(19)
(11)EP 3 059 297 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
29.04.2020 Bulletin 2020/18

(21)Application number: 14853965.3

(22)Date of filing:  17.10.2014
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C10L 1/02(2006.01)
C10G 25/00(2006.01)
C10G 3/00(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2014/077636
(87)International publication number:
WO 2015/056767 (23.04.2015 Gazette  2015/16)

(54)

METHOD FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY BIODIESEL FUEL

VERFAHREN ZUR HERSTELLUNG VON QUALITATIV HOCHWERTIGEM BIODIESELKRAFTSTOFF

PROCÉDÉ POUR PRODUIRE DU CARBURANT BIODIESEL DE HAUTE QUALITÉ


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 18.10.2013 JP 2013217110

(43)Date of publication of application:
24.08.2016 Bulletin 2016/34

(73)Proprietor: National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Tokyo 100-8921 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • TOBA, Makoto
    Tsukuba-shi Ibaraki 305-8565 (JP)
  • ABE, Yohko
    Tsukuba-shi Ibaraki 305-8565 (JP)
  • YOSHIMURA, Yuuji
    Tsukuba-shi Ibaraki 305-8565 (JP)
  • MOCHIZUKI, Takehisa
    Tsukuba-shi Ibaraki 305-8565 (JP)

(74)Representative: Gill Jennings & Every LLP 
The Broadgate Tower 20 Primrose Street
London EC2A 2ES
London EC2A 2ES (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2008/105518
JP-A- 2007 099 882
WO-A1-2011/105291
US-A- 5 959 128
  
  • YANYONG LIU ET AL: "Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite", CATALYSTS, vol. 2, no. 4, 14 February 2012 (2012-02-14), pages 171-190, XP055364412, DOI: 10.3390/catal2010171
  • Srikanth Rapaka: "Reduction and Speciation of Monoglycerides to produce high quality biodiesel", , 31 December 2012 (2012-12-31), XP055364386, ISBN: 978-0-494-86602-3 Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://137.122.14.44/bitstream/10393/2 3104/1/Rapaka_Srikanth_2012_thesis.pdf [retrieved on 2017-04-13]
  • CAMELIA ECHIM ET AL: "Improvement of cold filter plugging point of biodiesel from alternative feedstocks", FUEL, IPC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PRESS, GUILDFORD, GB, vol. 93, 14 November 2011 (2011-11-14), pages 642-648, XP028446137, ISSN: 0016-2361, DOI: 10.1016/J.FUEL.2011.11.036 [retrieved on 2011-11-19]
 
Remarks:
The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
 
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present invention relates to a method for producing a high quality biodiesel fuel having excellent oxidation stability and few low-temperature deposits.

BACKGROUND ART



[0002] Biodiesel fuels (BDF (registered trademark)) made of long chain fatty acid alkyl esters are obtained using vegetable oil/fats or animal oil/fats, which are natural products, as raw materials, and have therefore been introduced and become widely used in Europe and Southeast Asia as environmentally friendly alternatives to diesel fuel. European standard EN14214, Japanese Industrial Standard JIS K2390 and American National Standard ASTM D6751 have been established as specifications that stipulate product quality for the safe use of biodiesel fuels as vehicle fuels, and these quality standards must be satisfied when biodiesel fuels are mixed with diesel oil and supplied to the market.

[0003] As the use of biodiesel fuels has progressed, a variety of new problems have become apparent when biodiesel fuels are used in vehicles. Among these, a major problem that has been reported is that components that are readily precipitated in biodiesel fuels precipitate in fuel storage tanks and in filters in engine systems, which leads to problems such as clogging. Fatty acid monoglycerides (and especially saturated fatty acid monoglycerides) and steryl glycosides are given as examples of components that precipitate. As a result, specifications for reducing problems when biodiesel fuels are used in automobiles have been reviewed, and there has been a tendency for regulation values for fatty acid monoglycerides to become more stringent. In European standard EN14214, for example, the permitted value for fatty acid monoglycerides was 0.8 mass % or lower when the standard was established in 2003, but this upper limit was lowered to 0.7 mass % or lower when the standard was revised in 2013, and a further reduction has been demanded.

