(19)
(11)EP 3 039 452 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
12.04.2017 Bulletin 2017/15

(21)Application number: 14783688.6

(22)Date of filing:  24.08.2014
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G01S 19/09  (2010.01)
G01S 19/28  (2010.01)
G01S 19/21  (2010.01)
G01S 19/30  (2010.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2014/052429
(87)International publication number:
WO 2015/031215 (05.03.2015 Gazette  2015/09)

(54)

CLOUD-OFFLOADED GLOBAL SATELLITE POSITIONING

CLOUD-BASIERTE GLOBALE SATELLITENPOSITIONIERUNG

LOCALISATION MONDIALE PAR SATELLITE DÉLESTÉE PAR LE NUAGE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 27.08.2013 US 201314011140

(43)Date of publication of application:
06.07.2016 Bulletin 2016/27

(73)Proprietor: Microsoft Technology Licensing, LLC
Redmond, WA 98052 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • LIU, Jie
    Redmond, WA 98052-6399 (US)
  • JIN, Yuzhe
    Redmond, WA 98052-6399 (US)
  • HART, Ted C.
    Redmond, WA 98052-6399 (US)

(74)Representative: Trichard, Louis et al
Olswang LLP 90 High Holborn
London WC1V 6XX
London WC1V 6XX (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A1- 2007 063 894
US-B1- 6 546 040
  
  • CHEN LEI ET AL: "A Cross-Correlation Mitigation Method Based on Subspace Projection for GPS Receiver", GNSS 2012 - PROCEEDINGS OF THE 25TH INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL MEETING OF THE SATELLITE DIVISION OF THE INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION (ION GNSS 2012), THE INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION, 8551 RIXLEW LANE SUITE 360 MANASSAS, VA 20109, USA, 21 September 2012 (2012-09-21), pages 1428-1434, XP056008456,
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

BACKGROUND



[0001] Global positioning systems (GPS) typically consist of a device including a GPS receiver and multiple GPS satellites. The GPS receiver is configured to receive and decode GPS signals broadcast from the GPS satellites in order to determine a location of the device. Each of the GPS satellite signals are transmitted with a satellite-specific encoding, which can be used by a GPS receiver to identify the broadcasting GPS satellite. The GPS receiver is able to calculate the location of the device by decoding the satellite signal, identifying the broadcasting GPS satellites, and performing a series of computations on the data extracted from the decoded signals. US6546040 describes a GPS receiver having a fast acquisition of a GPS signal having a low signal-to-noise ratio. The GPS receiver adjusts a local frequency for iteratively downconverting raw GPS signal samples to baseband GPS signal code data, combining a plurality of code epochs of the GPS signal code data in chunks and super chunks for providing representative code epochs, and correlates the representative code epochs to a replica code epoch for providing correlation times. A microcontroller processes the correlation times for providing the frequency corrections and computes a GPS pseudorange when the error in the corrected local frequency is less than a threshold. The GPS pseudoranges for several GPS satellites are transmitted back to the base for computing the GPS-based location of the GPS receiver.

[0002] Many devices today include GPS receivers and support applications that provide location based services. Typically, the GPS systems samples a GPS signal in the range of 30 seconds in order to accurately decode the GPS signal and identify the broadcasting GPS satellites. Unfortunately, sampling GPS signals is a power intensive process and many location based applications available today on mobile devices require regular or continuous location sensing. Thus, while GPS receivers often provide the most accurate and reliable location information available to a mobile device, it is often the case that other sources are preferred. For example, mobile devices may obtain the location information from one of a variety of sources, including GPS receivers, cell-tower signals, FM radio signals, and/or WiFi signatures.

SUMMARY



[0003] This Summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form that are further described below in the Detailed Description. This Summary is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed subject matter, nor is it intended to be used as an aid in determining the scope of the claimed subject matter.

[0004] Implementations of a mobile device including a global positioning system (GPS) which can be used to determine a location of a mobile device are disclosed herein. In one example, the mobile device utilizes a server to aid in determining a location. For example, the mobile device includes a GPS receiver and a communication interface in communication with the server. The mobile device may sample GPS signals using the GPS receiver and provide the samples to the server for processing. In one example, the mobile device is configured to sample the GPS signals in one or more chunks of several milliseconds (ms) and the server is configured to process the chunks and determine a location of the mobile device.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0005] The Detailed Description is described with reference to the accompanying figures. In the figures, the left-most digit(s) of a reference number identifies the figure in which the reference number first appears. The same numbers are used throughout the drawings to reference like features and components.

FIG. 1 is a pictorial view of an example of a GPS system according to some implementations.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an example framework of a GPS system according to some implementations.

FIG. 3 is a block diagram of an example framework of a mobile device according to some implementations.

FIG. 4 is a flow diagram of an example process for estimating a location of a mobile device according to some implementations.

FIG. 5 is a flow diagram of an example process for identifying a set of visible satellites according to some implementations.

FIG. 6 is a flow diagram of an example process for selecting a set of good satellites from a set of visible satellites according to some implementations.

FIG. 7 is a flow diagram of an example process for estimating a location of a mobile device according to some implementations.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0006] The disclosed techniques describe implementations of a GPS system for determining locations related to mobile devices. In a typical system, when a GPS receiver is activated, the GPS receiver performs a series of power intensive steps to determine and maintain the location of the mobile device. First, the GPS receiver enters an acquisition phase. In the acquisition phase, the GPS receiver samples and decodes the GPS signal from each visible GPS satellite. The GPS signals include a time stamp and ephemeris data (data related to the location and trajectory of the transmitting satellite). Second, the GPS receiver performs a series of calculations based on the time stamp and ephemeris data extracted from the decoded GPS signals to determine an initial location. Third, the GPS receiver enters a tracking phase to maintain the location of the mobile device.

[0007] In order to sample and decode the entire signal from one or more GPS satellites, the GPS receiver is turned on for an interval, typically in the range of 30 seconds. The GPS receiver remains on for such a long period of time in part because the GPS satellites are configured to transmit data at a very low rate, typically in the range of 50 bits per second (bps) and around 32,000 samples are used to reconstruct the data contained in the GPS signals.

[0008] Next, the GPS receiver attempts to identify all GPS satellites in view of the mobile device (i.e., the GPS satellites which broadcast the received GPS signals). This is done by detecting the presence of one or more satellite-specific Coarse/Acquisition (C/A) codes in the GPS signals. Each GPS receiver stores a C/A code template, which includes the C/A code for all GPS satellites. The C/A codes are designed to be orthogonal to each other, such that when the template is compared with a GPS signal the C/A codes corresponding to visible GPS satellites cause a signal spike. Thus, the GPS receiver can compare the C/A template with the received GPS signals to determine which GPS satellites are initiating the broadcasts.

[0009] However when comparing the C/A code template to the GPS signals, the GPS receiver compensates for Doppler shifts in the GPS signal caused by movement of both the satellites and the GPS receiver. For example, a rising GPS satellite (a satellite coming into view of the mobile device) moves at a rate of up to 800 meters per second (m/s) toward the GPS receiver, causing a frequency shift of 4.2 kilohertz (kHz). Likewise, a setting GPS satellite (a satellite leaving view of the mobile device) moves at a rate of up to 800m/s away from the GPS receiver, causing a frequency shift of -4.2kHz. The GPS receiver needs to compensate for the Doppler shift within a certain margin of error (for example, within 500Hz) to correctly identify the broadcasting GPS satellites using the C/A code template. Therefore to compensate for the motion of the GPS receiver in addition to the movement of the satellites, the GPS receiver often performs a number of Doppler shift calculations and corresponding C/A code comparisons before finalizing a determination of the visible GPS satellites.

