    H falling to 20 (BRPS)
    Magnetic field North
    H < 12 open open 0.1uA
    H > 12 open connect 2.05uA
    H < 30 (BOPN)
    H falling to 20 (B+N)


    [0041] Figure 13 shows a circuit diagram of a preferred implementation of an omnipolar low-power magnetoresistive switch sensor of the present invention. It draws electrical power between Ground 64 and Vcc 81. Regulator 383 provides a stable and lower voltage power supply VBias 163 to internal voltage reference circuit 86 and Magnetoresistive Bridge 87. Multiplexer MUX1 188 is a switch that connects one of the reference voltage outputs from the South end of Internal Reference circuit 87 to the VRef South 71' input to the Low Pass Filter 190. The bridge output VBridge is connected to input 171' of Low Pass Filter 190. Multiplexer MUX2 189 is a switch that connects one of the reference voltage outputs from the North end 87 of Internal Reference circuit to the VREF South 271 input to the Low Pass Filter 190.

    [0042] The two comparator outputs VA and VB are connected to the input of Digital Control Circuit 192. There are five outputs from Digital Control Circuit 192 (MUX1 188; MUX2 189; SW1 170; SW2 270) the Latch, and 5 output driver circuit 193. This, in turn, drives the output stage. The output stage has a dual transistors 394, 395, which are capable of switching rapidly without large power use. The circuit output is at 385, VOut. The response of digital control circuit 192 to signals VA and VB at its input are detailed in Tables 4 and 5, and in the timing diagram in Figure 14.

    [0043] A signal vs. time diagram for the Omnipolar Magnetoresistive Switch is shown in Figure 14. The time axis is unitless and not precisely linear. It is scaled in a way to aid explanation, not to provide quantitative detail. Times are labeled T0, T1, ... T10. There are two sets of analog scales. The upper analog scale has analog signals coming from the VBridge, and VRef. The lower analog scale shows digital values in the vertical direction.

    [0044] The output from the magnetoresistive bridge 87, VBridge is plotted in the dashed curve 201. It represents a signal that would be present as a magnet moves by the sensor and giving a quasi-sinusoidal Applied Magnetic Field signal to the magnetoresistive bridge. VBridge is directly proportional to the Applied magnetic Field, so these two curves are plotted on the same set of vertical axes as 201. The left axis shows 7 Applied Magnetic Field values. The right vertical axis shows reference voltage values both as threshold labels and as percentage of VBias. The upper half of the plot has positive (South) values for magnetic field, and positive values for VBridge. The lower half of the plot has negative (North) values for magnetic field, and negative values for VBridge.

    [0045] VREF South is plotted as solid curve 202. It has three steady state values VSTS , VOPS, and VRPS. VREF North is plotted as solid curve 203, which has three steady state levels VSTN, VOPN, and VRPN. There is a measurable time for curves 202 and 203 to switch from one state to another. These two signals are taken from the Voltage reference circuit 86. MUX 1, whose digital state vs. time is plotted in solid curve 210, selects one of the three South VREF values: VSTS , VOPS, or VRPS. MUX 2, whose digital state vs. time is plotted in solid curve 211, selects one of the three North VREF values: VSTN, VOPN, or VRPN. These digital states are not voltage levels, but rather a representation of which VREF to which they are to be connected.

    [0046] The output connections of the first comparator and the second comparator carry voltage signals VA and VB, respectively. These two digital levels are plotted vs. time as solid curves 204 and 205 that switch between digital levels near Ground and VBIAS. The external output connection 385 of the circuit carries voltage level VOUT whose signal vs. time is plotted as solid curve 206. The VOUT switches between levels near Ground and VCC. There are three mode logic lines whose output vs. time are plotted as solid curves: Standby 207, South Operate 208, and North Operate 209. The states of Switch 1 170 (SW 1) and Switch 2 270 (SW 2) are plotted vs. time as solid curves 212 and 213. A high level on these curves means the switch is closed and extra current is flowing to the power terminal of that comparator. The total Quiescent Current used by the circuit is plotted vs. time as solid curve 214. This curve goes between values of 0.1 µA and 2 µA. When the circuit is in one of the active North or South switching modes, one but not both of SW 1 or SW 2 is open. When in "Standby" mode, both SW 1 and SW 2 are open. At no time are both SW 1 and SW 2 closed simultaneously.

