(19)
(11)EP 3 013 237 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
29.04.2020 Bulletin 2020/18

(21)Application number: 14730531.2

(22)Date of filing:  17.06.2014
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61B 6/03(2006.01)
A61B 6/00(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2014/062608
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/206794 (31.12.2014 Gazette  2014/53)

(54)

IMAGING APPARATUS

RÖNTGENBESTRAHLUNGSVORRICHTUNG

DISPOSITIF D'ÉTALONNAGE À RAYONS X


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 26.06.2013 EP 13173758

(43)Date of publication of application:
04.05.2016 Bulletin 2016/18

(73)Proprietors:
  • Koninklijke Philips N.V.
    5656 AG Eindhoven (NL)
    Designated Contracting States:
    AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR 
  • Philips GmbH
    20099 Hamburg (DE)
    Designated Contracting States:
    DE 

(72)Inventor:
  • PROKSA, Roland
    5656 AE Eindhoven (NL)

(74)Representative: Versteeg, Dennis John 
Philips Intellectual Property & Standards High Tech Campus 5
5656 AE Eindhoven
5656 AE Eindhoven (NL)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 271 189
US-A1- 2001 019 599
US-A1- 2012 177 172
US-A- 5 485 494
US-A1- 2008 198 965
US-A1- 2013 003 914
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The invention relates to an X-ray imaging apparatus such as a CT scanner and to a method for irradiating an object with X-rays from different viewing angles.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0002] The US 5 696 807 discloses a CT scanner for generating images of a patient. In order to reduce the dose the patient is exposed to, the tube current of the X-ray source is modulated as a function of projection angle.

    [0003] The US 2008/198965 A1 discloses an X-ray CT system including at least two X-ray sources. In order to determine the scattered radiation distribution, pre-scanning is carried out in which the X-ray sources rotate about the examination object and no radiation dose is output over the majority of the revolution, at specific pre-scan angles a dose rate is produced briefly and individually, and the received scattered radiation is measured.

    [0004] US 2001/0019599 A1 discloses a method and CT device for scanning an examination subject, in which a radiation beam emanates from a locus of a radiation source which can be displaced around a system axis and strikes a detector system. If, during scanning, a body part of an examiner moves into an examination space covered by the radiation beam, this is automatically detected and the effective radiation is automatically reduced for a volumetric region which includes the body part of the examiner, with respect to a comparable second volumetric region, in which no body part of the examiner is located. The effect of this is to diminish the radiation dose to the examiner. Control for this purpose is performed, for example, by varying the tube current, by adjusting a beam diaphragm, or by an absorber inserted into the beam path. A parameter associated with the body part of the examiner also is detected and the size of the first volumetric region is automatically adjusted dependent on this parameter.

    [0005] US 2012/0177172 A1 discloses that a position determination unit determines a top position at a projection data acquisition start time P by a user instruction. A first angle determination unit determines a first relational angle at the time P by a user instruction. A second angle determination unit determines a second relational angle at a top movement start time Q and a time interval from the time Q to the time P. A control unit controls a first driving unit to rotate the X-ray tube, controls a second driving unit to make a top start moving in response to arrival of the X-ray tube at the second relational angle, and controls a DAS to start acquiring projection data in response to arrival of the top at the top position.

    [0006] EP 2 271 189 A1 discloses a dose-modulated irradiating system that includes an x-ray tube with at least a filament for generating electrons, a cathode and an anode for accelerating and collimating the generated electrons into an electron beam, and an electrostatic grid with grid electrodes for steering the electron beam on the anode. The anode generates an x-ray beam responsive to the electron beam. Grid biasing is provided for applying a time-varying electrical bias to the grid electrodes that produces a first time-varying intensity modulation of the electron beam. A current of the filament is modulated to produce a second time-varying intensity modulation of the electron beam. A controller controls cooperatively combining the first and second time-varying intensity modulations to produce a combined time-varying intensity modulation.