[0004] Fatty acid monoglycerides are an intermediate product in reactions in which biodiesel fuels are produced when transesterification reactions are carried out with oils and fats, and because transesterification reactions are equilibrium reactions, fatty acid monoglycerides are difficult to remove by means of reaction alone. As a result, attempts have been made to remove fatty acid monoglycerides and other glycerides by subjecting obtained biodiesel fuels to a variety of purification processes. Such biodiesel fuel purification processes include washing with water, distillation, removal by means of adsorbents, extraction and membrane separation. Fig. 1 is a diagram showing the outline of biodiesel fuel purification processes by means of conventional methods.

[0005] Fatty acid monoglycerides have 2 free hydroxyl groups in the glycerin moiety of the molecular structure, and are therefore slightly water-soluble. Attempts have been made to remove fatty acid monoglycerides by means of water washing by utilizing this water solubility. In removal methods involving washing with water, purified biodiesel fuel contains moisture, meaning that the biodiesel fuel does not meet standards in this state. As a result, a water-oil separation filter is used in order to remove the moisture (see PTL 1). In addition, water washing that also involves the use of a flocculant is carried out in order to prevent loss of methyl esters of fatty acids, which are primary components of biodiesel fuels obtained by means of water washing (see PTL 2).

[0006] Purification by distillation is carried out as a method for removing fatty acid monoglycerides (see PTL 3 to PTL 6). Such methods are effective for removing moisture and removing diglycerides and triglycerides, which have far higher boiling points than methyl esters of fatty acids, but fatty acid monoglycerides have similar boiling points to methyl esters of fatty acid, meaning that separation performance of fatty acid monoglycerides is insufficient when carrying out purification by distillation.

[0007] Removal and purification by using an adsorbent is carried out as a method for removing fatty acid monoglycerides (see PTL 7 to PTL 16). Silica gel, clay minerals (activated clay, montmorillonite, and the like), zeolites, diatomaceous earth, magnesium silicates, alumina, and the like, are used as adsorbents. Methods involving the use of an adsorbent achieve higher separation performance than washing with water or distillation, but because there is a limit to the amount adsorbed, a large quantity of adsorbent is required in cases where the quantity of fatty acid monoglycerides is high, meaning that adsorption performance depends on the type of adsorbent and the composition of the raw material oil (the crude biodiesel fuel) and spent adsorbent needs to be regenerated or disposed of.

[0008] Other methods for removing fatty acid monoglycerides include liquid-liquid extraction methods involving the use of a solvent (see PTL 17) and removal methods involving the use of a separation membrane (see PTL 18), but separation efficiency is not high and a complex procedure is required.

CITATION LIST


[Patent Literature]



[0009] 

[PTL 1] Japanese Patent Application Publication No. 2011-137091

[PTL 2] Japanese Patent Application Publication No. 2004-307608

[PTL 3] Japanese Patent Application Publication No. 2007-332250

[PTL 4] Japanese Patent Application Publication No. 2007-176973

[PTL 5] WO 2006/129435

[PTL 6] US Patent Application Publication No. 2010/0024285 (Specification)

[PTL 7] Japanese Patent Application Publication No. 2007-99882

[PTL 8] WO 2010/002236

[PTL 9] Japanese Translation of PCT Application No. 2011-506709

[PTL 10] WO 2009/071893

[PTL 11] WO 2009/002878

[PTL 12] WO 2008/055676

[PTL 13] WO 2008/001934

[PTL 14] WO 2007/076163

[PTL 15] WO 2007/012190

[PTL 16] WO 2005/037969

[PTL 17] WO 2012/004489

[PTL 18] US Patent Application Publication No. 2010/0186290 (Specification)

[PTL 19] WO 2008/105518

[PTL 20] WO 2011/105291



[0010] [NPL 1] Liu et al. "Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite", Catalysts 2012, 2, 171-190, discloses a method for producing high quality biodiesel fuel.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION


[Technical Problem]



[0011] In view of the problems involved in the existing features mentioned above, the objective of the present invention is to provide a simple method for producing a high quality biodiesel fuel having high oxidation stability and few low-temperature deposits by selectively removing fatty acid monoglycerides, which not only readily undergo precipitation and separation in storage tanks but also lead to clogging of filters in vehicle fuel supply systems.

