(19)
(11)EP 3 023 076 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
06.12.2017 Bulletin 2017/49

(21)Application number: 15190729.2

(22)Date of filing:  21.10.2015
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61B 6/02(2006.01)
A61B 6/00(2006.01)
A61B 6/12(2006.01)
A61B 10/04(2006.01)
A61B 6/04(2006.01)
A61B 90/11(2016.01)
A61B 10/02(2006.01)

(54)

APPARATUS FOR PERFORMING A BIOPSY ON A PATIENT'S BREAST AND COMPUTER-IMPLEMENTED METHOD FOR DEFINING A ROUTE FOR A BIOPSY NEEDLE THROUGH A PATIENT'S BREAST

VORRICHTUNG ZUR DURCHFÜHRUNG EINER BIOPSIE IN DER BRUST EINER PATIENTIN SOWIE COMPUTER-IMPLEMENTIERTES VERFAHREN ZUR DEFINITION EINER ROUTE FÜR EINE BIOPSIENADEL DURCH DIE BRUST EINER PATIENTIN

APPAREIL POUR EFFECTUER UNE BIOPSIE SUR LE SEIN D'UNE PATIENTE ET MÉTHODE PAR ORDINATEUR POUR DÉFINIR UN ITINÉRAIRE POUR UNE AIGUILLE À BIOPSIE DU SEIN D'UNE PATIENTE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 24.10.2014 IT BO20140593

(43)Date of publication of application:
25.05.2016 Bulletin 2016/21

(73)Proprietor: I.M.S. Internazionale Medico Scientifica S.r.l.
40037 Sasso Marconi (Bologna) (IT)

(72)Inventors:
  • ALBANESE, Achille
    40043 MARZABOTTO (Bologna) (IT)
  • TONIOLO, Bruno
    40037 SASSO MARCONI (Bologna) (IT)
  • VIGNOLI, Paolo
    40017 SAN GIOVANNI IN PERSICETO (Bologna) (IT)
  • VECCHIO, Sara
    40033 CASALECCHIO DI RENO (Bologna) (IT)

(74)Representative: Milli, Simone 
Bugnion S.p.A. Via di Corticella, 87
40128 Bologna
40128 Bologna (IT)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 491 863
EP-A2- 2 526 869
US-A1- 2011 087 132
EP-A1- 2 656 789
US-A1- 2010 191 145
US-A1- 2011 118 625
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] This invention relates to an apparatus for performing a biopsy on a patient's breast and to a computer-implemented method for defining a route for a biopsy needle through a patient's breast.

    [0002] In the technical sector of diagnostic examinations, health care operators strongly feel the need to be able to adjust and/or control the route of the biopsy needle in a particularly quick and easy manner.

    [0003] The reason is, for example, that doing so allows preventing the needle from passing through certain parts of the breast or allows tissue from desired adjacent areas to be included in the biopsy sample.

    [0004] In other words, doctors and/or diagnostic examination operators often need to easily adjust and/or control the route followed by the needle through the patient's breast in order to extract a breast tissue sample.

    [0005] Document EP 2526869 discloses an image processing device which includes an image generation means that generates tomographic images and specification means that allows a user to specify a position of the object of interest. The device further comprises a second specification means that displays at least one tomographic image including a region from the object of interest to a side from which a biopsy needle is to be inserted, and allows the user to specify a desired pass-through region of the biopsy needle and/or a non-pass-through region. A drawback of such device is that it does not allow to check whether the path towards the target is optimal before the execution of the biopsy. This invention therefore has for an aim to meet the above mentioned need by providing an apparatus for performing a biopsy on a patient's breast and a computer-implemented method for defining a route for a biopsy needle through a patient's breast.

    [0006] The technical features of the invention, with reference to the above aims, are clearly described in the claims below and its advantages are apparent from the detailed description which follows, with reference to the accompanying drawings which illustrate a preferred, non-limiting example embodiment of the invention, and in which:
    • Figure 1 shows a perspective view of an apparatus according to this invention for performing at least one biopsy examination on a patient's breast;
    • Figures 2 to 4 illustrate respective scaled-up details of the apparatus of Figure 1;
    • Figures 5 to 9 show respective schematic views of displays provided by the display 8a of the apparatus of the preceding figures;
    • Figure 10 schematically represents the steps of the method of this invention according to a preferred embodiment of it.


    [0007] With reference to the accompanying drawings, the numeral 100 denotes an apparatus for performing at least one biopsy examination on the breast of a patient.