[0010] To identify an initial location, the GPS receiver also determines the distance between the mobile device and each of the visible GPS satellites called the "pseudorange". The pseudorange can be calculated using the propagation delay of the GPS signals. The propagation delay is broken down into two parts, a millisecond part and a submillisecond part called the "code phase". The millisecond part can be decoded from the packet frames and the code phase can be determined by monitoring the 1ms repetition of the C/A code in the GPS signals.

[0011] Once the GPS receiver has identified the visible satellites, decoded the GPS signals, and calculated the pseudoranges, the GPS receiver calculates an initial location. After the initial location is determined, the GPS receiver switches to a tracking phase to maintain the location of the mobile device. During the tracking phase, the GPS receiver attempts to adjust the Doppler frequencies and propagation delays to compensate for the shifts caused by further movement of the satellites and the mobile device over time. By performing tracking the GPS receiver is able to quickly and inexpensively (at a relatively low power consumption rate) estimate changes in position.

[0012] However, if the GPS receiver does not continuously perform the tracking calculations the GPS receiver is required to perform the acquisition phase anew, which as discussed above is power-intensive and time-consuming. Therefore, most GPS receivers are configured to always remain active and are not duty-cycled by the mobile device.

[0013] FIG. 1 is a pictorial view of an example of a GPS system 100 according to some implementations. GPS system 100 includes mobile device 102 and GPS satellites 104, 106, 108, 110, and 112 from which mobile device may receive GPS signals 114. GPS system 100 also includes server 116 and network 118. Generally, mobile device 102 transmits and receives data to and from server 116 through network 118. Mobile device 102 may communicate with network 118 via wireless networks, such as a wireless local-area-network (WLAN), a short-range wireless network, such as Bluetooth®, or mobile networks provided through cell-towers, such as through code-division multiple access (CDMA) systems.

[0014] Mobile device 102 can be any GPS-enabled device such as a cell phone, smart phone, navigation device, tracking sensor, GPS sensor, or any other devices including a GPS receiver. In the present example, mobile device 102 is illustrated as a smart-phone.

[0015] GPS satellites 104-112 may comprise any of the satellites associated with the GPS satellite navigation (sat-nav) system. Additionally, although shown as five satellites, navigation satellites 104-112 represent any number of navigation satellites from which mobile device 102 can receive a GPS signal. GPS satellites 104-112 are uniquely identifiable by a satellite specific C/A code, as discussed above. Generally, GPS satellites 104-112 transmit GPS signals useful for geo-spatial positioning. The GPS signals 114 are encoded and include time-based information useful for calculating position.

[0016] Mobile device 102 receives GPS signals 114 from GPS satellites that are visible to mobile device 102 from a mobile device 102 current location (are in line-of-sight of mobile device 102). In some cases GPS signals 114 received by mobile device 102 may be diffracted, reflected, and/or attenuated by various obstructions.

[0017] Mobile device 102 includes a GPS receiver, which is configured to sample GPS signals 114 from satellites 104-112 to generate a GPS signal sample. A GPS signal sample comprises one or more contiguous measurements of the GPS signal 114 as captured by the mobile device 102. Each separate contiguous range within the sample is termed a "chunk" and will be of at least 1ms duration. If there is more than one chunk within a sample then there will be some proper sampling interval between them. In some examples, mobile device 102 may be configured to compress, process, or otherwise manipulate GPS signal samples before providing the signal data 120 to server 116. For example, the mobile device 102 may provide the server 116 the raw GPS signals 114, a compressed version of the GPS signals 114 or data obtained from the GPS signals 114, such as the IDs of the visible satellites and/or the code phases and Doppler frequencies associated with the visible satellites.

[0018] Mobile device 102 provides GPS signal data 120 to server 116 via network 118. In some examples, mobile device 102 is a GPS sensor or GPS tracking device that does not include a wireless or mobile communication interface and, thus, mobile device 102 is unable to provide the GPS signal data 120 to server 116 in real time (as the GPS signal is received). In this example, mobile device 102 may store the GPS signal data 120 as data on a computer-readable storage media incorporated into mobile device 102. The data is uploaded to server 116 at a later time, such that the previous location(s) of mobile device 102 may be determined or reconstructed at the time of upload.

[0019] Once server 116 receives the GPS signal data 120 from mobile device 102, server 116 determines an initial location of mobile device 102 and returns location information 122 via network 118 to mobile device 102. By using server 116 to determine the initial location, mobile device 102 is able to conserve the energy typically consumed during the power-intensive acquisition phase, extending overall battery life.

[0020] In this example, mobile device 102 provides the GPS signal data 120 to server 116 as raw GPS samples with no preprocessing preformed on mobile device 102. In an alternative example, mobile device 102 may decode, encrypt or compress the GPS signal data 120 before providing it to server 116.

[0021] When the server 116 receives the GPS signal data 120, the server 116 performs acquisition on the chunks to identify a set of visible satellites, such as satellites 104-112. In one particular example, to identify the visible satellites 104-112 from such small chunks, the server 116 utilizes a technique called sparse signal recovery. In this example, the server 116 first initializes a set of visible satellites as an empty set (i.e., initially the server 116 has not identified any of the C/A code templates in the chunks received from the mobile device). Next the server 116, searches the GPS signal 114 over all of the possible satellite IDs, code phases and Doppler frequency combinations to select the satellite with the strongest GPS signal sampled by the mobile device 102. For instance, the server 116 may iterate through the C/A code templates at possible Doppler frequencies and code phases for each satellite to identify the strongest GPS signal.

[0022] Once a satellite is selected, the server 116 removes the GPS signal associated with the selected satellite from the chunk and adds the selected satellite to the set of visible satellites. For example, the server 116 may remove the GPS signal associated with the selected satellite from the original chunk by performing a projection onto an appropriate signal subspace determined by the C/A code templates of the selected satellites. The server 116 continues the process of selecting a satellite with the strongest signal and removing the signal associated with the selected satellite until either a stopping criteria is met (e.g., enough satellites are identified that the location of the mobile device 102 may be calculated), all visible satellites are identified or the remaining signals are not strong enough to reliably identify the broadcasting satellites.

[0023] Once a set of visible satellites is determined, the server 116 correlates the set of visible satellites over multiple chunks. Because the chunks are so small (for example, 2ms in length), unexpected radio interference or other noise can severely degrade the GPS signal as collected by the mobile device 102 and cause satellites to be incorrectly detected within a single chunk. Thus, by collecting multiple chunks with various gaps and comparing the identified satellites in each chunk the overall accuracy of the determined location 122 may be improved.

[0024] Therefore, each satellite in the set of visible satellites identified using a single chunk may be a good (i.e., a visible satellite), a bad (i.e., a false identification), or an unknown (i.e., cannot be classified as either a good or bad identification). In one example, the server 116 sets each satellite in the set of visible satellites for each chunk of the GPS signal 114 to a status of "unknown". The server 116 determines the good and bad satellites by comparing the data associated with each satellite across all of the chunks. For instance, in one implementation, the server 116 calculates the differences of the code phases as detected for each satellite over all of the chunks and if the differences are less than a first threshold, the server identifies the satellite as "good" and if the differences are greater than a second threshold identifies the satellite as "bad". The remaining satellites and any satellite that was only visible in a single chunk are then labeled as "unknown".