[Solution to Problem]



[0012] While carrying out diligent research into how to achieve the objective mentioned above, the inventors of the present invention found that by hydrogenating a biodiesel fuel obtained by means of transesterification, hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid monoglycerides occurred more rapidly than hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double bonds in methyl esters of unsaturated fatty acids (see Fig. 2).

[0013] As a result, the inventors of the present invention actively utilized this phenomenon and selectively converted unsaturated fatty acid monoglycerides, which have high solubility in biodiesel fuels, into saturated fatty acid monoglycerides, which readily precipitate, by means of hydrogenation while suppressing excessive hydrogenation of methyl esters of unsaturated fatty acids, and then separated the precipitated fatty acid monoglycerides, thereby developing a method for producing a biodiesel fuel in which fatty acid monoglycerides are removed to a high degree and which exhibits high oxidation stability, and completing the present invention.

[0014] That is, the present invention provides the following method.

[0015] A method for producing a high quality biodiesel fuel, including hydrogenating a biodiesel fuel so as to selectively convert unsaturated fatty acid monoglycerides into readily precipitatable saturated fatty acid monoglycerides, wherein the hydrogenation is carried out at a hydrogen pressure of 0.2 to 0.7 MPa and a reaction temperature of 80 to 130 °C, allowing the biodiesel fuel to stand at a prescribed temperature of 10 to 45 °C for 24 hours or longer to precipitate the fatty acid monoglycerides, removing the precipitated fatty acid monoglycerides, and then removing the remaining fatty acid monoglycerides using an adsorbent. The invention is further defined in the claims.

[Advantageous Effects of Invention]



[0016] According to the present invention, by hydrogenating a biodiesel fuel so as to selectively convert unsaturated fatty acid monoglycerides, which exhibit high solubility in biodiesel fuels, into saturated fatty acid monoglycerides, which readily precipitate, it is possible to remove fatty acid monoglycerides readily by means of precipitation separation, and by carrying out further hydrogenation, it is possible to carry out partial hydrogenation of methyl esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are components that are readily oxidized and degraded, such as methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate, into methyl esters of monounsaturated fatty acids having higher stability, and therefore possible to produce a high quality biodiesel fuel from which fatty acid monoglycerides are removed and for which oxidation stability is increased.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS



[0017] 

[Fig. 1]
Fig. 1 is a diagram showing the outline of biodiesel fuel purification processes by means of conventional methods.

[Fig. 2]
Fig. 2 is a diagram showing changes over time in the quantity of methyl esters of saturated fatty acids and the quantity of saturated fatty acid monoglycerides when hydrogenating a jatropha oil biodiesel fuel.

[Fig. 3]
Fig. 3 is a diagram showing the outline of a biodiesel fuel production process according to the present invention.


DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS



[0018] Fig. 3 is a diagram showing the outline of a biodiesel fuel production process according to the present invention.

[0019] The present invention is characterized by producing a high quality biodiesel fuel I, in which the residual quantity of fatty acid monoglycerides is low and for which oxidation stability is increased, by selectively converting unsaturated fatty acid monoglycerides into readily precipitatable saturated fatty acid monoglycerides by hydrogenating a biodiesel fuel, in other words, carrying out "partial hydrogenation" of methyl esters of polyunsaturated fatty acid among methyl esters of fatty acids, which are primary components of biodiesel fuels, into methyl esters of monounsaturated fatty acids, carrying out "complete hydrogenation" of unsaturated fatty acid monoglycerides into saturated fatty acid monoglycerides, and then removing these fatty acid monoglycerides by means of precipitation separation.

[0020] In addition, the present invention is characterized by using an adsorbent to remove residual fatty acid monoglycerides from the high quality biodiesel fuel I following removal of the precipitated fatty acid monoglycerides, thereby producing a higher quality biodiesel fuel II.

[0021] The present invention will now be explained in detail.

[0022] In the present invention, biodiesel fuel means a substance which contains fatty acid triglycerides as primary components and which contains, as secondary components, components obtained by converting natural oils and fats formed of a mixture constituted from diglycerides and/or fatty acid monoglycerides into alkyl esters of fatty acids by means of transesterification with alcohols. Specifically, examples of natural oils and fats include vegetable oils and fats such as rape seed oil, sesame oil, jatropha oil, soy bean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, palm oil, cottonseed oil, rice bran oil, coconut oil and safflower oil; animal oils and fats such as beef tallow, lard, chicken fat and fish oils; and waste oils and fats obtained from these oils and fats.

