(19)
(11)EP 3 014 812 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
19.09.2018 Bulletin 2018/38

(21)Application number: 14818827.9

(22)Date of filing:  24.06.2014
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H04L 29/08  (2006.01)
H04J 14/02  (2006.01)
H04L 12/803  (2013.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2014/043809
(87)International publication number:
WO 2014/209961 (31.12.2014 Gazette  2014/53)

(54)

COMPUTE FOLLOWED BY NETWORK LOAD BALANCING PROCEDURE FOR EMBEDDING CLOUD SERVICES IN SOFTWARE-DEFINED FLEXIBLE-GRID OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORKS

BERECHNUNGS- UND NETZWERKLASTAUSGLEICHSVERFAHREN ZUM EINBETTEN VON CLOUD-DIENSTEN IN OPTISCHEN TRANSPORTNETZEN MIT SOFTWAREDEFINIERTEN FLEXIBLEN GITTERN

PROCÉDURE PAR CALCUL SUIVI PAR UN ÉQUILIBRAGE DE LA CHARGE DU RÉSEAU PERMETTANT D'INTÉGRER DES SERVICES EN NUAGE DANS DES RÉSEAUX DE TRANSPORT OPTIQUE À GRILLE SOUPLE DÉFINIS PAR LOGICIEL


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 24.06.2013 US 201361838462 P
23.06.2014 US 201414312603

(43)Date of publication of application:
04.05.2016 Bulletin 2016/18

(73)Proprietor: NEC Corporation
Tokyo 108-8001 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • PATEL, Ankitkumar
    Monmouth Junction, New Jersey 08852 (US)
  • JI, Philip Nan
    Plainsboro, New Jersey 08536 (US)
  • WANG, Ting
    West Windsor, New Jersey 08550 (US)

(74)Representative: Betten & Resch 
Patent- und Rechtsanwälte PartGmbB Maximiliansplatz 14
80333 München
80333 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A1- 2004 054 807
US-A1- 2008 285 555
US-A1- 2011 029 675
US-A1- 2012 257 496
US-A1- 2008 095 176
US-A1- 2009 324 222
US-A1- 2012 257 496
  
  • ACHIM AUTENRIETH ET AL.: 'Network Virtualization and SDN/OpenFlow' 14 March 2013, XP055294856 Retrieved from the Internet: <URL:http://www.netsys2013.de/documents/Aut enrieth-Virtualization.pdf>
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates generally to optical communications, and more particularly, to a compute followed by network load balancing procedure for embedding cloud services in software-defined flexible-grid optical transport networks.

[0002] Software-Defined Network (SDN) architecture enables network programmability to support multi-vendor, multi-technology, multi-layer communications, and to offer an infrastructure as a service. Recently, efforts are going on to integrate optical transport within IP/Ethernet-based SDN architecture to leverage optical transmission benefits, such as low interference, long reach , and high capacity transmission with lower power consumption. Such a network is referred to as Optical Transport SDN. Optical transport SDN can be realized by enabling flexibility and programmability in transmission and switching network elements, such as transponders and ROADMs, management of optical channels, such as flexible-grid channel mapping, and extracting control plane intelligence from the physical hardware to the centralized controller.

[0003] Fig. 1 shows architecture for optical transport SDN in which control plane is abstracted from physical hardware of network elements and most network control and management intelligence now resides into a centralized controller. The centralized controller controls network elements using a standardized protocol, such as OpenFlow over standardized interfaces at controller and network elements. The control plane decisions present in the form of rules, actions, and policies, and network elements applies these decision based on match-action on connections. Thus, optical transport SDN partitions a network into software defined optics (SDO) and optics defined controller (ODC).