[0025] Using the good satellites, the location 122 may be estimated. For example, the server 116 may calculate the location of mobile device 102 using the time that the chunks were collected, the good satellites' IDs, the ephemeris related to the good satellites (which may be obtained from the NASA orbital database or decoded from the GPS signal 114) and the pseudoranges.

[0026] Although described with respect to GPS, any of the techniques described herein may be implemented in association with other global or regional satellite navigation systems. In some cases, these techniques are used with sat-nav receivers capable of receiving signals from two or more different satellite navigation systems. By way of example, other global and/or regional satellite navigation systems may include Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), Galileo, BeiDou, Compass, Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), or Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), among others.

[0027] FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an example framework of a GPS system 200 according to some implementations. GPS system 200 includes mobile device 102, server 116, United States Geological Survey (USGS) elevation API database 202 and NASA orbital database 204.

[0028] Mobile device 102 includes one or more GPS receivers to sample GPS signals and one or more communication interfaces to provide the GPS signal data 120 to server 116 and receive location information 122 in return. Server 116 includes one or more processors 206, a communication interface 208, and computer-readable storage media 210. Communication interfaces 208 are accessible by processors 206 to communicate data to and from mobile device 102 over a network, such as network 118 of FIG. 1.

[0029] Any number of program modules, applications, or components can be stored in the computer-readable storage media 210, including by way of example, location filtering instructions 212, satellite identification instructions 214 and satellite classification instructions 216. The location filtering instructions 212 are stored in computer-readable storage media 210 and are executable by processors 206 to cause server 116 to determine a location of mobile device 102 based on a set of good satellites. The satellite identification instructions 214 are executable by processors 206 to cause server 116 to identify a set of visible satellites from the GPS signal data 120. The satellite classification instructions 216 are executable by processors 206 to cause server 116 to identify a set of good satellites from the set of visible satellites, as determined by the satellite identification instructions 214.

[0030] As used herein, "computer-readable media" includes computer storage media and communication media. Computer storage media includes volatile and non-volatile, removable and non-removable media implemented in any method or technology for storage of information, such as computer-readable instructions, data structures, program modules, or other data. Computer storage media includes, but is not limited to, random access memory (RAM), read only memory (ROM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), flash memory or other memory technology, compact disk ROM (CD-ROM), digital versatile disks (DVD) or other optical storage, magnetic cassettes, magnetic tape, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any other tangible medium that can be used to store information for access by a computing device.

[0031] In contrast, communication media may embody computer-readable instructions, data structures, program modules, or other data in a modulated data signal, such as a carrier wave. As defined herein, computer storage media does not include communication media.

[0032] USGS Elevation API database 202 is accessible by server 116 via communication interfaces 208, such that server 116 is able to retrieve elevation data related to a location determined by server 116. Typically, server 116 provides latitude and longitude coordinates to USGS elevation API database 202 and receives elevation data related to the coordinates in return.

[0033] NASA Orbital database 204 is also accessible by server 116 via communication interfaces 208 and is used to retrieve almanac and ephemeris data related to the GPS satellites 104-112. Almanac data relates to the coarse orbit and status of satellites in Earth's orbit. Ephemeris data is related to the position and trajectory of the satellites.

[0034] USGS Elevation API database 202 and NASA orbital database 204 are two examples of a variety of databases from which server 116 may retrieve elevation, almanac, and ephemeris data. For example, US Geodetic Survey computes the orbits, position, and trajectory of GPS satellites and makes the orbits, position, and trajectory publically available on the web.

[0035] In an example, mobile device 102 provides GPS signal data 120 including multiple chunks of raw GPS signal and time stamps corresponding to when the GPS signal was sampled to server 116 via at least one of communication interfaces 208. In some cases, GPS signal data 120 is downloaded from mobile device 102 and in others, the GPS signal data 120 is received via a wireless or mobile network from mobile device 102.

[0036] Once GPS signal data 120 is received, location filtering instructions 212 cause processors 206 to determine the location of mobile device 102. To calculate the location of mobile device 102, server 116 needs to determine the time that the GPS signal was sampled, the broadcasting (visible) GPS satellites, the ephemeris related to the visible satellites, and the pseudoranges.

[0037] In an example, server 116 identifies which GPS satellites are visible to the mobile device 102 by executing the satellite identification instructions 214 and the satellite classification instructions 216. When executed the satellite identification instructions 214 perform acquisition on each of the chunks received in the GPS signal data 120 to identify a set of visible satellites. In one implementation, the satellite identification instructions 214 first initialize a set of visible satellites to an empty set for each chunk, as initially the mobile device 102 has not detected any of the C/A code templates. Next, for each chunk, the satellite identification instructions 214 search the GPS signal over all of the possible satellite IDs, code phases and Doppler frequency combinations to select the satellite with the strongest signal sampled by the mobile device 102. As described above, the satellite identification instructions 214 may iterate through the C/A code templates at possible Doppler frequencies and code phases for each satellite to identify the strongest signal.

[0038] Once a satellite is selected, the GPS signal associated with the selected satellite is removed from the chunk and the selected satellite is added to the set of visible satellites. For example, the satellite identification instructions 214 may remove the GPS signal associated with the selected satellite from the chunk by performing a projection onto an appropriate signal subspace determined by the C/A code templates of the selected satellites.

[0039] The satellite identification instructions 214 repeat the process of selecting a strongest signal until a stopping criterion is met. For example, the stopping criteria may be met when the identification of a predetermined number of satellites is achieved (e.g., enough satellites are identified that the location of the mobile device 102 may be calculated), all visible satellites are identified and/or the remaining signals in the chunk are not strong enough to reliably identify the broadcasting satellites. Matching pursuit and orthogonal matching pursuit algorithms are examples of this procedure. In this manner, a set of visible satellites may be determined for each chunk of the GPS signal 114 provided by the mobile device 102.

[0040] Once a set of visible satellites is determined, the satellite classification instructions 216 causes the servers 116 to correlate the set of visible satellites over multiple chunks. Because the chunks are so small (for example, 2ms in length), unexpected radio interference or other noise can severely degrade the GPS signal and cause satellites to be incorrectly detected within a single sample. Thus, by collecting multiple chunks with various gaps and comparing the identified satellites in each chunk the overall accuracy of the determined location 122 may be improved.

[0041] As discussed above, each satellite in the set of visible satellites identified using a single chunk may be good (i.e., a visible satellite), bad (i.e. a false identification), or unknown (i.e. cannot be classified as either a good or bad identification). In one example, the satellite classification instructions 216 sets each satellite in the set of visible satellites for each chunk received as part of the GPS signal data 120 to a status of "unknown".

[0042] The satellite classification instructions 216 determine the good and bad satellites by comparing the data associated with each satellite across all of the chunks. For instance, in one implementation, the satellite classification instructions 216 cause the server 116 to calculate the differences of the code phases as detected for each sample corresponding to a particular satellite. If the differences are less than a first threshold, the satellite are classified as "good" and if the differences are greater than a second threshold the satellite are classified as "bad". The remaining satellites (i.e., the satellites greater than the first threshold but less than the second threshold) and any satellite that was visible in only one sample are classified as "unknown". To estimate the location 122 using the "good" satellites, the server 116 first determines the time each GPS signal was sampled by the mobile device 102, the ephemeris associated with the good satellites and the pseudoranges.

