(19)
(11)EP 3 058 671 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 14860671.8

(22)Date of filing:  07.11.2014
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H04L 27/36  (2006.01)
G02F 1/03  (2006.01)
H04B 10/54  (2013.01)
G02F 1/035  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/CN2014/090532
(87)International publication number:
WO 2015/067201 (14.05.2015 Gazette  2015/19)

(54)

DIGITAL OPTICAL MODULATOR FOR PROGRAMMABLE N-QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION GENERATION

DIGITALER OPTISCHER MODULATOR FÜR PROGRAMMIERBARE N-QUADRATUR-AMPLITUDENMODULATIONSERZEUGUNG

MODULATEUR OPTIQUE NUMÉRIQUE POUR GÉNÉRER UNE MODULATION D'AMPLITUDE EN QUADRATURE À N ÉTATS PROGRAMMABLE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 08.11.2013 US 201314075882

(43)Date of publication of application:
24.08.2016 Bulletin 2016/34

(73)Proprietor: Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Longgang District Shenzhen, Guangdong 518129 (CN)

(72)Inventors:
  • ZHENG, Xueyan
    Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (US)
  • ZHENG, Dawei
    Irvine, California 92618 (US)
  • SHEN, Xiao
    San Bruno, California 94066 (US)
  • CHEN, Morgan
    San Jose, California 95138 (US)
  • LEI, Hongbing
    San Jose, California 95124 (US)

(74)Representative: Epping - Hermann - Fischer 
Patentanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Schloßschmidstraße 5
80639 München
80639 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 645 609
CN-B- 101 964 683
US-A1- 2009 324 253
US-A1- 2013 108 276
CN-A- 103 124 208
US-A1- 2005 238 367
US-A1- 2012 219 282
  
  • XIAOTIE WU ET AL: "A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13[mu]m CMOS", SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS CONFERENCE DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS (ISSCC), 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL, IEEE, 17 February 2013 (2013-02-17), pages 128-129, XP032350504, DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2013.6487667 ISBN: 978-1-4673-4515-6
  • Matthias Seimetz: "Transmitter Design" In: "High-Order Modulation for Optical Fiber Transmission Phase and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation", 24 June 2009 (2009-06-24), Springer Series in Optical Sciences, XP055310365, vol. 143, pages 15-57, * page 38 - page 42 *
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates generally to communication networks, and, in particular, to digital optical modulator for programmable n-Quadrature amplitude modulation generation.

BACKGROUND



[0002] Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is a modulation scheme that conveys two signals by modulating the amplitudes of two carrier waves. The carrier waves, which are generally sinusoids, are known as quadrature carriers because they are out of phase with each other by 90 degrees. The modulate waves are then summed and transmitted to a destination. QAM is used extensively in the telecommunications field, and is increasingly being used in optical fiber systems.

[0003] US 2009/324253 A1 relates to a 16-QAM optical modulator having a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) coupled to a drive circuit that drives the MZM based on two electrical binary signals. The output of the MZM corresponds to an intermediary constellation consisting of four constellation points arranged on a straight line in the corresponding in-phase/quadrature-phase (I-Q) plane. Two of these constellation points correspond to a zero phase, and the remaining two constellation points correspond to a phase of π radian. The 16-QAM optical modulator further has a phase shifter that modulates the output of the MZM based on two additional electrical binary signals. The resulting optical output signal corresponds to a star 16-QAM constellation, which is produced by incremental rotation of the intermediary constellation.

[0004] US 2005/238367 A1 relates to an apparatus including an optical splitter, an optical combiner, first and second optical paths, and a digital signal generator. The optical splitter has an input port and first and second output ports. The optical combiner has first and second input ports and an output port. The first optical path couples the first output port of the splitter to the first input port of the combiner. The second optical path couples the second output port of the splitter to the second input port of the combiner. Each optical path includes an electro-optical phase shifter, and one of the optical paths includes an electro-optical attenuator. The digital signal generator is configured to apply binary-valued voltage signals to control inputs of the phase shifters and the attenuator.