[0004] Software-defined optics consists of variable rate transponders, flexible-grid channel mapping, and colorless-directionless-contentionless-gridless (CDCG) ROADMs. Variable-rate transponder can be programmed for various modulation formats and FEC coding. Thus, transponders can offer variable transmission capacity for heterogeneous reach requirements. Flexible-grid channel mapping allows an assignment of flexible amount of spectrum to channels to achieve higher spectral efficiency by applying spectrum-efficient modulation formats and eliminating guard bands. CDCG-ROADM can be programmed to switch connections operating on any wavelength with any spectral requirement over any outgoing direction. Furthermore, connections can be added and dropped at a node without contentions. These hardware and their features establishes foundation of SDON optimization and customization capabilities.

[0005] Optics defining controller manages the network, and performs network optimization and customization to utilize flexibility of SDO. ODC functionalities are further extracted into network/compute hypervisor, operating system, network applications and database, and debugger and management planes. These planes are isolated by open standardized interfaces to allow simultaneous and rapid innovations at each layer independently. Various control plane functionalities, for example, cloud resource mapping, routing and resource allocation, protection and restoration, defragmentation, energy optimization, etc., are installed as applications and data base in the ODC. Network/compute hypervisor offers virtualization by providing isolation and sharing functions to a data plane as well as an abstract view of network and computing resources while hiding physical layer implementation details to a controller in order to optimize and simplify the network operations. Operating system offers a programmable platform for the execution of applications and hypervisors. Debugger and management plane offers access control and QoS management, while monitoring network performance, and performs fault isolation, localization, and recovery.

[0006] Recently, cloud services have gained a lot of interests since it supports applications by sharing resources within existing deployed infrastructure instead of building new ones from scratch. These days network applications are becoming more and more cloud centric, for example social networking applications, such as FaceBook, Twitter, and Google+, e-science applications, such as Large Hadron Collider, content applications, such as NetFlix, and search applications, such as Google and Baidu. Cloud applications are supported by interconnecting various computing, storage, software, and platform-oriented resources within data centers through networks. Each data center is built with the goal of optimizing the type of services offered, for example Google data center is built with the goal of efficient indexing of web pages and minimization of content search time, while Facebook data center is built to offer maximum storage for user contents and efficient management and linking of these contents within user's social group, Amazon EC2 data center is built to offer faster computing time. Thus, one data center may not provide all types of resource, and may not optimally meet all the requirements of a cloud application. In such scenarios, open challenges are how to map a cloud request among data centers offering heterogeneous resources, and how to establish network connectivity between data centers. The problem is referred to as cloud service embedding problem. In this invention, we investigate cloud service embedding problem over software-defined flexible grid transport SDN networks. The problem is formally defined as follow.

[0007] We are given a physical network topology G(N, L), where N represents a set of physical nodes (PNs) and L represents a set of physical links (PLs) interconnecting physical nodes. Each node offers different types resources, for example, 1, 2, 3, .., n, and the number of offered resources

for each type j is given in advance. A node also consists of CDCG-ROADMs and variable rate transponders. CDCG-ROADM offers switching of flex-grid optical connections while variable rate transponders offer a set of modulation formats M, where the spectral efficiency Zm bit/second/Hz and transmission reach Dm Km of each modulation format m is also given. A fiber offers total T THz of spectrum. A cloud demand is defined as G'(V, E, C, L), where V is a set of virtual nodes (VNs), E is a set of virtual links (VLs) connecting virtual nodes, C is a set of requested resources (Ci1, Ci2, ...., Cin) at each virtual node i, L is a set of requested line rate lij between virtual nodes i and j. The arrival and departure distributions of cloud requests are given. The problem is how to map virtual nodes of a cloud demand over physical nodes (the virtual node embedding problem) and virtual links of a cloud demand over physical links (the virtual link embedding problem), such that the number of embedded cloud demands is maximized. Virtual link embedding problem consists of sub-problems such as how to route a virtual link over physical routes, how to assign a wavelength and allocate spectrum, and how to select a modulation format. It is assumed that a network does not support wavelength, spectrum, or modulation format conversion capability.

