(19)
(11)EP 2 987 858 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
14.08.2019 Bulletin 2019/33

(21)Application number: 14786082.9

(22)Date of filing:  17.04.2014
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C12N 15/00  (2006.01)
A61K 48/00  (2006.01)
C12N 7/00  (2006.01)
C12N 15/86  (2006.01)
A61K 35/76  (2015.01)
A61P 35/00  (2006.01)
A61K 35/768  (2015.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2014/060988
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/171526 (23.10.2014 Gazette  2014/43)

(54)

GENE-MODIFIED COXSACKIEVIRUS

GENMODIFIZIERTES COXSACKIE-VIRUS

VIRUS COXSACKIE GÉNÉTIQUEMENT MODIFIÉ


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 17.04.2013 US 201361812943 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
24.02.2016 Bulletin 2016/08

(73)Proprietors:
  • Kyushu University, National University Corporation
    Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 812-8581 (JP)
  • Shin Nihon Seiyaku Co., Ltd.
    Fukuoka-shi Fukuoka 810-0074 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • TANI, Kenzaburo
    Fukuoka-shi Fukuoka 812-8581 (JP)
  • MIYAMOTO, Shohei
    Fukuoka-shi Fukuoka 812-8581 (JP)
  • INOUE, Hiroyuki
    Fukuoka-shi Fukuoka 812-8581 (JP)
  • SAGARA, Miyako
    Fukuoka-shi Fukuoka 812-8581 (JP)

(74)Representative: Isarpatent 
Patent- und Rechtsanwälte Behnisch Barth Charles Hassa Peckmann & Partner mbB Postfach 44 01 51
80750 München
80750 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2008/103755
WO-A1-2012/129385
JP-A- 2008 501 349
WO-A1-2012/094836
JP-A- 2001 514 509
JP-A- 2012 527 465
  
  • MIYAMOTO S ET AL.: 'Coxsackievirus B3 is an oncolytic virus with immunostimulatory properties that is active against lung adenocarcinoma' CANCER RES. vol. 72, 2012, pages 2609 - 2621, XP055293888
  • VUORINEN T ET AL.: 'Coxsackievirus B3-induced acute pancreatitis: analysis of histopathological and viral parameters in a mouse model' BR J EXP PATHOL. vol. 70, 1989, pages 395 - 403, XP055293892
  • GEBHARD JR ET AL.: 'Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis: perforin exacerbates disease, but plays no detectable role in virus clearance' AM J PATHOL. vol. 153, 1998, pages 417 - 428, XP055293896
  • KELLY EJ ET AL.: 'Engineering microRNA responsiveness to decrease virus pathogenicity' NAT MED. vol. 14, 2008, pages 1278 - 1283, XP055293897
  • HE B ET AL.: 'Role of miR-1 and miR-133a in myocardial ischemic postconditioning' J BIOMED SCI. vol. 18, no. 22, 2011, XP055293899
  • SZAFRANSKA AE ET AL.: 'MicroRNA expression alterations are linked to tumorigenesis and non-neoplastic processes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma' ONCOGENE vol. 26, 2007, pages 4442 - 4452, XP007921396
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

Technical Field



[0001] The present invention relates to a modified coxsackievirus applicable to treatment of cancer. The present invention is useful in the field of oncolytic virotherapy.

Background Art



[0002] Oncolytic virotherapy (cancer virotherapy) is a therapy in which a virus is allowed to infect cancer cells, and proliferate in cancer tissues to destroy and kill the cancer tissues by utilizing oncolytic property of the virus. Clinical studies are being conducted by using adenovirus and herpes simplex virus, which are DNA viruses, against brain tumor or breast cancer, and results showing safety and efficacy thereof are being reported.

[0003] Coxsackievirus group B type 3 (CVB3) (Non-patent documents 1 to 3) has a single strand plus-strand RNA genome, and proliferates only in the cytoplasm, and thus it hardly possibly introduce mutation into a host cell genome. Therefore, it is thought that it can be comparatively safely used in oncolytic virotherapy. Moreover, CVB3 is a common virus, and even if it infects, infection is limited to inapparent infection in many cases. However, there are reports concerning relevance thereof with aseptic meningitis, viral myocarditis, and pancreatitis. Marked oncolytic property of CVB3 against human non-small cell lung cancer has also been reported (Non-patent document 4).

[0004] As one of viruses of which application to the oncolytic virotherapy is expected, coxsackievirus group A type 21 (CVA21) is known (Patent document 1), and it has been reported that the virus was proliferated in a tissue-specific manner by incorporating miRNA into the virus genome (Non-patent document 5).

Prior art references


Patent document



[0005] Patent document 1: Japanese Patent Unexamined Publication (KOHYO) No. 2007-527719a

[0006] WO-A-2008103755 discloses coxsackievirus A21 (CAV21) or coxsackievirus B3 (CBV3) comprising microRNA (miR) for use in the treatment of cancer (Table 1, Examples 2-7 and claim 4). The nucleic acid coding for the said virus comprises a miR target element comprising at least a region of complementary to a miR present in the non-tumor cells (claim 10). The said virus with modified nucleic acid has the ability to reduce non-tumor cell lysis.

[0007] WO-A-2012129385 discloses a recombinant hGM-CSF which is commonly used to promote hematopoietic recovery after cancer chemotherapy.

Non-patent documents



[0008] 

Non-patent document 1: Liu Z. et al., Virology, 265:206-17 (1999)

Non-patent document 2: Gauntt C.J. et al., Virus Res., 41:89-99 (1996)

Non-patent Document 3: Henke A. et al., Int. J. Med. Microbiol., 298:127-34 (2008)

Non-patent Document 4: Miyamoto S. et al., Cancer Res., 72 (10), 2609-21 (2012)

Non-patent document 5: Russell, S.J. et al., Nat. Med., 14 (11), 1278-83 (2008)



[0009] Miyamoto et al., Cancer Res., vol. 72, 2012, pages 2609-2621 disclose that CVB3 is a potent and well-tolerated oncolytic agent with immunostimulatory properties active against both localized and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

[0010] Vuorinen et al., Br. J. Exp.Pathol. vol. 70, 1989, pages 395-403 disclose that CVB3 could induce acute pancreatitis, and an analysis of histopathological and viral parameters is also performed using a mouse model.

[0011] Gebhard Jr et al., Am. J. Pathol., vol. 153, 1998, pages 417-428), disclose that perforin plays a major role in CVB infection, and perforin is important in immunopathology, but not in CVB clearance.

[0012] Kelly EJ et al., Nat. Med., vol. 14, 2008, pages 1278-1283 disclose that target sequences complementary to muscle-specific miRs are inserted into the 3'UTR of CAV21 which causes lethal myositis in tumor-bearing mice. The recombinant virus still propagated in subcutaneous tumors, causing total regression and sustained viremia, but could not replicate in cells expressing complementary miRs and therefore did not cause myositis. He et al., J. Biomed. Sci., vol. 18, no. 22 2011 disclose that miR-1 and miR-133a may play an important role in ischemic postconditioning protection by regulating apoptosis-related genes.

Summary of the Invention


Object to be Achieved by the Invention



[0013] According to the studies of the inventors of the present invention, when wild-type CVB3 (CVB-WT) was evaluated in vivo, elevations of AMY, CK, AST and ALT were observed in serological tests, and destruction of exocrine tissues in the pancreas, inflammatory infiltration in the myocardium, and inflammatory infiltration in the liver were observed in histological diagnoses. It is desirable that these unfavorable actions are reduced.

[0014] Therefore, the inventors of the present invention attempted to insert a target sequence of tissue-specific microRNA (miRNA) into the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the CVB3-WT genome, and expected that proliferation of the virus would be thereby suppressed in a tissue-specific manner, since, in a tissue containing miRNA, the RISC complex containing miRNA bound to the inserted target sequence to inhibit translation of virus proteins. In this attempt, the inventors of the present invention paid attention to two of miRNAs, of which use for similar purposes had not been so far examined at all. One is miR-217 considered to be specifically expressed in the pancreas, and the other one is miR-1 considered to be specifically expressed in muscular tissues and normal cells.

[0015] Further, during the examination of such insertion of a target sequence of specific miRNA into the genome as mentioned above, it was revealed that replication of the virus was inhibited depending on the position in 3' UTR at which the target sequence was inserted, and it is necessary to find an appropriate insertion position.

[0016] The inventors of the present invention also considered that a modified virus with further enhanced efficacy against tumors would be required for a case in which radical cure of tumor could not be realized with CVB3-WT.

Means for Achieving the Object



[0017] The present invention provides the followings.
  1. 1. A modified coxsackievirus of which proliferation is suppressed in a tissue-specific manner, which comprises a mutated genome corresponding to genome of coxsackievirus B3 wild-type (CVB3-WT) inserted with at least one polynucleotide consisting of a target sequence of a tissue-specific microRNA (miRNA), wherein the insertion position is a position between the positions 7304 and 7305 of the CVB3-WT genome.
  2. 2. The modified coxsackievirus according to 1, wherein the tissue-specific miRNA is one expressed in pancreas and/or myocardium.
  3. 3. The modified coxsackievirus according to any one of 1 to 2, wherein the tissue-specific miRNA consists of miR-1 and/or miR-217.
  4. 4. The modified coxsackievirus according to any one of 1 to 3, wherein a plurality of (for example, 2 to 6) the polynucleotides consisting of the target sequence are inserted.
  5. 5. The modified coxsackievirus according to any one of 1 to 4, wherein the inserted polynucleotide is the polynucleotide of the sequence of (a) or (b) mentioned below, or a polynucleotide of the sequence of (a) or (b) including deletion, substitution or addition of one to several nucleotides.
    1. (a) ATA CAT ACT TCT TTA CAT TCC ACG ATA TAC ATA CTT CTT TAC ATT CCA ACC GGT TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAT CAC TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TA
    2. (b) TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAC GAT TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAA CCG GTT CCA ATC AGT TCC TGA TGC AGT ATC ACT CCA ATC AGT TCC TGA TGC AGT A
  6. 6. The modified coxsackievirus according to any one of 1 to 5, wherein a region encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is further inserted in an expressible form into the mutated genome.
  7. 7. The modified coxsackievirus according to any one of 1 to 6, wherein a polynucleotide containing a region encoding GM-CSF and a region encoding a 2A protease recognition sequence ligated downstream is further functionally inserted into the mutated genome at a position downstream from ATG of the translation initiation point and upstream from VP4 region.
  8. 8. The modified coxsackievirus according to 7, wherein the 2A protease recognition sequence is a sequence modified so as to be recognizable by 2A protease derived from poliovirus.
  9. 9. A modified coxsackievirus according to any one of 1 to 8, for use in a prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of a cancer, preferably lung cancer, more preferably non-small cell lung cancer, or a precancerous state thereof.
  10. 10. A pharmaceutical composition containing the modified coxsackievirus according to any one of 1 to 8.
  11. 11. A pharmaceutical composition according to 10, for use in a prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of a cancer, preferably lung cancer, more preferably non-small cell lung cancer, or a precancerous state thereof.
  12. 12. The pharmaceutical composition according to 10 or 11, which is a preparation for topical application or systemic administration.
  13. 13. A method of titration or proliferation of the modified coxsackievirus according to any one of 1 to 8, wherein H1299 cells are used to titrate or proliferate the said modified coxsackievirus.

Effect of the Invention



[0018] According to the present invention, safety and antitumor effect of a pharmaceutical composition using an enterovirus can be further enhanced.

Brief Description of the Drawings



[0019] 

[Fig. 1] A schematic diagram of CVB3 carrying a tissue-specific miRNA target sequence. The sequence shown in the diagram is inserted into pBluescript II-CVB3 at the position between 7304 and 7305 bp by the overlap extension PCR method.

[Fig. 2] Difference in virus proliferation caused by difference of insertion position of the miRNA target sequence (HeLa cell).

[Fig. 3] Difference in proliferation rate caused by difference in inserted sequence in modified CVB3 virus. CVB3-miR-1&217T slowed slower proliferation compared with the other two kinds. miR-1 was expressed in the HeLa cells used as a virus-producing cells, and it may be a cause of inhibition of the proliferation.