    [0007] US 5,485,494 discloses an x-ray CT system modulates x-ray tube current as a function of gantry angle to reduce the total patient dose without significantly increasing image noise. A modulation waveform is stored in a table as a function of gantry angle, and during a slice acquisition, values are periodically read from this table and employed to calculate tube current commands. Tube current is monitored and compared with the latest command to ensure the proper x-ray dose is applied. Document US2013/003914 represents the closest prior art disclosing the preamble of claim 1.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0008] It would be desirable to have means that allow for the imaging of an object with a further reduced X-ray dose.

    [0009] This object is achieved by an X-ray imaging apparatus according to claim 1 and a method according to claim 2. Preferred embodiments are disclosed in the dependent claims.

    [0010] According to a first aspect, the invention relates to an X-ray imaging apparatus (or "CT scanner") that is adapted to irradiate an object with X-rays from different viewing angles. The imaging apparatus comprises the following components:
    • An X-ray source for emitting X-rays towards the object (or to a location where an object can be) from said different viewing angles.
    • A detector for detecting X-rays emitted by the X-ray source and for generating projection images of the object from said different viewing angles.
    • A reconstruction module for reconstructing sectional images of the object from said projection images.
    • A controller for controlling said X-ray source such that emissions of X-rays occur only at "emission angle intervals" separated by gaps, wherein the angular distribution of these emission angle intervals and the associated local emission intensity are determined by the controller to at least approximately reproduce, in the angular mean, a desired angular intensity distribution given for all viewing angles.


    [0011] Each of the above-mentioned "emission angle intervals" shall by definition comprise a range of angles [α1, α2] with α1 ≤ α2, including the case of comprising just one discrete value if α1 = α2. The remainder of the full 360° range of angles is constituted by the "gaps" that each lie between two emission angle intervals. The angular intervals of the gaps will typically consist of not just one discrete value but a continuous range, providing for a non-zero distance between two neighboring emission angle intervals.

    [0012] The "angular distribution" of the emission angle intervals just refers to the location of these intervals on the whole 360° range of angles, i.e. it is given by the whole set of the α1, α2 mentioned above.

    [0013] The "desired angular intensity distribution" will in general be a function that associates each viewing angle (or at least each viewing angle at which an emission can occur) to a desired value of the X-ray intensity to be emitted at this angle. It will in the following also be called "desired intensity distribution".

    [0014] The "local emission intensity" is just the emission intensity occurring at the different viewing angles.

    [0015] The "reproduction of the angular intensity distribution" refers to an appropriate angular averaging of emission intensities commanded by the controller, i.e. it is assumed that the reproduction has successfully been achieved if said angular average is approximately identical to the desired angular intensity distribution. In this context, "approximately" may further be defined as a deviation of the average from the desired angular intensity distribution of at most 20%, at most 15%, at most 10%, at most 5%, or at most 2 % (the percentage measured with respect to the desired angular intensity distribution). An appropriate angular averaging may for example comprise the convolution of the actual angular intensity distribution (i.e. of the local emission intensities) with a given kernel or weighting function (cf. examples below).

    [0016] The local emission intensity may or may not be constant within an emission angle interval. Moreover, the local emission intensity will usually not be proportional to the desired angular intensity distribution (with the same proportionality factor) over the whole range of all emission angle intervals (this would only be required if the emission angle intervals would be evenly distributed across the whole range of viewing angles and hence not contribute to a modulation of average intensities).

    [0017] The detector shall be capable to detect X-rays emitted by the X-ray source, particularly X-rays that have passed through the object to be irradiated. Thus an imaging application can be realized in which projection images of the object from different viewing angles can be generated if the detector allows for a spatially resolved detection of transmitted X-rays.

    [0018] The "reconstruction module" may for example be realized by dedicated electronic hardware, digital data processing hardware with associated software, or a mixture of both. It may particularly implement an iterative reconstruction of the sectional images from projection images (H. Erdogan and J. A. Fessler, "Ordered subsets algorithms for transmission tomography", Phys. Med. Biol. 44 (1999) 2835-2851). An iterative reconstruction has the advantage to be flexible with respect to the angular distribution of available projection images.