[0005] Document XIAOTIE WU ET AL: "A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 IV transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 [mu]m CMOS", SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS CONFERENCE DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS (ISSCC), 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL, IEEE, 17 February 2013 (2013-02-17), pages 128-129, DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2013.6487667 ISBN: 978-1-4673-4515-6 relates to a 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 IV Transmitter in 40nm CMOS Driving a Si-Photonic Modulator in 0.13µm CMOS.

SUMMARY



[0006] The invention is defined by the appended claims. The references to embodiments in the description falling outside the scope of the appended claims are to be understood as mere examples which are useful for understanding the invention. In one embodiment, the disclosure includes an apparatus comprising a digital electrical signal input, an optical signal input, a digital driver coupled to the digital electrical signal input, and a modulator coupled to the optical signal input and the digital driver, wherein there is no digital-to-analog converter positioned between the digital electrical signal input and the modulator.

[0007] In another embodiment, the disclosure includes an optical transceiver comprising an optical signal input, a first modulation section coupled to the optical signal input, a second modulation segment coupled to the optical signal input and positioned in parallel with the first modulation section, wherein the first modulation section comprises a first digital electrical signal input, a first digital driver coupled to the first digital electrical signal input, and a first modulator coupled to the first digital driver, and wherein the second modulation section comprises a second digital electrical signal input, a second digital driver coupled to the second digital electrical signal input, and a second modulator coupled to the second digital driver, and an optical signal output coupled to the first modulation section and the second modulation section.

[0008] In yet another embodiment, the disclosure includes a method comprising receiving an optical signal, and modulating the optical signal using a digital electrical signal from a digital electrical signal processor, wherein the digital electrical signal is not converted to an analog signal prior to being used to modulate the optical signal.

[0009] These and other features will be more clearly understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0010] For a more complete understanding of this disclosure, reference is now made to the following brief description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings and detailed description, wherein like reference numerals represent like parts.

FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of an embodiment of a traditional apparatus that may be utilized for nQAM generation.

FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an embodiment of a digital optical transceiver that may be utilized for nQAM generation.

FIG. 3 is a graph of a 16QAM signal constellation according to an embodiment of this disclosure.

FIG. 4 is a graph of a 64QAM signal constellation according to an embodiment of this disclosure.

FIG. 5 is a graphical representation of an embodiment of 16QAM generation in one arm of a transceiver using three modulation sections.

FIG. 6 is a table presenting electrical field values for 16QAM generation using three sections according to an embodiment of this disclosure.

FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram illustrating delay in an embodiment of a transceiver that may be utilized for nQAM generation.

FIG. 8 is a table presenting electrical field values for an embodiment of a transceiver that may be utilized for nQAM generation.

FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of an embodiment of a digital optical transceiver that may be utilized for nQAM generation.

FIG. 10 is a table presenting electrical field values for 16QAM generation using two unequal sections according to an embodiment of this disclosure.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0011] It should be understood at the outset that although an illustrative implementation of one or more embodiments are provided below, the disclosed systems and/or methods may be implemented using any number of techniques, whether currently known or in existence. The disclosure should in no way be limited to the illustrative implementations, drawings, and techniques illustrated below, including the exemplary designs and implementations illustrated and described herein, but may be modified within the scope of the appended claims along with their full scope of equivalents.

[0012] A recent trend in optical electronics has been the increasing use of coherent technology in 40 Gigabit-per-second (Gb/s) and 100 Gb/s and/or faster systems. However, high power consumption and high cost associated with various key optical electronic parts, e.g. high-speed analog-to-digital (ADC) and/or digital-to-analog (DAC) convertors, optical modulators, and linear radio frequency (RF) drivers, may be impeding the implementation of components such as transceivers in coherent form. Accordingly, a low power modulator suitable for use in optical electronics systems may be desirable.

[0013] Disclosed herein is a system for the generation of a plurality of electrical signal modulation formats using less complex hardware than prior art designs. The system may employ a segmented phase modulator, which may utilize one or more digital drivers to facilitate the generation of the plurality of modulation formats, e.g. non-retum-to-zero (NRZ) and/or n-quadrature amplitude modulation (nQAM) where n is an integer indicating the level or degree of modulation. The system may also facilitate the modulation of optical signals without the need for a linear driver and/or without the need for a DAC at the output of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) generating a signal for controlling the modulation. Thus, the disclosed system may reduce the power dissipation and cost conventionally associated with optical modulation.