    [0008] The apparatus 100 for performing at least one biopsy examination on the breast of a patient comprises:
    • a frame 14;
    • a breast support surface 11 ;
    • an analysis head 5 provided with at least one radiation detection device 2 configured to detect X-rays and at least one source 4 of X-rays to emit a corresponding beam of X-rays towards the detector 2 on a detection plane, the source 4 and the detection device 2 being mobile with respect to each other so that they can be placed in a plurality of different working acquisition positions;
    • a support base 10 and a biopsy probe 6 which can be fixed to the support base 10 and which is equipped with a needle 9 for the extraction of a sample of breast tissue and with a housing 21 for the needle 9, this housing 21 being rotatably mounted on the support base 10 to allow modification of the angle of the needle 9 with respect to the breast support surface 11;
    • a computerized unit 7, connected to the detector 2 and configured to produce at least one reconstructed image I of a cross-section of the breast representative of anatomical portions of the breast at a predetermined depth along a direction at right angles to the detection plane of the detection device 2 based on images of the patient's breast acquired by the detection device 2 in different working positions;
    • a user interface 8, configured to:
    • allow the display of the reconstructed image I of a cross-section of the breast;
    • allow selection of a target position P for extraction of the tissue sample;
    • allow the display of a proposed movement route 9l,9l' of the needle 9 through the patient's breast as far as the target position P for extraction of the tissue sample.


    [0009] The computerized unit 7 is configured to calculate, based on the selection of the target position P for extraction of the tissue sample, the proposed movement route of the needle through the patient's breast as far as the target position P for extraction of the tissue sample.

    [0010] Preferably, the support base 10 is movable along three directions: a first direction D1, a second direction D2 and a third direction D3, which are substantially at right angles to each other.

    [0011] The needle 9 is also mobile with respect to a housing 21 (connectable to the support base 10 either directly or by means of adapters interposed between them) along a longitudinal direction of extension D5.

    [0012] The direction D5 is preferably inclined to the direction of movement D3, that is to say, inclined to a vertical plane (as shown in Figure 2).

    [0013] It should also be noted that the housing 21 not only supports, but also acts as a guide for, the needle 9.

    [0014] The housing 21 also contains the mechanical components for driving ("firing" in the jargon of the sector) the needle 9 along the direction labelled D5.

    [0015] The housing 21 further comprises means for connecting the suction system by which the tissue sample taken by the needle 9 is extracted.

    [0016] It should also be noted that the support base 10 comprises two portions, labelled 10A and 10B, which are hinged to each other: the portion 10B is adapted to be connected to the housing 21 (either directly or by means of adapters interposed between them). It should then be noted that the apparatus 1 is equipped with first movement means for moving the support base 10 along the first movement direction D1, second movement means for moving the support base 10 along the second movement direction D2 and third movement means for moving the support base 10 along the third movement direction D3.

    [0017] It should be noted that in the embodiment illustrated, the housing 21 is connected (directly or indirectly) to a slide 10C which is mobile along the portion 10B (which defines a slide), in particular along the main direction of extension of the portion 10B.

    [0018] Thus, the portion 10B defines a guide for the slide 10C.

    [0019] It should be noted that the slide 10C can advantageously be fixed in different longitudinal positions relative to the portion 10B.

    [0020] In other words, the housing 21 is fixed to the slide 10C which is also coupled to the portion 10B.

    [0021] More precisely, the slide 10C is mobile parallel to the direction of movement of the needle 9 relative to the housing 21.

    [0022] The control unit 7 is thus connected to the movement means (first, second, third movement means) which move the base 10 and by which the movement of the support base 10 along one or more directions is controlled.

    [0023] It should thus be noted that the needle 9, or more specifically, the housing 21 containing it, is rotatably mounted on the base 10 so as to rotate about an axis D4.

    [0024] Generally speaking, these movement means (first, second or third movement means) comprise an actuator and guide means for guiding the support base 10 along the movement direction (D1; D2; D3).

    [0025] In practice, therefore, the support base 10, is mobile along three directions (D1, D2, D3) at right angles to each other.

    [0026] Two of the aforementioned directions of movement (D1,D2) are preferably parallel to the support surface 11.

    [0027] It should be noted that the housing 21 is rotatable about an axis of rotation D4.

    [0028] The axis of rotation D4 is preferably inclined to the direction of movement D3, that is to say, inclined to a horizontal plane (as shown in Figure 2).

    [0029] According to another aspect, the axis of rotation D4 is preferably at right angles to the direction D5 of movement of the needle 9 relative to the housing 21.

    [0030] Preferably, the inclination angle of the axis of rotation D4 relative to a horizontal plane is less than 10°.

    [0031] The apparatus 1 is also equipped with a breast compression element 12 (acting from above the breast support surface 11).

    [0032] In use, that is, during the biopsy examination, the breast is thus compressed between the compression element 12 and the support surface 11 (positioned above the detection device 2).

    [0033] The compression element 12 is preferably also provided with an upper opening 25 (or a plurality of such openings) through which the needle 9 can enter the patient's breast from above.

    [0034] Preferably, the user interface 8 is equipped with a display 8a. Different aspects of the invention, which may or may not be combined with each other, will now be described.

    [0035] According to a first aspect, the user interface 8 is configured to allow the selection of the extraction target position P directly on a reconstructed image I of a cross-section of the breast.