[0023] Hydrogenation is a reaction in which hydrogen is added to an unsaturated bond, but in the present invention, hydrogenation specifically means a reaction in which hydrogen is added to a carbon-carbon double bond in a methyl ester of an unsaturated fatty acid or unsaturated fatty acid monoglyceride, which are components of biodiesel fuels.

[0024] In the present invention, the method for hydrogenating a biodiesel fuel is not particularly limited, but if methyl esters of saturated fatty acids are generated by methyl esters of unsaturated fatty acids in a biodiesel fuel being completely hydrogenated, the pour point significantly increases and the biodiesel fuel cannot be used as a liquid fuel, meaning that it is preferable to use a method capable of hydrogenating only unsaturated fatty acid monoglycerides into saturated fatty acid monoglycerides and partially hydrogenating methyl esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are components that are readily oxidized and degraded, into methyl esters of monounsaturated fatty acids having higher oxidation stability. For example, the methods disclosed in PTL 19 and PTL 20 can be given as examples of this type of hydrogenation method.

[0025] When using the method mentioned above, the biodiesel fuel is hydrogenated at a reaction temperature of 80 to 130°C and a hydrogen pressure of 0.2 to 0.7 MPa in order to selectively hydrogenate only unsaturated fatty acid monoglycerides into saturated fatty acid monoglycerides while suppressing complete hydrogenation of methyl esters of unsaturated fatty acids in the biodiesel fuel into methyl esters of saturated fatty acids, which is a characteristic of the present invention. If the reaction is carried out at a higher temperature or a higher pressure than these, complete hydrogenation into methyl esters of saturated fatty acids occurs to a significant extent. In addition, if the reaction is carried out at a lower temperature or a lower pressure than these, hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acid monoglycerides does not progress sufficiently, which is a problem.

[0026] Fig. 2 is a diagram showing changes over time in the quantity of methyl esters of saturated fatty acids and the quantity of saturated fatty acid monoglycerides when hydrogenating a jatropha oil biodiesel fuel using an alumina-supported palladium catalyst under the conditions mentioned above, and the vertical axis shows the proportion (%) of methyl esters of saturated fatty acids among all monomethyl esters of fatty acids and the proportion (%) of saturated fatty acid monoglycerides among all fatty acid monoglycerides.

[0027] In the present invention, a method involving separation by precipitation is given as a simple method for separating and removing fatty acid monoglycerides from a hydrogenated biodiesel fuel. The precipitation method involves allowing the biodiesel fuel to stand at a prescribed temperature of 10 to 45 °C for 24 hours or longer in order to allow for sufficient precipitation of substances to be precipitated. If the temperature is too high when the biodiesel fuel is allowed to stand, fatty acid monoglycerides completely dissolve in the biodiesel fuel, and if this temperature is too low, methyl esters of saturated fatty acids precipitate in addition to fatty acid monoglycerides, meaning that separation of fatty acid monoglycerides becomes impossible. In a particularly preferred embodiment the precipitation temperature may be 12 to 40°C.

[0028] Following cooling, a variety of methods can be used as methods for separating and removing the precipitated fatty acid monoglycerides. For example, simple methods include separating precipitates by using a sieve or filter paper and separating precipitates by means of centrifugal separation.

[0029] By using an adsorbent to adsorb and remove small quantities of residual fatty acid monoglycerides from a biodiesel fuel from which fatty acid monoglycerides have been separated by precipitation, it is possible to produce a biodiesel fuel from which fatty acid monoglycerides have been removed to a high degree.

[0030] The adsorbent used to adsorb fatty acid monoglycerides is not particularly limited, but it is possible to use silica gel, clay minerals (activated clay, montmorillonite, and the like), zeolites, diatomaceous earth, magnesium silicates, alumina, and the like, which are commonly used as adsorbents.

WORKING EXAMPLES



[0031] The present invention will now be explained through the use of experimental examples, but is in no way limited to in these experimental examples.

[0032] First, explanations will be given for the definition of glyceride removal rate, the method for measuring cloud point and the method for measuring oxidation stability in the working examples.