[Fig. 4] Expression amounts of endogenous miRNA in cells of each type. The expression of miR-1 was markedly higher in the HeLa cells rather than the normal cells, BEAS-2B cells. The HeLa cells are unsuitable as modified virus-producing cells. It may be appropriate to use the H1299 cells showing low expression of both miRNAs as the production cells.

[Fig. 5] miRNA-specific inhibition of virus proliferation. By introduction of exogenous miR-1 or miR-217 into the H1299 cells, virus proliferation of CVB3-miR-1&217T and CVB3-miR-217T was inhibited. This enabled miRNA-specific control of the proliferation using insertion of miRT.

[Fig. 6] Difference in titer caused by difference in the production cells. By using the H1299 cells, genetically modified CVB3 showing a titer higher by 5 times or more can be produced.

[Fig. 7] Difference in the titer caused by difference in cells used for the virus titer measurement. When the H1299 cells were used, a titer higher by 10 times or more was observed in the titration using the same virus. Therefore, the HeLa cells are unsuitable for the production of miRNA target sequence-carrying CVB3, and it is desirable to perform virus production and virus titer measurement in the H1299 cells.

[Fig. 8] Non-clinical data concerning titer

[Fig. 9] H&E tissue staining of pancreas

[Fig. 10] Biochemical analyses

[Fig. 11] 5th Generation CVB3-infected cell

[Fig. 12] 6th Generation CVB3-infected cell

[Fig. 13] The in vivo antitumor effect of genetically modified CVB3-GM-CSF was examined. A tumor (mouse lung cancer, TC-1 cells) was inoculated into the right abdominal part of C57BL/6 mouse on the day 0, and CVB3-WT or CVB3-GM-CSF was intratumorally administered every other day twice in total from the day 4 (5 x 106 TCID50/time).

[Fig. 14] Sequences (SEQ ID NOS: 3 to 5) used for modification of 8th generation CVB3


Modes for Carrying out the Invention



[0020] When a numerical value range is represented as "X to Y" in the present invention, the range includes the values X and Y as the minimum and maximum values. The expression "A and/or B" used in the present invention means at least one of A and B.

[Modified coxsackievirus]


<Improvement in safety of CVB3 by insertion of miR target sequence>



[0021] One embodiment of the modified coxsackievirus provided by the present invention is a modified coxsackievirus containing a mutated genome consisting of the genome of coxsackievirus B3 wild-type (CVB3-WT) inserted with at least one polynucleotide consisting of a target sequence of tissue-specific microRNA (miRNA)), wherein the insertion position is a position between the positions 7304 and 7305 of the CVB3-WT genome. Proliferation of such a modified coxsackievirus may be suppressed in a tissue-specific manner.

[0022] The insertion position of the target sequence of the tissue-specific miRNA is a position in the 3' UTR region of the CVB3-WT genome. According to the studies of the inventors of the present invention, genetically modified CVB3 inserted with the target sequence between 7304 and 7305 bp showed proliferation in the HeLa cells, which are common CVB3-producing cells, but genetically modified CVB3 inserted with the sequence between 7344 and 7345 bp did not show proliferation in the same cells. The same phenomenon was also seen in the HaLa cells in which expression of miRNA was suppressed. Therefore, the insertion position is a position between the positions 7304 and 7305.

[0023] The tissue-specific miRNA (and the target sequence thereof) to be used can be variously chosen, so long as the intended effect is provided, but it is preferably miRNA expressed in the pancreas and/or myocardium (and the target sequence thereof). Particularly preferred examples of the tissue-specific miRNA are miR-1 and/or miR-217. One kind of tissue-specific miRNA (and the target sequence thereof) may be used, and a plurality of kinds of them may be used in combination.

[0024] The number of the target sequence of the tissue-specific miRNA to be inserted can be variously chosen, so long the intended effect is provided, but it is preferably 2 or larger, for example, 2 to 6.

[0025] In a particularly preferred embodiment, the inserted polynucleotide is the polynucleotide of the sequence of (a) or (b) mentioned below. Alternatively, it is a polynucleotide of the sequence of (a) or (b) that includes deletion, substitution or addition of one to several nucleotides, and can function in the same manner as that of the polynucleotide of the sequence of (a) or (b), that is, can suppress proliferation of a modified coxsackievirus constituted by inserting the polynucleotide into the 3' UTR region of the CVB3-WT genome in a tissue-specific manner. Alternatively, it is a polynucleotide that consists of a sequence showing a sequence identity of at least 90%, preferably 95%, more preferably 98%, still more preferably 99%, to the nucleotide sequence of (a) or (b), and can function in the same manner as that of the polynucleotide of the sequence of (a) or (b), that is, can suppress proliferation of a modified coxsackievirus constituted by inserting the polynucleotide into the 3' UTR region of the CVB3-WT genome in a tissue-specific manner.
  1. (a) ATA CAT ACT TCT TTA CAT TCC Acg atA TAC ATA CTT CTT TAC ATT CCA acc ggt TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAt cac TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TA (SEQ ID NO: 1)
  2. (b) TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAc gat TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAa ccg gtT CCA ATC AGT TCC TGA TGC AGT Atc acT CCA ATC AGT TCC TGA TGC AGT A (SEQ ID NO: 2)


[0026] Methods for obtaining a polynucleotide consisting of a certain nucleotide sequence, but including deletion, substitution or addition of one to several nucleotides, and methods for calculating sequence identity (calculation can be performed by using, for example, BLAST algorithm) are well known to those skilled in the art.

<Improvement in aggressiveness by insertion of GM-CSF>



[0027] In another embodiment of the modified coxsackievirus provided by the present invention, a region encoding the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is inserted into the genome of CVB3-WT in an expressible form. In order to insert the region encoding GM-CSF in an expressible form, method for isolating mGM-CSF, insertion site of the gene, and modification of protease recognition sequence can be taken into consideration. Examples of the method for isolating mGM-CSF include use of 3C protease recognition sequence, use of 2A protease recognition sequence, use of IRES, and use of 2A peptide. Examples of the insertion site of the gene include a position immediately downstream from the translation initiation point ATG (upstream of VP4), a position upstream from the 2A gene, and 3' UTR of the genome of CVB3-WT. Examples of the modification of the protease recognition sequence include modification thereof into a sequence derived from a virus other than CVB3.

[0028] According to one of the preferred embodiments, a polynucleotide including the region encoding GM-CSF, and the region encoding the 2A protease recognition sequence ligated downstream is functionally inserted at a position downstream from ATG of the translation initiation point and upstream from the VP4 region.

[0029] The structure of the genome of CVB3-WT is shown below.





[0030] According to one embodiment of the present invention, as for the recognition sequence of 2A protease (also referred to as "2Apro"), it is preferable to use a sequence modified into a sequence that can be recognized by the 2A protease of poliovirus, rather than to use one derived from CVB3.

[0031] In a particularly preferred embodiment, the polynucleotide to be inserted is a polynucleotide consisting of the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 4, or a polynucleotide that comprises the sequence of any one of SEQ ID NOS: 3 to 5, preferably the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 4, including deletion, substitution or addition of one to several nucleotides, and can function in the same manner as that of the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 4, that is, can express GM-CSF, and exhibit cytopathogenic effect (CPE) when it is inserted into the CVB3-WT genome to constitute a modified coxsackievirus. Alternatively, it is a polynucleotide that consists of a sequence showing sequence identity of at least 90%, preferably 95%, more preferably 98%, further preferably 99%, to the nucleotide sequence of any one of SEQ ID NOS: 3 to 5, preferably the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 4, and can function in the same manner as that of the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 4, that is, can express GM-CSF, and exhibit cytopathogenic effect (CPE) when it is inserted into the CVB3-WT genome to constitute a modified coxsackievirus.

[0032] Modification for improving aggressiveness against cancer by insertion of such a polynucleotide encoding GM-CSF or the like may be performed independently, or may be performed in combination with insertion of the aforementioned miRNA target sequence. In a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention, the miRNA target sequence and the polynucleotide encoding GM-CSF are inserted in combination, since high safety and high oncolytic property can be expected.

<Preparation of modified virus etc.>



[0033] The modified virus of the present invention can be prepared by genetically manipulating CVB3-WT. CVB3-WT can be isolated from a sample or the like by a known virus isolation method. Examples of the virus isolation method include centrifugation, proliferation of the virus in cultured cells, and so forth. If a modified coxsackievirus is once prepared, the modified coxsackievirus can be proliferated by using various biological methods for production of virus.

[0034] CVB3 to be modified may be obtained by biological selection, which is performed by subculturing a naturally occurring virus many times in a cell strain so that the virus acquires high infection ability for cancer cells. Examples of cell strain suitable for the biological selection include cancer cell strains that express CAR, DAF and so forth.

[0035] The modified coxsackievirus prepared according to the present invention can be evaluated for various aspects such as safety, efficacy, and titer by various in vitro or in vivo means well known to those skilled in the art. For example, aggressiveness against cancer cells (oncolytic property or toxicity) can be confirmed by examining survival of a cancer cell strain exposed to CVB3. Examples of the method for examining survival of a cell strain include, for example, a method of staining immobilized cells with a staining solution, and counting stained live cells, the crystal violet method, a method of quantifying an apoptosis-specific marker, and so forth. By quantifying cancer cells of a cell strain surviving after a predetermined time of incubation with CVB3 using any of the aforementioned methods, cancer cells killed by the cytotoxicity provided by the infection with CVB3 can be quantified as a result.

[0036] When the inventors of the present invention produced modified CVB3 (inserted with miRNA target sequence), and measured titer thereof by using the HeLa cells, and H1299 cells, which showed low expression of the miRNA used, the modified CVB3 produced in the H1299 cells showed a virus titer even 5 times higher than that of the modified CVB3 produced in the HeLa cells under the conditions described in the section of examples in this specification. Further, when virus titer of the modified CVB3 produced in the HeLa cells was measured in the H1299 cells and the HeLa cells, the virus titer observed in the H1299 cells was 10 times or more times higher than the virus titer observed in the HeLa cells. Therefore, according to one embodiment of the present invention, the H1299 cells are suitable for the production of the modified virus and virus titer measurement. According to the present invention, it is proposed, for the titer measurement or proliferation of the modified coxsackievirus, to use a cell not showing a large expression amount of corresponding tissue-specific miRNA (for example, H1299 cell).

[Pharmaceutical composition]


<Indication of treatment>



[0037] One embodiment of the pharmaceutical composition provided by the present invention contains the aforementioned modified CVB3 as an active ingredient. Type of cancer as an object of the treatment with the pharmaceutical composition is not particularly limited, and it may be a solid cancer or humoral cancer. CVB3 shows cytotoxicity against cancer cell of solid cancer and humoral cancer. The cytotoxicity of CVB3 against cancer cells is based on lysis of cancer cells provided when the virus infects the cancer cells and replicates in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells, or apoptosis induced by activation of caspase in the cancer cells caused by infection of the virus. CVB3 can recognize CAR on the cell surface, and infect the cell. The "treatment (to treat)" referred to in the present invention for a disease or condition include a prophylactic treatment and therapeutic treatment.

[0038] CVB3 has cytotoxicity against cancer cells of solid cancer and humoral cancer. Solid cancer cells for which especially potent cytotoxicity is induced are cells of a cancer selected from the group consisting of small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, lung squamous cell cancer, malignant mesothelioma, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, hypopharyngeal cancer, human B lymphoma, breast cancer, and uterine cervix cancer. Therefore, the pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment is preferably applied to any one selected from the group consisting of small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, lung squamous cell cancer, malignant mesothelioma, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, hypopharyngeal cancer, human B lymphoma, breast cancer, and uterine cervix cancer, as an object.

[0039] Lung cancer is a cancer of which number of affected individuals takes higher rank. The pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment would be able to contribute to the treatment of more lung cancer patients. Morbidities of colon cancer and colorectal cancer are increasing in Japan where the Western eating habits were established, and mortalities are also increasing. The pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment increases the choices of therapeutic drug for colon cancer and colorectal cancer, and it is beneficial to the patients. The recurrence rate of esophageal cancer after surgical resection is as high as 30 to 50%, and the sensitivity thereof to the existing drugs is low. It is expected that the pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment improves the treatment results of esophageal cancer.