[0043] In one implementation, the time is received from mobile device 102 as a time stamp provided by the mobile device 102, as part of the GPS signal data 120. In another implementation, the time can be extracted from the GPS signal. The time extracted from the GPS signal is typically more accurate, however, the time stamp applied by the mobile device 102 at the time of sampling is sufficient to calculate an initial location 122 within a reasonable range (i.e., within a few meters).

[0044] The ephemeris may be retrieved by server 116 from NASA orbital database 204. In one particular implementation, server 116 may fetch the ephemeris from NASA orbital database 204 periodically and store the information in computer-readable storage media 210 for use at a later time, such as in the case where the GPS signals were sampled and stored on mobile device 102 and downloaded to server 116 after a period of time. In other implementations, the location filtering instructions 212 may cause the server 116 to decode the GPS signal to determine the ephemeris data.

[0045] Once the ephemeris and time are identified by the server 116, the location filtering instructions 212 cause the server 116 to calculate the pseudorange (i.e., code phases and propagation delay) for each of the good satellites using the ephemeris data and the GPS signals. For instance, the server 116 may determine the propagation delay using a technique called coarse-time navigation (CTN) if a reference location (such as a cell phone tower) within 150kilometers (km) of the location 122 of mobile device 102 may be identified.

[0046] Once the time stamps, code phases and propagation delay for each satellite are determined, the location filtering instructions 212 cause the server 116 to estimate the location 122 of mobile device 102. However, in some instances, too few good satellites may be identified to accurately estimate a location 122 of the mobile device 102. If too few good satellites are identified to determine a location 122, the location filtering instructions 212 enumerate through the visible satellites classified as "unknown" and add each one to the set of good satellites and attempt to identify a location 122. A location estimated using bad (i.e., incorrectly identified) satellites will have an erroneous, impossible or incorrect position (such as at elevations far above or below the surface of the Earth). Thus, the location filtering instructions 212 test the location 122 estimated after adding each satellite to eliminate erroneous locations. For example, constraining the location 122 to an elevation range near the surface of the Earth, such as between 500 to 8000 meters (m) results in the elimination of many erroneous locations.

[0047] Unfortunately, applying an elevation range by itself may not detect all erroneous locations. To eliminate the remaining erroneous locations, the location filtering instructions 212 may cause the server 116 to access the USGS elevation API database 202 via communication interfaces 208. Server 116 retrieves the true elevation of the Earth's surface for each of the remaining estimated locations 122 using the latitude and longitude coordinates. The location filtering instructions 212 compare the determined elevation to the true elevation and eliminate any location where the elevations do not match. However, when an elevation matches the USGS elevation data, the actual location 122 of mobile device 102 at the time the GPS signals were sampled has been identified and may be returned to the mobile device 102 as the location 122. It should be understood that using the USGS elevation API database 202 and comparing elevations is one possible technique for identifying erroneous locations and that other techniques may be utilized.

[0048] In some instances, enough good satellites may be identified to allow location 122 to be estimated while some satellites are still labeled as "unknown". By using those unknown satellites, the accuracy of the estimated location 122 may be improved. For example, each of the unknown satellites may be added to the set of good satellites while a new location is estimated and checked, for instance, using the USGS elevation data, as discussed above. In another instance, the new location estimated using the unknown satellite may be compared to the original location and if the two locations are within a threshold distance, the unknown satellite may be considered "good" and the new location returned to the mobile device 102 as the location 122. This process may be continued until all remaining unknown satellites which may be labeled as "good" have been tested.

[0049] Once the final location 122 of mobile device 102 is identified, the location 122 is provided to mobile device 102. In an alternative implementation, the location 122 can be stored in a computer-readable storage media for later analysis or provided to a display for use, for example, in scientific research.

[0050] FIG. 3 is a block diagram of an example framework 300 of mobile device 102 according to some implementations. Mobile device 102 includes one or more processors 302, one or more communication interfaces 304, GPS receiver 306, clock 308, and computer-readable storage media 310. Computer-readable storage media 310 is illustrated as storing location filtering instructions 312, satellite identification instructions 314, satellite classification instructions 316 and one or more GPS signal samples 318.

[0051] Communication interfaces 304 are utilized to communicate data to a server, such as server 116 of FIGS. 1 and 2. Communication interfaces 304 is configured to communicate with wireless networks, such as a wireless local-area-network (WLAN), short-range wireless networks, such as Bluetooth®, a mobile network provided through cell-towers, such as through CDMA systems, or over a wired connection, such as via a universal serial bus (USB) interface.

[0052] GPS receiver 306 is configured to receive GPS signals from one or more satellites, such as satellites 104-112. Although shown as integrated with mobile device 102, GPS receiver 306 may be external, but local. An external GPS receiver may communicate with mobile device 102 over a wired (e.g. USB) or wireless interface (e.g. Bluetooth®). In some cases, GPS receiver 306 is integrated with one of the communication interfaces 304. This integrated module provides cellular connectivity and GPS functionality. In some examples, an antenna of the integrated module is shared by the cellular and GPS sub-systems.

[0053] Clock 308 is configured to provide a time stamp that is associated with the time a GPS signal sample is received by GPS receiver 306. In one example, clock 308 is a WWVB receiver. WWVB is a radio station, which broadcasts universal time signals around the globe via a continuous 60 kHz carrier wave, derived from a set of atomic clocks located at the transmitter sites.

[0054] In an example, GPS receiver 306 periodically samples GPS signals from satellites 104-112 and each of the GPS signal samples 318 are time stamped by clock 308. Time stamped GPS signal samples 318 are either stored in computer-readable storage media 310 or provided to server 116 via communication interfaces 304, as GPS signal data 120. If GPS signal samples 318 are provided to server 116, then mobile device 102 may receive a location from server 116 in response. If GPS signal samples 318 are stored then the signals 318 may be downloaded or provided to server 116 at a later time or the mobile device 102 may utilize the samples to identify a location.

[0055] In some implementations, GPS signal samples 318 are provided to the server 116 as raw samples. In other implementations, the location processing may be split between the server 116 and the mobile device 102 and a set of visible satellites and associated code phases and Doppler frequencies may be provided to the server 116. In some instances, the GPS signal samples 318 or signal data may be compressed before transmission.

[0056] The mobile device 102 may be used in an environment or in a configuration of universal or specialized computer systems. Examples include a personal computer, a handheld device or a portable device, a tablet device, a multi-processor system, a microprocessor-based system, a programmable customer electronic device, a network PC or other devices with location based systems.

[0057] In one particular implementation, the mobile device 102 may identify a location without the aid of a server. For instance, the GPS receiver 306 may sample the GPS signal being broadcast by one or more visible satellites. The GPS signal samples 318 may be very short. The mobile device 102 time stamps each GPS signal sample 318 using the clock 308 and once enough samples are collected the mobile device partitions the GPS signal samples 318 into small chunks (such as 1 or 2ms in length) and performs acquisition on the chunks to identify a set of visible satellites.