[0008] Cloud embedding mainly consists of virtual node embedding and virtual link embedding. Since physical node and link resources are shared among multiple could demands, an embedding procedure needs to ensure isolation of these resources while maintaining the resource capacity constraints. When mapping virtual nodes over physical nodes, a procedure needs to ensure that different virtual nodes cannot be mapped over the same physical node. When mapping virtual links over physical routes through optical channels in flex-grid transport SDN, a procedure needs to ensure the wavelength continuity, and spectral continuity, spectral conflict. The wavelength continuity constraint is defined as an allocation of spectrum at the same operating wavelength on all links along the route of an optical channel. The spectral continuity constraint is defined as an allocation of the same amount of spectrum on all links along the route of an optical channel. The spectral conflict constraint is defined as an allocation of non-overlapping spectrum to all channels routed through the same fiber. Furthermore, a procedure also needs to make sure that a selection of modulation format for a virtual link and its routing over the network should support at least the physical Euclidean distance between the physical nodes on which virtual nodes are mapped. The constraint is referred to as the reachability constraint.

[0009] Cloud service embedding consists of virtual node embedding and virtual link embedding sub-problems. If the virtual nodes are per-assigned to physical nodes, then the problem of just mapping virtual links over physical links is referred to as virtual network embedding problem. The virtual network embedding problems have been extensively solved for IP/Ethernet-based networks while ignoring optical transport.

[0010] Document US2012/257496 A1 discloses a virtual network wherein virtual links are remapped to physical links according to their priority when the network is in an overloaded state.

[0011] However, there is a need for a procedure that quickly solves the cloud service embedding problem in a smaller time interval compared to known techniques.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0012] The invention is defined by a method according to claim 1 and a system according to claim 3. Further embodiments are defined by the dependent claims. The present invention is directed to a method that includes implementing by a computer an embedding of cloud demands over a software defined flexible grid optical transport network, the implementing that includes arranging virtual nodes in the network in a descending order of a total number of required resources, mapping the virtual nodes over physical nodes while balancing a load for different types of resources, arranging virtual links in a descending order of estimated spectral resources, mapping virtual links over physical routes and selecting a modulation format for the virtual links while balancing the load over physical links, and assigning wavelength and spectrum to the virtual links.

[0013] In an alternative embodiment of the invention, a system includes implementation by a computer an embedding of cloud demands over a software defined flexible grid optical transport network, the implementing includes arranging virtual nodes in the network in a descending order of a total number of required resources, mapping the virtual nodes over physical nodes while balancing a load for different types of resources, arranging virtual links in a descending order of estimated spectral resources, mapping virtual links over physical routes and selecting a modulation format for the virtual links while balancing the load over physical links; and assigning wavelength and spectrum to the virtual links.

[0014] These and other advantages of the invention will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art by reference to the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26)


BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0015] 

Fig. 1 is a diagram of an exemplary architecture of an optical transport software defined network SDN;

Fig. 2 is a block detailing the compute followed by network load balancing, in a accordance with the invention; and

Fig. 3 shows an exemplary computer configuration for implementing the invention;


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0016] The present invention entails an efficient procedure, namely Compute followed by Network Load Balancing (CNLB), that first maps virtual nodes over physical nodes while balancing computational resources of different types, and finally, maps virtual links over physical routes while balancing network spectral resources.

[0017] To reduce the management complexity, the spectrum is slotted at the granularity of q GHz. A slot is referred to as a wavelength slot. Thus, spectrum can be represented by a set of consecutive wavelength slots, and among them, the first wavelength slot index is denoted as the wavelength of an optical channel. Thus, the network consists of total ceiling(T/q) wavelength slots [Note: ceiling(.) and floor(.) indicate ceiling and floor mathematical operations respectively over the value confined within a bracket]. The state of each wavelength slot is represented by a binary variable; '1' indicated that the wavelength slot is available and '0' indicates that the wavelength slot is occupied. The spectrum state of a fiber is represented by a binary vector that is referred to as a bit-map of a fiber.