(Definition of glyceride removal rate)



[0033] 


(Measurement of cloud point)



[0034] In accordance with the "Testing methods for pour point and cloud point of crude oil and petroleum products" stipulated in JIS K2269, 4 mL of a sample was placed in a test tube and heated to 45°C so as to dissolve all the components, after which the sample was cooled so as to precipitate solid components, and the temperature at which the degree of light reflection from the bottom surface of the test tube changed was measured and deemed to be the cloud point. An automatic pour point/cloud point tester (MPC-102A manufactured by Tanaka Scientific Limited) was used for the measurements.

(Measurement of oxidation stability)



[0035] In accordance with the method stimulated in European standard EN14112: 2003 (Rancimat method), 3 g of a sample was placed in a reaction vessel, clean air was flushed into the reaction vessel at a rate of 10 L/h while the reaction vessel was heated to 110°C, volatile degradation products were trapped in water, and the time until the turning point, where the electrical conductivity of the trapping water changed (the induction time), was measured. An automatic oil/fat stability tester (Rancimat 743 manufactured by Metrohm AG) was used for the measurements.

[0036] Hereinbelow, Working Examples 1 to 4 should read as Reference Examples 1 to 4, and Working Examples 5 to 7 should read as Examples 1 to 3. (Working Example 1: Removal of fatty acid monoglycerides from jatropha oil biodiesel fuel)

[Hydrogenation reaction]



[0037] A jatropha oil biodiesel fuel having the composition shown in Table 1 was hydrogenated using an alumina-supported palladium catalyst. 150 g of a jatropha oil biodiesel fuel and 1.2 g of the catalyst were added to an autoclave fitted with a stirrer, and the reaction was carried out at a hydrogen pressure of 0.5 MPa, a reaction temperature of 80°C and a reaction duration of 1 hour. Immediately following the reaction, the catalyst was filtered off, and a hydrogenated jatropha oil biodiesel fuel was obtained.
[Table 1]
Monoglyceride content (wt.%) 0.43
Diglyceride content (wt.%) 0.11
Triglyceride content (wt.%) 0.04

[Separation of precipitates]



[0038] The hydrogenated jatropha oil biodiesel fuel obtained in the hydrogenation reaction was held at a temperature of 15°C, and precipitated deposits were filtered off to obtain a purified hydrogenated jatropha oil biodiesel fuel. The glyceride removal rates and the cloud point and oxidation stability of the raw material oil, hydrogenated oil and purified hydrogenated oil are shown in Table 2.
[Table 2]
Monoglyceride removal rate (%) 67.8
Diglyceride removal rate (%) 7.6
Triglyceride removal rate (%) 7.6
Cloud point of raw material oil (°C) 4
Cloud point of hydrogenated oil (°C) 13
Cloud point of purified hydrogenated oil(°C) 8
Oxidation stability of raw material oil (h) 0.58
Oxidation stability of hydrogenated oil (h) 9.41
Oxidation stability of purified hydrogenated oil (h) 11.91

(Comparative Example 1: Removal of fatty acid monoglycerides from jatropha oil biodiesel fuel)



[0039] Separation of precipitates from the jatropha oil biodiesel fuel having the composition shown in Table 1 was carried out using the method disclosed in Working Example 1, without hydrogenating the biodiesel fuel. The glyceride removal rates and the cloud point of the raw material oil and purified oil are shown in Table 3.
[Table 3]
Monoglyceride removal rate (%) 9.1
Diglyceride removal rate (%) 4.3
Triglyceride removal rate (%) 1.7
Cloud point of raw material oil (°C) 4
Cloud point of purified oil (°C) 4
Oxidation stability of raw material oil (h) 0.58
Oxidation stability of purified oil (h) 0.65

(Working Example 2: Removal of fatty acid monoglycerides from rape seed oil biodiesel fuel)



