(19)
(11)EP 3 014 310 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
04.11.2020 Bulletin 2020/45

(21)Application number: 14776921.0

(22)Date of filing:  18.03.2014
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
G01V 1/30(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2014/030985
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/209443 (31.12.2014 Gazette  2014/53)

(54)

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR REMAINING RESOURCE MAPPING

SYSTEM UND VERFAHREN ZUR RESTRESSOURCENZUORDNUNG

SYSTÈME ET PROCÉDÉ DE CARTOGRAPHIE DE RESSOURCES RÉSIDUELLES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 27.06.2013 US 201313929190

(43)Date of publication of application:
04.05.2016 Bulletin 2016/18

(73)Proprietor: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
San Ramon, CA 94583 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • MCAULIFFE, James
    San Ramon, California 94583 (US)
  • NEEL, Jowanna Sue
    San Ramon, California 94583 (US)

(74)Representative: Haseltine Lake Kempner LLP 
Redcliff Quay 120 Redcliff Street
Bristol BS1 6HU
Bristol BS1 6HU (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2008/140655
  
  • YI HUANG ET AL: "Direct correlation of 4D seismic with well activity for a clarified dynamic reservoir interpretation", GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING, vol. 60, no. 2, 31 March 2012 (2012-03-31) , pages 293-312, XP055157969, ISSN: 0016-8025, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2478.2011.00995.x
  • LANRO MARTIN: "Discrimination between pressure and fluid saturation changes from time-lapse data", GEOPHYSICS, SOCIETY OF EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICISTS, US, vol. 66, no. 3, 1 May 2001 (2001-05-01), pages 836-844, XP002305786, ISSN: 0016-8033, DOI: 10.1190/1.1444973
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present invention relates generally to mapping resources in a hydrocarbon reservoir and more particularly to the use of adjusted seismic data for mapping remaining resources after initial exploitation of the reservoir.

BACKGROUND



[0002] In the petroleum industry, seismic prospecting techniques are commonly used to aid in the search for and the evaluation of subterranean hydrocarbon deposits. In seismic prospecting, one or more sources of seismic energy emit waves into a subsurface region of interest such as a geologic formation. These waves enter the formation and may be scattered, e.g., by reflection or refraction, by subsurface seismic reflectors (i.e., interfaces between underground formations having different elastic properties). The reflected signals are sampled or measured by one or more receivers, and the resultant data, e.g., amplitude and phase information, are recorded. The recorded samples may be referred to as seismic data or a set of "seismic traces." The seismic data may be analyzed to extract details of the structure and properties of the region of the earth being explored.

[0003] Seismic imaging techniques for reservoir mapping may include taking multiple images over time in order to observe evolution of the subsurface. This method may be referred to as four dimensional (4D) mapping or time-lapse imaging. In 4D mapping, the seismic data is acquired, processed and interpreted on an iterative basis over a region of interest. Typically, such an approach is used in an area known to be undergoing change, such as a reservoir that is subject to production and/or injection processes. In this way, changes due to the exploitation of the reservoir may be observed, and conclusions regarding future productivity of the reservoir may be reached.

[0004] Reference may be made to:

YI HUANG ET AL: "Direct correlation of 4D seismic with well activity for a clarified dynamic reservoir interpretation", GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING, vol. 60, no. 2, pages 293-312; and

WO 2008/140655 A1, which relates to inversion of 4d seismic data.


SUMMARY



[0005] The present invention is defined by the independent claims, to which reference should now be made.