[0040] Further, the pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment shows potent cytotoxicity against cancer cells resistant to CDDP, gefitinib, or oxaliplatin. Therefore, a treatment effective to so-called intractable cancers that show resistance to these anticancer agents can be provided.

[0041] The pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment shows potent cytotoxicity also against cancer stem cells, when the composition contains CVB3. Cancer stem cells are considered to be one of the causes of relapse of cancer, and therefore the composition is useful for prevention of metastasis and relapse of cancer.

<Dosage form, usage, and dose>



[0042] The pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment can be in various dosage forms, and can be administered via various administration routes. That is, the pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment can also be a topical preparation, or a preparation for systemic administration. For example, it can be administered as an injection or fusion drip by intratumoral administration, intravenous administration, intrathoracic administration, or intraperitoneal administration according to type of cancer. In particular, in the many cases of gastrointestinal cancers such as esophageal cancer and colon cancer, the pharmaceutical composition can be directly injected into a tumor tissue with visually observing the tumor tissue with an endoscope, or the like. In such a case, since the injection site can be confirmed with an endoscope, or the like, there is also provided an advantage that even if bleeding is observed, it is easily treated. Otherwise, it may be administered by oral administration, or it may be intramuscularly or subcutaneously administered, or administered via rectum, vagina, nasal cavity, or the like.

[0043] The pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment may contain a carrier, diluent, auxiliary agent etc., in addition to the modified CVB3. As the carrier, for example, liposome, micelle, and so forth are preferred. The liposome contains a combination of a lipid and a steroid or steroid precursor that contributes to membrane stability. Examples of the lipid include phosphatidyl compounds such as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, sphingolipids, phosphatidylethanolamine, cerebroside, and ganglioside. With CVB3 contained in liposome or micelle, immune response of a host can be reduced.

[0044] Examples of the diluent include, for example, desalted water, distilled water, physiological saline, and so forth. Examples of the auxiliary agent include vegetable oils, cellulose derivatives, polyethylene glycol, fatty acid esters, and so forth.

[0045] In the case of oral administration, the pharmaceutical composition may contain a sweetener, disintegrating agent, diluent, coating agent, preservative, and so forth.

[0046] The pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment is administered so that the amount of CVB3 is a sufficient for treatment of cancer. Dose is determined on the basis of weight, age, sex of patients, size of tumor tissue, and so forth. For example, when the pharmaceutical composition is used as a solution, it is sufficient that 1 x 102 to 1 x 1010 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) of CVB3, preferably 1 x 105 TCID50 or more of CVB3, is contained in 1 ml of the solution. The pharmaceutical composition may be administered at a single time, or may be administered at a plurality of times. The pharmaceutical composition may be continuously administered as a sustained release preparation.

<Combinatory use with other preparation>



[0047] The pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment may be used together with an anticancer agent. When an anticancer agent of which action mechanism is different from that of the pharmaceutical composition is used in combination, improvement in the antitumor effect can be expected. Although the anticancer agent is not particularly limited, those used for a treatment of small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, lung squamous cell cancer, malignant mesothelioma, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, hypopharyngeal cancer, human B lymphoma, uterine cervix cancer, pancreatic cancer, and so forth are desirable. Specific examples of the anticancer agents are CDDP (cisplatin), gefitinib, oxaliplatin, and so forth.

[Others]



[0048] The pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment of the invention may contain a polynucleotide derived from CVB3 (including modified CVB3, the same shall apply to the following descriptions) that can infect a cancer cell as an active ingredient. The polynucleotide derived from CVB3 may be virus RNA directly isolated from CVB3, synthetic RNA, or cDNA corresponding to a nucleotide sequence of isolated virus RNA. For isolating virus RNA, an arbitrary method can be used. Examples of the method of isolating virus RNA include, for example, a method based on use of phenol/chloroform extraction, and so forth. The polynucleotide may be a virus plasmid or expression vector containing a polynucleotide for producing the virus. Such an expression vector includes, for example, a plasmid that can express RNA encoding a virus protein required for producing the virus. The expression vector may contain a transcription control sequence functionally ligated with the inserted polynucleotide. The transcription control sequence referred to here is, for example, a promoter for starting transcription, an expression control element for enabling binding of ribosome to the transcribed mRNA, or the like.

[0049] As the expression vector, for example, pSV2neo, pEF-PGk, puro, pTk2, non-replicable adenovirus shuttle vector, cytomegalovirus promoter, etc. can be used. cDNA encoding a virus protein required for producing virus can be prepared by reverse transcription of a virus RNA or a fragment thereof.

[0050] The pharmaceutical composition of this embodiment may contain, for example, a carrier such as liposome, in addition to the polynucleotide derived from CVB3 that can infect a cancer cell. The polynucleotide derived from CVB3 may contain, for example, the polynucleotide consisting of the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 or 2, and/or a polynucleotide consisting of any of the sequences of SEQ ID NOS: 3 to 5.

[0051] Hereafter, examples of the present invention will be explained. However, the scope of the present invention is not limited by these examples.

Examples


I. Improvement in safety of CVB3 by insertion of miRNA target sequence



[0052] The object of this research is reduction of the adverse reaction of oncolytic wild-type CVB3 (CVB-WT) observed in the pancreas and myocardium. CVB3-WT causes especially intense inflammation in the pancreas, and there are confirmed marked elevation of AMY in a serobiochemical test and destruction of exocrine glands in H&E stained tissue images. In order to overcome these problems, the inventors of the present invention inserted a target sequence of tissue-specific microRNA (miRNA) into the genome 3' untranslated region (UTR) of CVB3-WT with aiming at achieving the expected reduction of adverse reaction. Since the RISC complex having a tissue-specific miRNA binds to the inserted target sequence of miRNA to inhibit translation of virus protein etc., tissue-specific suppression of the proliferation is enabled.

I-1. Difference in virus proliferation caused by difference in insertion site of target sequence



[0053] The inventors of the present invention paid attention to two kinds of miRNAs, i.e., one is miR-217 considered to be specifically expressed in the pancreas, and the other one is miR-1 considered to be specifically expressed in muscular tissue and normal cells, and combined them to prepare two kinds of miRNA target sequences consisting of four of continuously ligated miRNA target sequences (miR-1x2&miR-217x2, and miR-217x4). The two kinds of target sequences were each inserted into the CVB3 genome between 7304 and 7305 bp by using the overlap extension PCR method. The aforementioned target sequences were also inserted into the CVB3 genome between 7344 and 7345 bp by the overlap extension PCR method (Fig. 1).

[0054] For both the genetically modified CVB3 (CVB3-miR-1&217T, and CVB3-miR-217T) in which the insertion was made between 7304 and 7305 bp, proliferation was observed in the HeLa cells, which are common CVB3-producing cells, and thus genetically modified CVB3 could be successfully produced. However, for both the genetically modified CVB3 in which the insertion was made between 7344 and 7345 bp, proliferation was not observed in the HeLa cells (Fig. 2). Further, the same phenomenon was also observed in the HaLa cells in which expression of miRNA was suppressed, and therefore it became clear that CVB3 may not replicate depending on the insertion site of the miRNA target sequence, even if it is inserted into 3' UTR, and these 40 bp constitute a sequence important for the replication of CVB3.

[0055] Russell et al. previously reported that when a miRNA target sequence was inserted into 3' UTR of CVA21, tissue-specific suppression of proliferation was induced. However, research of the inventors of the present invention is novel in that they paid attention to miRNAs different from those mentioned by Russell et al., and they used novel miRNAs for which insertion into viral genome has not been reported. In addition, Russell et al. did not refer to at which site of 3' UTR the insertion should be made to obtain good result, and the finding that the insertion between 7304 and 7305 bp allows normal replication of CVB3 is also considered to be novel.

[0056] The term genetically modified CVB3-miRT henceforth refers to one in which the insertion was made between 7304 and 7305 bp. Further, CVB3-miR-1&217T refers to the modified CVB3 inserted with two each of miR-1 and miR-217T shown in Fig. 1 (polynucleotide of SEQ ID NO: 1), and CVB3-miR-217T refers to the modified CVB3 inserted with four of miR-217T shown in Fig. 1 (polynucleotide of sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2), unless especially indicated.

I-2. Difference in proliferation rate caused by difference of insertion sequence and expression amount of endogenous miRNA in various cells



[0057] When the genetically modified CVB3-miRT was produced by using the HeLa cells, retardation of proliferation was observed only for CVB3-miR-1&217T compared with the other two kinds (CVB3-WT, CVB3-miR-217T) (Fig. 3).

[0058] Since it was expected from this result that miR-1 was expressed in a large amount in the HeLa cells, expression amounts of endogenous miRNA were quantified by the real-time PCR method in the HeLa cells, BEAS-2B cells, which are normal respiratory epithelium cells, cells of lung cancer cell strains as the objects of treatment (A549 cells, NCI-H1299 cells), AsPC-1 cells, which are cells of pancreatic cancer cell strain, and RD cells, which are malignant rhabdomyoma cells. As a result, it was revealed that the expression amount of miR-1 in the HeLa cells was 20 times or more higher than that observed in the BEAS-2B cells as normal cells, as expected, and the expression amount in the HeLa cells was the second highest following that observed in the RD cells of the malignant rhabdomyoma cell strain. In the cells of both the two kinds of lung cancer cell strains, which are the object of the treatment, expressions of miR-1 and miR-217 were hardly observed (Fig. 4).

[0059] Since the above results suggested a possibility of miRNA-specific proliferation suppression of the genetically modified CVB3-miRT of the present invention, miR-1 and miR-217 were introduced by transfection into the NCI-H1299 cells, in which expressions of miR-1 and miR-217 were hardly seen, and it was examined whether suppression of proliferation of CVB3-miRT would be seen. As a result, it was revealed that, in the H1299 cells introduced with miR-1, the oncolytic effect could not be seen for CVB3-miR-1&217T, even when CVB3-miR-1&217T was infected in a 100 times larger amount compared with CVB3-WT (Fig. 5A). Further, in the H1299 cells introduced with miR-217, the oncolytic effect was not seen for CVB3-miR-1&217T and CVB3-miR217T, even when they were infected in a 10,000 times larger amount compared with CVB3-WT (Fig. 5B). These results revealed that the genetically modified CVB3 caused RNA interference in a target miRNA-specific manner to show suppression of proliferation.

I-3. Difference in titer provided by difference of cells for production and titration



[0060] In order to determine cells appropriate for producing CVB3-miRT in consideration of the aforementioned results, virus production and measurement of the titer were performed by using the HeLa cells, and the H1299 cells, in which expression of miRNA was low. CVB3-miR-1&217T produced in the H1299 cells showed a virus titer even 5 times higher than that of the virus produced in the HeLa cells (Fig. 6). Further, when the virus titer of CVB3-miR-1&217T produced in the HeLa cell was measured in the H1299 cells and the HeLa cells, the virus titer observed in the H1299 cells was 10 times or more higher than the virus titer observed in the HeLa cells (Fig. 7). These results revealed that the H1299 cells are suitable for virus production and virus titer measurement of CVB3-miRT.

I-4. In vivo test



[0061] In vivo antitumor effect and toxicity of the genetically modified CVB3 were examined. A tumor (non-small cell lung cancer, NCI-H1299 cells) was inoculated into the right abdominal parts of nude mice on the day 0, and the CVB3 virus was intratumorally administered from the day 2 every other day, 5 times in total (5 x 106 TCID50/time).

[0062] As a result, the tumor volume (mm3) was suppressed in the CVB3-WT-administered group and CVB3-miRT-administered group (destruction of exocrine glands in the pancreas, inflammatory infiltration in the myocardium, and inflammatory infiltration in the liver were observed in histological diagnoses in CVB3-WT-administered group, Figs. 8A and 8B). Forty days after the inoculation of tumor, whereas the survival rate of the non-treated group was 0%, the survival rate of the virus-administered group was 100% (Fig. 8C).