[0018] The procedure pre-calculates up to k-shortest routes between each pair of nodes, where k ≤ |N|. The procedure first maps virtual nodes (VNs) over physical nodes (PNs) while performing load balancing over node resources. VNs are arranged in a descending order of the total required different types of resources. These VNs are mapped over PNs one-by-one in a descending order. A VN can be mapped to a PN on which none of the VNs from the given cloud demand is yet mapped, and the PN must contain at least the required number of different types of resource requested by the VN. Among these PNs, a PN is selected that has the maximum ratio of the number of available resources to the total number of resources for the maximum number of different types of resources. If at least one of the VNs cannot be mapped, then the procedure blocks the cloud demand.

[0019] After mapping VNs, the procedure maps virtual links (VLs) over physical links (PLs) while performing load balancing over network resources. For each VL (i, j), the procedure first estimates the required amount of spectral resources fij, which is defined as the product of the shortest distance in terms of hops dij between PNs over which i and j VNs are mapped, and minimum required spectrum Aij, Aij is determine from the highest spectral efficient modulation format that can reach at least hij distance, where hij is the physical (Euclidean) distance in terms of Km between VNs i and j. The procedure arranges VLs in a descending order of the estimated required spectrum, and maps these VLs in a one-by-one manner as follows.

[0020] The procedure determines a set of feasible modulation formats Mijk for each of the k-shortest routes connecting PNs on which VNs i and j are mapped based on their reachability requirements. In the next step, the procedure determines the probability Pijkm of mapping the VL (i, j) over a physical route k using a modulation format m is determined. To determine this probability, the procedure first finds a bit-map of each of the k-shortest routes connecting PNs on which VNs i and j are mapped. A bit-map of a route is determined by performing bit-wise logical end operations on the bit-maps of all physical links along the route. Afterwards, the procedure determines the required spectrum Sijkm = ceiling(lij / Zm) to support the line rate lij over route k using modulation format m. In the next step, the procedure finds the number of wavelength slots starting from which at least [ceiling(Sijkm/q)] number of consecutive slots is available in the bit-map of a route k. The ratio of the found number of wavelength slots to [floor(T/q)-ceiling(Sijkm /q)+1] represents the probability Pijkm, where [floor(T/q)-ceiling(Sijkm/q)+1] represents the total number of potential wavelength slots starting from which at least [ceiling(Sijkm/q)] number of consecutive wavelength slots available. In the next step, the procedure selects a route k and modulation format m that maximizes the probability Pijkm. if Pijkm=0, then the procedure blocks the connection and releases pre-allocated node and link resources, otherwise the procedure finds the lowest wavelength slots at which [ceiling(Sijkm/q)] number of consecutive wavelength slots are available for the selected k and m, and provisions the VL at the found wavelength slots on the selected route k for the modulation format m. Finally the procedure checks whether all VLs are provisioned or not. If at least one of the VLs is not yet provisioned, then the procedure repeats the procedure of VL mapping, otherwise the procedure is terminated.

[0021] The detail procedure is described in terms of the flow chart as shown in Fig. 2.

101: The procedure arranges VNs of the given cloud request in a descending order of the total requested different types of resources.

102: The procedure finds a set of PNs on which none of the VNs of the given cloud demand is yet mapped, and these nodes contains at least the requested number of resources of different types by the VN

103. The procedure checks whether the set of PNs is empty or not. If the set is empty, then the procedure follows Step 114. If the set if not empty, then the procedure follows Step 104.

104: The procedure maps the VN to a PN that maximizes cumulative ratio of the number of available resources to the offered number of resources for each resource type.

105: The procedure checks whether all VNs of the given cloud demand are mapped. If at least one of the VNs is not yet mapped, then the procedure follows Step 102, otherwise the procedure follows Step 106.

106: For each VL (i, j), based on the shortest distance hij between PNs on which VNs i and j of the VL are mapped, the procedure finds a modulation format that requires optimum spectrum Ao and meets the reachability constraint.

107: The procedure arranges VLs of the cloud request in a descending order according to function fij= (Aij * dij).