[0006] Specific embodiments are defined in the dependent claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS



[0007] 

Figure 1 schematically illustrates changes in amplitude in a simulated 4D seismic survey of a region as a result of changes in oil and water saturation;

Figure 2 illustrates an expected trend correlating oil saturation with amplitude difference signal (derived from compressional data) in a 4D survey;

Figure 3 is a plot of oil cut against 4D seismic amplitude difference value for several well sites;

Figure 4 schematically illustrates changes in amplitude for a 4D seismic survey (derived from compressional data) resulting from pressure changes in a region corresponding to the region illustrated in Figure 1;

Figure 5 illustrates an expected trend correlating pressure with amplitude difference;

Figure 6 is a plot of pressure against difference value for several well sites;

Figure 7a illustrates determining a correction factor for off-trend wells;

Figure 7b illustrates a correction factor map in accordance with an embodiment;

Figure 7c illustrates a map showing ratios of pressures and fault pattern trends;

Figure 8 shows an original difference map and a corrected map generated based on the original difference map and calculated correction factors;

Figure 9a shows a correlation between oil cut and pressure corrected 4D difference value;

Figure 9b shows a pressure corrected 4D difference map and a derived oil cut map;

Figure 10a illustrates an expected trend line correlating net-to-gross with difference value;

Figure 10b illustrates an estimated average current net pay map; and

Figure 11 is a flowchart illustrating a method in accordance with an embodiment.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0008] Time-lapse, or 4D, seismic imaging may be used to map changes in a reservoir over time. Because the seismic image depends in part on water saturation (Sw), changes in oil cut or percentage as a function of Sw may be derived based on changes over time in the seismic response of the reservoir. As used herein, the term "oil cut" refers to the percentage of hydrocarbons present in the reservoir. Using this information, field managers may determine regions of the reservoir that are water swept, or regions that may be likely to include bypassed oil.

[0009] An example of this is illustrated schematically in Figure 1. An exemplary baseline case shows a seismic amplitude of 10 throughout the surveyed range. As will be appreciated, such a baseline survey would generally show variation, but for the purpose of illustration, the seismic data is initially a constant value.

[0010] After a period of time, a second monitor survey is taken and variations in the initially constant amplitude data may be observed. Referring still to Figure 1, a number of producer wells 2 and injector wells 4 are shown. In some regions surrounding the wells, the amplitude remains unchanged at 10, while in other regions, amplitude has been reduced to 8 or 6. These results may be interpreted as meaning that Sw is unchanged where the amplitude is unchanged and increased where amplitude is decreased for the present example of an AVO Class III reservoir.

[0011] The monitor amplitudes may be subtracted from the baseline amplitudes to produce a 4D difference amplitude map. Thus, for the outer region, where amplitude was unchanged, a zero value is assigned, and the other regions are similarly treated.

[0012] Interpretations of the difference map may include location of an advancing flood front 10, a water-swept region 12 and the location of potential bypassed oil 14. High difference values may be interpreted as water swept regions, while low difference regions may indicate a high oil cut in areas not yet swept by water. The interpretation of bypassed oil at location 14 may be based on the apparent lack of penetration of the flood front into regions that may otherwise be surrounded by apparent injected water flow.

[0013] To further evaluate and quantify the 4D seismic response, a first step is to determine an expected trend so as to properly correlate the observed amplitude differences with actual changes in saturation via surveillance data acquired from wells in the reservoir. This correlation process is schematically illustrated in Figure 2.

[0014] In Figure 2, for each well location of Figure 1, a point is defined in an oil cut - 4D difference plane. That is, oil cut for each well is plotted against the amplitude difference. For reference, the particular producer 2 and injector 4 from Figure 1 are identified in Figure 2. This plot will show a trend that provides a correlation between amplitude difference and oil cut. As will be appreciated, oil cut for the wells may be determined based on actual data obtained from well monitoring techniques known to the skilled artisan. As will be further appreciated, a real-world example is unlikely to show a straight-line trend such as is illustrated here. However, so long as a reasonable correlation may be observed, the present technique may be applied. In general, the expectation is that increasing amplitude difference may correlate to lower oil cut and increased Sw. For those wells falling on or near the trend line, the 4D difference will generally provide useful information regarding changes in Sw.