[0063] Further, when serum amylase (AMY), creatine kinase (CK), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured, slightly high values were observed in the CVB3-WT-administered group, but in the CVB3-miRT administered group, the values were comparable to those observed for the non-treated group (Fig. 9). Further, in the H&E tissue staining of the pancreas, particular destruction of the exocrine glands, which may be caused by administration of CVB3-WT, was not seen (Fig. 10). These results suggested that CVB3-miR-1&217T hardly influences on the pancreas, muscle, and liver.

I-5. Methods summary



[0064] This research was performed according to the following protocols.

[Production of CVB3-miRT]


<Construction of vector>


(Materials and reagents)



[0065] 
  • CVB3 Plasmid
  • KOD -Plus-
  • UltraPure
  • Primers

CVB3-miR-Forward
caggtctttgaggggaacaa (20 pmol/µl, SEQ ID NO: 6)

CVB3-miR-Reverse
attaatgcagctggcacgac (20 pmol/µl, SEQ ID NO: 7)

miR-1&217T Forward
ttaATACATACTTCTTTACATTCCAcgatATACATACTTCTTTACATTCCAaccggtTCC AATCAGTTCCTGATGCAGTAtcacTCCAATCAGTTCCTGATGCAGTAgagacaatttga aataatttag (20 pmol/µl, SEQ ID NO: 8)

miR-1&217T Reverse
ctcTACTGCATCAGGAACTGATTGGAgtgaTACTGCATCAGGAACTGATTGGAacc ggtTGGAATGTAAAGAAGTATGTATatcgTGGAATGTAAAGAAGTATGTATtaatctaa aaggagtccaacca (20 pmol/µl) (SEQ ID NO: 9)

miR-217T Forward
ttaTCCAATCAGTTCCTGATGCAGTAcgatTCCAATCAGTTCCTGATGCAGTAaccgg tTCCAATCAGTTCCTGATGCAGTAtcacTCCAATCAGTTCCTGATGCAGTAgagaca atttgaaataatttag (SEQ ID NO: 10)


(Methods)



[0066] The following components are mixed in the following order in a 0.2-ml PCR tube on ice.
[Table 2]
ReagentFirst halfSecond half
UltraPure 34 µl 34 µl
10× Buffer for KOD -Plus- 5 µl 5 µl
2 mM dNTPs 5 µl 5 µl
25 mM MgSO4 2 µl 2 µl
Plasmid 1 µl 1 µl
Primer Forward CVB3-miR-Forward Arbitrary miRT-Forward
Primer Reverse Arbitrary miRT-Reverse CVB3-miR-Reverse
KOD -Plus- 1 µl 1 µl


[0067] 

2. The mixture is stirred by tapping or gentle pipetting, and gently spun down, and the solution is collected.
The following program is executed with a thermal cycler (Bio-Rad).

3. 94°C 2:00, 94°C 0:15, 62°C 0:15, 68°C 1:30 (10 cycles), 72°C 7:00

4. Overlap extension PCR is performed by using the two PCR products.

5. These two PCR products are each put into a tube in a volume of 1 µl, and used as the template together with the CVB3-miR-Forward and CVB3-miR-Reverse primers to perform PCR. The aforementioned program is executed for 30 cycles.

6. The overlap extension PCR product is purified, and the product and the CVB3 plasmid are treated with the restriction enzymes SalI and BstII.

7. Agarose gel electrophoresis is performed with the product obtained after the restriction enzyme treatment, and target bands are excised.

8. After the gel purification, the CVB3 plasmid treated with the restriction enzymes and the overlap extension PCR product treated with the restriction enzymes are reacted at 16°C for 2 hours by using Ligation High.

9. The ligation product is introduced into competent cells, and the cells are cultured at 37°C.

10. Colonies are picked up on the next day, and cultured in LB medium.

11. Plasmids are collected from the culture, and insertion of the miRNA target sequence is confirmed.


<Preparation of virus RNA>


(Materials and reagents)



[0068] 
  • MEGAscript (registered trademark) Kit (Ambion, Cat# AM1333, stored at -20°C)
  • CVB3 plasmids (CVB3-WT, CVB3-miR-1&217T, CVB3-miR-217T)
  • Phenol:Chloroform 5:1, Acid-equilibrated, pH 4.7 (Sigma Cat# P1944-100ML, Lot# 010M1574)
  • Chloroform (Nacalai Tesque, Cat# 08402-55, Lot# V6K0595)
  • 75% Ethanol (using nuclease-free water)
  • 10 mol/l Ammonium Acetate Solution (Nacalai Tesque, Cat# 02432-74, Lot# L2B2291)
  • UltraPure

(Methods)



[0069] 
  1. 1. The regents are mixed at room temperature in the following order in a 0.2-ml PCR tube (total 20 µl).
[Table 3]
ReagentVolume
Linear template DNA (0.1-1 µg) x µl
Nuclease-free Water (8-x) µl
ATP solution 2 µl
CTP solution 2 µl
GTP solution 2 µl
UTP solution 2 µl
10× Reaction Buffer 2 µl
Enzyme Mix 2 µl
Total 20 µl


[0070] 

2. Reaction is allowed at 37°C for 3 hours by using a thermal cycler (thermal cycler of Bio-Rad is used).

3. After 3 hours, TURBO DNase (1 µl) is added to the tube during the reaction, the mixture is sufficiently stirred, and the reaction is further allowed at 37°C for 15 minutes.

4. A solution is prepared in advance by mixing 114 µl of UltraPure and 15 µl of attached Ammonium Acetate Stop Solution in 1.5-ml tubes in a number of required number x 1.1.

5. After the reaction, 129 µl of the aforementioned mixture is added to the tubes, and pipetting is performed.

6. The whole volume of the mixture is transferred to a 0.7-ml tube.

7. Phenol:Chloroform (150 µl) is added to the mixture, and the mixture is stirred by pipetting and inverting the tube.

8. The mixture is centrifuged at 10,000 x g for 2 minutes at room temperature.

9. The supernatant (about 150 µl) is transferred to another new 0.7-ml tube.

10. Chloroform (150 µl) is added to the aqueous layer, and the mixture is stirred by inverting the tube.

21. The mixture is centrifuged at 10,000 x g for 2 minutes at room temperature.

22. The supernatant (about 100 µl) is transferred to another new 0.7-ml tube.

23. Cold 5 M Ammonium acetate (150 µl) is added to the aqueous layer, and the mixture is stirred by pipetting.

24. The mixture is left standing on ice for 10 minutes.

25. The mixture is centrifuged at 10,000 x g for 15 minutes at 4°C.

26. The supernatant is slowly removed with Pipetman.

27. 75% Ethanol (200 µl) is gently added to the mixture.

28. The mixture is centrifuged at 10,000 x g for 10 minutes at 4°C.

29. The supernatant is removed as much as possible with Pipetman.

30. UltraPure (70 µl) is added to the pellet to dissolve it.


<Preparation of virus>


(Materials and reagents)



[0071] 
  • NCI-H1299 cells (1 x 107 cells/150 mm/dish)
  • RPMI 1640 w/10% FBS (growth medium)
  • Opti-MEM (registered trademark) I
  • Lipofectamine™ 2000 Reagent (Invitrogen, Cat# 11668-019)
  • In vitro transcription product

(Methods)



[0072] 
  1. 1. RNA (80 µg) is added to Opti-MEM contained in a tube, and Lipofectamine 2000 (120 µl) is added to Opti-MEM contained in another tube.
  2. 2. Both the tubes are left standing at room temperature for 5 minutes.
  3. 3. The contents of both the tubes are mixed, and left standing at room temperature for 20 minutes.
  4. 4. After 20 minutes, the whole volume of the mixture is added to the NCI-H1299 cells.
  5. 5. After 4 hours, the mixture is replaced with the growth medium.
  6. 6. The cells were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours in 5% CO2.
  7. 7. Twenty-four hours after the transfection, the NCI-H1299 cells are scraped with a cell scraper without discarding the medium.
  8. 8. The supernatant is collected together with the cells in a 50-ml tube.
  9. 9. The 50-ml tube is immersed into liquid N2 to freeze the content.
  10. 10. The content is thawed on a water bath at 37°C.
  11. 11. Freezing and thawing of 9 and 10 are repeated twice (3 cycles in total of freezing and thawing).
  12. 12. The content is centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 15 minutes at 4°C.
  13. 13. The medium of the NCI-H1299 cells, to which the supernatant is to be transferred, is replaced with fresh medium (15 ml)
  14. 14. The whole volume of the centrifuged supernatant is added to the NCI-H1299 cells.
  15. 15. The cells are incubated at 37°C for 5 to 6 hours in 5% CO2.
  16. 16. When CPE of 60 to 70% or higher is confirmed, the culture supernatants is removed.
  17. 17. Opti-MEM (registered trademark) I (2 ml) is added.
  18. 18. The cells are scraped with a cell scraper.
  19. 19. The whole volume of Opti-MEM (registered trademark) I is collected together with the cells into a 15-ml tube.
  20. 20. The 15-ml tube is immersed into liquid nitrogen to freeze the content (about 2 minutes).
  21. 21. The content is thawed on a water bath at 37°C (about 10 minutes).
  22. 22. Freezing and thawing of 20 and 21 are repeated twice (3 cycles in total of freezing and thawing).
  23. 23. The content is centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 15 minutes at 4°C.
  24. 24. The supernatant is stored at -80°C.

<Measurement of virus titer>


(Materials and reagents)



[0073] 
  • 96-Well plate (flat bottom)
  • NCI-H1299 cells (5 x 103 cells/100 µl/well)
  • RPMI 1640 w/10% FBS (growth medium)
  • 96-Well plate (round bottom)
  • Opti-MEM (registered trademark) I

(Methods)



[0074] 
  1. 1. The NCI-H1299 cells are inoculated into all the wells of the 96-well flat plate in an amount of 5 x 103 cells/100 µl/well.
  2. 2. The cells are incubated at 37°C for 7 hours in 5% CO2.
  3. 3. Opti-MEM is added in a volume of 180 µl each to the wells of the second row to the final row of the 96-well round plate.
  4. 4. For the highest virus concentration (usually 10-2) in the wells of the first row, Opti-MEM (990 µl) is added to a 1.5-ml tube, the virus stock solution (10 µl) is added to the tube, and the mixture is stirred by sufficient pipetting to prepare 10-2 solution.
  5. 5. The 10-2 virus solution is added in a volume of 120 µl each to the wells of the first row of the 96-well round plate.
  6. 6. The virus solution in the wells of the first row is moved in a volume of 20 µl each to the wells of the second row by using an 8-tip electric pipetter.
  7. 7. Pipetting is performed once in those wells, and the tips are changed.
  8. 8. The solution (20 µl each) is taken from the wells in which dilution is performed immediately before, and moved to the wells of the next row.
  9. 9. Pipetting is performed once, and tips are changed.
  10. 10. The operations of 8 and 9 are repeated to the 11th row.
  11. 11. The flat plate on which the NCI-H1299 cells are inoculated is taken out from an incubator.
  12. 12. The virus solution is taken in a volume of 50 µl each from the wells of round plate, and added to the NCI-H1299 cells in the wells of the flat plate by using an 8-tip pipetter starting from the wells of the 12th row of the lowest concentration.
  13. 13. The cells were incubated at 37°C for 120 hours (5 days) in 5% CO2.
  14. 14. Wells in which 50% CPE is observed are counted. The titer is calculated in accordance with the following equation.