108: The procedure selects a VN (i, j) from the top of the list, and determines a set of feasible modulation formats Mijk for each of the k-shortest routes connecting PNs on which VNs i and j are mapped based on their reachability requirements and the requested line rate.

109: The procedure finds a bit-map of each of the k-shortest routes connecting PNs on which i and j VNs are mapped. A bit-map of a route is determined by performing bit-wise logical end operations on the bit-maps of all physical links along the route.

110: For each modulation format mMijk, the procedure determines the total required spectrum Sijkm = ceiling(lij / Zm).

111: The procedure determines a probability Pijkm of mapping the VL (i, j) on a route k using a modulation format m, where Pijkm is the ratio of the number of wavelength slots starting from which [ceiling(Sijkm/q)] consecutive wavelength slots are available for a modulation format m on the bit-map of a route k to the total number possible wavelength slots [floor(T/q)-ceiling(Sijkm/q)+1] starting from which [ceiling(Sijkm/q)] consecutive wavelength slots can be mapped.

112: The procedure selects a route k and modulation format mMijk that has the maximum Pijkm for the VL (i, j).

113: The procedure checks whether the maximum probability Pijkm is 0 or not. If it is 0, then the procedure follows Step 114, otherwise the procedure follows Step 115.

114: The procedure blocks the cloud demand after releasing the pre-allocated node and spectral resources.

115: The procedure finds the lowest wavelength slot starting from which [ceiling(Sijkm/q)] number of consecutive wavelength slots are available for the selected m and k, and provisions the VL at the found wavelength slots on the selected route k between PNs at which i and j are mapped.

116: The procedure checks whether all VNs are already mapped or not. If at least one of the VNs is not yet mapped, then the procedure follows Step 108, otherwise the procedure is terminated.



[0022] The invention may be implemented in hardware, firmware or software, or a combination of the three. Preferably the invention is implemented in a computer program executed on a programmable computer having a processor, a data storage system, volatile and non-volatile memory and/or storage elements, at least one input device and at least one output device. More details are discussed in US Pat. No. 8380557, the content of which is incorporated by reference.

[0023] By way of example, a block diagram of a computer to support the system isdiscussed next in FIG. 3. The computer preferably includes a processor, random access memory (RAM), a program memory (preferably a writable read-only memory (ROM) such as a flash ROM) and an input/output (I/O) controller coupled by a CPU bus. The computer may optionally include a hard drive controller which is coupled to a hard disk and CPU bus. Hard disk may be used for storing application programs, such as the present invention, and data. Alternatively, application programs may be stored in RAM or ROM. I/O controller is coupled by means of an I/O bus to an I/O interface. I/O interface receives and transmits data in analog or digital form over communication links such as a serial link, local area network, wireless link, and parallel link. Optionally, a display, a keyboard and a pointing device (mouse) may also be connected to I/O bus. Alternatively, separate connections (separate buses) may be used for I/O interface, display, keyboard and pointing device. Programmable processing system may be preprogrammed or it may be programmed (and reprogrammed) by downloading a program from another source (e.g., a floppy disk, CD-ROM, or another computer).

[0024] Each computer program is tangibly stored in a machine-readable storage media or device (e.g., program memory or magnetic disk) readable by a general or special purpose programmable computer, for configuring and controlling operation of a computer when the storage media or device is read by the computer to perform the procedures described herein. The inventive system may also be considered to be embodied in a computer-readable storage medium, configured with a computer program, where the storage medium so configured causes a computer to operate in a specific and predefined manner to perform the functions described herein.

[0025] From the foregoing it can be appreciated that the key features of the invention enable quickly finding a solution for the cloud service embedding problem, that the invention is is applicable in the optical control plane, such as Path Computation Element (PCE) and as an application in a software-defined controller, and application of the invention can embed a reasonable and fair number of cloud demands in quickest time, and thus enhance software defined transport optical network performance.