[0014] FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of an embodiment of a traditional apparatus 100 that may be utilized for nQAM generation. Apparatus 100 may include one or more DACs 110 (e.g. located inside an ASIC) coupled to one or more linear RF drivers 120, coupled to an I/Q modulator 130. The I/Q modulator 130 may receive an optical input signal and divide the signal into two components - an I component which may be referred to as the "in phase" component of the signal, and a Q component which may be referred to as the quadrature component of the signal. The Q component of the signal may experience a ninety-degree phase shift from the I component of the signal. The DAC 110 may receive a N-bit (where N is an integer and N > 0) digital electrical signal from an ASIC, and convert the N-bit digital electrical signal to a corresponding analog signal. The corresponding analog signal may then be transmitted through the linear RF driver 120 to increase the signal's output power to a level sufficient for powering the I/Q modulator 130 and achieving a reasonable power level for the optical output signal. Each of the DACs 110 and the linear RF drivers 120 may have a relatively high power dissipation, e.g. about 6 Watts (W) for four 40 nanometer (nm) process complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) DACs and about 5W to about 8W for a gallium arsenide (GaAs) based RF driver. The DACs 110 and linear RF drivers 120 may also occupy a large amount of the relatively limited space available on a die for integrated optical electronics circuits. Additionally, each DAC 110 may have a limited bandwidth of about 15-20 gigahertz (GHz) due to limitations in the 40 nm CMOS process used in their creation, thereby limiting the overall bandwidth of apparatus 100 to about 15-20 GHz. The high power consumption of the DACs 110 and linear RF drivers 120 may make high-density multichannel integration difficult to achieve.

[0015] FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an embodiment of a digital optical transceiver 200 that may be utilized for nQAM generation. Transceiver 200 may comprise an optical signal input, an optical splitter, digital electrical signal inputs 210a-n, logical inverters 220a-n utilized as drivers, a segmented optical phase I/Q modulator 230 (comprising an I signal component modulation section 230a and a Q signal component modulation section 230b), a phase shifter 240, an optical combiner, and an optical signal output. The optical splitter and optical combiner may be inherent internal components of a segmented phase modulator and are illustrated for purposes of clarity. Transceiver 200 may further comprise two arms or segments, one for modulation section 230a and one for modulation section 230b. Each arm of transceiver 200 may comprise N sections, where N is an integer and may be limited by the digital electrical signal output resolution of an ASIC generating digital electrical signal inputs 210a-n. In some embodiments, a minimum number of sections N that may be necessary for nQAM generation may be determined according to the equation: N = (n0.5) - 1. Each section may comprise a digital electrical signal input 210 coupled to one or more logical inverters 220, each of which is in turn coupled to its respective modulation section 230a or 230b. The optical signal input may be divided into its respective I and Q signal components upon entering transceiver 200 by the optical splitter, after which the I and Q signal components may be transmitted to the corresponding modulation sections 230a and 230b. Digital electrical signal inputs 210a-n may be digital electrical signals that may be utilized to drive modulator 230. Digital electrical signal inputs 210a-n may further be differential signals that have a value of about +1 on a first side and a value of about -1 on a second side. Digital electrical signal inputs 210a-n may be transmitted to logical inverters 220a-n to increase the power level of the signals prior to transmitting the signals to the modulator 230. Phase shifter 240 may be coupled to the output of modulation section 230b and may shift the phase of the output signal from modulation section 230b by 90 degrees. The optical combiner may combine the output signal from phase shifter 240 with the output signal from modulation section 230a to form the optical signal output.