[In vivo test (anticancer effect, biochemical inspection, H&E staining)]


(Materials and reagents)



[0075] 
  • 150-mm Dish
  • NCI-H1299 cells (5 x 106 cells/100 µl PBS/mouse) (04/01 Thawing T175 2 passage)
  • RPMI 1640 w/10% FBS (growth medium)
  • PBS
  • 18G Needle (Invitrogen Cat# 11668-019, Lot# 890730)
  • 27G Needle
  • 1 ml TERUMO syringe
  • Virus

    CVB3-WT (2.66 x 109 TCID50/ml, about 1.88 µl/mouse)

    CVB3-miR-1&217T (3.55 x 108 TCID50/ml, about 14.1 µl/mouse)

    CVB3-miR-217T (2.66 x 108 TCID50/ml, about 19 µl/mouse)

  • 1 ml TERUMO syringe (29G)
  • Opti-MEM (registered trademark) I

(Methods)



[0076] 
  1. 1. The NCI-H2199 cells are inoculated on 16 of 150-mm dishes.
  2. 2. The cells of 4 dishes are removed and collected into 50-ml tubes. The 50-ml tubes in a number of 4 in total are subjected to centrifugation (4°C, 1,000 rpm, 5 minutes).
  3. 3. The pellets of two of the tubes are suspended in PBS (20 ml). These are mixed to prepare a suspension of a total volume of 40 ml.
  4. 4. The suspension was centrifuged at 1,000 rpm for 5 minutes at 4°C.
  5. 5. The NCI-H1299 cells are re-suspended in PBS at 5 x 107 cells/ml.
  6. 6. The aforementioned suspension (100 µl) is subcutaneously injected to the right abdominal part of BALB/c nu/nu.
  7. 7. After 2 days, each virus diluted to 5 x 106 TCID50/50 µl with Opti-MEM is intratumorally administered.
  8. 8. The aforementioned virus administration is performed every other day 5 times in total.
  9. 9. Diameters of tumor (major axis and minor axis), and body weight are measured every other day.


[0077] Alternatively, the following operations are performed instead of the operations of 8 and 9 mentioned above.

8. After further 2 days, blood and organs are extracted from the mouse.

9. The blood is centrifuged, and the supernatant is used for biochemical tests. The organs are fixed with PFA, then dehydrated, and stained with H&E.


II. Improvement in aggressiveness by insertion of GM-CSF



[0078] The inventors of the present invention attempted to prepare a genetically modified virus inserted with the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for the purpose of further increasing the tumor regression effect for cases where radical cure of tumor was not obtained with the wild-type CVB3 (CVB-WT).

II-1. Results



[0079] The inventors of the present invention examined the conditions of the genetic modification with paying attention to the following three points. The first one is the isolation method of mGM-CSF (3Cpro, 2Apro, IRES, 2A peptide). The second one is the insertion site of the gene (directly downstream from the initiation point ATG, upstream from the 2A gene, or 3' UTR of the genome of CVB3-WT). The third one is the difference in the protease recognition sequence (comparison with sequences derived from other viruses). A table summarizing the examination results is shown below.
[Table 4]
 LocationIsolation methodGene expression (EGFP can be observedCPE
with fluorescence, GM-CSF is evaluatedooo; fairly rapid (around 6 h),
based on detection amount)oo; rapid (around 10 h),
oo; fairly rapid or high,o; slow (12 h or longer),
o; rapid or high,-; fairly slow (24 h or longer),
-; slightly detected,x; no CPE
x; below detection limit 
1st Downstream from ATG 3Cpro o CVB3-EGFP x
2nd Downstream from ATG 3Cpro oo CVB3-Cla&Sbf-EGFP ooo CVB3-Cla&Sbf-EGFP
- CVB3-Cla&Sbf-GM-CSF x CVB3-Cla&Sbf-GM-CSF
3rd Downstream from stop codon IRES o CVB3-IRES-EGFP - CVB3-IRES-EGFP
o CVB3-IRES-GM-CSF - CVB3-IRES-GM-CSF
4th Upstream from stop codon 2A peptide x CVB3-2A-EGFP x CVB3-2A-EGFP
x CVB3-2A-GM-CSF x CVB3-2A-GM-CSF
5th Upstream from 2A protease 2Apro o CVB3-G-EGFP-T o CVB3-G-EGFP-T
x CVB3-TG-EGFP-TG x CVB3-TG-EGFP-TG
o CVB3-GAFGQQ-EGFP-MTNT o CVB3-GAFGQQ-EGFP-MTNT
x CVB3-G-GM-CSF-T x CVB3-G-GM-CSF-T
x CVB3-TG-GM-CSF-TG x CVB3-TG-GM-CSF-TG
o CVB3-GAFGQQ-GM-CSF-MTNT o CVB3-GAFGQQ-GM-CSF-MTNT
6th Upstream from 2A protease 2Apro (GQQ deletion) x CVB3-GAF-EGFP-MTNT x CVB3-GAF-EGFP-MTNT
(LTTY substitution) oo CVB3-GAFGQQ-GM-CSF-LTTY oo CVB3-GAFGQQ-GM-CSF-LTTY
7th Downstream from ATG 3Cpro o CVB3-EGFP-ALFQ o CVB3-EGFP-ALFQ
oo CVB3-EGFP-AVFQ oo CVB3-EGFP-AVFQ
x CVB3-GM-CSF-ALFQ x CVB3-GM-CSF-ALFQ
o CVB3-GM-CSF-AVFQ o CVB3-GM-CSF-AVFQ
8th Downstream from ATG 2A peptide o CVB3-GM-CSF-2A (2A peptide) - CVB3-GM-CSF-2A (2A peptide)
2Apro o CVB3-GM-CSF-LTTY (2Apro) ooo CVB3-GM-CSF-LTTY (2Apro)
3Cpro o CVB3-GM-CSF-AVFQ (3Cpro) oo CVB3-GM-CSF-AVFQ (3Cpro)

[Use of 3Cpro and insertion of mGM-CSF immediately downstream from ATG (1st generation and 2nd generation)]



[0080] First, by using 3Cpro, of which use for genetic modification of viruses of the genus Enterovirus had been reported, the insertion was performed immediately downstream from ATG. As a result, the cytopathogenic effect (CPE) was not observed for CVB3 inserted with the mGM-CSF gene. However, for the EGFP-inserted CVB3 (CVB3-EGFP) that was prepared as a control and could be confirmed, expression of EGFP was confirmed as previously reported, and CPE could be observed (Fig. 10). This result suggested a possibility that insertion of mGM-CSF immediately downstream from ATG by using 3Cpro is inappropriate. In addition, insertion into 3' UTR (upstream or downstream from the stop codon) using IRES or 2A peptide was also attempted as the 3rd generation and 4th generation, but the same results were obtained.

[Use of 2Apro and insertion of mGM-CSF immediately upstream from 2A gene (5th generation and 6th generation)]



[0081] In consideration of the above results, it was examined which protein isolation method among 3Cpro, 2Apro, IRES, and 2A peptide could derive CPE and isolate mGM-CSF. As a result, CVB3 inserted with mGM-CSF immediately upstream from the 2A gene by using 2Apro induced CPE, and expression of mGM-CSF was confirmed by ELISA. Furthermore, when 2Apro recognition sequence inserted simultaneously with mGM-CSF was examined, it was found that CPE was more strongly induced with the 2Apro recognition sequence derived from poliovirus compared with 2Apro recognition sequence derived from CVB3 (Fig. 12), and CVB3 of a higher virus titer could be obtained with the 2Apro recognition sequence derived from poliovirus. However, even in CVB3 inserted with mGM-CSF immediately upstream from the 2A gene by using 2Apro, virus titer applicable to an in vivo experiment could not be obtained.






[Use of 2Apro and insertion of mGM-CSF immediately downstream from ATG (8th generation)]



[0082] In consideration of the above results, attention was paid again to the position immediately downstream from ATG, which was the insertion position of CVB3-EGFP providing high virus titer usable for in vivo experiment. CVB3-mGM-CSF was prepared, in which the insertion was performed immediately downstream from ATG by using 2Apro. CVB3-mGM-CSF showing a high titer usable for the in vivo experiment could be obtained. Sufficient virus titer could not be expected with use of poliovirus-derived sequence and 3Cpro as well as insertion of mGM-CSF immediately downstream from ATG (7th generation).


[In vivo test of CVB3-GM-CSF]



[0083] In vivo antitumor effect of genetically modified CVB3-GM-CSF (inserted sequence was the aforementioned 8th generation CVB3-GM-CSF-LTTY, the polynucleotide of SEQ ID NO: 4). Tumor (mouse lung cancer, TC-1 cells) was inoculated in the right abdominal parts of C57BL/6 mice on the day 0, and CVB3-WT or CVB3-GM-CSF was intratumorally administered every other day from the day 4 twice in total (5 x 106 TCID50/time). As a result, the genetically modified CVB3-GM-CSF exhibited oncolytic property higher than that of WT.

[Subsummary]



[0084] According to the present invention, mGM-CSF was inserted into the genome of Enterovirus virus for the first time, and mGM-CSF was expressed and isolated by methods completely different from those previously reported. The idea of expressing a foreign protein with maintaining the cytopathogenic effect of enterovirus is extremely heretical for enteroviruses of which pathogenicity have been studied, and it is considered that the originality and novelty of the present invention are extremely high.

II-2. Methods summary



[0085] This research was done according to the following protocols.

[Experiment of 5th generation]


<1st Double joint PCR>


(Materials and reagents)



[0086] 
  • CVB3-WT Plasmid (1) (approx. 10 ng/µl)
  • pMXs-eGFP (approx. 100 ng/µl) or
  • KOD -Plus- Neo (TOYOBO Cat# KOD-401)
  • UltraPure
  • Primers (15 pmol/µl)
[Table 8]
NameSequence
CVB3-Forward GCACTCACTGCTGCTGAGAC (SEQ ID NO: 11)
CVB3-Reverse AGGTCATCGTGGTTCCTCAC (SEQ ID NO: 12)
EGFP-Forward Gtgagcaagggcgaggagct (SEQ ID NO: 13)
EGFP-Reverse Cttgtacagctcgtccatgc (SEQ ID NO: 14)
CVB3-G-EGFP-T-Fw AtcactctcggcatggacgagctgtacaagACGggcgcatttggacaacaatcaggggcagTg (SEQ ID NO: 15)
CVB3-G-EGFP-T-Rev CccggtgaacagctcctcgcccttgctcacGCCcgtatttgtcattgtagtgatgctttgcct (SEQ ID NO: 16)
CVB3-TG-EGFP-TG-Fw AtcactctcggcatggacgagctgtacaagACGGGCggcgcatttggacaacaatcaggggcagTg (SEQ ID NO: 17)
CVB3-TG-EGFP-TG-Rev CccggtgaacagctcctcgcccttgctcacGCCCGTcgtatttgtcattgtagtgatgctttgcct (SEQ ID NO: 18)
GAFGQQ-EGFP-MTNT-Fw AtcactctcggcatggacgagctgtacaagATGACAAATACGggcgcatttggacaacaatcaggggcagTg (SEQ ID NO: 19)
GAFGQQ-EGFP-MTNT-Rev CccggtgaacagctcctcgcccttgctcacTTGTTGTCCAAATGCGCCcgtatttgtcattgtagtgatgctttgcct (SEQ ID NO: 20)

(Methods)



[0087] 
1. The components were mixed in the following order in a 0.2-ml PCR tube on ice.
[Table 9]
ReagentCVB3-VP1CVB3-2AEGFP
UltraPure 33 µl 33 µl 33 µl
10× Buffer 5 µl 5 µl 5 µl
2 mM dNTPs 5 µl 5 µl 5 µl
25 mM MgSO4 3 µl 3 µl 3 µl
Plasmid CVB3-WT(1) 1 µl CVB3-WT(1) 1 µl pMX-EGFP 1 µl
Primer Forward (1 µl) CVB3-Forward CVB3-G-EGFP-T-Fw CVB3-TG-EGFP-TG-Fw GAFGQQ-EGFP-MTNT-Fw EGFP-Forward
Primer Reverse (1 µl) CVB3-G-EGFP-T-Rev CVB3-TG-EGFP-TG-Rev GAFGQQ-EGFP-MTNT-Rev CVB3-Reverse EGFP-Reverse
KOD-Plus-Neo 1 µl 1 µl 1 µl

2. The following program is executed by using Mastercycler (registered trademark) Pro (Eppendorf).
94°C 2:00, 98°C 0:10, 68°C 2:00 (10 cycles), 72°C 7:00
Agarose gel electrophoresis is performed by using three kinds of PCR products, and the target bands are excised. Nucleic acids are extracted from the excised gel.