    [0047] Now, a description of the entire circuit action vs. time using the example signal provided as VBridge curve 201. The logic design was described above in Tables 3 and 4. At T0, VBridge = 0 Volts; the mode is Standby (001), VOUT = High. VBridge increases to and at T1 crosses VSTS which is the current voltage threshold value on the first Comparator. This causes VA to switch to 1 after a time dT = T2 - T1 has passed. dT is relatively long, say 1 millisecond, because the power to the first Comparator is low, which causes signal delays. Subsequent switching events happen within a time τ, which is set by the logic circuit clock frequency, f. At time T2 + τ, the following occur: logic Standby line 207 goes 0 to 1, South Operate mode 208 goes 0 to 1, North Operate Mode 209 is 0, MUX 1 210 selects VOPS, SW1 212 closes. The circuit is in South Operate Mode (011).

    [0048] VBridge continues to increase and at time T3 crosses VOPS, the present voltage threshold value on the first comparator indicated by curve 202. This causes VA to switch to 0. At the next clock cycle within time τ, at time T3 + τ, the following occur: output 206 goes Low, Standby line 207 is 0, South Operate mode 208 goes from 1 to 0, North Operate Mode is 0, MUX 1 210 selects VRPS causing curve 202 to shift towards VRPS. The circuit is in South Operate Mode (010).

    [0049] VBridge at some time begins to decrease and at time T4 crosses curve 202 at value VRPS, the present voltage threshold value on Comparator 1. This causes VA to switch 0 to 1. At the next clock cycle within time τ, at time T4 + τ, the following occur: 206 Output goes Low to High, logic (Standby line 207 is 0, South Operate mode 208 is 0, North Operate Mode is 0), MUX 1 210 selects VSTS causing curve 202 to shift towards VSTS. The circuit is in South Operate Mode (011).

    [0050] VBridge at some time begins to decrease and at time T5 crosses curve 202 at value VRPS, the present voltage threshold value on the first comparator. This causes VA to switch 0 to 1. At the next clock cycle within time τ, at time T5 + τ, the following occur: 206 Output goes Low to High, Standby line 207 goes from 0 to 1, South Operate mode 208 is 0, North Operate Mode is 0, MUX 1 212 closes. The circuit is in Standy Mode (011).

    [0051] VBridge continues to decrease and at time T6 crosses curve 203 at value VSTN, the present voltage threshold value on the second Comparator. This causes second comparator output VB 205 to switch from 0 to 1 at time T7. This comparator action takes relatively long dt = T7 - T6, say 1 millisecond, because the power to the second Comparator is low At T7 + τ, the following occur: Output 206 is High, Standby line 207 goes from 1 to 0 , South Operate mode 208 is 0, North Operate Mode 209 goes from 0 to 1. MUX 2 211 switches to VOPN causing VRef North curve 203 to shift towards VOPN. SW 2 213 closes, providing more power current to the second comparator. The circuit is in North Operate Mode (111).

    [0052] VBridge continues to decrease and at time T8 and crosses curve 203 at value VOPN, the present voltage threshold value on the second comparator. This causes the second comparator output VB 205 to switch from 1 to 0. At T7 + τ, the following occur: output 206 switches from High to Low, Standby line 207 is 0 , South Operate mode 208 is 0, North Operate Mode 209 goes from 1 to 0. MUX 2 211 switches to VRPN causing VRef North curve 203 to shift towards VRPN. The circuit is in North Operate Mode (110).

    [0053] VBridge begins to increase and at time T9 crosses curve 203 at value VRPN, the present voltage threshold value on the second comparator. This causes the second comparator output VB 205 to switch from 0 to 1. At T9 + τ, the following occur: output 206 switches Low to High, logic lines Standby line 207 switches from 0 to 1, South Operate mode 208 is 0, North Operate Mode 209 is 0). MUX 2 21 switches to VSTN causing VRef North curve 203 to shift towards VSTN. The circuit is in North Operate Mode (111).

    [0054] VBridge continues to increase and at time T10 crosses curve 203 at value VSTN, the present voltage threshold value on the second comparator. At the next clock cycle within time τ, at time T10 + τ, the following occur: output 206 is High, logic levels Standby line 207 goes from 0 to 1 , South Operate mode 208 is 0, North Operate Mode is 0. SW 2 203 closes. The circuit is in Standby Mode (001).

    [0055] Compared with Chinese patent application number 201110125153.5, this low power magnetoresistive switch sensor has the following advantages:
    1. 1) Provides a filtering means for reducing the noise of a switch;
    2. 2) The method described for reducing power, provides only a slight decrease in operating frequency in the circuit.


