(19)
(11)EP 2 986 147 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
20.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/21

(21)Application number: 14774025.2

(22)Date of filing:  13.03.2014
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A23L 23/00  (2016.01)
A23L 5/10  (2016.01)
A23L 23/10  (2016.01)
A23L 29/00  (2016.01)
A23L 13/30  (2016.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2014/026790
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/160482 (02.10.2014 Gazette  2014/40)

(54)

PROCESS FOR PREPARING A BROTH COMPOSITION

VERFAHREN ZUR HERSTELLUNG EINER BRÜHZUSAMMENSETZUNG

PROCESSUS DE PRÉPARATION D'UNE COMPOSITION DE MILIEU DE CULTURE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 13.03.2013 US 201361780932 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
24.02.2016 Bulletin 2016/08

(73)Proprietor: International Dehydrated Foods, Inc.
Springfield, MO 65808 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • DAKE, Roger
    Springfield, MO 65810 (US)
  • LEWIS, Nancy
    Aurora, MO 65605 (US)

(74)Representative: m patent group 
Postfach 33 04 29
80064 München
80064 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-89/02706
JP-A- 2012 139 186
KR-B1- 101 189 893
US-A- 4 113 884
WO-A1-2008/007667
KR-A- 20100 009 431
US-A- 3 796 811
US-A1- 2008 187 626
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND


    1. Field of the Invention



    [0001] This disclosure relates to a process for making a concentrated broth composition.

    2. Description of Related Art



    [0002] Broth and soups prepared from animals have high nutrition values. They are rich in proteins and have been shown to possess both nutritional and therapeutic values.

    [0003] Many existing methods for making concentrated broth fail to efficiently utilized the broth derived from the meat processing industry. For instance, some methods fail to treat the broth efficiently with enzyme(s). Without the enzymatic treatment, the broth forms a jelly-like colloid and is difficult to process. The jelly-like nature of the broth interferes with water evaporation. Thus, it is very difficult to achieve higher solid concentration through evaporation without treating the broth with enzyme(s). Poor utilization of the broth not only causes economical waste but also generates excessive waste water and environmental pollutions.

    [0004] US 4,113,884 A discloses a process for preparing a composition from waste chicken broth where insoluble residues and fats are removed after the addition of at least one enzyme. US 2008/0187626 A1 teaches an edible proteinic hydrolysate made by a method that includes enzymatically hydrolyzing the proteins. The enzyme is added into a bone mixture having pieces of bone 1-2 centimeters in size. US 3,796,811 A discloses a method in which a pasty mass of comminuted animal portions and water is autoclaved, wherein the resulting mass cooled, the solids are separated, and the liquid is treated with a protein splitting enzyme to form fat and an aqueous phase. The fat is separated.

    SUMMARY



    [0005] The instrumentalities disclosed here advance the art and overcome the problems outlined above by providing process for making a pumpable broth composition having at least 50% solids with the features of claim 1, and a process of making a shelf-stable composition from a correspondingly prepared starting broth with the features of claim 13. In one aspect, the higher solids of the concentrated broth composition may help control microbial growth and prevent spoilage of the broth products. In another aspect, enzymatic treatment of the broth may reduce viscosity of the final concentrated broth composition which makes it easier to pour or pump the composition.

    [0006] The process for making a pumpable composition having at least 50% solids according to the present invention includes at least the following steps: (a) heating a starting broth derived from an animal source to a temperature of between 50°C and 70°C; (b) adding to the starting broth at least one anti-gelling enzyme to form a mixture comprising the broth and the one or more enzymes, wherein fat is removed from said broth prior to step (b); (c) incubating the mixture from step (b) with or without stirring while maintaining the mixture at a temperature of between 50°C and 70°C; and (d) concentrating the mixture from step (c) after the incubation to obtain said pumpable composition, wherein said composition has at least 50% solids.

    [0007] The process of making a shelf stable composition according to the present invention includes inactivating the at least one enzyme to obtain the shelf stable composition before step (d). The inactivation step may help extend the shelf life of the final product. Step (b) can be performed before, after or at the same time as step (a), The concentration step is used to prepare a concentrated broth composition that contains high solids and is stable at room temperature for at least 12 months, 24 months, 36 months, 48 months, 60 months, or longer. The temperature of the starting broth in step (a) or during the incubation step above may be between 50°C and 70°C, between 55°C and 70°C, or between 60°C and 70°C.

