(19)
(11)EP 3 034 789 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
05.08.2020 Bulletin 2020/32

(21)Application number: 14198306.4

(22)Date of filing:  16.12.2014
(51)Int. Cl.: 
F01D 5/18  (2006.01)
F01D 25/32  (2006.01)
F01D 5/22  (2006.01)

(54)

Rotating gas turbine blade and gas turbine with such a blade

Rotierende Gasturbinenschaufel und Gasturbine mit solch einer Schaufel

Aube rotative de turbine à gaz et turbine à gaz avec une telle aube


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(43)Date of publication of application:
22.06.2016 Bulletin 2016/25

(73)Proprietor: Ansaldo Energia Switzerland AG
5401 Baden (CH)

(72)Inventors:
  • Balliel, Martin
    8303 Bassersdorf (CH)
  • Gersbach, Frank
    5420 Ehrendingen (CH)
  • Retzko, Stefan Andreas
    8057 Zürich (CH)
  • Lamminger, Marco
    5408 Ennetbaden (CH)

(74)Representative: Bernotti, Andrea et al
Studio Torta S.p.A. Via Viotti, 9
10121 Torino
10121 Torino (IT)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 731 710
EP-A1- 2 607 629
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention relates to the technology of gas turbines. It refers to a rotating gas turbine blade according to the preamble of claim 1.

    [0002] It further refers to a gas turbine with such a rotating gas turbine blade.

    PRIOR ART



    [0003] Fig. 1 shows in a perspective, partially sectioned view an exemplary gas turbine with sequential combustion, which is known as type GT26 gas turbine. The gas turbine 30 of Fig. 1 comprises a rotor 31, which bears a plurality of rotating gas turbine blades with different functions and rotates around a central machine axis. The rotor 31 is enclosed by a casing 32. Gas turbine 30 has at one end an air inlet 33, through which air enters a compressor 34 to be compressed. The compressed air is used to burn a fuel and is used as a cooling medium for various parts of the gas turbine 30, which are exposed to high temperatures. As exemplary gas turbine 30 is designed as a reheat turbine with sequential combustion, there are two combustors 35 and 37 arranged along the machine axis. Hot gas generated in first combustor 35 drives a high pressure (HP) turbine 36. The hot gas, which exits high pressure turbine 36 and still contains oxygen, is used to burn fuel in second combustor 37. The reheated gas from second combustor 37 drives a low pressure (LP) turbine 38.
    Especially low pressure turbine 38 is equipped with rotating gas turbine blades with a tip shroud (used primarily to reduce over-tip leakage flow and coupling between blades), which are often cooled with one or more internal passages within the airfoil. However, the pumping work on the flowing cooling medium from centrifugal force is not or insufficiently used to provide additional driving force for the rotor 31 by ejecting the cooling medium against the blade's rotating direction. Document EP 2 607 629 A1 discloses a rotating gas turbine blade with improved cooling air outlet ports for increase in efficiency/power. It uses an improved outlet port, which provides a direction of the cooling medium having a tangential component parallel to the rotating direction for recovery of pumping power. However, dust present in the cooling medium or from the supply system may accumulate at the tip end and negatively affect cooling medium flow as well as add mass at the tip end, which may negatively affect the blade's life time. Document EP 2 607 629 A1 is silent with regard to a dust accumulation problem.
    Document EP 1731710 discloses a solution for reducing dust accumulated in the cooling channels of a gas turbine blade. However the cooling arrangement disclosed in EP 1731710 is not sufficiently efficient.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0004] It is an object of the present invention to provide a rotating gas turbine blade, which is advantageous over the prior art blades, especially with regard to the degrading flow of cooling medium through the internal airfoil cooling passages. This object is obtained by a rotating gas turbine blade according to Claim 1.

    [0005] The rotating gas turbine blade according to the invention comprises an airfoil with a suction side and a pressure side, said airfoil extending in a radial direction from a blade root to a blade tip, wherein said blade tip comprises a tip shroud, said airfoil comprises internal cooling passages for a cooling medium, which extend through said tip shroud, and outlet ports are provided above a selected internal airfoil cooling passage for said cooling medium to be ejected above said tip shroud against the direction of the blade rotation.