    [0056] It should be understood that the above detailed description of the technical solutions used for the present invention are preferred embodiments that are illustrative and not restrictive. One of ordinary skill in the art upon reading the present specification can based on the technical solutions described in the embodiments modify or replace some technical features with equivalent replacements; and such modifications or replacements do not make the revised technical solutions of the various embodiments of the present invention depart from the scope of the present invention as defined in the appended claims.


    Claims

    1. A magnetoresistive switch sensor comprising:

    an internal reference voltage circuit (86),

    a multiplexer (88, 188),

    a magnetoresistive, MR, bridge circuit (87),

    a comparator circuit (61, 161, 261),

    a power regulator circuit (83, 383),

    a digital control circuit (92, 192),

    a digital output stage circuit (93, 94, 95, 193, 194, 195);

    said internal reference voltage circuit being connected to ground and to the output of said power regulator circuit, said internal reference voltage circuit having a plurality of reference voltage outputs;
    said comparator circuit comprising one or more comparators (61, 161, 261), being connected to said power regulator circuit and to ground, said comparator circuit having one or more inputs, and one or more comparator circuit outputs, said one or more comparator circuit outputs being electrically connected to one of the inputs of said digital control circuit;
    said MR bridge circuit being electrically connected to said power regulator circuit and to ground, said MR bridge circuit output is connected to one input of said comparator circuit;
    said multiplexer being controlled by said digital control circuit, said multiplexer determining which of the outputs of said internal reference voltage circuit are electrically connected to one of said comparator circuit inputs of the or each comparator;
    said digital control circuit being configured to electrically control the multiplexer in correspondence with outputs (VA) of the comparator circuit to select reference voltage outputs to supply to the comparator circuit, and having electrical connections to said multiplexer and said digital output stage circuit,
    characterized in that the digital control system is configured to produce a magnetic field-dependent output selectable between operation as a bipolar switch, unipolar switch, and an omnipolar switch, wherein in operation as an omnipolar switch the digital control system is configured to switch operation of a first comparator (161) of the comparator circuit into a power saving standby mode by disconnecting a respective current source (169) when the magnetoresistive switch sensor is subject to a magnetic field beneath an upper threshold magnetic field, and to switch operation of a second comparator (261) of the comparator circuit in a power saving standby mode by disconnecting a respective current source (269) when the magnetoresistive switch sensor is subject to a magnetic field above a lower threshold magnetic field.
     
    2. The magnetoresistive switch sensor of claim 1 wherein a low pass filter circuit (91, 190) is connected between said reference voltage circuit, said MR bridge circuit and said comparator circuit, the inputs of said low pass filter circuit is connected to said output of said MR bridge circuit and said outputs of said reference voltage circuit, the outputs of said low pass filter circuit is connected to said inputs of said comparator circuit, it is used to attenuate the voltages above a cut-off frequency.
     
    3. The magnetoresistive switch sensor of claim 1 wherein the output voltage VBias of the power regulator circuit is lower than a supply voltage.
     
    4. The magnetoresistive switch sensor of claim 1 wherein the magnetoresistive bridge circuit comprises a first MR element and a second MR element, the first MR element and the second MR element being connected electrically to form one push-pull half bridge.
     
    5. The magnetoresistive switch sensor of claim 4 wherein the first MR element and said second MR element respectively comprises one or more Magnetic Tunnel Junction, MTJ, elements in series or/and in parallel.
     
    6. The magnetoresistive switch sensor of claim 1 wherein the digital output stage circuit comprises a latch and driver circuit and the output stage, the input of said latch and driver circuit is connected to the output of said digital control circuit, and the output of said latch and driver circuit is connected to the output stage.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Magnetwiderstandsschaltsensor, umfassend:

    einen internen Referenzspannungsschaltkreis (86),

    einen Multiplexer (88, 188),

    einen Magnetwiderstands-(MW)-Brückenschaltkreis (87),

    einen Vergleicherschaltkreis (61, 161, 261),

    einen Leistungsreglerschaltkreis (83, 383),

    einen digitalen Steuerschaltkreis (92, 192),

    einen digitalen Ausgangsstufenschaltkreis (93, 94, 95, 193, 194, 195);

    wobei der interne Referenzspannungsschaltkreis mit Masse und dem Ausgang des Leistungsreglerschaltkreises verbunden ist, wobei der interne Referenzspannungsschaltkreis eine Vielzahl von Referenzspannungsausgängen aufweist;