    [0008] The starting broth may generally be derived from chicken, beef, pork or other animal or poultry sources. In one particular embodiment of the present invention, the broth is a chicken broth. The starting broth may be prepared on-site and may be used for making the present composition right after it is made fresh on-site. Alternatively, the starting broth may be from packaged products that are pre-made on-site or off-site.

    [0009] An enzymatic treatment step is employed by treating the broth with one or more enzymes, according to the present invention. One or more enzymes may be used in this treatment step. According to the present invention, as mentioned, one or more anti-gelling enzymes such as papain, or other proteinases or proteases isolated from edible fruits (e.g., papaya or pineapple) or fungi (e.g., mushroom), or other microorganisms may be used. Examples of microorganisms may include but are not limited to molds (e.g., Aspergillus), yeast (e.g., Saccharomyces), bacteria (e.g., Bacillus), among others. In a further embodiment, additionally, the at least one enzyme added in step (b) is an enzyme that detectably alters the flavor of the broth. Examples of such flavor-changing enzymes may include but are not limited to enzymes that digest proteins and produce certain peptides or amino acids that cause such a change in flavor. The enzyme or enzymes may be added in the form of a powder or as an aqueous solution or suspension. This enzymatic treatment step may help reduce the jelly-like nature of the broth. Preferably, insolubles are removed from the starting broth before the one or more enzymes are added.

    [0010] In one aspect, in lieu of purified enzyme(s), extracts of plants (including plant parts) that contain the desired proteinases or proteases may be used. Examples of plants (or plant parts) may include but are not limited to papaya or pineapple. Depending upon specific needs, certain chemicals in the extracts that confer upon the broth composition an undesirable flavor may be removed from the extracts prior to addition of the extracts into the broth.

    [0011] In another embodiment, the temperature in step (a), step (b), step (c), or in all three steps (a)-(c) may be maintained at between 60°C and 70°C. For instance, the temperature under which the starting broth is incubated with enzyme may be set at 62°C, 65°C or 70°C. Elevated temperature may help reduce the gelatinous nature of the broth.

    [0012] In another embodiment, the total amount of the one or more enzymes added in step (b) is less than 0.4% by weight of the solids in the broth. By way of example, the total amount of the one or more enzymes added in step (b) may be 0.3%, 0.2%,0.1%, or lower by weight of the solids in the broth.

    [0013] The incubation time in step (b) may vary depending on the temperature and the enzyme used. In one aspect, the mixture of step (b) may be incubated with stirring in step (c) for more than 60 minutes. In another aspect, the incubation time is less than 180 minutes. By way of example but not limitation, the incubation time may be 65 minutes, 70 minutes, 90 minutes, 180 minutes, 240 minutes, overnight, or even longer if needed. The combination of lower enzyme concentration and longer incubation time may help reduce the overall cost of the process. Conversely, higher enzyme concentration may be used in order to shorten the process time.

    [0014] In an embodiment, the concentrating step in step (d) is performed by evaporation. After the enzymatic treatment, the broth is allowed to evaporate in order to obtain a more concentrated broth product. The concentrated composition obtained in step (d) contains, according to the present invention, as mentioned, at least 50%, particularly at least 60%, 70%, 80%, or 85% solids. A high percentage of the solids in the concentrated broth composition are proteins. In one aspect, this concentration step is similar to the steps a chef or a home cook would take to produce a stock reduction.

    [0015] According to the present disclosure, the process may also include a step of heating the mixture after step (c) in order to inactivate the enzyme(s). The heating step may be performed for at least 5 minutes (for example, 5-10 minutes, or 5-20 minutes) at a temperature of at least 72°C, or 75°C. In another aspect, the heating step may be performed for at least 2 minutes (for example, 2-5 minutes, or 2-20 minutes) at a temperature of at least 80°C, 85°C, or at least 90°C. Alternatively, the heating step may be performed for at least 3 seconds (for example, 3-5 seconds, or 3-20 second) at an elevated temperature of at least 100°C, or at least 110°C or higher.

    [0016] In another embodiment, the disclosed composition obtained from step (d) has relatively low water activity. By way of example, the water activity of the final product may be less than 0.85, or even less than 0.8 or 0.6. In one aspect, salt may added to the composition to further reduce the water activity. The salt may be added to the composition prior to step (d), during step (d), or after performance of step (d). Examples of salt may include but are not limited to NaCl, or other edible salts. For example, about 5 percent of salt may be added to a product that is 40% solids to achieve about 0.83 water activity.