<2nd Double joint PCR>


(Materials and reagents)



[0088] 
  • 1st Joint PCR product (VP1 side:EGFP:2A side = 1:3:1, molar ratio)

    VP1 product obtained after PCR gel extraction (three kinds of T, TG, and MTNT)

    EGFP product obtained after PCR gel extraction

    2A product obtained after PCR gel extraction (three kinds of T, TG, and MTNT)

  • KOD -Plus- Neo (TOYOBO Cat# KOD-401)

(Methods)



[0089] 
1. The components are mixed in the following order in a 0.2-ml PCR tube on ice.
[Table 10]
ReagentEGFP
UltraPure 31 µl
10× Buffer 5 µl
2 mM dNTPs 5 µl
25 mM MgSO4 3 µl
VP1 PCR product (1 µl in 30 µl after gel extraction) 1 µl
EGFP PCR product (1 µl in 30 µl after gel extraction) 3 µl
2A PCR product (1 µl in 30 µl after gel extraction) 1 µl
KOD -Plus-Neo 1 µl

2. The following program is executed by using Mastercycler (registered trademark) Pro (Eppendorf).
94°C 2:00, 98°C 0:10, 68°C 4:00 (15 cycles), 72°C 7:00

<3rd Double joint PCR>


(Materials and reagents)



[0090] 
  • 2nd Joint PCR product (three kinds of T, TG, and MTNT)
  • KOD -Plus- Neo (TOYOBO Cat# KOD-401)
  • Primers (15 pmol/µl)
[Table 11]
NameSequence
CVB3-Forward GCACTCACTGCTGCTGAGAC (SEQ ID NO: 21)
CVB3-Reverse AGGTCATCGTGGTTCCTCAC (SEQ ID NO: 22)

(Methods)



[0091] 
1. The components are mixed in the following order in a 0.2-ml PCR tube on ice.
[Table 12]
ReagentOne among 3 kinds of T, TG, and MTNT
UltraPure 33 µl
10× Buffer 5 µl
2 mM dNTPs 5 µl
25 mM MgSO4 3 µl
2nd joint PCR product 1 µl
Primer Forward 1 µl
Primer Reverse 1 µl
KOD -Plus- 1 µl

2. The following program is executed by using Mastercycler (registered trademark) Pro (Eppendorf).
94°C 2:00, 98°C 0:10, 68°C 2:00 (35 cycles), 72°C 7:00
3. The double joint PCR product was purified, and the product and the CVB3 plasmid are treated with restriction enzymes EcoRI and SpeI.
4. Agarose gel electrophoresis is performed by using the restriction enzyme treatment products, and the target bands are excised.
5. After the gel purification, the CVB3 plasmid treated with the restriction enzymes and the overlap extension PCR product treated with the restriction enzymes are reacted at 16°C for 2 hours by using Ligation High.
6. The ligation product is introduced into competent cells, and the cells are cultured at 37°C.
7. Colonies are picked up on the next day, and cultured in LB medium.
8. Plasmids are collected from the culture, and insertion of the target sequence is confirmed.

<From preparation of virus RNA to measurement of virus titer>



[0092] Since the following procedures are the same as the protocols for CVB3-miRT, they are omitted.

[Experiment of 6th generation]


<Mutagenesis>


(Materials and reagents)



[0093] 
  • CVB3-MTNT-Plasmid (1) (approx. 10 ng/µl)
  • pMXs-eGFP (approx. 100 ng/µl) or
  • KOD -Plus- Neo (TOYOBO Cat# KOD-401)
  • UltraPure
  • Primers (15 pmol/µl)
LTTY substitution Forward
CTTACAACGTACggcgcatttggacaacaatcag (SEQ ID NO: 23)
GQQ deletion Forward
AAATGCGCCcgtatttgtca (SEQ ID NO: 24)

(Methods)



[0094] 
1. The components are mixed in the following order in a 0.2-ml PCR tube on ice.
[Table 13]
ReagentCVB3-LTTY-GAFGQQCVB3-MTNT-GAF
UltraPure 33 µl 33 µl
10× Buffer 5 µl 5 µl
2 mM dNTPs 5 µl 5 µl
25 mM MgSO4 3 µl 3 µl
Plasmid 1 µl 1 µl
Primer Forward CVB3-miR-Forward Arbitrary miRT-Forward
Primer Reverse Arbitrary miRT-Reverse CVB3-miR-Reverse
KOD -Plus-Neo 1 µl 1 µl

2. The following program is executed by using Mastercycler (registered trademark) Pro (Eppendorf).
94°C 2:00, 98°C 0:10, 68°C 12:00 (15 cycles), 72°C 7:00

<DpnI Digestion>


(Materials and reagents)



[0095] 
  • Inverse PCR product
  • DpnI (10 U/µl, NEB, Cat# R0176S)
  • Ligation High (TOYOBO, Cat# LGK-101)
  • T4 Polynucleotide Kinase (5 U/µl, TOYOBO, Cat# PNK-111)
  • UltraPure

(Methods)



[0096] 
1. DpnI (2 µl) is added to the whole volume (50 µl) of the inverse PCR product, and sufficiently stirred by pipetting.
2. The reaction is allowed at 37°C for 2 hours.
3. The following components are added to a new PCR tube in the following order to prepare a reaction mixture.
[Table 14]
ReagentVolume
PCR product treated with DpnI 2 µl
UltraPure 7 µl
Ligation High 5 µl
T4 Polynucleotide Kinase (5U/µl) 1 µl
Total 15 µl

4. The reaction is allowed at 16°C for 1 hour.
5. A part of the reaction mixture (up to 10 µl) is used to transform Eschericia coli, and culture is performed at 37°C.
6. Colonies are picked up on the next day, and cultured in LB medium.
7. Plasmids are collected from the culture, and presence or absence of mutation is confirmed.

<From preparation of virus RNA to measurement of virus titer>



[0097] Since the following procedures are the same as the protocols for CVB3-miRT, they are omitted.

[Experiment of 8th generation]


<Construction of vector>


(Materials and reagents)



[0098] 
  • CVB3-WT Plasmid (approx. 10 ng/µl)
  • pMXs-eGFP (approx. 100 ng/µl) or pORF9-mGMCSF (approx. 100 ng/µl)
  • KOD -Plus- Neo (TOYOBO, Cat# KOD-401)
  • UltraPure
  • Primers (15 pmol/µl)
[Table 15]
Restriction enzyme sequence (ClaI & SbfI-inserted CVB3)
NameSequence
(1) CVB3-Forward tataccccctcccccaactg (SEQ ID NO: 25)
(2) CVB3-Reverse Agcaagcatccttggtggaa (SEQ ID NO: 26)
(3) Cla&Sbf-Forward atggcagctcaaatcgattttggggggccctgcagggaggctttgtttcaaggagctcaagtatcaacgcaa (SEQ ID NO: 27)
(4) Cla&Sbf-Reverse tccttgaaacaaagcctccctgcagggccccccaaaatcgatttgagctgccattttgctgtattcaactta (SEQ ID NO: 28)
   
(5) Cla-EGFP-Forward GGGCCCAAAATCGATgtgagcaagggcgaggagct (SEQ ID NO: 29)
(6) Sbf-EGFP-Reverse GGGCCCAAACCTGCAGGGcttgtacagctcgtccatgc (SEQ ID NO: 30)
   
(7) Cla-mGMCSF-Forward GGGCCCAAAATCGATtggctgcagaatttactttt (SEQ ID NO: 31)
(8) Sbf-mGMCSF-Reverse GGGCCCAAACCTGCAGGGtttttggcctggttttttgc (SEQ ID NO: 32)
[Table 16]
Restriction enzyme sequence (SfiI-inserted CVB3)
NameSequence
(1) CVB3-Forward Tataccccctcccccaactg (SEQ ID NO: 33)
(2) CVB3-Reverse Agcaagcatccttggtggaa (SEQ ID NO: 34)
(3) Sfi-AVFQ-Forward GGGGCCGGAGGGGCCggacttagacaagcagtttttcaaggagctcaagtatcaacgcaaaag (SEQ ID NO: 35)
(4) Sfi-AVFQ-Reverse ttgaaaaactgcttgtctaagtccGGCCCCTCCGGCCCCcattttgctgtattcaacttaacaatg (SEQ ID NO: 36)
(5) Sfi-EGFP-Forward aaaaaaGGCCTGAGAGGCCgtgagcaagggcgaggagctg (SEQ ID NO: 37)
(6) Sfi-EGFP-Reverse aaaaaaGGCCTCTCTGGCcttgtacagctcgtccatgc (SEQ ID NO: 38)
   
(7)Sfi-mGMCSF-Forward aaaaaaGGCCTGAGAGGCCtggctgcagaatttacttttcctg (SEQ ID NO: 39)
(8) Sfi-mGMCSF-Reverse aaaaaaGGCCTCTCTGGCcttttggcctggttttttg (SEQ ID NO: 40)


[0099] CVB3 inserted with the aforementioned 2 kinds (each table) of sequences for restriction enzyme is produced, and the sequence of EGFP or mGM-CSF is inserted by using the inserted restriction enzyme sequence. The following is a protocol common to the two kinds. The same operations are performed according to the primer number.

(Methods)



[0100] 
1. The components are mixed in the following order in a 0.2-ml PCR tube on ice.
[Table 17]
ReagentFirst halfSecond half
UltraPure 33 µl 33 µl
10× Buffer for KOD -Plus- 5 µl 5 µl
2 mM dNTPs 5 µl 5 µl
25 mM MgSO4 3 µl 3 µl
Plasmid 1 µl 1 µl
Primer Forward (1) (3)
Primer Reverse (4) (2)
KOD -Plus-Neo 1 µl 1 µl

2. The mixture is stirred by tapping or gentle pipetting, and gently spun down, and the solution is collected.
3. The following program is executed with a thermal cycler (Bio-Rad). 94°C 2:00, 98°C 0:10, 62°C 0:15, 68°C 1:30 (20 cycles), 72°C 7:00
4. Overlap extension PCR is performed by using the two PCR products.
5. These two PCR products are each put into a tube in a volume of 1 µl, and used as the template together with the CVB3-miR-Forward and CVB3-miR-Reverse primers to perform PCR. The aforementioned program is executed for 30 cycles.
6. The overlap extension PCR product is purified, and the product and the CVB3 plasmid are treated with the restriction enzymes BlpI and XmaI.
7. Agarose gel electrophoresis is performed with the product obtained after the restriction enzyme treatment, and target bands are excised.
8. After the gel purification, the CVB3 plasmid treated with the restriction enzymes and the overlap extension PCR product treated with the restriction enzymes are reacted at 16°C for 2 hours by using Ligation High.
9. The ligation product is introduced into competent cells, and the cells are cultured at 37°C.
10. Colonies are picked up on the next day, and cultured in LB medium.
11. Plasmids are collected from the culture, and insertion of the restriction enzyme sequence is confirmed.

<Insert PCR>


(Methods)



[0101] 
1. The following components are mixed in the following order in a 0.2-ml PCR tube on ice.
[Table 18]
ReagentEGFPmGM-CSF
UltraPure 33 µl 33 µl
10× Buffer 5 µl 5 µl
2 mM dNTPs 5 µl 5 µl
25 mM MgSO4 3 µl 3 µl
pMXs-eGFP or pORF9-mGMCSF (1 µl) pMXs-eGFP pORF9-mGMCSF
Primer-Forward (1 µl) (5) (7)
Primer-Reverse (1 µl) (6) (8)
KOD -Plus-Neo 1 µl 1 µl

2. The following program is executed by using Mastercycler (registered trademark) Pro (Eppendorf).
94°C 2:00, 98°C 0:15, 68°C 1:30 (35 cycles), 72°C 7:00
3. The PCR product is purified, and the product and the restriction enzyme sequence-inserted CVB3 plasmid are treated with restriction enzymes ClaI and SbfI or SfiI.
4. Agarose gel electrophoresis is performed by using the restriction enzyme treatment product, and the target bands are excised.
5. After the gel purification, the CVB3 plasmid treated with the restriction enzymes and the PCR product treated with the restriction enzymes are reacted at 16°C for 2 hours by using Ligation High.
6. The ligation product is introduced into competent cells, and the cells are cultured at 37°C.
7. Colonies are picked up on the next day, and cultured in LB medium.
8. Plasmids are collected from the culture, and insertion of EGFP or mGMCSF sequence is confirmed.