    [0019] It should be noted that, for the purpose of the present application, the various "intensities" emitted by the X-ray source may for example be defined as the total X-ray energy emitted per unit time (measured e.g. in Watt).

    [0020] The invention further relates to a method for generating images of an object by irradiating said object with X-rays from different viewing angles. The method comprises the following steps:
    • The emission of X-rays towards the object only from emission angle intervals that are separated by gaps, wherein the angular distribution of these emission angle intervals and the associated local emission intensity are determined to at least approximately reproduce, in the angular mean, a desired angular intensity distribution given for all viewing angles.
    • The generation of projection images of the object by the X-rays emitted from said different viewing angles.
    • The reconstruction of sectional images of the object from said projection images.


    [0021] The method comprises in general form the steps that can be executed with the imaging apparatus described above. Explanations given for the apparatus are therefore analogously valid for the method, too, and vice versa.

    [0022] The method and the imaging apparatus have the advantage that they allow for the simultaneous fulfillment of two requirements, namely the reproduction of a desired angular intensity distribution (at least on the average) AND the application of comparably high local emission intensities. This is achieved by squeezing the necessary emissions into emission angle intervals. The fulfillment of both requirements is for example favorable in case of an imaging application, in which dosage is minimized by adherence to a desired angular intensity distribution and noise is reduced by high local emission intensities.

    [0023] In the following, various preferred embodiments of the invention will be described that relate to both the imaging apparatus and the method defined above.

    [0024] In one preferred embodiment, the local emission intensities within all emission angle intervals are larger than a given minimal intensity. This condition guarantees that there is always a minimal intensity or flux available for processes such as the detection of transmitted X-rays. A typical realization of this embodiment comprises that both a desired angular intensity distribution and said minimal intensity are given in advance, e.g. derived from boundary conditions of imaging procedures, and that the angular distribution of the emission angle intervals is then determined appropriately by the controller.

    [0025] In another particular embodiment of the invention, the local emission intensity is the same for (and within) all emission angle intervals. Reproduction of the desired angular intensity function is in this case solely achieved via an appropriate angular distribution of the emission angle intervals. This approach has the advantage that the X-ray source can simply be modulated with an ON/OFF behavior (ON within the emission angle intervals, OFF outside).

    [0026] In general, the desired angular intensity distribution is given in advance according to the particular requirements of the application at hand. In many important examples, the desired angular intensity distribution depends on the object to be irradiated. It may for example have a form such that approximately the same flux of X-rays transmitted through the object (e.g. the body of a patient or an attenuation model thereof) is observed for all viewing angles. This is particularly relevant in case of imaging applications because most X-ray detectors achieve best results at a particular value or range of the incident X-ray flux. The desired angular intensity distribution may for example take into account that an object such as the body of a patient presents sections of different thickness and/or density to an X-ray beam depending on the viewing angle.

    [0027] The X-ray source may in general be or comprise any means known or suitable for the controllable generation of X-rays. It may for example be an X-ray tube in which accelerated electrons generate X-rays when hitting a target. Moreover, the emission intensity of the X-ray source may be modulated by any appropriate means, for example by controlling the direction or intensity of electrons hitting the target (cf. US 2010/0172475 A1, US 5 696 807), and/or by varying the attenuation of a primary X-ray beam. In a preferred embodiment, the X-ray source may comprise a grid switching tube which has the advantage to provide for a virtually instant pulse rise due to an electronically controlled, in-tube grid switching (cf. WO 2013/001434 A1). This allows for an ON/OFF switching of a given emission with a high frequency. Other suitable technologies for X-ray generation are for example described in the WO 2010/070583 A1,US 2011/0080992 A1, DE 102009051633 A1, DE 102011054114 A1, DE 102011005115 A1, US 2011/0038460 A1, US 6 178 226 B1, US 2011/0103552 A1,or US 2011/0142193 A1.

    [0028] The X-ray source may optionally be movable with respect to the object (or a site where the object can be located, such as a patient table). The X-ray source may for example be mounted on a gantry that can rotate about the object as it is known from CT scanners.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0029] These and other aspects of the invention will be apparent from and elucidated with reference to the embodiments described hereinafter.