[0015] Once a trend line is determined, it may be possible to identify particular wells that deviate significantly from the trend (e.g., high oil cut and high difference value). As will be appreciated, 4D difference values are not likely to be predictive with regard to evaluating current water saturation for these wells. Various explanations may be possible. For example, if an area is isolated from the water flood zones, e.g., by an impermeable formation or fault zone, a high difference value is not likely to be explained by Sw changes, but may instead be due to pressure changes in that part of the reservoir.

[0016] An example is illustrated in Figure 3. As shown in the Figure, one group of wells lies close to a trend line 16 aligned with the trend diagrammatically illustrated in Figure 2. In the example, these wells are in a region of a field in which waterflooding has been successfully applied. In this region, the expectation is that any increase in 4D difference corresponds to increase in Sw, i.e., decreased oil cut. On the other hand, another group of wells in the region 18 shows both high oil cut and high seismic difference. For these wells, difference value does not appear to be a strong predictor of Sw. In the example field, these wells are in a portion of the field that is apparently isolated from the injectors that have successfully flooded the region in which the trend line 16 wells lie.

[0017] As can be seen from this example, other changes in the subsurface makeup can produce changes in seismic response that are similar to the changes produced by changes in water saturation, masking the contribution of Sw changes alone on seismic difference surveys. In particular, pressure changes, gas saturation changes, and variations in net-to-gross may affect the amplitude of seismic signals. Pressure changes, in particular, are of interest because the very processes that are responsible for the changes in water saturation, i.e., water injection and oil/gas production, have a tendency to change pressure in the regions surrounding injection and production wells. Therefore, understanding the pressure changes in the reservoir may allow for a useful approach to correction of the Sw data.

[0018] Figure 4 schematically illustrates effects of pressure changes on 4D difference data in the reservoir. These changes can be observed on the seismic difference map calculated relative to a baseline measurement. The changes in pressure can be measured at each well by suitable surveillance techniques and compared with the 4D difference data to establish a trend of expected impact on the difference data as a result of the pressure changes.

[0019] As shown in Figure 4, the region 20 does not experience pressure changes over the time interval between the baseline and monitor surveys. On the other hand, the region 22 near certain of the producers shows some pressure depletion, while the region 24 near the injector 4 is a region of increased pressure. The increased pressure in the region 24 may be explained by some portion of the formation that prevents injected water from flowing freely. That is, such an increase in pressure may represent poor connectivity within the field. In the example, pressure is well maintained near the injection wells in the north-northwest and east-northeast of the field, while pressure in the region between those injectors and the compartmentalized injector is depleted. This conclusion may be confirmed, for example, by characterizing facture density and/or permeability in this region. Where permeability is low, compartmentalization is a logical conclusion.

[0020] Figure 5 is a cross plot of pressure at the well vs. the 4D seismic difference at that well location derived from the wells illustrated in Figure 4. In the illustrated example, a clear trend is observed, and the correlation between pressure and seismic difference is quite high.

[0021] Figure 6 is similar to Figure 3, but illustrating pressure vs. 4D seismic average difference in a number of actual producing wells. A first group of wells 30 are in the same waterflood region as the trend line wells of Figure 3. In this region, there is adequate pressure support as oil is recovered, and the difference in the seismic amplitude is primarily due to change in Sw. A second group of wells 32, corresponding substantially to the group 18 from Figure 3, show low pressure and high seismic difference. In this group, the difference in seismic amplitude is most likely the result of low pressure, and not due to water sweep as in group 30. One last well 34 is located well off of the trend line and shows a low difference signal as well as some pressure depletion. This well is located near an edge of the pressure supported water flood region, and appears to be only partially supported.

[0022] In view of the foregoing, it has been determined that correction factors may be generated and applied to the 4D survey data in order to remove non-water saturation effects. In this regard, such non-water saturation effects may include without limitation, one or more of pressure, gas saturation and net-to-gross variability, or combinations thereof may be used to generate corrections. This approach may result in a reduction of computing overhead as compared to, for example, performing an entirely new inversion on the seismic data.