[0026] The foregoing is to be understood as being in every respect illustrative and exemplary, but not restrictive, and the scope of the invention disclosed herein is not to be determined from the Detailed Description, but rather from the claims as interpreted according to the full breadth permitted by the patent laws. It is to be understood that the embodiments shown and described herein are only illustrative of the principles of the present invention and that those skilled in the art may implement various modifications without departing from the scope of the invention. Those skilled in the art could implement various other feature combinations without departing from the scope of the invention.


Claims

1. A method of implementing by a computer an embedding of cloud demands over a software defined flexible grid optical transport network, said method comprising the steps of:

arranging, in a list, virtual nodes VNs of a cloud demand in a descending order of their respective total number of required different types of resources;

mapping the virtual nodes one-by-one, from the top of the list, over physical nodes PNs while balancing a load for different types of resources by finding a set of physical nodes PNs on which none of the virtual nodes VNs of the cloud demand is yet mapped, said set of physical nodes PNs containing at least a required number of different types of resources requested by the respective virtual nodes VNs;

arranging, in a list, virtual links VLs in a descending order of their respective amount of estimated spectral resources, wherein with respect to each virtual link VL, the amount of estimated spectral resources is a product of a) a shortest distance between physical nodes PNs on which virtual nodes VNs of the virtual link VL are mapped, and b) a minimum required spectrum, said spectrum being determined from a modulation format that requires an optimum spectrum and meets a reachability constraint; and

mapping, from the top of the list, the virtual links VL over physical routes while balancing the load over physical links,

wherein the step of mapping virtual links VLs over physical routes comprises:

selecting a virtual link VL from the top of the list, determining a set of feasible modulation formats for each of k-shortest routes connecting physical nodes PNs on which virtual nodes VNs of the virtual link VL, are mapped, based on their reachability constraints and a requested line rate,

finding a bit-map of each of the k-shortest routes connecting PNs on which virtual nodes VNs of the virtual link VL are mapped, a bit-map of a route being determined by performing bit-wise logical end operations on the bit-maps of all physical links along the route, for each modulation format,

determining the total required spectrum for each modulation format and each route, determining a probability of mapping the virtual link VL on said each route using said

each modulation format based on a ratio of the number of wavelength slots starting from which consecutive wavelength slots are available for said modulation format on the bit-map of said route to the total number possible wavelength slots starting from which consecutive wavelength slots can be mapped,

selecting a pair of route and modulation format that has a maximum probability for the virtual link VL, and checking whether the maximum probability is 0 or not, and

assigning a spectrum represented by consecutive wavelength slots to the virtual links.


 
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of mapping virtual nodes over physical nodes while balancing a load for different types of resources further comprises checking whether the set of physical nodes PNs is empty or not, if the set is empty, then there is a blocking of the cloud demand after releasing the pre-allocated node and spectral resources, and if the set if not empty, then there is a mapping of the virtual node VN to a physical node PN that maximizes cumulative ratio of the number of available resources to the offered number of resources for each resource type.
 
3. A system adapted to perform the method according to claim 1 or 2, said system comprising: a computer for implementing an embedding of cloud demands over a software defined flexible grid optical transport network.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zum Implementieren einer Einbettung von Cloud-Anforderungen durch einen Computer über ein softwaredefiniertes flexibles optisches Gittertransportnetzwerk, wobei das Verfahren die folgenden Schritte umfasst:

in einer Liste virtuelle Knoten VNs eines Cloud-Bedarfs in absteigender Reihenfolge ihrer jeweiligen Gesamtzahl an benötigten unterschiedlichen Ressourcentypen anzuordnen;