    [0036] Preferably, the interface 8 allows selecting (and displaying) a reconstructed image I of a cross-section of the breast from the plurality of reconstructed cross-sections representing anatomical portions of the breast at different depths along a direction at right angles to the detection plane of the detection device 2 (that is, at right angles to the breast support surface 11 of the detection device 2).

    [0037] The cross-sectional plane of the images I is substantially parallel to the detection plane of the detection device 2.

    [0038] It should be noted that, according to this aspect, it is possible to show on the display 8a a selected reconstructed cross-section of the breast, simultaneously displaying its distance from the support surface 11 and from the compression plane 12C (the one facing the breast, defined by the compressor 12).

    [0039] Figures 5 to 9 show respective reconstructed images I of breast cross-sections.

    [0040] It should be noted that in the drawings, the graphical representation of the compression plane 12C is labelled 121, the graphical representation of the opening 25 of the compressor 12 is labelled 251, the graphical representation of the target position is labelled PI and the graphical representation of the breast support surface 11 is labelled 111.

    [0041] It should be noted that the reconstructed image I of a cross-section of the breast shown in Figures 5 to 9 corresponds substantially to a cross-section of the breast which is centred relative to the line 22l (whose depth is determined by the reconstruction parameters selected). More precisely, Figure 5 comprises a display of the reconstructed breast cross-section containing the target position. According to another aspect, the computerized unit 7 comprises a list of biopsy needles 9 and a list of the dimensional and/or geometrical characteristics and/or shapes of the biopsy needles 9.

    [0042] Figure 6 illustrates the needle approaching vertically (that is, the needle 9 passing through the opening 25 of the compressor) and shows a display of the reconstructed cross-section I of the breast, including the target position.

    [0043] According to another aspect, the interface 8 allows displaying the representation of the crossing route of the selected needle, overlaid on the reconstructed cross-section I of the breast (anatomy). With reference to Figures 7 to 9, it should be noted that a graphical representation of the needle 9 overlaid on the reconstructed cross-section I of the breast is labelled 9l'.

    [0044] Figure 7 shows a display of a reconstructed cross-section above the one containing the target position, showing a graphical representation 9l' of the crossing route of the needle overlaid on the reconstructed cross-section I of the breast (anatomy).

    [0045] Preferably, the computerized unit 7 is configured to calculate, for all the needles 9 which can be used, a range of inclinations which allow the needle 9 to reach, and extract the tissue sample from, the target position P without colliding with any parts of the apparatus (that is to say, safely).

    [0046] In other words, the computerized unit 7 calculates all the ranges of inclination (inclination angles) by which it is possible to reach the target position P (considering all the needles in the list and not just one).

    [0047] According to this aspect, the user interface 8 is preferably configured to display an image 91 of a needle 9 and a graphic indicator 191 representing the range of possible inclinations, for all the needles 9 which can be used, which allow the target position P to be reached without colliding with any parts of the apparatus (that is to say, safely).

    [0048] With reference to Figures 8 and 9, it should be noted that a graphical representation of all the possible angles of the needle overlaid on the reconstructed cross-section I of the breast is labelled 19I'.

    [0049] Figure 8 comprises a representation of the needle 9 approaching vertically and a display of a reconstructed cross-section I of the breast overlaid on the one containing the target position.

    [0050] Figure 8 also comprises a representation 9l' of the needle crossing route (or needle crossing zone) overlaid on the reconstructed image representing the breast (anatomy) and a display of all the possible angular approaches, including a graphical representation of these angular approaches 19l' overlaid on the reconstructed image I of the breast (anatomy).

    [0051] It should be noted that the graphical indicator 191 representing the range of possible inclination angles preferably comprises one or more triangles whose sides define the possible limit inclinations (inclination angles) of the needle.

    [0052] It should be noted that the indicator 19I' of the range of possible crossing routes (or of the possible inclination angles) of the needle on the reconstructed cross-section I of the breast preferably comprises only the inclination ranges during approach from above, that is, those where the crossing route of the needle 9 passes through the opening 25 of the compressor.

    [0053] Considering Figures 8 and 9, for example, it is evident that the graphical indicator 191 comprises three triangles (representing three ranges of possible inclination angles of the needle), a left-hand triangle (representing the inclination angles of the needle approaching and entering the breast from the left), a middle triangle (representing the inclination angles of the needle approaching from above, that is through the window or opening 25 of the compressor 12) and a right-hand triangle (representing the inclination angles of the needle approaching and entering the breast from the right). According to another aspect, the computerized unit 7 comprises a list of biopsy needles 9 and the dimensional and/or geometrical characteristics and/or shapes of these biopsy needles 9 and the user interface 8 is configured to allow the selection of a needle 9 from the list of needles 9.

    [0054] Advantageously, therefore, the interface allows the user to select the needle 9 most suitable for the tissue sample to be extracted.

    [0055] According to another aspect, the proposed movement route of the needle through the patient's breast as far as the target position P for extraction of the tissue sample corresponds to the shortest route from the exterior of the breast to the target position P.