[0058] For each chunk, the mobile device executes the satellite identification instructions 314 to identify a set of visible satellites. The mobile device 102 first initializes a set of visible satellites as an empty set (i.e., initially none of the C/A code templates have been detected in the chunk). Next the mobile device 102 searches the chunk over all of the possible satellite IDs, code phases and Doppler frequency combinations to select the satellite with the strongest GPS signal. For instance, the mobile device 102 may iterate through the C/A code templates at possible Doppler frequencies and code phases for each satellite to identify the strongest GPS signal.

[0059] Once a satellite is selected, the mobile device 102 removes the GPS signal associated with the selected satellite from chunk and adds the selected satellite to the set of visible satellites. For example, the mobile device 102 may remove the GPS signal associated with the selected satellite from the chunk by performing a projection onto an appropriate signal subspace determined by the C/A code templates of the selected satellites. The mobile device 102 continues the process of selecting a strongest signal and removing the signal associated with the satellite broadcasting the strongest signal until a stopping criterion is met. For example, the stopping criteria may be met when a predetermined number of satellites are classified as "good" (e.g., enough satellites are identified that the location of the mobile device 102 may be calculated), all visible satellites have been considered or the remaining signals in the chunk are not strong enough to reliably identify the broadcasting satellites. Matching pursuit and orthogonal matching pursuit algorithms are examples of this procedure.

[0060] Once a set of visible satellites is determined, the mobile device 102 executes the satellite classification instructions 316 to correlate the set of visible satellites over multiple chunks. In one example, the mobile device 102 sets each satellite in the set of visible satellites to a status of "unknown". The mobile device 102 then determines the good and bad satellites by comparing the data associated with each satellite across all of the chunks. For instance, in one implementation, the mobile device 102 calculates the differences of the code phases as detected for each satellite over all of the chunks and if the differences are less than a first threshold, the server identifies the satellite as "good" and if the differences are greater than a second threshold, identifies the satellite as "bad". The remaining satellites (those greater than the first threshold and less than the second threshold) and any satellites that were detected in only one chunk are classified as "unknown".

[0061] Using the "good" satellites, the mobile device 102 determines the location by executing the location filtering instructions 212. For example, the mobile device 102 may calculate the location using the time stamps provide by the clock 308, the set of good satellites IDs, the ephemeris related to the visible satellites (which may be obtained from the NASA orbital database or decoded from the GPS signal samples 318) and the pseudorange. For instance, the propagation delay may be calculated using the ephemeris, a reference location (such as a cell phone tower) within 150km of the mobile device 102 and the time stamp using a technique called coarse-time navigation (CTN).

[0062] FIGS. 4-7 are flow diagrams illustrating example processes for determining a location of a mobile device, such as mobile device 102 of FIGS. 1-3. The processes are illustrated as a collection of blocks in a logical flow diagram, which represent a sequence of operations, some or all of which can be implemented in hardware, software or a combination thereof. In the context of software, the blocks represent computer-executable instructions stored on one or more computer-readable media that, which when executed by one or more processors, perform the recited operations. Generally, computer-executable instructions include routines, programs, objects, components, data structures and the like that perform particular functions or implement particular abstract data types.

[0063] The order in which the operations are described should not be construed as a limitation. Any number of the described blocks can be combined in any order and/or in parallel to implement the process, or alternative processes, and not all of the blocks need be executed. For discussion purposes, the processes herein are described with reference to the frameworks, architectures and environments described in the examples herein, although the processes may be implemented in a wide variety of other frameworks, architectures or environments.

[0064] FIG. 4 is a flow diagram of an example process 400 for estimating a location of a mobile device (such as mobile device 102 of FIGS. 1-3) according to some implementations. At 402, a server receives a plurality of GPS signal samples and a time stamp for each sample from the mobile device. For example, the mobile device may collect and transmit multiple chunks of raw GPS signals sampled at various intervals. In some instances, the length of the sample and/or the intervals may vary. For example, the server may receive one or more long GPS signal samples, which the server divides into chunks. In some implementations, the servers may download the GPS signal samples from the mobile device at time other than the time that the GPS signal samples were collected.

[0065] At 404, the server identifies a set of visible satellites from the chunks. For example, the server may search each chunk over all of the possible satellite IDs, code phases and Doppler frequency combinations to select the satellites with the strongest signal. For instance, the server may iterate through the C/A code templates at possible Doppler frequencies and code phases for each satellite to identify the strongest signal.

[0066] Once a strongest satellite is selected, the server removes the GPS signal associated with the strongest satellite from the chunk and adds the selected satellite to a set of visible satellites. For example, the server may remove the GPS signal associated with the selected satellite by performing a projection onto an appropriate signal subspace determined by the C/A code templates of the selected satellites. The server continues to repeat the process of selecting a satellite with the strongest signal and removing the signal associated with that satellite until either a stopping criterion is met (e.g., enough satellites are identified that the location of the mobile device may be calculated, all visible satellites are identified or the remaining signals in the chunk are not strong enough to reliably identify the broadcasting satellites). Matching pursuit and orthogonal matching pursuit algorithms are examples of this procedure. In this manner, a set of visible satellites may be determined for each chunk.

[0067] At 406, the server identifies a set of good satellites from the set of visible satellites. The server identifies the good satellites by correlating the set of visible satellites over multiple chunks and classifying each visible satellite as either good (i.e., a visible satellite), bad (i.e. a false identification), or unknown (i.e. cannot be classified as either good or bad). For example, the server may initially set each visible satellites to a status of "unknown". The server determines the good and bad satellites by comparing the data associated with each satellite across all of the chunks. For instance, the server may calculate the differences between the code phases of each chunks. The server may compare the differences to a first threshold and if the differences are less than the first threshold, the server may identify the satellite as "good". However, if the differences are greater than the first threshold the server may compare the differences to a second threshold and if the differences are greater than the second threshold, identify the satellite as "bad". The server may classify the remaining satellites (i.e., the satellites with code phase differences greater than the first threshold and less than the second threshold), as well as any satellite that was visible in only one chunk as "unknown".

[0068] At 408, the server retrieves ephemeris data from NASA Orbital Database. In one particular example, the server may retrieve ephemeris and almanac data from NASA orbital database periodically and store the information in a memory, such as computer-readable storage media 310, for use at a later time. Storing the ephemeris and almanac data is particularly useful when the GPS signal samples are collected, stored on mobile device for a period of time, and downloaded to server later.

[0069] At 410, the server may estimate a location of the mobile device from the ephemeris, the set of good satellites, the time stamps and the pseudoranges. For instance, the server may calculate the propagation delay by calculating the CTN using a reference location. The server may then provide the location back to the mobile device or to one or more databases for scientific research.

[0070] FIG. 4 provides an example process 400 for estimating a location of a mobile device by identifying a set of satellites from a series of GPS signal sample chunks. FIGS. 5 and 6 provide more details as to possible implementations for identifying the set of satellites.

[0071] FIG. 5 is a flow diagram of an example process 500 for identifying a set of visible satellites according to some implementations. At 502, the server initializes a set of visible satellites to an empty set (i.e., initially the server has not identified any of the C/A code templates in the GPS signal chunks received from the mobile device).

[0072] At 504, the server searches one of the GPS signal chunks over all possible satellite identifiers, code phases and Doppler frequency combinations and selects a best match. The best match may be selected by identifying the satellite with the strongest signal within the chunk. For instance, the server may iterate through the C/A code templates at possible Doppler frequencies and code phases for each satellite to identify the strongest signal.