    [0017] Reduced water activity in the final broth product may help reduce microbial growth during storage and transportation. As a result, no anti-microbial agents or preservatives need to be added into the broth during or at the end of the process. Because anti-microbial agents and preservatives may be perceived negatively by consumers, avoidance of these substances may add to the marketability of the broth products. In one embodiment, nitrogen or other inert gases may be used during packaging to modify the head space in order to prevent growth of mold or bacteria.

    [0018] The reduction of water activity may also simplify the packaging process of the final product. More specifically, because the broth composition obtained from step (d) contains little water to support microbial growth, sterile conditions may not be required when packaging the composition of the instant disclosure. In another aspect, the shelf life of the final broth composition obtained in step (d) may be at least 6 months, at least 12 months, at least 24 months, or at least 36 months at room temperature. By way of example, the shelf life of the final broth composition may be 12-24 months, 12-36 months, 24-36 months, or 36-48 months at room temperature.

    [0019] In one embodiment, no anti-foaming agent is added in the process as disclosed herein. Because anti-foaming agent may be perceived as unsafe additives by consumers, avoidance of anti-foaming agents in the instant process may be highly desirable.

    [0020] As the composition prepared according to the instant disclosure is pumpable or pourable, it is advantageous for packaging and handling. For instance, the broth may contain at least 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, or 85% solids but is still pourable (or pumpable) at room temperature.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0021] The present disclosure relates to improved broth compositions obtained by methods of preparing the same. In one aspect, the disclosed broth composition has higher solids than many other broth products prepared according to existing methods. In another aspect, the disclosed broth product is pumpable which makes it easier for packaging and handling. Another advantage afforded by the instant methods is the relatively longer shelf life of the resulting broth product.

    [0022] The term "broth" refers to an aqueous composition containing at least one solute. A broth may be a liquid, a solution, or a suspension. For purpose of this disclosure, the term "broth" may be used interchangeably with the terms "stock," "extract," "fond," or "demi-glace." It is to be recognized that as a broth becomes more and more concentrated, it may become highly viscous and may have much lower liquidity as compared to a dilute broth. The concentrated broth composition of the present disclosure may be a highly concentrated broth in a liquid form. Alternatively, a concentrated broth composition may be a dried or semi-dried broth product in the form of powder or paste.

    [0023] The starting broth of the instant disclosure is usually a more dilute broth obtained from meat processing as a side product or prepared as a raw material. The final broth composition prepared according to the present disclosure may be a much more concentrated broth or may be in the form of powder or paste.

    [0024] In one embodiment of the present disclosure, the step (a) of heating the starting broth and the step of adding to the starting broth one or more enzymes to form a mixture comprising the broth and the one or more enzymes both precede step (c) of incubating the mixture. In another embodiment, step (a) can be performed before or after step (b).

    [0025] The percentage of solid in the compositions of the instant disclosure is calculated by weight. For example, when 100 grams of broth contains 20 grams of solid material, the percent solid of the broth is 20%.

    [0026] The term "detectably" means a characteristics that may be detected by a person having average sensitivity or by an instrument having average sensitivity at the time of the invention.

    [0027] For purpose of this application, the terms "pumpable" and "pourable" may be used interchangeably to refer to the fluidic characteristics of a composition which can be transferred by using a device (e.g., a pump) typically used in the food (e.g., broth) packaging industry or which can be poured from one container into another.

    [0028] The term "water activity" refers to unbound water in a material, for example, food. Water that is not bound to food molecules can support the growth of bacteria yeast or molds (fungi). Thus, water activity may be used to indicate the inherent tendency by which certain food material may become contaminated or spoiled.

    [0029] The range of water activity may extend from 0 (bone dry) to 1.0 (pure water). Most food products have a water activity level in the range of 0.2 for very dry foods to 0.99 for moist fresh foods. In practice, water activity is usually measured as equilibrium relative humidity (ERH). The water activity of fresh meat is typically about 0.99, while the water activity of aged cheddar cheese is about 0.85. Dried food usually has lower water activity. For instance, most dried fruit products have water activity of about 0.6, while dry milk powder has water activity of about 0.2.

    [0030] The terms "agent," "ingredient," "component," and "constituent" may be used interchangeably in this disclosure.

    [0031] In another embodiment, before packing, the temperature of the enzyme-treated broth may be raised to a temperature that is sufficient to denature the enzyme(s).

    [0032] The compositions of the present disclosure may contain additional ingredients. It is to be understood that these additional ingredients may confer upon the disclosed compositions certain desirable properties. Examples of such desirable properties may include but are not limited to enhanced inhibition of spoilage microorganisms, improved flavor, or increased stability of the composition, and so on.