    [0030] In the drawings:

    Fig. 1 schematically illustrates the generation of CT images with a given desired angular intensity distribution;

    Fig. 2 schematically illustrates the reproduction of a desired angular intensity distribution according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    Fig. 3 schematically illustrates the distribution of emission angle intervals and the associated reproduction of a desired angular intensity distribution.



    [0031] Like reference numbers or numbers differing by integer multiples of 100 refer in the Figures to identical or similar components.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS



    [0032] In a CT scanner used in clinical applications, the X-ray flux can be modulated during the acquisition to adapt to the actual patient attenuation. Two examples of significant changes in the modulation include the shoulder where the horizontal attenuation (tube at 9 o'clock) can be much larger compared to the tube at 6 o'clock position. Another example is a helical scan moving from the neck to the shoulder of a patient. There are additional applications like Cardiac CT that benefit from flux modulation. Flux may for example be modulated by a modulation of the X-ray tube anode current.

    [0033] Figure 1 schematically illustrates this in a section in the x,y-plane through a CT scanner 10. The CT scanner comprises a gantry 3 that can rotate about (a parallel to) the z-axis, i.e. about a patient P lying on a table. The gantry comprises an X-ray source 1 and a detector 2 that are arranged opposite to each other and that can rotate together with the gantry about the patient (alternatively, an extended stationary source and/or detector might be used). During rotation of the gantry, projection images of the patient P from different viewing angles α can be generated.

    [0034] The flux or intensity of the transmitted X-rays, i.e. at the detector 2, should preferably be within a given range to optimize image quality while minimizing dosage exposure of the patient. To this end, the intensity of the X-ray emission from the X-ray source 1 can be modulated according to a given "desired angular intensity distribution", Ides. This is illustrated in a polar diagram extending 180° around the gantry. At the depicted angle α, the desired angular intensity distribution has for example the value Ides(α), indicating the intensity that should be emitted by the X-ray source 1 at this position.

    [0035] Figure 2 illustrates the approach of the present invention to reproduce a desired angular intensity distribution Ides (having a maximum Ides,max) and the associated X-ray irradiation apparatus 100, which is in this example also an X-ray CT scanner 100. As above, the CT scanner 100 comprises a rotatable gantry 103 to which an X-ray source 101 and an X-ray detector 102 are attached for generating projection images of a patient P from different viewing angles α. The X-ray source and the detector are connected to a combined controller and reconstruction unit 110 that controls them and that collects and evaluates the imaging data. The X-ray source may particularly be a grid switching tube 101 which allows for rapid switching of the X-ray flux.

    [0036] In contrast to the situation of Figure 1, the X-ray emission in Figure 2 does not take place continuously over a continuous range of viewing angles (e.g. from 0° to 180°), but only at particular "emission angle intervals", EAI, that are separated from each other by gaps G in which no emission occurs.

    [0037] To reproduce the desired angular intensity distribution Ides, i.e. to realize a flux modulation as described above, it is proposed to modulate the angular sampling density accordingly. This means that the distribution of emission angle intervals EAI, i.e. their positioning, size, and mutual distance, is adapted by the controller 110 such that the angular average of the emission (at least approximately) matches the desired angular intensity distribution Ides. In a situation requiring low flux the sampling density will for example be reduced and vice versa. The resulting angular sampling pattern may become non regular. Such data sets can however be reconstructed using iterative reconstruction methods.

    [0038] The possibility to use e.g. iterative reconstruction allows for a dramatic X-ray dose reduction. The reduction may become so strong, that the X-ray flux seen by the detector 103 becomes very small, which typically leads to the problem that the electronic noise and small signal degradation of the detector become dominant. This problem may be overcome by the above approach, in which X-ray intensities are bundled in the emission angle intervals. The low signal problems of the detector can thus be reduced as a low flux is replaced with stronger short X-ray pulses (with the identical mean flux and dose). As an example, the X-ray flux may be blanked every other measurement interval. The number of angular measurements is then reduced by a factor of two, where each individual measurement has twice the flux as before, to realize the same mean flux. Iterative reconstruction methods can be used for image reconstruction of such sub sampled data without significant loss of image quality.