[0016] Each arm of transceiver 200 may include isolation sections located between each active section to reduce crosstalk between the sections and improve overall performance. Additionally, the insertion loss, length of each section, and Vπ may be optimized to facilitate the best possible bandwidth output power. For example, for a transceiver with about 10 sections, each having a length of about 0.5 millimeters (mm), the total active length may be about 5 mm. For an insertion loss of about 1 decibel (dB)/mm, VπL = 1 volt (V)centimeter (cm), and a fixed driver output of about 1 volt peak-to-peak (Vpp), the total insertion loss of the active region may be about 5 dB, Vπ = 2V, and the modulation loss caused by under-modulating may be about 3 dB. For this example, the total loss with modulation may be about 8 dB (not including multi-mode interface (MMI)). The logical inverters 220a-n utilized as digital drivers may consume very little power. This may be because the logical inverters 220a-n may work in an on or off state without varying degrees, and, ideally, may have no current flowing through it. For example, an array of eight 40nm CMOS inverters, at Vpp equal to about IV, may consume about 100 milli-watts (mW) power. A dual-polarization (DP) nQAM transceiver utilizing a four-driver array may consumer about 400 mW of power, which may be a significant reduction in power consumption compared to that of apparatus 100. In a transceiver such as transceiver 200, the significant reduction in power consumption compared to apparatus 100 may be realized through the elimination of DACs and linear drivers. Additionally, the elimination of DACs may increase the bandwidth of a transceiver such as transceiver 200 to a value limited only by each individual section of the modulator rather than the total collective bandwidth of the modulator itself, or of the DACs. As such, transceiver 200 may not employ DACs or linear drivers in its modulation an optical signal.

[0017] Alternate embodiments of transceiver 200 may be formed by grouping nearby sections together and driving them simultaneously from the ASIC, thereby programming transceiver 200 to generate varying nQAM signals. For example, in a transceiver 200 utilizing seven sections, an alternative embodiment may be formed by grouping two consecutive sets of three sections together to facilitate the generation of a 16QAM quadrature phase shifted keying (QPSK) signal. The remaining section may be disabled, may be used as an extra bit for equalization, or may be used in another manner dictated by design choice. Using this technique of grouping various combinations of sections, embodiments of transceiver 200 may be formed that may be capable of generating a plurality of signals, e.g. NRZ and/or nQAM, with the same hardware.

[0018] FIG. 3 is a graph 300 of a 16QAM signal constellation according to an embodiment of this disclosure. A 16QAM signal may be generated by a transceiver, such as transceiver 200 shown in FIG. 2, by using about three equal sections according to the equation: 3 = (160.5) - 1. For each section biased at null, about four output amplitudes and about two phases, e.g. 0 or π, may be generated. The output amplitudes may then be combined by an optical combiner to generate the complete 16QAM signal. Signals with varying levels of modulation may be generated according to embodiments of this disclosure, e.g. 64QAM signal and 16QAM signal.

[0019] FIG. 4 is a graph 400 of a 64QAM signal constellation according to an embodiment of this disclosure. FIG. 4 may be generated substantially similar to FIG. 3, however FIG. 4 may use a greater number of sections N. Accordingly, higher levels of modulation, e.g. higher order nQAM signals, may be achieved by adding more sections N to each arm of a transceiver, such as transceiver 200 shown in FIG. 2. For example, using seven equal sections may enable a transceiver to generate a 64QAM signal according to the equation: 7 = (640.5) - 1.

[0020] FIG. 5 is a graphical representation of an embodiment of 16QAM generation in one arm of a transceiver using three modulation sections. Varying a value of a digital electrical signal, e.g. signal input 210a-n, being sent to the drivers for driving the modulator may vary a phase of the resulting modulated optical signal. The electrical field amplitude (E) is : E = 2E0 * cos(ϕ). The phase of the electrical field is determined based on the phase of the modulated signal according to the equation: 0 if ϕ < 0 and π if ϕ > 0, where ϕ is the phase of the modulated signal. The signal from one arm of a transceiver, e.g. an I signal component arm, as shown in FIG. 5 may then be combined with a corresponding signal from another arm of the transceiver, e.g. a Q signal component arm, to form a complete optical signal that may be transmitted to another device.

[0021] FIG. 6 is a table presenting electrical field values for 16QAM generation using three equal sections according to an embodiment of this disclosure. FIG. 6 may be generated substantially similar to FIG. 5. When digital electrical signal inputs received from a digital signal processor and/or ASIC, such as digital electrical signal inputs 210a-n are varied, a resulting electrical field and its associated phase may be determined according to the equations discussed above with respect to FIG. 5. For example, in an embodiment of a modulation scheme wherein a first digital electrical signal DO is set to -1, a second digital electrical signal set to -1, and a third digital electrical signal set to -1, the modulator may have a state of -3 and produce an electrical field with a value of about 2 and a phase of about 0, as is shown in Fig. 6. In an alternative embodiment wherein the first and second digital electrical signals remain the same but the third digital electrical signal is set to 1, the modulator may have a state of -1 and produce an electrical field with a value of about 1 and a phase of about π/3. A non-inclusive sampling of other possible modulation schemes and related values is shown more fully in FIG. 5.