    [0033] It is to be noted that, as used in this disclosure, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to "a composition" includes reference to two or more of such compositions.

    [0034] The disclosed compositions may be prepared and/or distributed in a concentrated form or a diluted form. A concentrate may be dissolved or dispersed in a solvent to form a reconstituted solution.

    [0035] Changes may be made in the disclosed compositions and methods without departing from the scope of the claims.


    Claims

    1. A process for making a pumpable composition having at least 50% solids, said process comprising:

    (a) heating a starting broth derived from an animal source to a temperature of between 50°C and 70°C;

    (b) adding to the starting broth at least one anti-gelling enzyme to form a mixture comprising the starting broth and the at least one enzyme wherein fat is removed from said broth prior to step (b);

    (c) incubating said mixture from step (b) while maintaining said mixture at a temperature of between 50°C and 70°C;
    and

    (d) concentrating the mixture from step (c) after the incubation to obtain said pumpable composition, wherein said composition has at least 50% solids.


     
    2. The process of claim 1, wherein the starting broth is derived from chicken.
     
    3. The process of claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the starting broth is heated to a temperature of between 55°C and 70°C, particularly between 60°C and 70°C, in step (a) and is incubated at a temperature of between 55°C and 70°C, particularly between 60°C and 70°C, in step (c) after addition of said at least one anti-gelling enzyme in step (b).
     
    4. The process of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the total amount of said at least one enzyme added in step (b) is less than 0.4% by weight of total solids in the broth.
     
    5. The process of any one of claims 1 to 4, further comprising the step of removing insoluble particulate from the broth prior to step (b).
     
    6. The process of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein no anti-foaming agent is added during the process.
     
    7. The process of any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the mixture is incubated with stirring in step (c) for more than 60 minutes, particularly for more than 60 minutes but less than 180 minutes.
     
    8. The process of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the composition obtained from step (d) comprises at least 80% solids, and/or wherein the composition obtained from step (d) has less than 0.85 water activity.
     
    9. The process of any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein no anti-microbial agent is added into the composition obtained from step (d).
     
    10. The process of any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the concentrating step in step (d) is performed by evaporation.
     
    11. The process of any one of claims 1 to 10, further comprising a step of adding an edible salt to the composition of step (d).
     
    12. The process of any one of claims 1 to 11, further comprising a step of heating the mixture after step (c) for at least 5 minutes at a temperature of at least 72°C or for at least 3 seconds at a temperature of at least 100°C.
     
    13. A process of making a shelf-stable composition from a starting broth according to claim 1, further comprising a step of:
    inactivating said at least one enzyme to obtain said shelf-stable composition before step (d).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer pumpfähigen Zusammensetzung mit mindestens 50 % Feststoffen, wobei das Verfahren umfasst:

    a) Erhitzen einer aus einer tierischen Quelle stammenden Startbouillon bzw. -brühe auf eine Temperatur zwischen 50°C und 70°C;

    b) Hinzugeben mindestens eines Anti-Gelierungs-Enzyms zu der Startbouillon, um eine Mischung zu bilden, die die Startbouillon und das mindestens eine Enzym umfasst, wobei vor Schritt (b) Fett aus der Bouillon entfernt wird;

    c) Inkubieren der Mischung aus Schritt (b), während die Mischung bei einer Temperatur zwischen 50°C und 70°C gehalten wird;
    und

    d) Konzentrieren der Mischung aus Schritt (c) nach der Inkubation, um die pumpfähige Zusammensetzung zu erhalten, wobei die Zusammensetzung mindestens 50 % Feststoffe aufweist.


     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, bei dem die Startbouillon aus Hühnern gewonnen wird.
     
    3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder Anspruch 2, wobei die Startbouillon in Schritt (a) auf eine Temperatur zwischen 55°C und 70°C, insbesondere zwischen 60°C und 70°C, erhitzt wird und in Schritt (c) bei einer Temperatur zwischen 55°C und 70°C, insbesondere zwischen 60°C und 70°C, nach Zugabe des mindestens einen Anti-Gelierungs-Enzyms in Schritt (b) inkubiert wird.
     
    4. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei die Gesamtmenge des mindestens einen in Schritt (b) hinzugefügten Enzyms weniger als 0,4 Gew.-% der Gesamtfeststoffe in der Bouillon beträgt.
     