[0023] An example of a method of calculating a correction equation for two wells that each lie away from the expected trend line is illustrated schematically in Figure 7a. A first well 40 lies in a region of high oil cut and high 4D difference. This well in fact is one of the pressure depleted wells 32 of Figure 6. For this well, a corrected difference may be calculated according to equation 1:



[0024] Where CF is a correction factor and Observed Diff is a 4D difference initially measured from the seismic monitor survey and Corrected Diff is a difference value expected for that well as determined by the trend line. For well 40, this equation is (CF)65 = -60, which can be solved for CF to yield a value of -0.92. Applying the Eqn. 1 to the other off-trend well 34 gives a value of 0.08. For each of a full field of wells, a similar correction factor may be calculated, and a correction factor map may be generated. Figure 7b is the resultant correction factor map, showing the wells 34 and 40 of Figure 7a both of which were used to establish the values. The correction factor map can be constrained away from wellbore control with various reservoir data, including fault trace patterns or current reservoir pressure, as illustrated in Figure 7c. Once the correction factor map is generated, a grid-to-grid multiplication of the original difference map and the correction factor map may be performed to produce a pressure corrected difference map. This is illustrated in Figure 8, in which the original difference map is on the right and the corrected map is on the left. In both maps, each well is labeled with its respective current producing oil cut value, where it is observed that low oil cuts now correspond consistently with higher seismic difference values, as established in the expected trend shown in Figure 2. Oil cuts displayed in Figure 8 are measured at the producers and estimated at injectors based on the cumulative volume of water injected at each well.

[0025] In the pressure corrected map, Figure 8, the wells that are represented as open circles are those that are relatively low oil cut (e.g., <30%) and high difference. Those represented by filled circles are those with high oil cut (e.g., >75%) and low difference values.

[0026] Once the pressure corrected map is generated, a new correlation between oil cut and average difference values is generated. An example is shown in Figure 9a. As may be observed, the corrected values tend more to follow a trend, but some degree of scatter is still evident. The resulting plot may be seen as showing a low trend 50 and a high trend 52. The low trend represents a model in which a lower oil cut is correlated to any given difference value while the high trend is one in which a higher oil cut is correlated to the same difference value. These correlations can be used as map control elements and are displayed as contour lines for the high trend case on the 4D difference and oil cut maps in Figure 9b. The resulting oil cut map can be used as a proxy for current oil and water saturation distribution in the reservoir.

[0027] In generating oil cut maps, the oil cut and injection volume data are used in accordance with usual methods. Likewise, information regarding the subsurface geology and structure may be used. Then, using the 4D difference values and the trends determined previously, an ensemble of cases may be developed and evaluated.

[0028] The low trend corresponds to an assumption that there is less currently remaining resource, and that the reservoir is producing in a relatively even manner. The water flood front contour will generally represent an even sweep through the reservoir. This approach tends to produce a good estimate of where within the reservoir injection water has progressed.

[0029] The high trend corresponds to a larger estimate of remaining resource, and inefficient and uneven water sweeping of the region. Contours developed under this assumption tend to exhibit fingering or coning, and the resulting map will tend to identify areas where bypassed resources may lie.

[0030] Just as pressure may be used to generate correction factors as described above, net-to-gross or gross Phi-H may similarly be used. For a constant value of Sw, low net-to-gross will result in lower difference values than will high net-to-gross values. This results in the expected trend illustrated in Figure 10a. Once expected trend information is generated, correction factors may be generated and a correction map may be applied to the seismic data in an approach that parallels that taken with the pressure data. Gas saturation data may likewise be used, wherein the expected trend is that a decrease in gas saturation results in a higher difference value and an increase in gas saturation results in a relatively lower difference value.