Abbilden der virtuellen Knoten einzeln, von oben in der Liste, über physische Knoten PNs, während eine Last für verschiedene Arten von Ressourcen ausgeglichen wird, indem ein Satz von physischen Knoten PNs gefunden wird, auf denen keiner der virtuellen Knoten VNs der Cloud-Anforderung noch abgebildet ist, wobei der Satz von physischen Knoten PNs mindestens eine erforderliche Anzahl von verschiedenen Arten von Ressourcen enthält, die von den jeweiligen virtuellen Knoten VNs angefordert werden;

in einer Liste virtuelle Links VLs in einer absteigenden Reihenfolge ihrer jeweiligen Menge an geschätzten spektralen Ressourcen anzuordnen, wobei die Menge an geschätzten spektralen Ressourcen in Bezug auf jede virtuelle Verbindung VL ein Produkt aus a) einem kürzesten Abstand zwischen physikalischen Knoten PNs, auf denen virtuelle Knoten VNs der virtuellen Verbindung VL abgebildet sind, und b) einem minimal erforderlichen Spektrum ist, wobei das Spektrum aus einem Modulationsformat bestimmt wird, das ein optimales Spektrum erfordert und eine Erreichbarkeitsbeschränkung erfüllt; und

Mapping, von oben in der Liste, die virtuellen Links VL über physische Routen, während der Ausgleich der Last über physische Links,

wobei der Schritt der Abbildung von virtuellen Verbindungen VLs über physische Routen umfasst:

Auswählen einer virtuellen Verbindung VL aus dem oberen Teil der Liste, Bestimmen eines Satzes von möglichen Modulationsformaten für jede der k-kürzesten Routen, die physische Knoten PNs verbinden, auf denen virtuelle Knoten VNs der virtuellen Verbindung VL abgebildet sind, basierend auf ihren Erreichbarkeitseinschränkungen und einer gewünschten Leitungsrate,

Finden einer Bitmap von jeder der k-kürzesten Routen, die PNs verbinden, auf denen virtuelle Knoten VNs der virtuellen Verbindung VL abgebildet sind, wobei eine Bitmap einer Route bestimmt wird, indem bitweise logische Endoperationen auf den Bitmaps aller physikalischen Verbindungen entlang der Route für jedes Modulationsformat durchgeführt werden,

Bestimmen des gesamten erforderlichen Spektrums für jedes Modulationsformat und jede Route, Bestimmen einer Wahrscheinlichkeit der Abbildung der virtuellen Verbindung VL auf jeder Route unter Verwendung des jeweiligen Modulationsformats auf der Grundlage eines Verhältnisses der Anzahl der Wellenlängenslots, ausgehend von denen aufeinanderfolgende Wellenlängenslots für das Modulationsformat auf der Bitmap der Route verfügbar sind, zu der Gesamtzahl möglicher Wellenlängenslots, ausgehend von denen aufeinanderfolgende Wellenlängenslots abgebildet werden können,

Auswählen eines Paares von Route und Modulationsformat, das eine maximale Wahrscheinlichkeit für die virtuelle Verbindung VL hat, und Prüfen, ob die maximale Wahrscheinlichkeit 0 ist oder nicht, und

Zuweisung eines Spektrums, das durch aufeinanderfolgende Wellenlängen-Slots dargestellt wird, zu den virtuellen Verbindungen.


 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Schritt des Abbildens virtueller Knoten über physische Knoten, während eine Last für verschiedene Arten von Ressourcen ausgeglichen wird, ferner das Prüfen umfasst, ob die Menge der physischen Knoten PNs leer ist oder nicht, wenn die Menge leer ist, dann Blockierung der Cloud-Anforderung, nachdem der vorab zugeordnete Knoten und die spektralen Ressourcen freigegeben wurden, und wenn die Menge nicht leer ist, dann Abbildung des virtuellen Knotens VN auf einen physikalischen Knoten PN, der das kumulative Verhältnis der Anzahl der verfügbaren Ressourcen zu der angebotenen Anzahl von Ressourcen für jeden Ressourcentyp maximiert.
 
3. System zur Durchführung des Verfahrens nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei das System umfasst:
ein Rechner zur Realisierung einer Einbettung von Cloud-Anforderungen über ein von der Software definiertes flexibles optisches Grid-Transportnetz.
 