[0073] At 506, the server adds the best match (i.e., the satellite with the strongest signal in the sample) to the set of visible satellites. For example, the set of visible satellites may be expressed as follows:

where X(k) denotes the set of visible satellites, x(k) is the best match and k is the number of iterations through process 500.

[0074] At 508, the server removes the GPS signal associated with the best match from the chunk. For example, the server may remove the GPS signal associated with the selected satellite by performing a projection onto an appropriate signal subspace determined by the C/A code templates of the selected satellites.

[0075] In matching pursuit, the new signal, r(k), can be calculated using the previous sample, r(k-1), as follows:

where x(k) is again the best match and k is the number of iterations through process 500. In orthogonal matching pursuit, the new signal, r(k), can be calculated using the previous sample, r(k-1), as follows:

where Px(k) is the orthogonal projection onto the subspace spanned by all the previously identified C/A code templates up to the current iteration k.

[0076] At 510, the server determines if a stopping criterion is satisfied. For example, the stopping criteria may be a predetermined number of satellite identifications (i.e., enough satellites have been identified that the location of the mobile device may be calculated), all visible satellites are identified or the remaining signals in the chunks are not strong enough to reliably identify the broadcasting satellites. If a stopping criterion is satisfied, the process 500 proceeds to 512 and the server outputs the set of visible satellites, otherwise the process 500 returns to 504 to identify another best match.

[0077] FIG. 6 is a flow diagram of an example process 600 for selecting a set of good satellites from a set of visible satellites according to some implementations. At 602, the server receives a set of visible satellites. For instance, the set of visible satellites may be received from the mobile device or generated by the server using process 500, as described above.

[0078] At 604, the server initializes each of the visible satellites to a status of "unknown". Each visible satellite may be classified as good (i.e., a visible satellite), bad (i.e. a false identification), or unknown (i.e. cannot be classified as either good or bad identification). The satellites are initialized to "unknown" because due to the small size of the chunks unexpected radio interference or other noise can severely degrade the GPS signal and cause satellites to be incorrectly detected.

[0079] At 606, the server calculates a difference between the code phases of each satellite over multiple GPS samples. For example, the differences, D, in the code phase, CP1 to CPk, for satellites, 1 to k, as detected in two GPS samples, n1 to n2, may be calculated as follows:

if a satellite is actually visible to the mobile device when the GPS signal is sampled the differences, D, in the code phases between the chunks is relatively small.

[0080] At 608, the server compares the differences in the code phases for each satellite to a threshold and adds the satellite to the set of "good" satellites if the difference is less than the threshold. If, however, the satellite's code phase is greater than the threshold the server may leave the satellite in the set of unknown satellites or compare the difference to a second threshold and if the difference is greater than the second threshold then add the satellite to the set of bad satellites.

[0081] FIGS. 4-6 provide example processes for identifying a set of satellites from a series of GPS signal samples or chunks. FIG. 7 provides an example process for estimating a location using the set of satellites.

[0082] FIG. 7 is a flow diagram of an example process 700 for estimating a location of a mobile device according to some implementations. At 702, the server receives a set of good satellites. For instance, the set of good satellites may be determined according to the processes 500 and 600, described above. In some implementations, the server may also receive the set of unknown satellites and the set of visible satellites (i.e., the full set of satellites identified in process 500 including the satellites classified as bad).

[0083] At 704, the server estimates a location using the set of good satellites. As discussed above, the server may estimate a location based on the times that the GPS signal was sampled, the good satellites' IDs, the ephemeris and almanac data (which may be obtained from the NASA orbital database or decoded from the GPS signal samples) and the pseudoranges.

[0084] At 706, the server determines if the server is able to estimate a location from the set of good satellites. For instance, in some examples, less than the minimum number of satellites required to determine a location may have been classified as good and the location estimated may be unreliable or erroneous. If the server is unable to estimate the location the process 700 proceeds to 708 and the server adds each of the other satellites in the set of visible satellites one at a time to the set of good satellites and re-estimates the location. Otherwise, if the server was able to estimate a location the process proceeds to 710 and the server attempts to improve the accuracy of the originally estimated location by using the remaining unknown satellites.

[0085] At 708, the server determines if there are untested satellites. If there are no untested satellites and the server is still unable to estimate a location, the process 700 proceeds to 712 and the server outputs a failure (i.e., no location can be estimated from the GPS samples as received from the mobile device). If there are still untested satellites, the server temporarily adds one of the untested satellites to the set of good satellites and the process 700 proceeds to 714.

[0086] At 714, the server attempts to re-estimate a location using the updated set of good satellites. A location estimated using bad (i.e., incorrectly identified) satellites will have an erroneous, impossible or incorrect position (such as at elevations far above or below the surface of the Earth). Thus, the server tests the location estimated after adding each untested satellite to eliminate erroneous locations. For example, the server may constrain valid locations to an elevation range near the surface of the Earth, such as between 500 to 8000m which results in the rejection of many of the locations estimated using bad satellites. In other examples, the server may access the USGS elevation API database to retrieve the true elevation of the Earth's surface for each of the locations estimated using the updated set of good satellites. By utilizing the true elevations, which can be retrieved from the USGS elevation API database, the server is able to identify both erroneous locations and actual locations of the mobile device.

[0087] At 716, if the server is able to estimate a location the process 700 proceeds to 718 and the server outputs the location as the location of the mobile device. For example, when the USGS elevation API database matches the elevation at the longitude and latitude of the location estimated using the updated set of good satellites, the server is able to estimate the location. If, however, the server is still unable to estimate a location using the updated set of good satellites, the server removes the satellite added to the set of good satellites and returns to 708 and repeats 708, 712, 714 and 716. The server continues to add untested satellites to the set of good satellites and to re-estimate locations until either no satellites remain untested or a valid location can be output.

[0088] Returning to 706, if a location was originally estimated using the set of good satellites, the process 700 proceeds to 710. At 710, the server, using position information related to the location, checks to see if any remaining satellites may be added to the set of good satellites. For example, as discussed above, the server may re-estimate the location using updated sets of good satellites and compare the elevation of the new location with an elevation retrieved from the USGS elevation API database at the longitude and latitude of the new location. In other examples, the server may compare the distance between the original location and the newly estimated location and determine that the new location is valid if the distance is less than a threshold distance.

[0089] At 722, the server augments the set of good satellites with the satellites identified. For example, the server may add some of the satellites that were originally classified as unknown to the set of good satellites based on the analysis of the position information, as discussed above.

[0090] At 724, the server re-estimates the location using the updated set of good satellites, and, at 718, the server outputs the new location as the location of the mobile device. For example, the server may output the location back to the mobile device or store the location in a database for analysis or research.


Claims

1. A method comprising:

receiving (402) a plurality of chunks of global positioning system, GPS, signal samples;

searching (404-406; 502-512; 602-604; 702) for satellite specific Coarse/Acquisition, C/A, codes in the plurality of chunks over code phase and Doppler frequency combinations to identify visible satellites;

calculating (406; 606; 702), for each of the visible satellites, a difference between a first code phase and a second code phase, the first code phase associated with a first one of the plurality of chunks and the second code phase associated with a second one of the plurality of chunks;

adding (406; 608; 702) each visible satellite where this difference is less than a threshold difference to a set of satellites;

estimating (408-410; 704) a location based on the set of satellites;

characterised by

determining (706, 710) which, if any, of the visible satellites whose difference in the code phases is greater than the threshold difference may be added to the set of satellites based on position information related to a location estimated based on the set of satellites and one or more visible satellites whose difference in the code phases is greater than or equal to the threshold difference;

augmenting (722) the set of satellites with those visible satellites determined to be able to be added to the set of satellites; and

re-estimating (724) the location based on the augmented set of satellites.