[0040] A hydrogenation reaction and precipitate separation were carried out using the same methods as those used in Working Example 1, except that a rape seed oil biodiesel fuel having the composition shown in Table 4 was used and the holding temperature was 20°C. The glyceride removal rates and the cloud point of the raw material oil, hydrogenated oil and purified hydrogenated oil are shown in Table 5.
[Table 4]
Monoglyceride content (wt.%) 0.35
Diglyceride content (wt.%) 0.07
Triglyceride content (wt.%) 0.08
[Table 5]
Monoglyceride removal rate (%) 52.8
Diglyceride removal rate (%) 4.9
Triglyceride removal rate (%) 4.3
Cloud point of raw material oil (°C) -3
Cloud point of hydrogenated oil (°C) 17
Cloud point of purified hydrogenated oil (°C) 11
Oxidation stability of raw material oil (h) 6.75
Oxidation stability of hydrogenated oil (h) 68.43
Oxidation stability of purified hydrogenated oil (h) 71.36

(Comparative Example 2: Removal of fatty acid monoglycerides from rape seed oil biodiesel fuel)



[0041] Separation of precipitates from the rape seed oil biodiesel fuel having the composition shown in Table 4 was carried out using the method disclosed in Working Example 1, except that the biodiesel fuel was not hydrogenated and the holding temperature was 20°C. The glyceride removal rates and the cloud point of the raw material oil and purified oil are shown in Table 6.
[Table 6]
Monoglyceride removal rate (%) 8.2
Diglyceride removal rate (%) 4.0
Triglyceride removal rate (%) 1.5
Cloud point of raw material oil (°C) -3
Cloud point of purified oil (°C) -3
Oxidation stability of raw material oil (h) 6.75
Oxidation stability of purified oil (h) 6.75

(Working Example 3: Removal of fatty acid monoglycerides from soy bean oil biodiesel fuel)



[0042] A hydrogenation reaction and precipitate separation were carried out using the same methods as those used in Working Example 1, except that a soy bean oil biodiesel fuel having the composition shown in Table 7 was used. The glyceride removal rates and the cloud point of the raw material oil, hydrogenated oil and purified hydrogenated oil are shown in Table 8.
[Table 7]
Monoglyceride content (wt.%) 0.21
Diglyceride content (wt.%) 0.08
Triglyceride content (wt.%) 0.04
[Table 8]
Monoglyceride removal rate (%) 66.0
Diglyceride removal rate (%) 21,1
Triglyceride removal rate (%) 11.9
Cloud point of raw material oil (°C) 0
Cloud point of hydrogenated oil (°C) 15
Cloud point of purified hydrogenated oil (°C) 10
Oxidation stability of raw material oil (h) 1,54
Oxidation stability of hydrogenated oil (h) 86.13
Oxidation stability of purified hydrogenated oil (h) 87.19

(Comparative Example 3: Removal of fatty acid monoglycerides from soy bean oil biodiesel fuel)



[0043] Separation of precipitates from the soy bean oil biodiesel fuel having the composition shown in Table 7 was carried out using the method disclosed in Working Example 1, without hydrogenating the biodiesel fuel. The glyceride removal rates and the cloud point of the raw material oil and purified oil are shown in Table 9.
[Table 9]
Monoglyceride removal rate (%) 5.7
Diglyceride removal rate (%) 2.2
Triglyceride removal rate (%) 1.6
Cloud point of raw material oil (°C) 0
Cloud point of purified oil (°C) 0
Oxidation stability of raw material oil (h) 1.54
Oxidation stability of purified oil (h) 1.59

(Comparative Example 4: Removal of fatty acid monoglycerides from jatropha oil biodiesel fuel)



[0044] Separation of precipitates from the jatropha oil biodiesel fuel having the composition shown in Table 1 was carried out using the method disclosed in Comparative Example 1, except that the holding temperature was 4°C. The glyceride removal rates and the cloud point of the raw material oil and purified oil are shown in Table 10.
[Table 10]
Monoglyceride removal rate (%) 45.1
Diglyceride removal rate (%) 30,6
Triglyceride removal rate (%) 14.3
Cloud point of raw material oil (°C) 1
Cloud point of purified oil (°C) 1
Oxidation stability of raw material oil (h) 0.58
Oxidation stability of purified oil (h) 0.84


[0045] When the holding temperature was lowered, the glyceride removal rate increased, but the filtered precipitate contained 38.5% of methyl esters of saturated fatty acids contained in the raw material oil, and when glycerides were removed at a low temperature without carrying out hydrogenation, separation of methyl esters of fatty acids and glycerides was difficult.