[0031] The resulting oil cut maps may be used to generate other displays, maps, or analyses that may be used for reservoir management decision-making. For example, a current net pay map may be developed by integrating the oil cut maps with fractional flow curves generated from relative permeability data and original net pay maps as shown in Figure 10b. Recovery factor analysis from mapped swept pore volume may be compared to analog data and waterflood recovery equations as a quality control step.

[0032] Based on assessment of incremental potential (i.e., potential resource recovery beyond that that merely represents accelerated recovery), locations for potential infill wells may be evaluated. This assessment may include, for example, Monte Carlo simulation based on the high and low cases of net pay maps generated based on the corrected difference maps, recovery factor analysis, and remaining reserve estimates for active production wells. For each potential infill well, low, mid and high estimates may be generated, so that a preferred location may be selected.

[0033] Figure 11 is a flowchart illustrating a method in accordance with an embodiment. A seismic data set is obtained 60 over a selected time interval. This data set is used to produce difference data 62, representing changes in the seismic response as a result of production of reservoir fluids over the time interval. As will be appreciated, the actual acquisition of seismic data, along with various processing techniques, may be performed by a third-party vendor, such that obtaining data should be understood to encompass direct acquisition as well as retrieval or receipt of data from a storage medium or database.

[0034] Additional data, representing measurements of various physical conditions that tend to affect seismic amplitude measurements, is used to generate expected trend data 64. This data may be, for example, based on measurements taken through borehole surveillance techniques, and may include water and oil saturation, downhole pressures, gas saturation, and net-to-gross measurements (e.g., net sand to shale, net effective porosity-height to net height, etc.).

[0035] A corrected seismic image is generated 66 using correction factors derived from the expected trend data. The corrected seismic image may be generated by cross multiplication of values of the correction factors with values of amplitude difference from the initial seismic map.

[0036] The corrected seismic image is then used to produce a map of estimated remaining hydrocarbon resources 68 for the reservoir. This resulting map may be used in selecting additional techniques for increasing and/or accelerating production from the reservoir, as discussed above.

[0037] The above described methods can be implemented in the general context of instructions executed by a computer. Such computer-executable instructions may include programs, routines, objects, components, modules, data structures, and computer software technologies that can be used to perform particular tasks and process abstract data types when executed on one or more processors. Software implementations of the above described methods may be coded in different languages for application in a variety of computing platforms and environments. It will be appreciated that the scope and underlying principles of the above described methods are not limited to any particular computer software technology.

[0038] Moreover, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the above described methods may be practiced using any one or a combination of computer processing system configurations, including, but not limited to, single and multi-processer systems, hand-held devices, programmable consumer electronics, mini-computers, or mainframe computers. The above described methods may also be practiced in distributed computing environments where tasks are performed by servers or other processing devices that are linked through a one or more data communications networks. In a distributed computing environment, program modules may be located in both local and remote computer storage media including memory storage devices.

[0039] Also, an article of manufacture for use with a computer processor, such as a CD, pre-recorded disk or other equivalent devices, could include a computer program storage medium and program means recorded thereon for directing the computer processor to facilitate the implementation and practice of the above described methods.

[0040] As used in this specification and the following claims, the terms "comprise" (as well as forms, derivatives, or variations thereof, such as "comprising" and "comprises") and "include" (as well as forms, derivatives, or variations thereof, such as "including" and "includes") are inclusive (i.e., open-ended) and do not exclude additional elements or steps. Accordingly, these terms are intended to not only cover the recited element(s) or step(s), but may also include other elements or steps not expressly recited. Furthermore, as used herein, the use of the terms "a" or "an" when used in conjunction with an element may mean "one," but it is also consistent with the meaning of "one or more," "at least one," and "one or more than one." Therefore, an element preceded by "a" or "an" does not, without more constraints, preclude the existence of additional identical elements.