    wobei der Vergleicherschaltkreis einen oder mehrere Vergleicher (61, 161, 261) umfasst, die mit dem Leistungsreglerschaltkreis und mit Masse verbunden sind, wobei der Vergleicherschaltkreis einen oder mehrere Eingänge und einen oder mehrere Vergleicherschaltkreisausgänge aufweist, wobei der eine oder die mehreren Vergleicherschaltkreisausgänge mit einem der Eingänge des digitalen Steuerschaltkreises elektrisch verbunden sind;

    wobei der MW-Brückenschaltkreis mit dem Leistungsreglerschaltkreis und mit Masse elektrisch verbunden ist, wobei der MW-Brückenschaltkreisausgang mit einem Eingang des Vergleicherschaltkreises verbunden ist;

    wobei der Multiplexer durch den digitalen Steuerschaltkreis gesteuert wird, wobei der Multiplexer bestimmt, welcher der Ausgänge des internen Referenzspannungsschaltkreises mit einem der Vergleicherschaltkreiseingänge des oder jeden Vergleichers elektrisch verbunden ist;

    wobei der digitale Steuerschaltkreis konfiguriert ist, um den Multiplexer entsprechend den Ausgängen (VA) des Vergleicherschaltkreises elektrisch zu steuern, um Referenzspannungsausgänge zur Versorgung des Vergleicherschaltkreises auszuwählen, und elektrische Verbindungen zum Multiplexer und zum digitalen Ausgangsstufenschaltkreis aufweist, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das digitale Steuersystem konfiguriert ist, um einen magnetfeldabhängigen Ausgang zu erzeugen, der zwischen dem Betrieb als bipolarer Schalter, einpolarer Schalter und omnipolarer Schalter auswählbar ist, wobei das digitale Steuersystem bei Betrieb als omnipolarer Schalter konfiguriert ist, um den Betrieb eines ersten Vergleichers (161) des Vergleicherschaltkreises durch Trennen einer jeweiligen Stromquelle (169) in einen leistungssparenden Standby-Modus zu schalten, wenn der Magnetwiderstandsschaltsensor einem Magnetfeld unterhalb eines oberen Schwellwertmagnetfelds unterliegt, und den Betrieb eines zweiten Vergleichers (261) des Vergleicherstromkreises durch Trennen einer jeweiligen Stromquelle (269) in einen leistungssparenden Standby-Modus zu schalten, wenn der Magnetwiderstandsschaltsensor einem Magnetfeld oberhalb eines unteren Schwellwertmagnetfelds unterliegt.


     
    2. Magnetwiderstandsschaltsensor nach Anspruch 1, wobei ein Niederpassfilterschaltkreis (91, 190) zwischen dem Referenzspannungsschaltkreis, dem MW-Brückenschaltkreis und dem Vergleicherschaltkreis verbunden ist, wobei die Eingänge des Niederpassfilterschaltkreises mit dem Ausgang des MW-Brückenschaltkreises und den Ausgängen des Referenzspannungsschaltkreises verbunden sind, wobei die Ausgänge des Niederpassfilterschaltkreises mit den Eingängen des Vergleicherschaltkreises verbunden sind, und zum Dämpfen der Spannungen oberhalb einer Grenzfrequenz verwendet wird.
     
    3. Magnetwiderstandsschaltsensor nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Ausgangsspannung VBias des Leistungsreglerschaltkreises niedriger ist als eine Versorgungsspannung.
     
    4. Magnetwiderstandsschaltsensor nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Magnetwiderstandsbrückenschaltkreis ein erstes MW-Element und ein zweites MW-Element umfasst, wobei das erste MW-Element und das zweite MW-Element zur Bildung einer Push-Pull-Halbbrücke elektrisch miteinander verbunden sind.
     
    5. Magnetwiderstandsschaltsensor nach Anspruch 4, wobei das erste MW-Element und das zweite MW-Element jeweils ein oder mehrere Magnettunnelverbindungsstellen-(Magnetic Tunnel Junction, MTJ)-Elemente in Reihen- und/oder Parallelschaltung umfasst.
     