    [0056] In other words, according to this aspect, the computerized unit 7 is configured to calculate the shortest route from the exterior of the breast to the target position P (compatibly with the overall safety of the system, that is, avoiding collisions and proposing routes which actually reach the target position P).

    [0057] An example of this aspect is illustrated in Figures 6 and 7.

    [0058] It should be noted that this, in most cases, corresponds to the vertical approach, that is to say, the one which, to date, is most commonly used, and hence the quickest.

    [0059] The apparatus proposed makes it possible to not increase the complexity of the examination unless actually necessary.

    [0060] That means the user is provided with a particularly quick method to generate a possible route to reach the target position P.

    [0061] According to another aspect, the user interface 8 is configured to allow selecting an obligatory crossing position of the biopsy needle 9 in the reconstructed image I of a cross-section of the breast and the computerized unit 7 is configured to calculate, based on the selection of the target position P for extraction of the tissue sample and on the selected obligatory crossing position of the needle 9, an angle of the needle 9 and the movement route to reach the target position P passing through the obligatory position.

    [0062] This approach allows making the needle pass through a desired position (obligatory crossing position of the needle) and generating in a particularly rapid and computationally light manner a route to the target position which includes passing through the selected position (obligatory crossing position of the needle).

    [0063] Advantageously, therefore, by suitably selecting the obligatory crossing position of the needle, it is possible to exclude routes which cross certain areas (for example, areas where a tissue sample has already been extracted , identifiable by means of suitable markers M left inside the breast by operators who performed the previous examination).

    [0064] In this regard, Figure 9 illustrates an oblique approach of the needle 9 to exclude the route which crosses an area inside the breast where a marker M has been placed.

    [0065] The user interface 8 is also provided with controls (physical and/or touch-screen and/or vocal) which allow selection of the obligatory crossing position of the needle 9.

    [0066] Preferably, selection occurs directly on the graphical representation of the needle 9, for example on the representation 9I or 9I'.

    [0067] Further, by selecting an obligatory area which the needle must cross, it is possible to optimally control extraction of the tissue sample: in effect, it must be considered that since the needle 9 presents a certain window size (longitudinally), it is possible, by selecting two crossing points (target position and obligatory crossing position) to extract an extended sample which includes both an area proximal to the target position and an area proximal to the obligatory position. According to another aspect, the user interface 8 is configured to allow the selection of a predetermined angle of the needle 9 and the computerized unit 7 is configured to calculate a route of the needle 9 towards the target position P such that the selected angle of the needle 9 is maintained.

    [0068] Advantageously, according to this aspect, the user can, by means of the interface 8, select the inclination angle of the needle 9 (from among the possible inclination angles calculated by the control unit 7 for the needles 9 of the list or for the selected needle).

    [0069] Thus, the interface 8 is provided with pushbuttons or controls which allow the user to select the inclination angle of the needle 9.

    [0070] Some of the accompanying drawings are briefly described below.

    [0071] Figure 10 shows a flow-chart of a possible operating mode of the apparatus 1.

    [0072] Figure 5 in particular relates to the step labelled "Selecting target" in Figure 10.

    [0073] Figure 6 in particular relates to the step labelled "Selecting needle" in Figure 10.

    [0074] Figure 7 in particular relates to the step labelled "Displaying needle route through tissues" in Figure 10.

    [0075] Figures 8 and 9, on the other hand, relate to the step labelled "Selecting angle" in Figure 10.

    [0076] Figures 8 and 9 also show a representation 9l' of the crossing route of the needle 9 overlaid on the reconstructed image I of the breast (anatomy).

    [0077] Figures 8 and 9 also comprise a display of all the possible angular approaches by means of a representation 19l' overlaid on the reconstructed image of the breast (anatomy).

    [0078] Also defined according to the invention is a computer-implemented method for defining a route of a biopsy needle 9 through the breast of a patient, comprising the following steps:
    • providing an apparatus 100 as described in the foregoing;
    • displaying, on the user interface 8, a reconstructed image I of a cross-section of the breast representative of anatomical portions of the breast at a predetermined depth along a direction at right angles to the detection plane of the detection device 2;
    • selecting, by means of the user interface 8, a target position P to be reached;
    • calculating, by means of the computerized unit 7, at least one route for the needle 9 to reach the target position P;
    • allowing the display 9I, 9I' of the route of the needle 9 in the reconstructed image I of a cross-section of the breast.


    [0079] It should be noted that the method advantageously makes it possible to modify the needle route particularly easily in order to adapt it to the requirements of the examination being performed.