[0041] While in the foregoing specification this invention has been described in relation to certain preferred embodiments thereof, and many details have been set forth for the purpose of illustration, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the invention is susceptible to alteration and that certain other details described herein can vary considerably without departing from the invention as defined by the appended claims. For example, the invention can be implemented in numerous ways, including for example as a method (including a computer-implemented method), a system (including a computer processing system), an apparatus, a computer readable medium, a computer program product, a graphical user interface, a web portal, or a data structure tangibly fixed in a computer readable memory.


Claims

1. A method for mapping remaining hydrocarbon resources in a subsurface reservoir, comprising:

obtaining (62) a map of seismic amplitude difference over a time period based on a survey (60) of the subsurface reservoir, wherein the map of seismic amplitude difference represents changes in the seismic response as a result of production of reservoir fluids over the time period;

generating (64) an expected trend dataset for the reservoir based on one or more non-water saturation effects detected over the time period by one or more wellbore surveillance techniques at one or more locations in the reservoir, wherein the expected trend dataset is generated by cross plotting measurements of the one or more non-water saturation effects versus seismic amplitude difference to establish a trend of expected impact on seismic amplitude difference of the one or more non-water saturation effects;

correcting (66) the map of seismic amplitude difference based, at least in part, on the expected trend dataset to generate a corrected seismic amplitude map; and

using (68) the corrected seismic amplitude difference map to generate a map representative of remaining hydrocarbon resources in the reservoir.


 
2. A method as in claim 1, wherein the one or more non-water saturation effects are selected from the group consisting of: pressure, net-to-gross, gas saturation, and combinations thereof.
 
3. A method as in claim 1, wherein the expected trend dataset comprises a range of expected trends, and the correcting the map comprises generating an ensemble of water saturation change maps based on the range of expected trends.
 
4. A method as in claim 1, further comprising defining one or more regions likely to represent high levels of water encroachment in the corrected map.
 
5. A method as in claim 1, further comprising defining one or more regions likely to represent bypassed hydrocarbon resources.
 
6. A method as in claim 1, further comprising identifying one or more regions of low connectivity in the reservoir.
 
7. A method as in claim 2, wherein the measurements of the pressure comprise well bore pressure logging measurements.
 
8. A method as in claim 1, wherein the expected trend dataset is further generated on the basis of additional surveillance data for the subsurface reservoir.
 
9. A method as in claim 1, further comprising using structural and geologic trend data for contouring corrections used in the correcting.
 
10. A method as in claim 1, further comprising, using the corrected map to determine an incremental value of a recovery value for a portion of the subsurface region for applying a selected reservoir management technique to obtain an improved ultimate recovery over a baseline recovery case.
 
11. A method as in claim 1, further comprising, identifying a location within the subsurface reservoir for applying a selected reservoir management technique,
optionally wherein the reservoir management technique is selected from the group consisting of: adding pressure by injection, sidetracking to break a compartment, and drilling a new production well.
 
12. A system for mapping remaining hydrocarbon resources in a subsurface reservoir, comprising modules configured and arranged to carry out the method of any of the preceding claims.
 
13. A system as in claim 12, further comprising at least one processor configured and arranged to execute the modules and a memory configured to store data used by the modules and executable code, which, when executed, implements the modules.
 
14. Computer readable software instructions for performing the method of any of claims 1 to 11.
 
15. A computer readable medium containing the computer readable software instructions of claim 14.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zum Kartieren verbleibender Kohlenwasserstoffressourcen in einem unterirdischen Reservoir, umfassend:

Erhalten (62) einer Karte seismischer Amplitudendifferenz über eine Zeitspanne auf Grundlage einer Vermessung (60) des unterirdischen Reservoirs, worin die Karte seismischer Amplitudendifferenz Änderungen in der seimischen Reaktion als Ergebnis der Produktion von Reservoirflüssigkeiten über die Zeitspanne darstellt;