    [0039] Figure 3 schematically illustrates the definitions and mathematical procedures applied in the situation of Figure 2. It should be noted that the emission angle intervals EAI might also have zero width, i.e. they might consist of discrete values.

    [0040] The top diagram of Figure 3 shows the distribution of emission angle intervals EAI over the basic range of angles α, extending e.g. from 0° to 180°. The intervals are mathematically described by a membership function µ(α), having the definition:



    [0041] The bottom diagram of Figure 3 shows the local emission intensities I(α), which are nonzero only within the above emission angle intervals EAI. The local emission intensity I(α) within a single emission angle interval may be constant or not. In contrast to Figure 2, the local emission intensities vary in this example between the different emission angle intervals.

    [0042] The bottom diagram further shows a kernel or weighting function w(α) with which a convolution of the local emission intensities I(α) can be calculated in order to determine the average emission intensity I according to the following formula:

    (instead of ±∞, other appropriate integration boundaries might be chosen, e.g. 0 and 180°).

    [0043] The weighting function w(α) may for example be a Gaussian function

    with a width c and a normalization constant N such that

    The width c may for example be chosen as c = 5Δ with Δ being the mean width of the emission angle intervals, or the mean width of the gaps G. In absolute values, c may typically be chosen between 5° and 90°, preferably between 10° and 30°, e.g. as 20°.

    [0044] The resulting average emission intensity I can be compared to the desired intensity distribution Ides (not shown in Figure 3) to decide whether the latter is "reproduced" or not. A successful reproduction may for example be assumed if the maximal absolute deviation between the two curves in the whole range [αmin, αmax] of viewing angles is less than p percent of the maximal desired intensity, Ides,max, with e.g. p = 10%. In a formula, this amounts to:



    [0045] While the invention has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and foregoing description, such illustration and description are to be considered illustrative or exemplary and not restrictive; the invention is not limited to the disclosed embodiments. Other variations to the disclosed embodiments can be understood and effected by those skilled in the art in practicing the claimed invention, from a study of the drawings, the disclosure, and the appended claims. In the claims, the word "comprising" does not exclude other elements or steps, and the indefinite article "a" or "an" does not exclude a plurality. A single processor or other unit may fulfill the functions of several items recited in the claims. The mere fact that certain measures are recited in mutually different dependent claims does not indicate that a combination of these measures cannot be used to advantage. A computer program may be stored/distributed on a suitable medium, such as an optical storage medium or a solid-state medium supplied together with or as part of other hardware, but may also be distributed in other forms, such as via the Internet or other wired or wireless telecommunication systems. Any reference signs in the claims should not be construed as limiting the scope.


    Claims

    1. An X-ray imaging apparatus (100) that is adapted to irradiate an object (P) from different viewing angles (α), comprising:

    - an X-ray source (101) for emitting X-rays (X) towards the object (P) from said different viewing angles (α);

    - a detector (110) for detecting X-rays (X) emitted by the X-ray source (101) and for generating projection images of the object (P) from said different viewing angles (α);

    - a reconstruction module (110) for reconstructing sectional images of the object (P) from said projection images;

    - a controller (110) for controlling the X-ray source (101) such that emissions occur only at emission angle intervals (EAI) separated by gaps (G), wherein the controller (110) is configured to determine the angular distribution of these emission angle intervals (EAI) and the associated local emission intensity (I(α)) to at least approximately reproduce, in the angular mean, a desired angular intensity distribution (Ides) given for all viewing angles (α), characterised in that the angular intervals of the gaps are non-regular, providing a non-zero distance between two neighboring emission angle intervals (EAI).