    Claims

    1. An apparatus for carrying out at least one biopsy examination on the breast of a patient, comprising:

    - an analysis head (5) provided with at least one radiation detection device (2) configured to detect X-rays on a detection plane, and at least one source (4) of X-rays to emit a corresponding beam of X-rays towards the detector (2), the source (4) and the detection device (2) being mobile with respect to each other so that they can be placed in a plurality of different working acquisition positions;

    - a breast support surface (11);

    - a support base (10) and a biopsy probe (6) which can be fixed to the support base (10) and which is equipped with a needle (9) for the extraction of a sample of breast tissue and with a housing (21) for the needle (9), this housing (21) being rotatably mounted on the support base (10) to allow modification of the angle of the needle (9) with respect to the breast support surface (11);

    - a computerized unit (7), connected to the detector (2) and configured to produce at least one reconstructed image (I) of a cross-section of the breast representative of anatomical portions of the breast at a predetermined depth along a direction at right angles to the detection plane of the detection device (2) based on images of the patient's breast acquired by the detection device (2) in different working positions;

    - a user interface (8), configured to:

    - allow the display of the reconstructed image (I) of a cross-section of the breast;

    - allow selection of a target position (P) for extraction of the tissue sample;

    - allow the display (9I, 9I') of a proposed movement route of the needle (9) through the patient's breast as far as the target position (P) for extraction of the tissue sample;

    the computerized unit (7) being configured to calculate, based on the selection of the target position (P) for extraction of the tissue sample, the proposed movement route of the needle through the patient's breast as far as the target position (P) for extraction of the tissue sample, the apparatus being characterized in that the user interface (8) is configured to allow the display of a reconstructed image (I) of a cross-section of the breast selected from a plurality of reconstructed images of cross-sections of the breast representative of anatomical portions of the breast at different depths along a direction at right angles to the detection plane of the detection device (2) and wherein the user interface (8) is configured to allow the display (9l') of the proposed movement route of the needle (9) through the patient's breast, as far as the target position (P) for extraction of the tissue sample, directly on the reconstructed image (I) of a cross-section of the breast.
     
    2. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the user interface (8) is configured to allow the selection of the target position (P) directly on a reconstructed image (I) of a cross-section of the breast.
     
    3. The apparatus according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the computerized unit (7) comprises a list of biopsy needles (9) and the dimensional and/or geometrical characteristics and/or shapes of these biopsy needles (9) and wherein the user interface (8) is configured to allow the selection of a needle (9) from the list of needles (9).
     
    4. The apparatus according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the computerized unit (7) comprises a list of biopsy needles (9) and the dimensional and/or geometrical characteristics and/or shapes of these biopsy needles (9) and is configured to calculate a range of angles, for all the needles (9) that can be used, that allow at least one of the needles (9) on the list to reach the target position (P) and extract the tissue sample without collisions.
     
    5. The apparatus according to the preceding claim, wherein the user interface (8) is configured to display an image of a needle (9) and a graphic indicator (191) representative of the range of angles, for all the needles (9) that can be used, that allow at least one needle (9) on the list to reach the target position (P).
     
    6. The apparatus according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the user interface (8) is configured to allow the selection of an obligatory crossing position of the biopsy needle (9) in the reconstructed image (I) of a cross-section of the breast and wherein the computerized unit (7) is configured to calculate, based on the selection of the target position (P) for extraction of the tissue sample and on the obligatory crossing position of the selected needle (9), an angle of the needle (9) and the movement route to reach the target position (P) passing through the obligatory position.
     
    7. The apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the user interface (8) is configured to allow the selection of a predetermined angle of the needle (9) and the computerized unit (7) is configured to calculate a route of the needle (9) towards the target position (P) wherein the selected angle of the needle (9) is maintained.
     
    8. The apparatus according to any one claims 1 to 5, wherein the proposed movement route of the needle (9) through the patient's breast as far as the target position (P) for extraction of the tissue sample corresponds to the shortest route from the exterior of the breast to the target position (P).
     
    9. The apparatus according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the support base (10) is mobile along a first direction (D1), a second direction (D2) and a third direction (D3) arranged at angles to each other.
     
    10. The apparatus according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the support base (10) comprises at least two portions (10A, 10B) hinged to each other, one of these portions (10B) being designed to be connected directly or indirectly to the housing (21) so that the housing (21) can be rotated with respect to the other portion (10A).
     
    11. A computer-implemented method for the definition of a route of a biopsy needle (9) through the breast of a patient, comprising the following steps:

    - providing an apparatus (100) according to any one of the preceding claims;

    - displaying, on the user interface (8), a reconstructed image (I) from a plurality of reconstructed images of a cross-section of the breast representative of anatomical portions of the breast at predetermined depths along a direction at right angles to the detection plane of the detection device (2);

    - selecting, by means of the user interface (8), a target position (P) to be reached;

    - calculating, by means of the computerized unit (7), at least one route for the needle (9) to reach the target position (P);

    - allowing the display (9I, 9I') of the route of the needle (9) through the patient's breast, directly in the reconstructed image (I) of a cross-section of the breast.