    5. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, das ferner den Schritt der Entfernung unlöslicher Partikel aus der Bouillon vor dem Schritt (b) umfasst.
     
    6. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, bei dem während des Verfahrens kein Antischaummittel zugegeben wird.
     
    7. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, wobei die Mischung in Schritt (c) unter Rühren länger als 60 Minuten, insbesondere länger als 60 Minuten, aber weniger als 180 Minuten, inkubiert wird.
     
    8. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, wobei die in Schritt (d) erhaltene Zusammensetzung mindestens 80% Feststoffe umfasst und/oder wobei die in Schritt (d) erhaltene Zusammensetzung weniger als 0,85 Wasseraktivität aufweist.
     
    9. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, wobei der in Schritt (d) erhaltenen Zusammensetzung kein antimikrobielles Mittel zugesetzt wird.
     
    10. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, wobei der Konzentrierungsschritt in Schritt (d) durch Verdampfen durchgeführt wird.
     
    11. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, das ferner einen Schritt der Zugabe eines essbaren Salzes bzw. Speisesalzes zur Zusammensetzung von Schritt (d) umfasst.
     
    12. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 11, umfassend ferner einen Schritt des Erhitzens der Mischung nach Schritt (c) für mindestens 5 Minuten bei einer Temperatur von mindestens 72°C oder für mindestens 3 Sekunden bei einer Temperatur von mindestens 100°C.
     
    13. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer lagerstabilen Zusammensetzung aus einer Startbouillon nach Anspruch 1, das ferner den folgenden Schritt umfasst:
    Inaktivieren des mindestens einen Enzyms, um die lagerstabile Zusammensetzung vor Schritt (d) zu erhalten.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé de fabrication d'une composition pompable ayant au moins 50 % de matières solides, ledit procédé comprenant :

    a) le chauffage d'un bouillon de départ dérivé d'une source animale à une température comprise entre 50°C et 70°C ;

    b) l'addition au bouillon de départ d'au moins une enzyme antigélifiante pour former un mélange comprenant le bouillon de départ et la au moins une enzyme, dans lequel la graisse est éliminée dudit bouillon avant l'étape (b) ;

    c) l'incubation dudit mélange de l'étape (b) tout en maintenant ledit mélange à une température comprise entre 50°C et 70°C ;
    et

    d) concentrer le mélange de l'étape (c) après l'incubation pour obtenir ladite composition pompable, dans laquelle ladite composition a au moins 50% de solides.


     
    2. Procédé de la revendication 1, dans lequel le bouillon de départ est dérivé du poulet.
     
    3. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, dans lequel le bouillon de départ est chauffé à une température comprise entre 55°C et 70°C, en particulier entre 60°C et 70°C, dans l'étape (a) et est incubé à une température comprise entre 55°C et 70°C, en particulier entre 60°C et 70°C, dans l'étape (c) après addition de ladite au moins une enzyme antigélifiante dans l'étape (b).
     
    4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans lequel la quantité totale de ladite au moins une enzyme ajoutée à l'étape (b) est inférieure à 0,4% en poids des solides totaux dans le bouillon.
     
    5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, comprenant en outre l'étape consistant à éliminer les particules insolubles du bouillon avant l'étape (b).
     
    6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel aucun agent antimousse n'est ajouté au cours du procédé.
     
    7. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, dans lequel le mélange est incubé sous agitation à l'étape (c) pendant plus de 60 minutes, en particulier pendant plus de 60 minutes mais moins de 180 minutes.
     
    8. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, dans lequel la composition obtenue à l'étape (d) comprend au moins 80% de solides, et/ou dans lequel la composition obtenue à l'étape (d) a une activité de l'eau inférieure à 0,85.
     
    9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, dans lequel aucun agent antimicrobien n'est ajouté dans la composition obtenue à l'étape (d).
     
    10. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, dans lequel l'étape de concentration de l'étape (d) est réalisée par évaporation.
     
    11. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10, comprenant en outre une étape d'ajout d'un sel comestible à la composition de l'étape (d).
     
    12. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11, comprenant en outre une étape de chauffage du mélange après l'étape (c) pendant au moins 5 minutes à une température d'au moins 72°C ou pendant au moins 3 secondes à une température d'au moins 100°C.
     
    13. Procédé de fabrication d'une composition stable à la conservation à partir d'un bouillon de départ selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre une étape de :
    l'inactivation de ladite au moins une enzyme pour obtenir ladite composition stable à la conservation avant l'étape (d).
     




    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description