(Working Example 4: Removal of fatty acid monoglycerides from palm oil biodiesel fuel)



[0046] A hydrogenation reaction and precipitate separation were carried out using the same methods as those used in Working Example 1, except that a palm oil biodiesel fuel having the composition shown in Table 11 was used. The glyceride removal rates and the cloud point of the raw material oil, hydrogenated oil and purified hydrogenated oil are shown in Table 12.
[Table 11]
Monoglyceride content (wt.%) 0.45
Diglyceride content (wt.%) 0.22
Triglyceride content (wt.%) 0.09
[Table 12]
Monoglyceride removal rate (%) 53.6
Diglyceride removal rate (%) 4.1
Triglyceride removal rate (%) 3.4
Cloud point of raw material oil (°C) 12
Cloud point of hydrogenated oil (°C) 15
Cloud point of purified hydrogenated oil (°C) 13
Oxidation stability of raw material oil (h) 5.72
Oxidation stability of hydrogenated oil (h) 126.31
Oxidation stability of purified hydrogenated oil (h) 100.21

(Comparative Example 5: Removal of fatty acid monoglycerides from palm oil biodiesel fuel)



[0047] Separation of precipitates from the palm oil biodiesel fuel having the composition shown in Table 11 was carried out using the method disclosed in Working Example 1, without hydrogenating the biodiesel fuel. The glyceride removal rates and the cloud point of the raw material oil and purified oil are shown in Table 13.
[Table 13]
Monoglyceride removal rate (%) 9.2
Diglyceride removal rate (%) 9.4
Triglyceride removal rate (%) 9.7
Cloud point of raw material oil (°C) 12
Cloud point of purified oil (°C) 12
Oxidation stability of raw material oil (h) 5.72
Oxidation stability of purified oil (h) 5.97

(Working Example 5: Removal of fatty acid monoglycerides from jatropha oil biodiesel fuel by additional use of adsorbent)



[0048] An adsorption-purified hydrogenated jatropha oil biodiesel fuel was obtained by adding 1 g of silica gel as an adsorbent to 10 g of the purified hydrogenated jatropha oil biodiesel fuel obtained in Working Example 1, and then filtering off the adsorbent. The removal rates of glycerides from the jatropha oil biodiesel fuel having the composition shown in Table 1 and the cloud point and oxidation stability of the raw material oil, hydrogenated oil, purified hydrogenated oil and adsorption-purified hydrogenated oil are shown in Table 14.
[Table 14]
Monoglyceride removal rate (%) 94.5
Diglyceride removal rate (%) 24.8
Triglyceride removal rate (%) 9,3
Cloud point of raw material oil (°C) 4
Cloud point of purified hydrogenated oil (°C) 8
Cloud point of adsorption-purified hydrogenated oil (°C) 8
Oxidation stability of raw material oil (h) 0.58
Oxidation stability of purified hydrogenated oil (h) 11.91
Oxidation stability of adsorption-purified hydrogenated oil (h) 25.68

(Working Example 6: Removal of fatty acid monoglycerides from jatropha oil biodiesel fuel by additional use of adsorbent)



[0049] An adsorption-purified hydrogenated jatropha oil biodiesel fuel was obtained using the same procedure as that used in Working Example 5, except that activated clay (Galleon Earth V2 manufactured by MIZUSAWA INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS, LTD.) was used as the adsorbent. The removal rates of glycerides from the jatropha oil biodiesel fuel having the composition shown in Table 1 and the cloud point and oxidation stability of the raw material oil, hydrogenated oil, purified hydrogenated oil and adsorption-purified hydrogenated oil are shown in Table 15.
[Table 15]
Monoglyceride removal rate (%) 95.1
Diglyceride removal rate (%) 20.9
Triglyceride removal rate (%) 8.8
Cloud point of raw material oil (°C) 4
Cloud point of purified hydrogenated oil (°C) 8
Cloud point of adsorption-purified hydrogenated oil (°C) 8
Oxidation stability of raw material oil (h) 0.59
Oxidation stability of purified hydrogenated oil (h) 11.91
Oxidation stability of adsorption-purified hydrogenated oil (h) 53.16

(Working Example 7: Removal of fatty acid monoglycerides from jatropha oil biodiesel fuel by additional use of adsorbent)