     
    2. A method for generating images of an object (P) by irradiating said object (P) with X-rays from different viewing angles (α),
    said method comprising:

    - the emission of X-rays (X) towards the object only from emission angle intervals (EAI) that are separated by gaps (G), wherein the angular distribution of these emission angle intervals (EAI) and the associated local emission intensity (I(α)) are determined to at least approximately reproduce, in the angular mean, a desired angular intensity distribution (Ides) given for all viewing angles (α), wherein the angular intervals of the gaps are non-regular, providing a non-zero distance between two neighboring emission angle intervals (EAI);

    - generating projection images of the object (P) by the X-rays emitted from said different viewing angles (α);

    - reconstructing sectional images of the object (P) from said projection images.


     
    3. The imaging apparatus (100) according to claim 1 or the method according to claim 2,
    characterized in that the local emission intensity (I(α)) is larger than a given minimal intensity.
     
    4. The imaging apparatus (100) according to claim 1 or the method according to claim 2,
    characterized in that local emission intensity (I(α)) is the same for all emission angle intervals (EAI).
     
    5. The imaging apparatus (100) according to claim 1 or the method according to claim 2,
    characterized in that the desired angular intensity distribution (Ides) is such that approximately the same flux of X-rays transmitted through the object (P) is observed for all viewing angles (α).
     
    6. The imaging apparatus (100) according to claim 1,
    characterized in that the X-ray source comprises a grid switching tube (101).
     
    7. The imaging apparatus (100) according to claim 1,
    characterized in that the X-ray source (101) is movable with respect to the object (P).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Röntgenabbildungsvorrichtung (100) die angepasst ist, um ein Objekt (P) aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln (α) zu bestrahlen, umfassend:

    - eine Röntgenquelle (101) zum Aussenden von Röntgenstrahlen (X) in Richtung des Objekts (P) aus den genannten verschiedenen Blickwinkeln (α);

    - einen Detektor (110) zum Erfassen von Röntgenstrahlen (X), die von der Röntgenquelle (101) emittiert werden, und zum Erzeugen von Projektionsbildern des Objekts (P) aus den genannten verschiedenen Betrachtungswinkeln (α);

    - ein Rekonstruktionsmodul (110) zum Rekonstruieren von Schnittbildern des Objekts (P) aus den genannten Projektionsbildern;

    - eine Steuerung (110) zum Steuern der Röntgenquelle (101), so dass Emissionen nur in Emissionswinkelintervallen (EAI) auftreten, die durch Lücken (G) getrennt sind, wobei die Steuerung (110) konfiguriert ist, um die Winkelverteilung dieser Emissionswinkelintervalle (EAI) und die zugehörige lokale Emissionsintensität (I(α)) zu bestimmen, um im Winkelmittel eine gewünschte Winkelintensitätsverteilung (Ides) zumindest annähernd zu reproduzieren, die für alle Betrachtungswinkel (α) angegeben ist, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Winkelintervalle der Lücken nicht regelmäßig sind und einen Abstand ungleich Null zwischen zwei benachbarten Emissionswinkelintervallen (EAI) liefern.


     
    2. Verfahren zum Erzeugen von Bildern eines Objekts (P) durch Bestrahlen des Objekts (P) mit Röntgenstrahlen aus verschiedenen Betrachtungswinkeln (α),
    wobei das genannte Verfahren umfasst:

    - die Emission von Röntgenstrahlen (X) in Richtung des Objekts nur aus Emissionswinkelintervalle (EAI), die durch Lücken (G) getrennt sind, wobei die Winkelverteilung dieser Emissionswinkelintervalle (EAI) und die zugehörige lokale Emissionsintensität (I(α)) bestimmt werden, um zumindest annähernd im Winkelmittel eine gewünschte Winkelintensitätsverteilung (Ides) zu reproduzieren, die für alle Betrachtungswinkel (α) angegeben ist, wobei die Winkelintervalle der Lücken nicht regelmäßig sind und einen Abstand ungleich Null zwischen zwei benachbarten Emissionswinkelintervalle (EAI) bereitstellen;

    - Erzeugen von Projektionsbildern des Objekts (P) durch die von den genannten verschiedenen Betrachtungswinkeln (α) emittierten Röntgenstrahlen;

    - Rekonstruktion von Schnittbildern des Objekts (P) aus den genannten Projektionsbildern.