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Vorrichtung zur Durchführung von mindestens einer Biopsieuntersuchung in der Brust einer Patientin, umfassend:

    - einen Analysekopf (5), versehen mit mindestens einer Strahlungserfassungsvorrichtung (2), ausgelegt, um Röntgenstrahlen auf einer Erfassungsebene zu erfassen, und mindestens eine Röntgenstrahlenquelle (4), um einen entsprechenden Strahl von Röntgenstrahlen zum Detektor (2) zu senden, wobei die Quelle (4) und die Erfassungsvorrichtung (2) zueinander mobil sind, sodass sie in einer Vielzahl von unterschiedlichen Betriebserfassungspositionen platziert werden können;

    - eine Brustauflageoberfläche (11);

    - eine Halterungsbasis (10) und eine Biopsiesonde (6), die an der Halterungsbasis (10) fixiert werden kann und die mit einer Nadel (9) zur Entnahme einer Probe von Brustgewebe sowie mit einem Gehäuse (21) für die Nadel (9) ausgestattet ist, wobei dieses Gehäuse (21) drehbar auf der Halterungsbasis (10) montiert ist, um die Veränderung des Winkels der Nadel (9) zur Brustauflageoberfläche (11) zu erlauben;

    - eine computergesteuerte Einheit (7), verbunden mit dem Detektor (2) und ausgelegt, um mindestens ein rekonstruiertes Bild (I) eines Querschnitts der Brust zu erzeugen, das repräsentativ für anatomische Abschnitte der Brust in einer vorgegebenen Tiefe entlang einer Richtung in rechten Winkeln zur Erfassungsebene der Erfassungsvorrichtung (2) ist, basierend auf Bildern der Patientenbrust, die von der Erfassungsvorrichtung (2) in unterschiedlichen Betriebspositionen erfasst wurden;

    - eine Benutzerschnittstelle (8), die ausgelegt ist, um

    - die Anzeige des rekonstruierten Bilds (I) eines Querschnitts der Brust zu erlauben;

    - die Auswahl einer Zielposition (P) zur Entnahme der Gewebeprobe zu erlauben;

    - die Anzeige (9I, 9I') einer vorgeschlagenen Bewegungsroute der Nadel (9) durch die Patientenbrust bis zur Zielposition (P) für die Entnahme der Gewebeprobe,

    wobei die computergesteuerte Einheit (7) ausgelegt ist, um die vorgeschlagene Bewegungsroute der Nadel durch die Patientenbrust bis zur Zielposition (P) für die Entnahme der Gewebeprobe basierend auf der Auswahl der Zielposition (P) für die Entnahme der Gewebeprobe zu berechnen, wobei die Vorrichtung dadurch gekennzeichnet ist, dass die Benutzerschnittstelle (8) ausgelegt ist, um die Anzeige eines rekonstruierten Bilds (I) eines Querschnitts der Brust, ausgewählt aus einer Vielzahl von rekonstruierten Bildern von Querschnitten der Brust, die repräsentativ für anatomische Abschnitte der Brust in verschiedenen Tiefen entlang einer Richtung in rechten Winkeln zur Erfassungsebene der Erfassungsvorrichtung (2) sind, zu erlauben, und wobei die Benutzerschnittstelle (8) ausgelegt ist, um die Anzeige (9I') der vorgeschlagenen Bewegungsroute der Nadel (9) durch die Patientenbrust bis zur Zielposition (P) für die Entnahme der Gewebeprobe direkt auf dem rekonstruierten Bild (I) eines Querschnitts der Brust zu erlauben.
     
    2. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Benutzerschnittstelle (8) ausgelegt ist, um die Auswahl der Zielposition (P) direkt auf einem rekonstruierten Bild (I) eines Querschnitts der Brust zu erlauben.
     
    3. Vorrichtung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die computergesteuerte Einheit (7) eine Liste an Biopsienadeln (9) und die Dimensions- und/oder geometrischen Eigenschaften und/oder Formen dieser Biopsienadeln (9) umfasst, und wobei die Benutzerschnittstelle (8) ausgelegt ist, um die Auswahl einer Nadel (9) aus der Liste von Nadeln (9) zu erlauben.
     
    4. Vorrichtung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die computergesteuerte Einheit (7) eine Liste an Biopsienadeln (9) und die Dimensions- und/oder geometrischen Eigenschaften und/oder Formen dieser Biopsienadeln (9) umfasst und ausgelegt ist, um einen Winkelbereich für alle Nadeln (9), die genutzt werden können, zu berechnen, der zumindest einer der Nadeln (9) der Liste ermöglicht, die Zielposition (P) zu erreichen und die Gewebeprobe ohne Kollisionen zu entnehmen.
     
    5. Vorrichtung nach dem vorhergehenden Anspruch, wobei die Benutzerschnittstelle (8) ausgelegt ist, um ein Bild einer Nadel (9) und eine grafische Anzeige (19I) anzuzeigen, repräsentativ für den Winkelbereich für alle Nadeln (9), die genutzt werden können, der mindestens einer Nadel (9) der Liste ermöglicht, die Zielposition (P) zu erreichen.
     