    [0006] It is characterized in that means for avoiding dust accumulation are provided at the tip end of said selected internal cooling passage.

    [0007] According to the invention said means for avoiding dust accumulation comprises dust holes extending in radial direction from said selected internal cooling passage to the outside above said tip shroud.

    [0008] Specifically, said outlet ports are oriented such that said cooling medium is ejected against the rotating direction of the blade.

    [0009] According to the invention said tip shroud is provided with two or more fins extending parallel to each other on the upper side of said tip shroud in circumferential direction, interspaces are defined between neighbouring of said fins, elevated areas are provided in said interspaces, and said outlet ports and said means for avoiding dust accumulation are disposed in said elevated areas above the internal cooling passages.

    [0010] The gas turbine according to the invention comprises a rotor with a plurality of rotating gas turbine blades. It is characterized in that at least some of these rotating gas turbine blades are rotating gas turbine blades according to the invention.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0011] The present invention is now to be explained more closely by means of different embodiments and with reference to the attached drawings.
    Fig. 1
    shows in a perspective view a gas turbine of the type GT24/26 with sequential combustion, which may be equipped with the blades according to the invention;
    Fig. 2
    shows in a side view a rotating gas turbine blade on the pressure side according to an embodiment of the invention;
    Fig. 3
    shows in a magnified view the tip and tip shroud of the blade according to Fig. 2; and
    Fig. 4
    shows a partial section of the tip shroud of Fig. 3 on the leading edge of the blade

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF DIFFERENT EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION



    [0012] Fig. 2 shows in a side view a rotating gas turbine blade according to an embodiment of the invention. The turbine blade 10 of Fig. 2 comprises an airfoil 14, which extends in radial direction (with regard to the machine axis of the gas turbine) from a blade root 11 (with a fir tree configuration) to a shrouded blade tip 15. A platform 13 defines an inner wall of the annular hot gas channel between rotor 31 and casing 32. Airfoil 14 has a leading edge and a trailing edge (with regard to hot gas flow; see arrow in Fig. 2) as well as a suction side and a pressure side. The pressure side 12 is facing the viewer, in this case.

    [0013] As can be seen in Fig. 3, blade tip 15 comprises a tip shroud 16, which is part of a partially closed or closed ring when all blades of the same turbine stage are mounted on rotor 31. Tip shroud 16 comprises on its upper (outer) side three parallel fins 17, 18 and 19, which extend along a circumferential direction. Neighbouring fins 17, 18 and 18, 19 define an interspace 20 and 21, respectively. Cooling medium (e.g. compressed air) is ejected into these interspaces 20, 21 through outlet ports 24 and 25. The cooling medium is supplied through the interior of the airfoil 14 by means of internal cooling passages 27 and 28 (see Fig. 4). An additional cooling passage (not shown) feeds outlet port 24.

    [0014] Thus, for rotating gas turbine blade 10 with tip shroud 16 and one or more internal cooling passages 27, 28 in the airfoil 14, there are provided above said shroud 16 one or more outlet ports 24, 25 for cooling medium (e.g. air) to be ejected with a significant component in direction of the blade's pressure side 12 through a machined opening to increase gas turbine efficiency and power due to the resulting additional driving force for the rotor (which rotates in the direction of the right arrow in Fig. 4).

    [0015] The position of the outlet ports 24, 25 is selected above an internal airfoil cooling passage 27 and not above any possible solid webs. This has the advantage that core exits through the tip shroud 16 can be used as dust holes 26 to avoid dust accumulations at the tip end of an internal cooling passage 27, which may negatively affect the flow of cooling medium and add mass at the tip shroud, which may negatively affect the blade (a core is used to produce the internal passages during a casting process and requires holding in position by so-called core exits, which connect the core to the mould).