[0022] FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram 700 illustrating delay in an embodiment of a transceiver that may be utilized for nQAM generation. The delay between optical and electrical signals in a transceiver, such as transceiver 200, may be controlled digitally or by design. An optical delay 710 may exist between a first section and a second section of each arm of a transceiver and have a value of Δt. Accordingly, an optical delay between the first section of each arm of the transceiver and the nth section may have a value of ΔNt. A corresponding electrical delay 720 may be introduced between the digital electrical signal input 730 and logical inverter 740 in each section. The electrical delay 720 may correspond to the value of the optical delay at that respective section. The electrical delay 720 may be introduced so that the digital electrical signal input 730 may be in phase with the optical signal.

[0023] FIG. 8 is a table presenting electrical field values for an embodiment of a transceiver that may be utilized for nQAM generation. The labels of FIG. 8 may be substantially similar to the labels of FIG. 6. An alternative embodiment of a transceiver for 16QAM generation may be formed by using four equal sections in each arm of the transceiver rather than the minimum number of three sections. However, as shown in FIG. 8, the use of four equal sections may lead to a change in the electrical field produced by the transceiver and the electrical field not being equally spaced. An unequally spaced electrical field may lead to the transceiver's constellation being distorted. To rectify and equalize the spacing, an embodiment of a transceiver with varying segment lengths or biasing at a non-null point may be employed.

[0024] FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of an alternative embodiment of a digital optical transceiver 900 that may be utilized for nQAM generation. Transceiver 900 may be substantially similar to transceiver 200; however, transceiver 900 may employ unequal section lengths in each arm of the transceiver 900. In other words, each section of transceiver 900 may contain a different number of drivers. For example, if a length of a first section 910 in transceiver 900 is L, the second section 920 may be about 2L employing two logical inverters as drivers having the same input, the third section (not shown) about 3L using three logical inverters as drivers having the same input, and the Nth section 930 about NL using N logical inverters as drivers having the same input. Employing a number of logical inverters about equal to the number of that respective section, e.g. one inverter for first section, two inverters for second section, ..., N inverters for Nth section, may maintain an about equal bandwidth for each section. In an embodiment of transceiver 900, a 16QAM signal may be generated using about two sections in each arm of the transceiver rather than three sections as required by transceiver 200 shown in FIG. 2. Generally, the structure of transceiver 900 may enable it to generate about 2N amplitudes of a signal in both the I and Q modulation sections, thereby generating an about (2N) 2QAM signal.

[0025] FIG. 10 is a table presenting electrical field values for 16QAM generation using two unequal sections according to an embodiment of this disclosure. The labels of FIG. 10 may be substantially similar to the labels of both FIG. 6 and FIG. 8. The values of FIG. 10 may correspond to a hardware structure substantially similar to that of FIG. 9. As can be seen from FIG. 10, using unequal section lengths may allow transceiver 900 to generate an equivalent nQAM signal using fewer sections than transceiver 200 shown in FIG. 2.


Claims

1. An apparatus (200) comprising:

a digital electrical signal input (210a-n);

an optical signal input;

a digital driver (220a-n) coupled to the digital electrical signal input (210a-n);

a modulator (230) coupled to the optical signal input and the digital driver (220a-n);

an optical splitter positioned between the optical signal input and the modulator (230) that splits the optical signal into an I component and a Q component; and

an optical combiner positioned between the modulator (230) and an optical signal output that combines the I component and the Q component,

wherein the modulator (230) comprises a first section (230a) coupled to the I component and a second section (230b) coupled to the Q component, wherein the first section (230a) and the second section (230b) are coupled in parallel, and wherein a phase shifter (240) is coupled between the second section (230b) and the optical combiner, and

wherein the modulator (230) is configured to generate a n-quadrature amplitude modulated signal, nQAM, and

wherein the apparatus further comprises a first arm for the first section and a second arm for the second section, each of the first arm of the apparatus and the second arm of the apparatus comprise N sections, each section of the first arm and the second arm comprises a digital electrical signal input coupled to one logical inverter, each of the logical inverters is coupled to the respective first or second modulator section (230a, 230b), wherein the logical inverters are utilized as the digital drivers, and the minimum number of value N for nQAM generation is determined according to the equation: N = (n0.5) - 1.