<Mutagenesis PCR>


(Materials and reagents)



[0102] 
  • CVB3-MTNT-Plasmid (1) (approx. 10 ng/µl)
  • pMXs-eGFP (approx. 100 ng/µl) or
  • KOD -Plus- Neo (TOYOBO, Cat# KOD-401)
  • UltraPure
  • Primers (15 pmol/µl)
[Table 19]
NameSequence
Inverse-2A-peptide-Fw

 
DLTTY-Fw CCCTGCAGGGATCTTACAACGTACGGAGCTCAAGTATCAACGCAAaagactgggg (SEQ ID NO: 42)
CCEFAGLRQAVFQ-Fw GCCAGAGGGGCCTGCTGCGAGTTTGCAggacttagacaagcagtttttcaa (SEQ ID NO: 43)
Inverse-GMCSF-Rev ttttggcctggttttttgcattcaaagggg (SEQ ID NO: 44)

(Methods)



[0103] 
1. The components are mixed in the following order in a 0.2-ml PCR tube on ice.
[Table 20]
ReagentCVB3-2A peptideCVB3-2AproCVB3-3Cpro
UltraPure 33 µl 33 µl 33 µl
10× Buffer 5 µl 5 µl 5 µl
2 mM dNTPs 5 µl 5 µl 5 µl
25 mM MgSO4 3 µl 3 µl 3 µl
Plasmid (1 µl) CVB3-Cla&Sbf-mGM-CSF CVB3-Cla&Sbf-mGM-CSF CVB3-Sfi-mGM-CSF
Primer Forward (1 µl) Inverse-2A-peptide-Fw DLTTY-Fw CCEFAGLRQAVFQ-Fw
Primer Reverse (1 µl) Inverse-GMCSF-Rev Inverse-GMCSF-Rev Inverse-GMCSF-Rev
KOD -Plus-Neo 1 µl 1 µl 1 µl

2. The following program is executed by using Mastercycler (registered trademark) Pro (Eppendorf).
94°C 2:00, 98°C 0:10, 68°C 12:00 (15 cycles), 72°C 7:00

<DpnI Digestion>


(Materials and reagents)



[0104] 
  • Inverse PCR product
  • DpnI (10 U/µl, NEB, Cat# R0176S)
  • Ligation High (TOYOBO, Cat# LGK-101)
  • T4 Polynucleotide kinase (5 U/µl, TOYOBO, Cat# PNK-111)
  • UltraPure

(Methods)



[0105] 
1. DpnI (2 µl) is added to the whole volume (50 µl) of the inverse PCR product, and sufficiently stirred by pipetting.
2. The reaction is allowed at 37°C for 2 hours.
3. The following components are added to a new PCR tube in the following order to prepare a reaction mixture.
[Table 21]
ReagentVolume
PCR product treated with DpnI 2 µl
UltraPure 7 µl
Ligation High 5 µl
T4 Polynucleotide Kinase (5U/µl) 1 µl
Total 15 µl

4. The reaction is allowed at 16°C for 1 hour.
5. A part of the reaction mixture (up to 10 µl) is used to transform Eschericia coli, and culture is performed at 37°C.
6. Colonies are picked up on the next day, and cultured in LB medium.
7. Plasmids are collected from the culture, and presence or absence of mutation is confirmed.

<From preparation of virus RNA to measurement of virus titer>



[0106] Since the following procedures are the same as the protocols for CVB3-miRT, they are omitted.

[ELISA] (mGM-CSF, R&D)


(Materials and reagents)



[0107] 
  • Mouse GM-CSF Immunoassay (R&D Systems, Cat# PMGM00)
  • Milli-Q (600 ml, autoclaved)
  • Cell supernatant
    CVB3-mGMCSF-infected NCI-H1299 cells

(Methods)



[0108] 
  1. 1. About 600 ml of Milli-Q is sterilized by autoclaving.
  2. 2. Wash buffer concentrate (25x, 25 ml) is added to cooled Milli-Q, and thereby diluted to a total volume of 625 ml (1x).
  3. 3. The attached microplate strips in a required number are set on a plate frame. Those not used are returned into the foil.
  4. 4. Assay Diluent RD1W is add to each well in a volume of 50 µl.
  5. 5. Standard solutions were successively added to the wells (Assay Diluent is already added) in a volume of 50 µl each from the solution of the lowest concentration in the ascending order of the concentration. The sample (50 µl) is added to each well (Assay Diluent is already added) in a similar manner, and the frame is gently tapped for 1 minute.
  6. 6. The plate was firmly sealed with a cover seal, and left standing at room temperature for 2 hours.
  7. 7. The liquid in each well is sucked, and 400 µl of the wash buffer (prepared in 2 mentioned above) is added to each well.
  8. 8. The operation of 7 mentioned above is repeated 5 times in total. Finally, moisture is swiped with clean Kim Towel.
  9. 9. Mouse GM-CSF conjugate (100 µl) is added to each well.
  10. 10. A new cover seal is stuck, and the plate was left standing at room temperature for 2 hours.
  11. 11. The aforementioned washing operation is repeated.
  12. 12. A substrate solution (100 µl) is added to each well.
  13. 13. The plate is left standing at room temperature for 30 minutes in a dark place without the seal.
  14. 14. A stop solution (100 µl) is added to each well.
  15. 15. The plate is gently tapped until the regents are mixed.
  16. 16. Absorbance is measured at 450 nm within 30 minutes by using a plate reader.

[In vivo test]


(Materials and reagents)



[0109] 
  • 150-mm Dish
  • TC-1 cells (1 x 106 cells/100 µl PBS/mouse) (03/20 Thawing T175 2 passage)
  • RPMI 1640 w/10% FBS, 1 mM sodium pyruvate (growth medium)
  • PBS
  • 18G Needle
  • 27G Needle
  • 1 ml TERUMO syringe
  • Virus

    CVB3-WT (3.33 x 108 TCID50/ml, about 15 µl/mouse)

    CVB3-mGM-CSF (1.12 x 108 TCID50/ml, about 45 µl/mouse)

  • 1 ml TERUMO syringe (29G)
  • Opti-MEM (registered trademark) I

(Methods)



[0110] 
  1. 1. The TC-1 cells are inoculated on 150-mm dishes.
  2. 2. The cells of 4 dishes are removed and collected in 50-ml tubes. In total, 4 of the 50-ml tubes are subjected to centrifugation (4°C, 1,000 rpm, 5 minutes).
  3. 3. The pellets of two of the tubes are suspended in PBS (20 ml). These are mixed to prepare a suspension of a total volume of 40 ml.
  4. 4. The suspension was centrifuged at 1,000 rpm for 5 minutes at 4°C.
  5. 5. The TC-1 cells are re-suspended in PBS at 1 x 107 cells/ml.
  6. 6. The aforementioned suspension (100 µl) is subcutaneously injected to the right abdominal part of C57BL/6.
  7. 7. After 4 days, each virus diluted to 5 x 106 TCID50/50 µl with Opti-MEM is intratumorally administered.
  8. 8. The aforementioned virus administration is performed every other day 2 times in total.
  9. 9. Diameters of tumor (major axis and minor axis), and body weight are measured every other day.

Sequence listing free text



[0111] 

SEQ ID NO: 1, miR-1 & 217T (x2)

SEQ ID NO: 2, miR-217 (x4)

SEQ ID NO: 3, CVB3-GM-CSF-2A

SEQ ID NO: 4, CVB3-GM-CSF-LTTY

SEQ ID NO: 5, CVB3-GM-CSF-AVFQ

SEQ ID NO: 6, CVB3-miR-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 7, CVB3-miR-Reverse primer

SEQ ID NO: 8, miR-1&217T Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 9, miR-1&217T Reverse primer

SEQ ID NO: 10, miR-217T Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 11, CVB3-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 12, CVB3-Reverse primer

SEQ ID NO: 13, EGFP-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 14, EGFP-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 15, CVB3-G-EGFP-T-Fw primer

SEQ ID NO: 16, CVB3-G-EGFP-T-Rev primer

SEQ ID NO: 17, CVB3-TG-EGFP-TG-Fw primer

SEQ ID NO: 18, CVB3-TG-EGFP-TG-Rev primer

SEQ ID NO: 19, GAFGQQ-EGFP-MTNT-Fw primer

SEQ ID NO: 20, GAFGQQ-EGFP-MTNT-Rev primer

SEQ ID NO: 21, CVB3-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 22, CVB3-Reverse primer

SEQ ID NO: 23, LTTY substitution Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 24, GQQ deletion Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 25, CVB3-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 26, CVB3-Reverse primer

SEQ ID NO: 27, Cla&Sbf-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 28, Cla&Sbf-Reverse primer

SEQ ID NO: 29, Cla-EGFP-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 30, Cla-mGMCSF-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 31, CVB3-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 32, CVB3-Reverse primer

SEQ ID NO: 33, CVB3-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 34, CVB3-Reverse primer

SEQ ID NO: 35, Sfi-AVFQ-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 36, Sfi-AVFQ-Reverse primer

SEQ ID NO: 37, Sfi-EGFP-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 38, Sfi-EGFP-Reverse primer

SEQ ID NO: 39, Sfi-mGMCSF-Forward primer

SEQ ID NO: 40, Sfi-mGMCSF-Reverse primer

SEQ ID NO: 41, Inverse-2A-peptide-Fw primer

SEQ ID NO: 42, DLTTY-Fw primer

SEQ ID NO: 43, CCEFAGLRQAVFQ-Fw primer

SEQ ID NO: 44, Inverse-GMCSF-Rev primer


SEQUENCE LISTING



[0112] 

<110> Kyushu University

<120> Genetically Modified Coxsackievirus

<130> 145055H

<150> US 61/812,943
<151> 2013-04-17

<160> 44

<170> PatentIn version 3.5

<210> 1
<211> 104
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> miR-1 & 217T (x2)

<400> 1

<210> 2
<211> 106
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> miR-217T (x4)

<400> 2

<210> 3
<211> 492
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-GM-CSF-2A

<400> 3



<210> 4
<211> 462
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-GM-CSF-LTTY

<400> 4

<210> 5
<211> 489
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-GM-CSF-AVFQ

<400> 5

<210> 6
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-miR-Forward primer

<400> 6
caggtctttg aggggaacaa   20

<210> 7
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-miR-Reverse primer

<400> 7
attaatgcag ctggcacgac   20

<210> 8
<211> 129
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> miR-1&217T Forward primer

<400> 8

<210> 9
<211> 129
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> miR-1&217T Reverse primer

<400> 9

<210> 10
<211> 131
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> miR-217T Forward primer

<400> 10



<210> 11
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-Forward primer

<400> 11
gcactcactg ctgctgagac   20

<210> 12
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-Reverse primer

<400> 12
aggtcatcgt ggttcctcac   20

<210> 13
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> EGFP-Forward primer

<400> 13
gtgagcaagg gcgaggagct   20

<210> 14
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> EGFP-Forward primer

<400> 14
cttgtacagc tcgtccatgc   20

<210> 15
<211> 63
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-G-EGFP-T-Fw primer

<400> 15

<210> 16
<211> 63
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-G-EGFP-T-Rev primer

<400> 16

<210> 17
<211> 66
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-TG-EGFP-TG-Fw primer

<400> 17

<210> 18
<211> 66
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-TG-EGFP-TG-Rev primer

<400> 18

<210> 19
<211> 72
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> GAFGQQ-EGFP-MTNT-Fw primer

<400> 19

<210> 20
<211> 78
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> GAFGQQ-EGFP-MTNT-Rev primer

<400> 20

<210> 21
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-Forward primer

<400> 21
gcactcactg ctgctgagac   20

<210> 22
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-Reverse primer

<400> 22
aggtcatcgt ggttcctcac   20

<210> 23
<211> 34
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> LTTY substitution Forward

<400> 23
cttacaacgt acggcgcatt tggacaacaa tcag   34

<210> 24
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> GQQ deletion Forward primer