    [0016] Ideally, the cooling medium is ejected through outlet ports 24, 25 aligned with the rotating direction of the blade, so a turning of the internal flow from upwards along the blade's longitudinal direction (due pressure margin above the external hot gas pressure, largely from centrifugal force) is provided by a curved shape (to decrease turning losses) and a minimum guiding length towards the desired direction (to increase the component of the flow aligned with the desired direction).

    [0017] The guiding length can be increased by inserting a tube into the machined opening and holding the tube in position by bonding, e.g. by brazing or welding, and/or a mechanical interlock.

    [0018] The outlet ports 24, 25 and dust holes 26 are arranged in an elevated area 22, 23 within the interspaces 20 and 21.

    LIST OF REFERENCE NUMERALS



    [0019] 
    10
    turbine blade
    11
    blade root
    12
    pressure side
    13
    platform
    14
    airfoil
    15
    blade tip
    16
    tip shroud
    17,18,19
    fin
    20,21
    shroud cavity
    22,23
    elevated area
    24,25
    outlet port
    26
    dust hole
    27,28
    cooling passage
    30
    gas turbine
    31
    rotor
    32
    casing
    33
    air inlet
    34
    compressor
    35,37
    combustor
    36
    high pressure (HP) turbine
    38
    low pressure (LP) turbine



    Claims

    1. Rotating gas turbine blade (10), comprising an airfoil (14) with a suction side and a pressure side (12), said airfoil (14) extending in a radial direction from a blade root (11) to a blade tip (15), wherein said blade tip (15) comprises a tip shroud (16), said airfoil (14) comprises internal cooling passages (27, 28) for a cooling medium, which extend through said tip shroud (16), and outlet ports (24, 25) are provided radially outward with respect to a selected internal airfoil cooling passage (27) for said cooling medium to be ejected on the radially outer side of said tip shroud (16) in direction of the blade's pressure side (12), wherein:

    - said tip shroud (16) is provided with two or more fins (17, 18, 19) extending parallel to each other on the radially outer side of said tip shroud (16) in circumferential direction;

    - interspaces (20, 21) are defined between neighbouring of said fins (17, 18, 19),

    - elevated areas (22, 23) are provided in said interspaces (20, 21);

    said outlet ports (24, 25) are disposed in said elevated areas (22, 23); characterised in that: means (26) for avoiding dust accumulation are provided at the tip end of said selected internal cooling passage (27), said means (26) for avoiding dust accumulation being disposed in said elevated areas (22, 23); and said means (26) for avoiding dust accumulation comprises dust holes (26) extending in radial direction from said selected internal cooling passage (27) to the outside on the radially outer side of the tip shroud (16).
     
    2. Rotating gas turbine blade as claimed in Claim 1, characterized in that said outlet ports (24, 25) are oriented such that said cooling medium is ejected with a significant component in the rotating direction of the blade (10).
     
    3. Gas turbine (10), comprising a rotor (31) with a plurality of rotating gas turbine blades, characterized in that at least some of these rotating gas turbine blades are rotating gas turbine blades (10) according to one of the Claims 1 to 2.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Rotierende Gasturbinenschaufel (10), umfassend ein Schaufelblatt (14) mit einer Saugseite und einer Druckseite (12), wobei sich das Schaufelblatt (14) in radialer Richtung von einem Schaufelfuß (11) zu einer Schaufelspitze (15) erstreckt, wobei die Schaufelspitze (15) ein Spitzen-Deckband (16) umfasst, wobei das Schaufelblatt (14) innere Kühlkanäle (27, 28) für ein Kühlmedium umfasst, die sich durch das Spitzen-Deckband (16) erstrecken, und Auslassöffnungen (24, 25) sind, bezogen auf einen ausgewählten inneren Schaufelblatt -Kühlkanal (27), radial außerhalb vorgesehen, um das Kühlmedium auf die radial äußere Seite des Spitzen-Deckbands (16) in Richtung der Druckseite (12) der Schaufel auszustoßen, wobei:

    - das Spitzen-Deckband (16) mit zwei oder mehr Rippen (17, 18, 19) versehen ist, die sich parallel zueinander auf der radial äußeren Seite des Spitzen-Deckbands (16) in Umfangsrichtung erstrecken;