    6. Magnetwiderstandsschaltsensor nach Anspruch 1, wobei der digitale Ausgangsstufenschaltkreis einen Verriegelungs- und Treiberschaltkreis und die Ausgangsstufe umfasst, wobei der Eingang der Verriegelungs- und Treiberschaltung mit dem Ausgang des digitalen Steuerschaltkreises verbunden ist und der Ausgang des Verriegelungs- und Treiberschaltkreises mit der Ausgangsstufe verbunden ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Capteur de commutateur magnéto-résistif, comprenant :

    un circuit de tension de référence interne (86),

    un multiplexeur (88, 188),

    un circuit en pont magnéto-résistif (MR) (87),

    un circuit comparateur (61, 161, 261),

    un circuit de régulation d'alimentation (83, 383), un circuit de commande numérique (92, 192),

    un circuit d'étage de sortie numérique (93, 94, 95, 193, 194, 195);

    ledit circuit de tension de référence interne étant connecté à la masse et à la sortie dudit circuit de régulation d'alimentation, ledit circuit de tension de référence interne possédant une pluralité de sorties de tension de référence ;

    ledit circuit comparateur, comprenant un ou plusieurs comparateurs (61, 161, 261), étant connecté audit circuit de régulation d'alimentation et à la masse, ledit circuit comparateur possédant une ou plusieurs entrées, et une ou plusieurs sorties du circuit comparateur étant connectées électriquement à une des entrées dudit circuit de commande numérique ;

    ledit circuit en pont MR étant connecté électriquement audit circuit de régulation d'alimentation et à la masse, ladite sortie de circuit en pont MR étant connectée à une entrée dudit circuit comparateur ;

    ledit multiplexeur étant commandé par ledit circuit de commande numérique, ledit multiplexeur déterminant lesquelles des sorties dudit circuit de tension de référence interne étant connectées électriquement à une desdites entrées de circuit comparateur du ou de chaque comparateur ;

    ledit circuit de commande numérique étant configuré pour commander électriquement le multiplexeur en correspondance avec des sorties (VA) du circuit comparateur pour sélectionner des sorties de tension de référence pour alimenter le circuit comparateur, et possédant des connexions électriques audit multiplexeur et audit circuit d'étage de sortie numérique, caractérisé en ce que le système de commande numérique est configuré pour produire une sortie dépendante d'un champ magnétique sélectionnable entre le fonctionnement en tant que commutateur bipolaire, commutateur unipolaire, et commutateur omnipolaire, le système de commande numérique étant configuré, lors de l'utilisation en tant que commutateur omnipolaire, pour commuter le fonctionnement d'un premier comparateur (161) du circuit comparateur dans un mode de veille économiseur d'énergie en déconnectant une source de courant correspondante (169) lorsque le capteur de commutateur magnéto-résistif est soumis à un champ magnétique au-dessous d'un champ magnétique à seuil supérieur, et pour commuter le fonctionnement d'un deuxième comparateur (261) du circuit comparateur dans un mode de veille économiseur d'énergie en déconnectant une source de courant correspondante (269) lorsque le capteur de commutateur magnéto-résistif est soumis à un champ magnétique au-dessus d'un champ magnétique à seuil inférieur.


     
    2. Capteur de commutateur magnéto-résistif selon la revendication 1, dans lequel un circuit de filtre passe-bas (91, 190) est connecté entre ledit circuit de tension de référence, ledit circuit de pont MR et ledit circuit comparateur, les entrées dudit circuit de filtre passe-bas sont connectées à ladite sortie dudit circuit de pont MR et auxdites sorties de circuit de tension de référence, les sorties dudit circuit de filtre passe-bas sont connectées auxdites entrées dudit circuit comparateur, il sert à atténuer les tensions au-dessus d'une fréquence de coupure.
     
    3. Capteur de commutateur magnéto-résistif selon la revendication 1, la tension de sortie VBias du circuit de régulation d'alimentation est inférieure à une tension d'alimentation.
     
    4. Capteur de commutateur magnéto-résistif selon la revendication 1, le circuit en pont magnéto-résistif comprenant un premier élément MR et un deuxième élément MR, le premier élément MR et le deuxième élément MR étant connectés électriquement pour former un demi pont symétrique.
     
    5. Capteur de commutateur magnéto-résistif selon la revendication 4, le premier élément MR et ledit deuxième élément MR comprenant respectivement un ou plusieurs éléments de jonction tunnel magnétique MTJ en série et/ou en parallèle.
     
    6. Capteur de commutateur magnéto-résistif selon la revendication 1, le circuit d'étage de sortie numérique comprenant un circuit de verrouillage et d'attaque et l'étage de sortie, l'entrée dudit circuit de verrouillage et d'attaque étant connectée à la sortie dudit circuit de commande numérique, et la sortie dudit circuit de verrouillage et d'attaque étant connectée à l'étage de sortie.
     




    Drawing





























    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description