 
2. The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising a delay module positioned between the digital electrical signal input and the digital driver input, wherein the delay module is configured to match a phase of the optical signal input to a phase of the digital electrical signal input.
 
3. A method executed by an apparatus comprising:

a digital electrical signal input (210a-n);

an optical signal input;

a digital driver (220a-n) coupled to the digital electrical signal input (210a-n);

a modulator (230) coupled to the optical signal input and the digital driver (220a-n);

an optical splitter positioned between the optical signal input and the modulator (230) that splits the optical signal into an I component and a Q component; and

an optical combiner positioned between the modulator (230) and an optical signal output that combines the I component and the Q component,

wherein the modulator (230) comprises a first section (230a) coupled to the I component and a second section (230b) coupled to the Q component, wherein the first section (230a) and the second section (230b) are coupled in parallel, and wherein a phase shifter (240) is coupled between the second section (230b) and the optical combiner, and

wherein the modulator (230) is configured to generate a n-quadrature amplitude modulated signal, nQAM, and

wherein the apparatus further comprises a first arm for the first section and a second arm for the second section, each of the first arm of the apparatus and the second arm of the apparatus comprise N sections, each section of the first arm and the second arm comprises a digital electrical signal input coupled to one logical inverter, each of the logical inverters is coupled to the respective first or second modulator section (230a, 230b),

the method comprising:

receiving an optical signal; splitting the optical signal into the I component and the Q component;

modulating the optical signal using a digital electrical signal from a digital electrical signal processor, wherein the digital electrical signal is driven by a digital logic inverter and used to modulate the optical signal, wherein the digital logic inverter is configured to increase the power level of the digital electrical signal prior to transmitting it to the modulator;

phase shifting the Q component; and

combining the I component and the Q component to generate the n-quadrature amplitude modulated signal, nQAM, wherein the logical inverters are utilized as the digital drivers, and the minimum number of value N for nQAM generation is determined according to the equation:


 
4. The method of claim 3, wherein a speed with which the optical signal is modulated is limited by a bandwidth of the modulator.
 


Ansprüche

1. Einrichtung (200), umfassend:

einen Eingang für digitale elektrische Signale (210a-n);

einen Eingang für optische Signale;

einen digitalen Treiber (220a-n), der an den Eingang für digitale elektrische Signale (210an) gekoppelt ist;

einen Modulator (230), der an den Eingang für optische Signale und den digitalen Treiber (220a-n) gekoppelt ist;

einen optischen Splitter, der zwischen dem Eingang für optische Signale und dem Modulator (230) angeordnet ist und der das optische Signal in eine I-Komponente und eine Q-Komponente teilt; und

einen optischen Kombinator, der zwischen dem Modulator (230) und einem Ausgang für optische Signale angeordnet ist und der die I-Komponente und die Q-Komponente kombiniert,

wobei der Modulator (230) einen ersten Abschnitt (230a), der an die I-Komponente gekoppelt ist, und einen zweiten Abschnitt (230b), der an die Q-Komponente gekoppelt ist, umfasst, wobei der erste Abschnitt (230a) und der zweite Abschnitt (230b) parallel gekoppelt sind und wobei ein Phasenschieber (240) zwischen dem zweiten Abschnitt (230b) und dem optischen Kombinator gekoppelt ist, und

wobei der Modulator (230) dazu ausgelegt ist, ein n-quadraturamplitudenmoduliertes Signal, nQAM, zu erzeugen, und

wobei die Einrichtung ferner einen ersten Arm für den ersten Abschnitt und einen zweiten Arm für den zweiten Abschnitt umfasst, wobei jeder von dem ersten Arm der Einrichtung und dem zweiten Arm der Einrichtung N Abschnitte umfasst, wobei jeder Abschnitt des ersten Arms und des zweiten Arms einen Eingang für digitale elektrische Signale, der an einen logischen Inverter gekoppelt ist, umfasst, jeder der logischen Inverter an den jeweiligen ersten oder zweiten Modulatorabschnitt (230a, 230b) gekoppelt ist, wobei die logischen Inverter als die digitalen Treiber genutzt werden, und die Mindestzahl des Werts N für die nQAM-Erzeugung gemäß der folgenden Gleichung bestimmt wird: N = (n0,5) - 1.