    6. Vorrichtung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Benutzerschnittstelle (8) ausgelegt ist, um die Auswahl einer obligatorischen Kreuzungsposition der Biopsienadel (9) im rekonstruierten Bild (I) eines Querschnitts der Brust zu erlauben, und wobei die computergesteuerte Einheit (7) ausgelegt ist, um basierend auf der Auswahl der Zielposition (P) zur Entnahme der Gewebeprobe und auf der obligatorischen Kreuzungsposition der ausgewählten Nadel (9) einen Winkel der Nadel (9) und die Bewegungsroute zu berechnen, um die Zielposition (P) durch die obligatorische Position zu erreichen.
     
    7. Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei die Benutzerschnittstelle (8) ausgelegt ist, um die Auswahl eines vorgegebenen Winkels der Nadel (9) zu erlauben, und die computergesteuerte Einheit (7) ausgelegt ist, um eine Route der Nadel (9) zur Zielposition (P) zu berechnen, wobei der ausgewählte Winkel der Nadel (9) beibehalten wird.
     
    8. Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei die vorgeschlagene Bewegungsroute der Nadel (9) durch die Patientenbrust bis zur Zielposition (P) zur Entnahme der Gewebeprobe der kürzesten Route von der Außenseite der Brust zur Zielposition (P) entspricht.
     
    9. Vorrichtung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Halterungsbasis (10) entlang einer ersten Richtung (D1), einer zweiten Richtung (D2) und einer dritten Richtung (D3), angeordnet in Winkeln zueinander, mobil ist.
     
    10. Vorrichtung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Halterungsbasis (10) mindestens zwei Abschnitte (10A, 10B) umfasst, die gelenkig miteinander verbunden sind, wobei einer dieser Abschnitte (10B) ausgestaltet ist, um direkt oder indirekt mit dem Gehäuse (21) verbunden zu werden, sodass das Gehäuse (21) zum anderen Abschnitt (10A) gedreht werden kann.
     
    11. Computer-implementiertes Verfahren zur Definition einer Route für eine Biopsienadel (9) durch die Brust einer Patientin, umfassend die folgenden Schritte:

    - Bereitstellen einer Vorrichtung (100) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche;

    - Anzeigen auf der Benutzerschnittstelle (8) eines rekonstruierten Bilds (I) aus einer Vielzahl von rekonstruierten Bildern eines Querschnitts der Brust, die repräsentativ für anatomische Abschnitte der Brust in vorgegebenen Tiefen entlang einer Richtung in rechten Winkeln zur Erfassungsebene der Erfassungsvorrichtung (2) sind;

    - Auswählen einer zu erreichenden Zielposition (P) mittels der Benutzerschnittstelle (8);

    - Berechnen mittels der computergesteuerten Einheit (7) von mindestens einer Route für die Nadel (9), um die Zielposition (P) zu erreichen;

    - Erlauben der Anzeige (9I, 9I') der Route der Nadel (9) durch die Patientenbrust direkt im rekonstruierten Bild (I) eines Querschnitts der Brust.


     


    Revendications

    1. Appareil pour effectuer au moins un examen de biopsie sur le sein d'une patiente, comprenant:

    - une tête d'analyse (5) pourvue d'au moins un dispositif de détection de rayonnement (2) configuré pour détecter des rayons X sur un plan de détection, et au moins une source (4) de rayons X pour émettre un faisceau correspondant de rayons X vers le détecteur (2), la source (4) et le dispositif de détection (2) étant mobiles l'un par rapport à l'autre de sorte qu'ils puissent être placés dans une pluralité de positions fonctionnelles différentes d'acquisition;

    - une surface de support du sein (11);

    - une base de support (10) et une sonde à biopsie (6) pouvant être fixée à la base de support (10) et étant équipée d'une aiguille (9) pour l'extraction d'un échantillon de tissu mammaire et d'un logement (21) pour l'aiguille (9), ce logement (21) étant monté de façon rotative sur la base de support (10) pour permettre la modification de l'inclinaison de l'aiguille (9) par rapport à la surface de support du sein (11);

    - une unité informatisée (7) reliée au détecteur (2) et configurée pour produire au moins une image reconstruite (I) d'une section transversale du sein représentative des parties anatomiques du sein à une profondeur déterminée le long d'une direction orthogonale au plan de détection du dispositif de détection (2) se basant sur des images du sein de la patiente acquises par le dispositif de détection (2) dans différentes positions fonctionnelles;

    - une interface utilisateur (8), configurée pour:

    - permettre l'affichage de l'image reconstruite (I) d'une section transversale du sein;

    - permettre la sélection d'une position cible (P) pour l'extraction de l'échantillon de tissu;