Revendications

1. Méthode de mettre en oeuvre par un ordinateur une intégration de demandes de nuages sur un réseau de transport optique à grille flexible défini par un logiciel, ledit procédé comprenant les étapes consistant à:

disposer, dans une liste, les noeuds virtuels VNs d'une demande de nuage dans un ordre déscendant. de leur nombre total respectif de différents types de ressources nécessaires;

cartographier les noeuds virtuels un par un,

à partir du haut de la liste, sur des noeuds physiques PNs en équilibrant une charge pour différents types de ressources en trouvant un ensemble de noeuds physiques PNs sur lesquels aucun des noeuds virtuels VNs de la demande de nuage n'est pas encore mappé, ledit ensemble de noeuds physiques PNs contenant au moins un nombre necessaire de

différents types de ressources demandées par les noeuds virtuels respectifs VNs;

disposer, dans une liste, de liens virtuels VLs dans un ordre décsendant de leur quantité respective de ressources spectrales estimées, dans lequel par rapport à chaque lien virtuel VL,

la quantité de ressources spectrales estimées est le produit a) d'une distance la plus courte entre des noeuds physiques PN sur lesquels des noeuds virtuels VN du lien virtuel VL sont cartographiés, et b) d'un spectre minimal nécessaire, ledit spectre étant déterminé à partir d'un format de modulation qui requiert un spectre optimal et répond à une contrainte d'accessibilité; et

cartographier, à partir du haut de la liste, les liens virtuels VL sur les routes physiques tandis qu'équilibrer la charge sur des liens physiques,

dans laquelle l'étape de mappage de liens virtuels VLs sur des routes physiques comprend:

sélectionner un lien virtuel VL à partir du haut de la liste, déterminer un ensemble des formats de modulation réalisables pour chacun des k itinéraires les plus courts reliant les noeuds physiques PNs sur lesquels des noeuds virtuels VNs du lien virtuel VL,

sont cartographiés, en base de leurs contraintes d'accessibilité et d'un taux de ligne demandé,

trouver une carte en bits de chacun des k itinéraires les plus courts reliant les PNs sur lesquels des noeuds virtuels VNs du lien virtuel VL sont cartographiés, un mappage de bits d'une route étant déterminé en exécutant des opérations de fin logique par bit sur le mappage de bits de toutes les liens physiques le long de la route, pour chaque format de modulation,

déterminer le spectre total nécessaire pour chaque format de modulation et chaque route, déterminer une probabilité de cartographier le lien virtuel VL sur ledit chaque route en utilisant ledit chaque

format de modulation basé sur un rapport du nombre de créneaux de longueur d'onde à partir de quels créneaux de longueur d'onde consécutifs sont disponibles pour ledit format de modulation sur le mappage de bits de ladite route au nombre total de créneaux de longueur d'onde possibles à partir desquels des créneaux de longueur d'onde consécutifs peuvent être cartographiés,

sélectionner une paire de format de route et de modulation ayant une probabilité maximale pour le lien virtuel VL, et vérifier si la probabilité maximale est 0 ou non, et

attribuer un spectre représenté par des créneaux de longueur d'onde consécutifs aux liens virtuels.


 
2. Procédé selona la revendication 1, dans lequel l'étape de mappage de noeuds virtuels sur des noeuds physiques tout en équilibrant une charge pour différents types de ressources comprend en outre la vérification si l'ensemble de noeuds physiques PN est vide ou non, si l'ensemble est vide, alors il y a un blocage de la demande de nuages après libération du noeud pré-alloué et des ressources spectrales, et si l'ensemble n'est pas vide, alors il y a un mappage du noeud virtuel VN sur un noeud physique PN qui maximise le rapport cumulatif du nombre de ressources disponibles au nombre de ressources offertes pour chaque type de ressources.
 
3. Un système adapté pour exécuter le procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, ledit comprenant:
un ordinateur pour mettre en oeuvre une intégration des demandes de nuages sur un réseau de transport optique à grille flexible défini par logiciel.
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description