Erzeugen (64) eines erwarteten Trenddatensatzes für das Reservoir auf Grundlage eines oder mehrerer Nicht-Wassersättigungseffekte, welche über die Zeitspanne durch eine oder mehrere Bohrlochüberwachungstechniken an einem oder mehreren Orten im Reservoir erfasst wurden, worin der erwartete Trenddatensatz durch Kreuzauftragen von Messungen der einen oder der mehreren Nicht-Wassersättigungseffekten gegen seismische Amplitudendifferenz erzeugt wird, um einen Trend der erwarteten Auswirkung auf seismische Amplitudendifferenz des einen oder der mehreren Nicht-Wassersättigungseffekte zu ermitteln;

Korrigieren (66) der Karte seimischer Amplitudendifferenz, welche, zumindest teilweise, auf dem erwarteten Trenddatensatz basiert, um eine korrigierte Karte seismischer Amplitude zu erstellen; und

Verwenden (68) der korrigierten Karte seimischer Amplitudendifferenz, um eine Karte zu erzeugen, repräsentativ für die verbleibenden Kohlenwasserstoffressourcen im Reservoir.


 
2. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, worin der eine oder die mehreren Nicht-Wassersättigungseffekte ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe Druck, Netto-zu-Brutto, Gassättigung und deren Kombinationen.
 
3. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, worin der erwartete Trenddatensatz einen Bereich erwarteter Trends umfasst, und die Korrektur der Karte Erzeugen eines Satzes Karten der Wassersättigungsänderung auf Grundlage des Bereichs der erwarteten Trends umfasst.
 
4. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend Definieren eines oder mehrerer Bereiche, die in der korrigierten Karte wahrscheinlich ein hohes Ausmaß an Wassereindringung darstellen.
 
5. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend Definieren eines oder mehrerer Bereiche, die wahrscheinlich umgeleitete Kohlenwasserstoffressourcen darstellen.
 
6. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend Identifizieren eines oder mehrerer Bereiche geringer Konnektivität im Reservoir.
 
7. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 2, worin die Druckmessungen Bohrlochdruckaufzeichnungsmessungen umfassen.
 
8. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, worin der erwartete Trenddatensatz ferner erzeugt wird auf der Grundlage zusätzlicher Überwachungsdaten für das unterirdische Reservoir.
 
9. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend Verwenden struktureller und geologischer Trenddaten für die bei der Korrektur verwendeten Konturkorrekturen.
 
10. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend Verwendung der korrigierten Karte zur Bestimmung eines zunehmenden Wertes eines Wiedergewinnungswertes für einen Teil des unterirdischen Bereichs zur Anwendung einer ausgewählten Reservoir-Management-Technik, um eine verbesserte endgültige Wiedergewinnung gegenüber einem Basislinien-Wiedergewinnungsfall zu erhalten.
 
11. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend Identifizieren eines Orts innerhalb des unterirdischen Reservoirs, um eine ausgewählte Reservoir-Management-Technik anzuwenden,
wahlweise worin die Reservoir-Managment-Technik ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe Hinzufügen von Druck durch Injektion, Ablenkbohren zum Aufbrechen einer Kammer und Bohren einer neuen Produktionsbohrung.
 
12. System zur Kartierung verbleibender Kohlenwasserstoffressourcen in einem unterirdischen Reservoir, umfassend Module, konfiguriert und angeordnet, um das Verfahren nach irgendeinem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche auszuführen.
 
13. System gemäß Anspruch 12, ferner umfassend mindestens einen Prozessor, konfiguriert und angeordnet, um die Module auszuführen und einen Speicher, konfiguriert, um von den Modulen verwendete Daten zu speichern und ausführbaren Code, der, wenn ausgeführt wird, die Module implementiert.
 