 
2. The method as recited in claim 1, wherein the searching (504-510) for the satellite specific C/A codes is performed independently on each of the chunks.
 
3. The method as recited in claim 1, wherein the searching (504-510) for the satellite specific C/A codes is performed iteratively until a stopping criterion is achieved.
 
4. The method as recited in claim 1, wherein the location is estimated based on a time that the chunks were collected, the set of satellites and ephemeris, and pseudorange data related to each satellite of the set of satellites.
 
5. The method as recited in claim 1, wherein the step of searching comprises:

receiving the first one of the plurality of chunks (402; 502);

identifying (504) a satellite from the first one of the plurality of chunks by searching for satellite specific C/A codes in the first one of the plurality of chunks over code phase and Doppler frequency combinations;

adding (506) the satellite to the set of visible satellites;

removing signals (508) associated with the satellite from the first one of the plurality of chunks;

identifying another satellite (504) from the first one of the plurality of chunks by searching for the satellite specific C/A codes in the first one of the plurality of chunks over the code phase and Doppler frequency combinations;

adding (506) the another satellite to the set of visible satellites; and

outputting (512) the set of visible satellites for use in identifying the set of satellites.


 
6. The method as recited in claim 5, further comprising:

removing signals (508) associated with the another satellite from the first one of the plurality of chunks;

identifying (504) a further satellite from the first one of the plurality of chunks by searching for the satellite specific C/A codes in the first one of the plurality of chunks over the code phase and Doppler frequency combinations; and

adding (506) the further satellite to the set of visible satellites before outputting (512) the set of visible

satellites for use in identifying the set of satellites


 
7. The method as recited in claim 6, further comprising:

receiving (402) a second one of the plurality of chunks;

identifying (504) a satellite from the second one of the plurality of chunks by searching for the satellite specific C/A codes in the second one of the plurality of chunks over the code phase and Doppler frequency combinations;

adding (506) the satellite identified in the second one of the plurality of chunks to the set of visible satellites;

removing signals (508) associated with the satellite identified in the second one of the plurality of chunks from the second one of the plurality of chunks;

identifying (504) another satellite from the second one of the plurality of chunks by searching for the satellite specific C/A codes in the second one of the plurality of chunks over the code phase and Doppler frequency combinations;

adding (506) the another satellite identified in the second one of the plurality of chunks to the set of visible satellites; and

outputting (512) the set of satellites for use in identifying the set of satellites.


 
8. A computer-readable storage medium storing instructions that, when executed by one or more processors (302), cause the one or more processors (302) to perform the method according to any one of claims 1 to 7.
 
9. A computing device (300) comprising one or more processors (302) coupled to a receiver (304, 306) and a computer-readable storage medium (310) according to claim 8.
 
10. The computing device (300) as recited in claim 9, wherein the computing device (300) is a server.
 
11. The computing device (300) as recited in claim 9, wherein the computing device (300) is a mobile device (102).
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren, umfassend

- Empfangen (402) mehrere Blöcke von Signalproben aus einem Globalen Positionsbestimmungssystem, GPS;

- Suchen (404-406; 502-512; 602-604; 702) nach satellitenspezifischen Coarse/Acquisition, (C/A), Codes in den mehreren Blöcken über Codephasen- und Doppler-Frequenzkombinationen zur Identifizierung sichtbarer Satelliten;

- Berechnen (406, 606; 702) für jeden der sichtbaren Satelliten einer Differenz zwischen einer ersten Codephase und einer zweiten Codephase, wobei die erste Codephase mit einem ersten der mehreren Blöcke verknüpft ist und die zweite Codephase mit einem zweiten der mehreren Blöcke verknüpft ist;

- Hinzufügen (406, 408; 702) jedes sichtbaren Satelliten, wo diese Differenz kleiner als eine Schwellenwertdifferenz ist, zu einem Satz von Satelliten;

- Schätzen (408-410; 704) eines Orts auf der Basis des Satzes von Satelliten;

gekennzeichnet durch

- Bestimmen (706, 710), welcher, wenn überhaupt, der sichtbaren Satelliten, dessen Differenz in den Codephasen größer als die Schwellenwertdifferenz ist, zu dem Satz von Satelliten hinzugefügt werden kann, auf der Basis von Positionsinformationen, die sich auf einen Ort beziehen, der auf der Basis des Satzes von Satelliten geschätzt wird, und eines sichtbaren Satelliten oder mehrerer sichtbarer Satelliten, dessen bzw. deren Differenz in der Codephase größer oder gleich der Schwellenwertdifferenz ist;

- Vergrößern (722) des Satzes von Satelliten mit jenen sichtbaren Satelliten, die als fähig bestimmt werden, zu dem Satz von Satelliten hinzugefügt zu werden; und

- Neuschätzen (724) des Orts auf der Basis des vergrößerten Satzes von Satelliten.


 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Suchen (504-510) nach den satellitenspezifischen C/A-Codes unabhängig an jedem der Blöcke durchgeführt wird.
 
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Suchen (504-510) nach den satellitenspezifischen C/A-Codes wiederholt durchgeführt wird, bis ein Stoppkriterium erreicht ist.
 
4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Ort auf der Basis einer Zeit, in der die Blöcke gesammelt werden, des Satzes von Satelliten und Ephemeriden und pseudoranger Daten, die sich auf jeden Satelliten des Satzes von Satelliten beziehen, geschätzt wird.
 
5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Suchschritt umfasst:

- Empfangen der mehreren Blöcke (402; 502);

- Identifizieren (504) eines Satelliten aus dem ersten der mehreren Blöcke durch Suche nach satellitenspezifischen C/A-Codes in dem ersten der mehreren Blöcke über Codephasen- und Doppler-Frequenzkombinationen;

- Hinzufügen (506) des Satelliten zu dem Satz sichtbarer Satelliten;

- Entfernen von Signalen (508), die mit dem Satelliten verknüpft sind, aus dem ersten der mehreren Blöcke;

- Identifizieren eines anderen Satelliten (504) aus dem ersten der mehreren Blöcke durch Suche nach den satellitenspezifischen C/A-Codes in dem ersten der mehreren Blöcke über die Codephasen- und Doppler-Frequenzkombinationen;

- Hinzufügen (506) des anderen Satelliten zu dem Satz sichtbarer Satelliten; und

- Ausgeben (512) des Satzes sichtbarer Satelliten zur Verwendung in der Identifizierung des Satzes von Satelliten.


 
6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, des Weiteren umfassend:

- Entfernen von Signalen (508), die mit dem anderen Satelliten verknüpft sind, aus dem ersten der mehreren Blöcke;

- Identifizieren (504) eines weiteren Satelliten aus dem ersten der mehreren Blöcke durch Suche nach den satellitenspezifischen C/A-Codes in dem ersten der mehreren Blöcke über die Codephasen- und Doppler-Frequenzkombinationen; und

- Hinzufügen (506) des weiteren Satelliten zu dem Satz sichtbarer Satelliten vor dem Ausgeben (512) des Satzes sichtbarer Satelliten zur Verwendung in der Identifizierung des Satzes von Satelliten.