 
2. Einrichtung nach Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend ein Verzögerungsmodul, das zwischen dem Eingang für digitale elektrische Signale und dem Eingang des digitalen Treibers angeordnet ist, wobei das Verzögerungsmodul dazu ausgelegt ist, eine Phase des Eingangs für optische Signale an eine Phase des Eingangs für digitale elektrische Signale anzupassen.
 
3. Verfahren, das durch eine Einrichtung ausgeführt wird, umfassend:

einen Eingang für digitale elektrische Signale (210a-n);

einen Eingang für optische Signale;

einen digitalen Treiber (220a-n), der an den Eingang für digitale elektrische Signale (210an) gekoppelt ist;

einen Modulator (230), der an den Eingang für optische Signale und den digitalen Treiber (220a-n) gekoppelt ist;

einen optischen Splitter, der zwischen dem Eingang für optische Signale und dem Modulator (230) angeordnet ist und der das optische Signal in eine I-Komponente und eine Q-Komponente teilt; und

einen optischen Kombinator, der zwischen dem Modulator (230) und einem Ausgang für optische Signale angeordnet ist und der die I-Komponente und die Q-Komponente kombiniert,

wobei der Modulator (230) einen ersten Abschnitt (230a), der an die I-Komponente gekoppelt ist, und einen zweiten Abschnitt (230b), der an die Q-Komponente gekoppelt ist, umfasst, wobei der erste Abschnitt (230a) und der zweite Abschnitt (230b) parallel gekoppelt sind und wobei ein Phasenschieber (240) zwischen dem zweiten Abschnitt (230b) und dem optischen Kombinator gekoppelt ist, und

wobei der Modulator (230) dazu ausgelegt ist, ein n-quadraturamplitudenmoduliertes Signal, nQAM, zu erzeugen, und

wobei die Einrichtung ferner einen ersten Arm für den ersten Abschnitt und einen zweiten Arm für den zweiten Abschnitt umfasst, wobei jeder von dem ersten Arm der Einrichtung und dem zweiten Arm der Einrichtung N Abschnitte umfasst, wobei jeder Abschnitt des ersten Arms und des zweiten Arms einen Eingang für digitale elektrische Signale, der an einen logischen Inverter gekoppelt ist, umfasst, jeder der logischen Inverter an den jeweiligen ersten oder zweiten Modulatorabschnitt (230a, 230b) gekoppelt ist,

das Verfahren umfassend:

Empfangen eines optischen Signals; Teilen des optischen Signals in die I-Komponente und die Q-Komponente;

Modulieren des optischen Signals unter Verwendung eines digitalen elektrischen Signals von einem Prozessor für digitale elektrische Signale, wobei das digitale elektrische Signal durch einen Inverter für digitale Logik angesteuert wird und zum Modulieren des optischen Signals verwendet wird, wobei der Inverter für digitale Logik dazu ausgelegt ist, den Leistungspegel des digitalen elektrischen Signals zu erhöhen, bevor er es zu dem Modulator überträgt;

Phasenverschieben der Q-Komponente und

Kombinieren der I-Komponente und der Q-Komponente, um das n-quadraturamplitudenmodulierte Signal, nQAM, zu erzeugen, wobei die logischen Inverter als die digitalen Treiber genutzt werden, und die Mindestzahl des Werts N für die nQAM-Erzeugung gemäß der folgenden Gleichung bestimmt wird: N = (n0,5) - 1.


 
4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, wobei eine Geschwindigkeit, mit der das optische Signal moduliert wird, durch eine Bandbreite des Modulators beschränkt ist.
 