     
    3. Abbildungsvorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1 oder Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die lokale Emissionsintensität (I(α)) größer als eine gegebene minimale Intensität ist.
     
    4. Abbildungsvorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1 oder Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die lokale Emissionsintensität (I(α)) für alle Emissionswinkelintervalle (EAI) gleich ist.
     
    5. Abbildungsvorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1 oder Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die gewünschte Winkelintensitätsverteilung (Ides) derart ist, dass ungefähr für alle Betrachtungswinkel (α) der gleiche Röntgenstrahlfluss beobachtet wird, der durch das Objekt (P) übertragen wird.
     
    6. Abbildungsvorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Röntgenquelle eine Gitterschaltröhre (101) umfasst.
     
    7. Abbildungsvorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Röntgenquelle (101) gegenüber dem Objekt (P) beweglich ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Dispositif d'imagerie à rayons X (100) qui est adapté pour irradier un objet (P) sous différents angles de vue (α), comprenant:

    - une source de rayons X (101) pour émettre des rayons X (X) vers l'objet (P) à partir desdits différents angles de vue (α);

    - un détecteur (110) pour détecter les rayons X (X) émis par la source de rayons X (101) et pour générer des images de projection de l'objet (P) à partir desdits différents angles de vue (α);

    - un module de reconstruction (110) pour reconstruire des images en coupe de l'objet (P) à partir desdites images de projection;

    - un contrôleur (110) pour contrôler la source de rayons X (101) de telle sorte que les émissions se produisent uniquement à des intervalles d'angles d'émission (EAI) séparés par des espaces (G), où le contrôleur (110) est configuré pour déterminer la distribution angulaire de ces intervalles d'angles d'émission (EAI) et l'intensité d'émission locale associée (I(α)) pour reproduire au moins approximativement, dans la moyenne angulaire, une distribution d'intensité angulaire souhaitée (Ides) donnée pour tous les angles de vue (α), caractérisé en ce que les intervalles angulaires des espaces ne sont pas réguliers, en fournissant une distance non nulle entre deux intervalles d'angles d'émission voisins (EAI) .


     
    2. Procédé pour générer des images d'un objet (P) en irradiant ledit objet (P) avec des rayons X sous différents angles de vue (a),
    ledit procédé comprenant:

    - l'émission de rayons X (X) seulement vers l'objet à partir d'intervalles d'angles d'émission (EAI) qui sont séparés par des espaces (G), où la distribution angulaire de ces intervalles d'angles d'émission (EAI) et l'intensité d'émission locale associée (I(α)) sont déterminées pour reproduire au moins approximativement, dans la moyenne angulaire, une distribution d'intensité angulaire souhaitée (Ides) donnée pour tous les angles de vue (α), où les intervalles angulaires des espaces sont non réguliers, en fournissant une distance non nulle entre deux intervalles d'angles d'émission voisins (EAI);

    - la génération d'images de projection de l'objet (P) par les rayons X émis à partir desdits différents angles de vue (α);

    - la reconstruction d'images en coupe de l'objet (P) à partir desdites images de projection.


     
    3. Dispositif d'imagerie (100) selon la revendication 1 ou procédé selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que l'intensité d'émission locale (I(α)) est supérieure à une intensité minimale donnée.
     
    4. Dispositif d'imagerie (100) selon la revendication 1 ou procédé selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que l'intensité d'émission locale (I(α)) est la même pour tous les intervalles d'angles d'émission (EAI).
     
    5. Appareil d'imagerie (100) selon la revendication 1 ou procédé selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que la distribution d'intensité angulaire souhaitée (Ides) est telle qu'approximativement le même flux de rayons X transmis à travers l'objet (P) est observé pour tous les angles de vue (α).
     
    6. Dispositif d'imagerie (100) selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que la source de rayons X comprend un tube de commutation à grille (101).
     
    7. Dispositif d'imagerie (100) selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que la source de rayons X (101) est mobile par rapport à l'objet (P).
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description