<400> 24
aaatgcgccc gtatttgtca   20

<210> 25
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-Forward primer

<400> 25
tataccccct cccccaactg   20

<210> 26
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-Reverse primer

<400> 26
agcaagcatc cttggtggaa   20

<210> 27
<211> 72
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cla&Sbf-Forward primer

<400> 27

<210> 28
<211> 72
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cla&Sbf-Reverse primer

<400> 28

<210> 29
<211> 35
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cla-EGFP-Forward primer

<400> 29
gggcccaaaa tcgatgtgag caagggcgag gagct   35

<210> 30
<211> 38
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Sbf-EGFP-Reverse primer

<400> 30
gggcccaaac ctgcagggct tgtacagctc gtccatgc   38

<210> 31
<211> 35
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cla-mGMCSF-Forward primer

<400> 31
gggcccaaaa tcgattggct gcagaattta ctttt   35

<210> 32
<211> 38
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Sbf-mGMCSF-Reverse primer

<400> 32
gggcccaaac ctgcagggtt tttggcctgg ttttttgc   38

<210> 33
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-Forward primer

<400> 33
tataccccct cccccaactg   20

<210> 34
<211> 20
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CVB3-Reverse primer

<400> 34
agcaagcatc cttggtggaa   20

<210> 35
<211> 63
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Sfi-AVFQ-Forward primer

<400> 35

<210> 36
<211> 66
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Sfi-AVFQ-Reverse primer

<400> 36

<210> 37
<211> 40
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Sfi-EGFP-Forward primer

<400> 37
aaaaaaggcc tgagaggccg tgagcaaggg cgaggagctg   40

<210> 38
<211> 38
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Sfi-EGFP-Reverse primer

<400> 38
aaaaaaggcc tctctggcct tgtacagctc gtccatgc   38

<210> 39
<211> 43
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Sfi-mGMCSF-Forward primer

<400> 39
aaaaaaggcc tgagaggcct ggctgcagaa tttacttttc ctg   43

<210> 40
<211> 37
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Sfi-mGMCSF-Reverse primer

<400> 40
aaaaaaggcc tctctggcct tttggcctgg ttttttg   37

<210> 41
<211> 85
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Inverse-2A-peptide-Fw primer

<400> 41

<210> 42
<211> 55
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> DLTTY-Fw primer

<400> 42
ccctgcaggg atcttacaac gtacggagct caagtatcaa cgcaaaagac tgggg   55

<210> 43
<211> 51
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> CCEFAGLRQAVFQ-Fw primer

<400> 43
gccagagggg cctgctgcga gtttgcagga cttagacaag cagtttttca a   51

<210> 44
<211> 31
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Inverse-GMCSF-Rev primer

<400> 44
tttttggcct ggttttttgc attcaaaggg g   31




Claims

1. A modified coxsackievirus of which proliferation is suppressed in a tissue-specific manner, which comprises a mutated genome corresponding to genome of coxsackievirus B3 wild-type (CVB3-WT) inserted with at least one polynucleotide consisting of a target sequence of a tissue-specific microRNA (miRNA), wherein the insertion position is a position between the positions 7304 and 7305 of the CVB3-WT genome.
 
2. The modified coxsackievirus according to claim 1, wherein the tissue-specific miRNA is one expressed in pancreas and/or myocardium.
 
3. The modified coxsackievirus according to any one of claims 1 to 2, wherein the tissue-specific miRNA consists of miR-1 and/or miR-217.
 
4. The modified coxsackievirus according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein a plurality of (for example, 2 to 6) the polynucleotides consisting of the target sequence are inserted.
 
5. The modified coxsackievirus according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the inserted polynucleotide is the polynucleotide of the sequence of (a) or (b) mentioned below, or a polynucleotide of the sequence of (a) or (b) including deletion, substitution or addition of one to several nucleotides.

(a) ATA CAT ACT TCT TTA CAT TCC ACG ATA TAC ATA CTT CTT TAC ATT CCA ACC GGT TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAT CAC TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TA

(b) TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAC GAT TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAA CCG GTT CCA ATC AGT TCC TGA TGC AGT ATC ACT CCA ATC AGT TCC TGA TGC AGT A


 
6. The modified coxsackievirus according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein a region encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is further inserted in an expressible form into the mutated genome.
 
7. The modified coxsackievirus according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein a polynucleotide containing a region encoding GM-CSF and a region encoding a 2A protease recognition sequence ligated downstream is further functionally inserted into the mutated genome at a position downstream from ATG of the translation initiation point and upstream from VP4 region.
 
8. The modified coxsackievirus according to claim 7, wherein the 2A protease recognition sequence is a sequence modified so as to be recognizable by 2A protease derived from poliovirus.
 
9. A modified coxsackievirus according to any one of claims 1 to 8, for use in a prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of a cancer, preferably lung cancer, more preferably non-small cell lung cancer, or a precancerous state thereof.
 
10. A pharmaceutical composition containing the modified coxsackievirus according to any one of claims 1 to 8.
 
11. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 10, for use in a prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of a cancer, preferably lung cancer, more preferably non-small cell lung cancer, or a precancerous state thereof.
 
12. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 10 or for use according to claim 11, which is a preparation for topical application or systemic administration.
 
13. A method of titration or proliferation of the modified coxsackievirus according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein H1299 cells are used to titrate or proliferate the said modified coxsackievirus.
 


Ansprüche

1. Modifiziertes Coxsackievirus, dessen Proliferation gewebespezifisch unterdrückt wird, umfassend ein mutiertes Genom, das dem Genom des Coxsackievirus B3 Wildtyps (CVB3-WT) entspricht, in welches mindestens ein Polynukleotid eingefügt ist, das aus einer Zielsequenz einer gewebespezifischen microRNA (miRNA) besteht, wobei die Einfügeposition eine Position zwischen den Positionen 7304 und 7305 des CVB3-WT-Genoms ist.
 
2. Modifiziertes Coxsackievirus nach Anspruch 1, wobei die gewebespezifische miRNA eine in Pankreas und/oder Myokard exprimierte RNA ist.
 
3. Modifiziertes Coxsackievirus nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die gewebespezifische miRNA aus miR-1 und/oder miR-217 besteht.
 
4. Modifiziertes Coxsackievirus nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei eine Vielzahl von (z.B. 2 bis 6) den aus der Zielsequenz bestehenden Polynukleotiden eingefügt sind.
 
5. Modifiziertes Coxsackievirus nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei das eingefügte Polynukleotid ein Polynukleotid der nachstehend erwähnten Sequenzen (a) oder (b) ist, oder ein Polynukleotid der Sequenz (a) oder (b), einschließlich des Entfernens, der Substitution oder des Hinzufügens von eines oder mehrerer Nukleotide, ist.

(a) ATA CAT ACT TCT TTA CAT TCC ACG ATA TAC ATA CTT CTT TAC ATT CCA ACC GGT TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAT CAC TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TA

(b) TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAC GAT TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAA CCG GTT CCA ATC AGT TCC TGA TGC AGT ATC ACT CCA ATC AGT TCC TGA TGC AGT A.


 
6. Modifiziertes Coxsackievirus nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei überdies eine Region, die für Granulozyten-Makrophagen-Koloniestimulierenden Faktor (GM-CSF) kodiert, in exprimierbarer Form in das mutierte Genom eingefügt ist.
 
7. Modifiziertes Coxsackievirus nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, wobei überdies ein Polynukleotid, das eine Region enthält, die für GM-CSF kodiert, und eine Region enthält, die für eine stromabwärts ligierte 2A-Protease-Erkennungssequenz kodiert, funktionell in das mutierte Genom an einer Position stromabwärts von ATG des Translationsinitiationspunktes und stromaufwärts einer VP4-Region eingefügt ist.
 
8. Modifiziertes Coxsackievirus nach Anspruch 7, wobei die 2A-Protease-Erkennungssequenz eine Sequenz ist, die so modifiziert ist, dass sie durch eine von einem Poliovirus abgeleitete 2A-Protease erkennbar ist.
 
9. Modifiziertes Coxsackievirus nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 zur Verwendung bei der prophylaktischen oder therapeutischen Behandlung von Krebs, vorzugsweise Lungenkrebs, insbesondere nicht-kleinzelligem Lungenkrebs, oder einem präkanzerösen Zustand von diesem.
 
10. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, die das modifizierte Coxsackievirus nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 enthält.
 
11. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 10 zur Verwendung bei einer prophylaktischen oder therapeutischen Behandlung eines Krebses, vorzugsweise Lungenkrebs, besonders bevorzugt nicht-kleinzelligem Lungenkrebs oder einem präkanzerösen Zustand von diesem.
 
12. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 10 oder zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 11, die ein Präparat zur topischen Anwendung oder systemischen Verabreichung ist.
 
13. Verfahren zur Titration oder Proliferation des modifizierten Coxsackievirus nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, worin H1299-Zellen verwendet werden, um das modifizierte Coxsackievirus zu titrieren oder zu vermehren.
 


Revendications

1. Coxsackievirus modifié dont la prolifération est supprimée d'une manière spécifique au tissu, qui comprend un génome muté correspondant au génome du coxsackievirus B3 de type sauvage (CVB3-WT) inséré avec au moins un polynucléotide constitué d'une séquence cible d'un microARN spécifique au tissu (miRNA), où la position d'insertion est une position entre les positions 7304 et 7305 du génome CVB3-WT.
 
2. Coxsackievirus modifié selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le miARNm spécifique du tissu est un ARN exprimé dans le pancréas et/ou le myocarde.
 
3. Coxsackievirus modifié selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 2, dans lequel le miRNA spécifique du tissu est constitué de miR-1 et/ou miR-217.
 
4. Coxsackievirus modifié selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans lequel une pluralité de polynucléotides (par exemple, 2 à 6) constitués par la séquence cible sont insérés.
 
5. Coxsackievirus modifié selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel le polynucléotide inséré est le polynucléotide de la séquence de (a) ou (b) mentionnée ci-dessous, ou un polynucléotide de la séquence de (a) ou (b) incluant la délétion, substitution ou addition d'un à plusieurs nucléotides.

(a) ATA CAT ACT TCT TTA CAT TCC ACG ATA TAC ATA CTT CTT TAC ATT CCA ACC GGT TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAT CAC TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TA

(b) TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAC GAT TCC AAT CAG TTC CTG ATG CAG TAA CCG GTT CCA ATC AGT TCC TGA TGC AGT ATC ACT CCA ATC AGT TCC TGA TGC AGT A.


 
6. Coxsackievirus modifié selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel une région codant pour le facteur de stimulation des colonies de granulocytes-macrophages (GM-CSF) est en outre insérée sous une forme exprimable dans le génome muté.
 
7. Coxsackievirus modifié selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, dans lequel un polynucléotide contenant une région codant pour GM-CSF et une région codant pour une séquence de reconnaissance de protéase 2A ligatée en aval est en outre inséré fonctionnellement dans le génome muté en une position en aval du point ATG du début de traduction et en amont de la région VP4.
 
8. Coxsackievirus modifié selon la revendication 7, dans lequel la séquence de reconnaissance de protéase 2A est une séquence modifiée de manière à être reconnaissable par la protéase 2A dérivée du poliovirus.
 
9. Coxsackievirus modifié selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, destiné à être utilisé dans un traitement prophylactique ou thérapeutique d'un cancer, de préférence un cancer du poumon, de préférence un cancer du poumon non à petites cellules, ou un état précancéreux de celui-ci.
 
10. Composition pharmaceutique contenant le coxsackievirus modifié selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8.
 
11. Composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 10, destinée à être utilisée dans un traitement prophylactique ou thérapeutique d'un cancer, de préférence d'un cancer du poumon, de préférence d'un cancer du poumon non à petites cellules, ou un état précancéreux de celui-ci.
 
12. Composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 10 ou destinée à être utilisée selon la revendication 11, qui est une préparation pour application topique ou administration systémique.
 
13. Procédé de titrage ou de prolifération du coxsackievirus modifié selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, dans lequel on utilise des cellules H1299 pour titrer ou proliférer ledit coxsackievirus modifié.
 




Drawing













































REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description