Revendications

1. Appareil (200) comprenant :

une entrée de signal électrique numérique (210a-n) ;

une entrée de signal optique ;

un circuit d'attaque numérique (220a-n) couplé à l'entrée de signal électrique numérique (210a-n) ;

un modulateur (230) couplé à l'entrée de signal optique et au circuit d'attaque numérique (220a-n);

un diviseur optique positionné entre l'entrée de signal optique et le modulateur (230) qui divise le signal optique en une composante I et une composante Q ; et

un combinateur optique positionné entre le modulateur (230) et une sortie de signal optique qui combine la composante I et la composante Q,

dans lequel le modulateur (230) comprend une première section (230a) couplée à la composante I, et une seconde section (230b) couplée à la composante Q, dans lequel la première section (230a) et la seconde section (230b) sont couplées en parallèle et dans lequel un déphaseur (240) est couplé entre la seconde section (230b) et le combinateur optique, et

dans lequel le modulateur (230) est configuré pour générer un signal modulé en amplitude en n quadratures nQAM et

dans lequel l'appareil comprend en outre un premier bras pour la première section et un second bras pour la seconde section, le premier bras de l'appareil et le second bras de l'appareil comprennent chacun N sections, chaque section du premier bras et du second bras comprend une entrée de signal électrique numérique couplée à un inverseur logique, chacun des inverseurs logiques est couplé à la première ou à la seconde section de modulateur respective (230a, 230b), dans lequel les inverseurs logiques sont utilisés comme circuits d'attaque numériques et le nombre minimal de la valeur N pour une génération de modulation nQAM est déterminé en fonction de l'équation : N = (n0,5) - 1.


 
2. Appareil selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre un module de retard positionné entre l'entrée de signal électrique numérique et l'entrée de circuit d'attaque numérique, dans lequel le module de retard est configuré pour mettre en correspondance une phase de l'entrée de signal optique avec une phase de l'entrée de signal électrique numérique.
 
3. Procédé exécuté par un appareil comprenant :

une entrée de signal électrique numérique (210a-n);

une entrée de signal optique ;

un circuit d'attaque numérique (220a-n) couplé à l'entrée de signal électrique numérique (210a-n) ;

un modulateur (230) couplé à l'entrée de signal optique et au circuit d'attaque numérique (220a-n) ;

un diviseur optique positionné entre l'entrée de signal optique et le modulateur (230) qui divise le signal optique en une composante I et une composante Q ; et

un combinateur optique positionné entre le modulateur (230) et une sortie de signal optique qui combine la composante I et la composante Q,

dans lequel le modulateur (230) comprend une première section (230a) couplée à la composante I, et une seconde section (230b) couplée à la composante Q, dans lequel la première section (230a) et la seconde section (230b) sont couplées en parallèle et dans lequel un déphaseur (240) est couplé entre la seconde section (230b) et le combinateur optique, et

dans lequel le modulateur (230) est configuré pour générer un signal modulé en amplitude en n quadratures (nQAM) et

dans lequel l'appareil comprend en outre un premier bras pour la première section et un second bras pour la seconde section, le premier bras de l'appareil et le second bras de l'appareil comprennent chacun N sections, chaque section du premier bras et du second bras comprend une entrée de signal électrique numérique couplée à un inverseur logique, chacun des inverseurs logiques est couplé à la première ou à la seconde section de modulateur respective (230a, 230b),

le procédé consiste :

à recevoir un signal optique ; à diviser le signal optique en la composante I et la composante Q ;

à moduler le signal optique à l'aide d'un signal électrique numérique provenant d'un processeur de signal électrique numérique, dans lequel le signal électrique numérique est piloté par un inverseur logique numérique et utilisé pour moduler le signal optique, dans lequel l'inverseur logique numérique est configuré pour augmenter le niveau de puissance du signal électrique numérique avant de le transmettre au modulateur ;

à déphaser la composante Q ; et

à combiner la composante I et la composante Q pour générer le signal modulé en amplitude en n quadratures (nQAM), dans lequel les inverseurs logiques sont utilisés comme circuits d'attaque numériques et le nombre minimal de la valeur N pour une génération de modulation nQAM est déterminé en fonction de l'équation : N = (n0,5) - 1.


 
4. Procédé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel une vitesse avec laquelle le signal optique est modulé, est limitée par une largeur de bande du modulateur.
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




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