    - permettre l'affichage (9I, 9I') d'un itinéraire de déplacement proposé de l'aiguille (9) dans le sein de la patiente jusqu'à la position cible (P) pour l'extraction de l'échantillon de tissu;

    l'unité informatisée (7) étant configurée pour calculer, sur la base de la sélection de la position cible (P) pour l'extraction de l'échantillon de tissu, l'itinéraire de déplacement proposé de l'aiguille dans le sein de la patiente jusqu'à la position cible (P) pour l'extraction de l'échantillon de tissu, l'appareil étant caractérisé en ce que l'interface utilisateur (8) est configurée pour permettre l'affichage d'une image reconstruite (I) d'une section transversale du sein sélectionnée à partir d'une pluralité d'images reconstruites de sections transversales du sein représentatives des parties anatomiques du sein à différentes profondeurs le long d'une direction orthogonale au plan de détection du dispositif de détection (2) et dans lequel l'interface utilisateur (8) est configurée pour permettre l'affichage (9I') de l'itinéraire de déplacement proposé de l'aiguille (9) dans le sein de la patiente, jusqu'à la position cible (P) pour l'extraction de l'échantillon de tissu, directement sur l'image reconstruite (I) d'une section transversale du sein.
     
    2. Appareil selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'interface utilisateur (8) est configurée pour permettre la sélection de la position cible (P) directement sur une image reconstruite (I) d'une section transversale du sein.
     
    3. Appareil selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel l'unité informatisée (7) comprend une liste d'aiguilles à biopsie (9) et des caractéristiques dimensionnelles et/ou géométriques et/ou des formes de ces aiguilles à biopsie (9) et dans lequel l'interface utilisateur (8) est configurée pour permettre la sélection d'une aiguille (9) à partir de la liste des aiguilles (9).
     
    4. Appareil selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel l'unité informatisée (7) comprend une liste d'aiguilles à biopsie (9) et des caractéristiques dimensionnelles et/ou géométriques et/ou des formes de ces aiguilles à biopsie (9) et est configurée pour calculer une plage d'inclinaisons, pour l'ensemble des aiguilles (9) pouvant être utilisées, qui permet à au moins une des aiguilles (9) sur la liste d'atteindre la position cible (P) et d'extraire l'échantillon de tissu sans collisions.
     
    5. Appareil selon la revendication précédente, dans lequel l'interface utilisateur (8) est configurée pour afficher une image d'une aiguille (9) et un indicateur graphique (19I) représentatifs de la plage d'inclinaisons, pour l'ensemble des aiguilles (9) pouvant être utilisées, qui permettent à au moins une aiguille (9) sur la liste d'atteindre la position cible (P)
     
    6. Appareil selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel l'interface utilisateur (8) est configurée pour permettre la sélection d'une position de passage obligatoire de l'aiguille à biopsie (9) dans l'image reconstruite (I) d'une section transversale du sein et dans lequel l'unité informatisée (7) est configurée pour calculer, sur la base de la sélection de la position cible (P) pour l'extraction de l'échantillon de tissu et de la position de passage obligatoire de l'aiguille sélectionnée (9), une inclinaison de l'aiguille (9) et l'itinéraire de déplacement pour atteindre la position cible (P) passant à travers la position obligatoire.
     
    7. Appareil selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel l'interface utilisateur (8) est configurée pour permettre la sélection d'une inclinaison prédéterminée de l'aiguille (9) et l'unité informatisée (7) est configurée pour calculer un itinéraire de l'aiguille (9) en direction de la position cible (P) dans lequel l'inclinaison sélectionnée de l'aiguille (9) est maintenue.
     
    8. Appareil selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel l'itinéraire de déplacement proposé de l'aiguille (9) dans le sein de la patiente jusqu'à la position cible (P) pour l'extraction de l'échantillon de tissu correspond à l'itinéraire le plus court de l'extérieur du sein à la position cible (P).
     
    9. Appareil selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la base de support (10) est mobile le long d'une première direction (D1), d'une seconde direction (D2) et d'une troisième direction (D3) réciproquement disposées orthogonalement.
     
    10. Appareil selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la base de support (10) comprend au moins deux portions (10A, 10B) montées articulées réciproquement, l'une de ces portions (10B) étant conçue pour être raccordée directement ou indirectement au logement (21) de sorte que le logement (21) puisse pivoter par rapport à l'autre portion (10A) .
     
    11. Méthode par ordinateur pour définir un itinéraire d'une aiguille à biopsie (9) dans le sein d'une patiente, comprenant les étapes suivantes:

    - prévoir un appareil (100), selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes;

    - afficher, sur l'interface utilisateur (8), une image reconstruite (I) à partir d'une pluralité d'images reconstruites d'une section transversale du sein représentatives des parties anatomiques du sein à des profondeurs prédéterminées le long d'une direction orthogonale au plan de détection du dispositif de détection (2);

    - sélectionner, au moyen de l'interface utilisateur (8), une position cible (P) à atteindre;

    - calculer, au moyen de l'unité informatisée (7), au moins un itinéraire pour l'aiguille (9) pour atteindre la position cible (P);

    - permettre l'affichage (9I, 9I') de l'itinéraire de l'aiguille (9) dans le sein de la patiente, directement dans l'image reconstruite (I) d'une section transversale du sein.


     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description