14. Rechnerlesbare Software-Anweisungen zur Durchführung des Verfahrens nach irgendeinem der Ansprüche 1 bis 11.
 
15. Rechnerlesbares Medium, welches die rechnerlesbaren Software-Anweisungen nach Anspruch 14 enthält.
 


Revendications

1. Un procédé pour cartographier des ressources en hydrocarbures restantes dans un réservoir souterrain, comprenant:

obtenir (62) une carte de différence d'amplitude sismique sur une période de temps sur la base d'une enquête (60) du réservoir souterrain, dans lequel la carte de différence d'amplitude sismique représente les changements de la réponse sismique résultant de la production des fluides du réservoir sur la période de temps;

générer (64) un jeu de données de tendance attendu pour le réservoir sur la base d'un ou de plusieurs effets de saturation non aqueux détectés au cours de la période de temps par une ou plusieurs techniques de surveillance des puits à un ou plusieurs endroits dans le réservoir, dans lequel le jeu de données de tendance attendu est généré par traçage croisé des mesures de l'un ou des plusieurs effets de saturation non aqueux contre la différence d'amplitude sismique pour établir une tendance de l'impact attendu sur la différence d'amplitude sismique de l'un ou des plusieurs effets de saturation non aqueux;

corriger (66) la carte de différence d'amplitude sismique sur la base, au moins en partie, du jeu de données de tendance attendu pour générer une carte d'amplitude sismique corrigée; et

utiliser (68) la carte de différence d'amplitude sismique corrigée pour générer une carte représentative des ressources en hydrocarbures restantes dans le réservoir.


 
2. Un procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'un ou les plusieurs effets de saturation non aqueux sont choisis parmi le groupe constitué en la pression, le rapport net-brut, la saturation en gaz, et leurs combinaisons.
 
3. Un procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le jeu de données de tendance attendu comprend une plage de tendances attendues, et la correction de la carte comprend la génération d'un jeu de cartes de changement de saturation en eau sur la base de la plage de tendances attendues.
 
4. Un procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre la définition d'une ou des plusieurs régions susceptibles de représenter des niveaux élevés d'empiétement de l'eau dans la carte corrigée.
 
5. Un procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre la définition d'une ou des plusieurs régions susceptibles de représenter des ressources en hydrocarbures contournées.
 
6. Un procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre l'identification d'une ou des plusieurs régions de faible connectivité dans le réservoir.
 
7. Un procédé selon la revendication 2, dans lequel les mesures de la pression comprennent des mesures de diagraphie de pression de puits de forage.
 
8. Un procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le jeu de données de tendance attendu est en outre généré sur la base de données de surveillance supplémentaires pour le réservoir souterrain.
 
9. Un procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre l'utilisation de données de tendances structurelles et géologiques pour les corrections de contour utilisées dans la correction.
 
10. Un procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre l'utilisation de la carte corrigée pour déterminer une valeur incrémentielle d'une valeur de récupération pour une partie de la région souterraine pour appliquer une technique de gestion de réservoir choisie afin d'obtenir une récupération finale améliorée par rapport à un cas de récupération de base.
 
11. Un procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre l'identification d'un endroit dans le réservoir souterrain pour appliquer une technique de gestion de réservoir choisie,
éventuellement dans lequel la technique de gestion de réservoir est choisi parmi le groupe constitué en l'ajout de pression par injection, la dérivation de puits pour casser un compartiment, et le forage d'un puits de production nouveau.
 
12. Un système pour cartographier les ressources en hydrocarbures restantes dans un réservoir souterrain, comprenant des modules configurés et disposés pour exécuter le procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes.
 
13. Un système selon la revendication 12, comprenant en outre au moins un processeur configuré et disposé pour exécuter les modules et une mémoire configurée pour stocker des données utilisées par les modules et du code exécutable qui, lorsqu'il est exécuté, met en Ĺ“uvre les modules.
 
14. Instructions du logiciel lisibles par ordinateur pour l'exécution du procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11.
 
15. Un support lisible par ordinateur contenant les instructions du logiciel lisibles par ordinateur de revendications 14.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description