 
7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 6, des Weiteren umfassend:

- Empfangen (402) eines zweiten der mehreren Blöcke;

- Identifizieren (504) eines Satelliten aus dem zweiten der mehreren Blöcke durch Suche nach den satellitenspezifischen C/A-Codes in dem zweiten der mehreren Blöcke über die Codephasen- und Doppler-Frequenzkombinationen;

- Hinzufügen (506) des in dem zweiten der mehreren Blöcke identifizierten Satelliten zu dem Satz sichtbarer Satelliten;

- Entfernen von Signalen (508), die mit dem in dem zweiten der mehreren Blöcke identifizierten Satelliten verknüpft sind, aus dem zweiten der mehreren Blöcke;

- Identifizieren eines anderen Satelliten (504) aus dem zweiten der mehreren Blöcke durch Suche nach den satellitenspezifischen C/A-Codes in dem zweiten der mehreren Blöcke über die Codephasen- und Doppler-Frequenzkombinationen;

- Hinzufügen (506) des anderen, in dem zweiten der mehreren Blöcke identifizierten Satelliten zu dem Satz sichtbarer Satelliten; und

- Ausgeben (512) des Satzes von Satelliten zur Verwendung in der Identifizierung des Satzes von Satelliten.


 
8. Computerlesbares Speichermedium, das Anweisungen speichert, die, wenn sie durch einen oder mehrere Prozessor(en) (302) ausgeführt werden, den einen oder die mehreren Prozessor(en) (302) veranlassen, das Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7 durchzuführen.
 
9. Computervorrichtung (300), umfassend einen oder mehrere Prozessor(en) (302), der/die an einen Empfänger (304, 306) gekoppelt sind, und ein computerlesbares Medium (310) nach Anspruch 8.
 
10. Computervorrichtung (300) nach Anspruch 9, wobei die Computervorrichtung (300) ein Server ist.
 
11. Computervorrichtung (300) nach Anspruch 9, wobei die Computervorrichtung (300) eine mobile Vorrichtung (102) ist.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé comprenant :

la réception (402) d'une pluralité de segments d'échantillons de signal de système de positionnement global, GPS ;

la recherche (404-406 ; 502-512 ; 602-604 ; 702) de codes d'Acquisition/Grossière, C/A, spécifiques à un satellite, dans la pluralité de segments sur des combinaisons de fréquence de Doppler et de phase de code pour identifier des satellites visibles ;

le calcul (406; 606; 702), pour chacun des satellites visibles, d'une différence entre une première phase de code et une seconde phase de code, la première phase de code étant associée à un premier de la pluralité de segments et la seconde phase de code étant associée à un second de la pluralité de segments ;

l'ajout (406; 608; 702) de chaque satellite visible lorsque cette différence est inférieure à une différence de seuil pour un ensemble de satellites ;

l'évaluation (408-410 ; 704) d'un emplacement basé sur l'ensemble de satellites ;

caractérisé par
la détermination (706, 710) de ceux, s'il y a lieu, des satellites visibles dont la différence des phases de code est supérieure à la différence de seuil qui peuvent être ajoutés à l'ensemble de satellites sur la base d'informations de position liées à un emplacement évalué sur la base de l'ensemble de satellites et d'un ou plusieurs satellites visibles dont la différence des phases de code est supérieure ou égale à la différence de seuil ;

l'augmentation (722) de l'ensemble de satellites avec ces satellites visibles déterminés comme étant susceptibles d'être ajoutés à l'ensemble de satellites ; et

la réévaluation (724) de l'emplacement sur la base de l'ensemble augmenté de satellites.


 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la recherche (504-510) pour les codes C/A spécifiques à un satellite est effectuée indépendamment sur chacun des segments.
 
3. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la recherche (504-510) des codes C/A spécifiques à n satellite est effectuée de manière itérative jusqu'à ce qu'un critère d'arrêt soit atteint.
 
4. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'emplacement est évalué sur la base d'un moment où les segments ont été recueillis, de l'ensemble de satellites et l'éphéméride, et de données de pseudo-distance liées à chaque satellite de l'ensemble de satellites.
 
5. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'étape de recherche comprend :

la réception du premier de la pluralité de segments (402 ; 502) ;

l'identification (504) d'un satellite à partir du premier de la pluralité de segments en cherchant des code C/A spécifiques à un satellite dans le premier de la pluralité de segments sur des combinaisons de fréquence de Doppler et de phase de code ;

l'ajout (506) du satellite à l'ensemble de satellites visibles ;

l'enlèvement de signaux (508) associés au satellite depuis le premier de la pluralité de segments ;

l'identification d'un autre satellite (504) à partir du premier de la pluralité de segments en cherchant des codes C/A spécifiques à un satellite dans le premier de la pluralité de segments sur les combinaisons de fréquence de Doppler et de phase de code ; l'ajout (506) d'un autre satellite à l'ensemble de satellites visibles ; et

la sortie (512) de l'ensemble de satellites visibles à utiliser dans l'identification de l'ensemble de satellites.


 
6. Procédé selon la revendication 5, comprenant en outre :

l'enlèvement de signaux (508) associés à l'autre satellite depuis le premier de la pluralité de segments ;

l'identification (504) d'un satellite supplémentaire à partir du premier de la pluralité de segments en cherchant les codes C/A spécifiques à un satellite dans le premier de la pluralité de segments sur les combinaisons de fréquence de Doppler et de phase de code ; et

l'ajout (506) du satellite supplémentaire à l'ensemble de satellites visibles avant de sortir (512) l'ensemble de satellites visibles à utiliser dans l'identification de l'ensemble de satellites.


 
7. Procédé selon la revendication 6, comprenant en outre :

la réception (402) d'un second de la pluralité de segments ;

l'identification (504) d'un satellite à partir du second de la pluralité de segments en cherchant des codes C/A spécifiques à un satellite dans le second de la pluralité de segments sur les combinaisons de fréquence de Doppler et de phase de code ;

l'ajout (506) du satellite identifié dans le second de la pluralité de segments à l'ensemble de satellites visibles ;

l'enlèvement de signaux (508) associés au satellite identifié dans le second de la pluralité de segments à partir du second de la pluralité de segments ;

l'identification (504) d'un autre satellite à partir du second de la pluralité de segments en cherchant des codes C/A spécifiques à un satellite dans le second de la pluralité de segments sur les combinaisons de fréquence de Doppler et de phase de code ;

l'ajout (506) de l'autre satellite identifié dans le second de la pluralité de segments à l'ensemble de satellites visibles ; et

la sortie (512) de l'ensemble de satellites à utiliser dans l'identification de l'ensemble de satellites.


 
8. Support de stockage lisible par ordinateur stockant des instructions qui, lorsqu'elles sont exécutées par un ou plusieurs processeurs (302), amènent le ou les plusieurs processeurs (302) à effectuer le procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7.
 
9. Dispositif de calcul (300) comprenant un ou plusieurs processeurs (302) couplés à un récepteur (304, 306) et un support de stockage lisible par ordinateur (310) selon la revendication 8.
 
10. Dispositif de calcul (300) selon la revendication 9, dans lequel le dispositif de calcul (300) est un serveur.
 
11. Dispositif de calcul (300) selon la revendication 9, dans lequel le dispositif de calcul (300) est un dispositif mobile (102).
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description