    - zwischen benachbarten Rippen (17, 18, 19) Zwischenräume (20, 21) definiert sind,

    - erhöhte Bereiche (22, 23) in diesen Zwischenräumen (20, 21) vorgesehen sind;

    die Auslassöffnungen (24, 25) in den erhöhten Bereichen (22, 23) angeordnet sind;
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass:

    Mittel (26) zum Vermeiden einer Staubansammlung am Spitzenende des ausgewählten internen Kühlkanals (27) vorgesehen sind, wobei die Mittel (26) zum Vermeiden einer Staubansammlung in den erhöhten Bereichen (22, 23) angeordnet sind; und

    die Mittel (26) zum Vermeiden einer Staubansammlung Staublöcher (26) umfassen, die sich in radialer Richtung von dem ausgewählten inneren Kühlkanal (27) nach außen zu der radial äußeren Seite des Spitzen-Deckbands (16) erstrecken.


     
    2. Rotierende Gasturbinenschaufel nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Auslassöffnungen (24, 25) so ausgerichtet sind, dass das Kühlmedium mit einer signifikanten Komponente in der Drehrichtung der Schaufel (10) ausgestoßen wird.
     
    3. Gasturbine (10), umfassend einen Rotor (31) mit einer Mehrzahl von rotierenden Gasturbinenschaufeln, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass mindestens einige dieser rotierenden Gasturbinenschaufeln rotierende Gasturbinenschaufeln (10) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 2 sind.
     


    Revendications

    1. Aube rotative de turbine à gaz (10), comprenant un profil aérodynamique (14) avec un côté aspiration et un côté pression (12), ledit profil aérodynamique (14) s'étendant dans une direction radiale à partir d'une emplanture d'aube (11) vers un bout d'aube (15), où ledit bout d'aube (15) comprend une coiffe de bout (16), ledit profil aérodynamique (14) comprend des passages de refroidissement intérieurs (27, 28) d'un milieu de refroidissement, qui s'étendent à travers ladite coiffe de bout (16), et des orifices de sortie (24, 25) sont disposés radialement à l'extérieur par rapport à un passage de refroidissement de profil aérodynamique intérieur sélectionné (27) pour que ledit milieu de refroidissement soit éjecté du côté radialement extérieur de ladite coiffe de bout (16) dans la direction du côté pression de l'aube (12), où :

    - ladite coiffe de bout (16) est dotée de deux ailerons (17, 18, 19) ou plus, qui s'étendent parallèles les uns aux autres du côté radialement extérieur de ladite coiffe de bout (16) dans une direction circonférentielle ;

    - des espaces (20, 21) sont définis entre le voisinage desdits ailerons (17, 18, 19),

    - des zones élevées (22, 23) sont disposées dans lesdits espaces (20, 21) ; lesdits orifices de sortie (24, 25) sont disposés dans lesdites zones élevées (22, 23) ;
    caractérisée en ce que :

    des moyens (26) destinés à éviter une accumulation de poussière sont prévus au niveau de l'extrémité de bout dudit passage de refroidissement intérieur sélectionné (27),

    lesdits moyens (26) destinés à éviter une accumulation de poussière, étant disposés dans lesdites zones élevées (22, 23) ; et

    lesdits moyens (26) destinés à éviter une accumulation de poussière comprennent des trous de poussière (26) qui s'étendent dans une direction radiale à partir dudit passage de refroidissement intérieur sélectionné (27), vers l'extérieur du côté radialement extérieur de la coiffe de bout (16).


     
    2. Aube de turbine à gaz rotative selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que lesdits orifices de sortie (24, 25) sont orientés de telle sorte que ledit milieu de refroidissement soit éjecté avec une composante importante dans la direction de rotation de l'aube (10).
     
    3. Turbine à gaz (10), comprenant un rotor (31) avec une pluralité d'aubes de turbine à gaz rotatives, caractérisée en ce que certaines au moins de ces aubes de turbine à gaz rotatives, sont des aubes de turbine à gaz rotatives (10) selon la revendication 1 ou 2.
     




    Drawing












    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description