[0050] An adsorption-purified hydrogenated jatropha oil biodiesel fuel was obtained using the same procedure as that used in Working Example 5, except that diatomaceous earth (manufactured by Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd., fired at 500°C for 3 hours) was used as the adsorbent. The removal rates of glycerides from the jatropha oil biodiesel fuel having the composition shown in Table 1 and the cloud point and oxidation stability of the raw material oil, hydrogenated oil, purified hydrogenated oil and adsorption-purified hydrogenated oil are shown in Table 16.
[Table 16]
Monoglyceride removal rate (%) 79.9
Diglyceride removal rate (%) 20. 1
Triglyceride removal rate (%) 100
Cloud point of raw material oil (°C) 4
Cloud point of purified hydrogenated oil (°C) 8
Cloud point of adsorption-purified hydrogenated oil (°C) 9
Oxidation stability of raw material oil (h) 0.58
Oxidation stability of purified hydrogenated oil (h) 11.91
Oxidation stability of adsorption-purified hydrogenated oil (h) 28.00



Claims

1. A method for producing a high quality biodiesel fuel, comprising:

i) hydrogenating a biodiesel fuel so as to selectively convert unsaturated fatty acid monoglycerides into readily precipitatable saturated fatty acid monoglycerides, wherein the hydrogenation is carried out at a hydrogen pressure of 0.2 to 0.7 MPa and a reaction temperature of 80 to 130 °C;

ii) allowing the biodiesel fuel to stand at a prescribed temperature of 10 to 45 °C for 24 hours or longer to precipitate the fatty acid monoglycerides;

iii) removing the precipitated fatty acid monoglycerides; and

iv) removing the remaining fatty acid monoglycerides using an adsorbent.


 
2. The method for producing a high quality biodiesel fuel according to claim 1, wherein the precipitated fatty acid monoglycerides are removed with a sieve or filter paper.
 
3. The method for producing a high quality biodiesel fuel according to claim 1, wherein the precipitated fatty acid monoglycerides are removed by means of centrifugal separation.
 
4. The method for producing a high quality biodiesel fuel according to any preceding claim, wherein the prescribed temperature is 12 to 40 °C.
 
5. The method for producing a high quality biodiesel fuel according to any preceding claim, wherein the adsorbent is at least one selected from the group consisting of silica gel; clay minerals, such as activated clay and montmorillonite; zeolites; diatomaceous earth; magnesium silicates; and alumina.
 
6. The method for producing a high quality biodiesel fuel according to any preceding claim, wherein the adsorbent is at least one selected from the group consisting of silica gel, activated clay, and diatomaceous earth.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines hochwertigen Biodieselkraftstoffs, Folgendes umfassend:

i) Hydrieren eines Biodieselkraftstoffs, um ungesättigte Fettsäuremonoglyceride wahlweise in leicht ausfällbare gesättigte Fettsäuremonoglyceride umzuwandeln, wobei die Hydrierung bei einem Wasserstoffdruck von 0,2 bis 0,7 MPa und einer Reaktionstemperatur von 80 bis 130 °C ausgeführt wird;

ii) Ermöglichen, dass der Biodieselkraftstoff 24 Stunden oder länger bei einer vorgeschriebenen Temperatur von 10 bis 45 °C steht, um die Fettsäuremonoglyceride auszufällen;

iii) Entfernen der ausgefällten Fettsäuremonoglyceride; und

iv) Entfernen der verbleibenden Fettsäuremonoglyceride unter Verwendung eines Adsorbens.


 
2. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines hochwertigen Biodieselkraftstoffs nach Anspruch 1, wobei die ausgefällten Fettsäuremonoglyceride mit einem Sieb oder Filterpapier entfernt werden.
 
3. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines hochwertigen Biodieselkraftstoffs nach Anspruch 1, wobei die ausgefällten Fettsäuremonoglyceride mittels Zentrifugieren entfernt werden.
 
4. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines qualitativ hochwertigen Biodieselkraftstoffs nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die vorgeschriebene Temperatur 12 bis 40 °C beträgt.
 
5. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines hochwertigen Biodieselkraftstoffs nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Adsorbens wenigstens eines ist, das aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Siliciumdioxidgel; Tonmineralien, wie etwa aktiviertem Ton und Montmorillonit; Zeolithen; Kieselgur; Magnesiumsilicaten; und Aluminiumoxid besteht.
 
6. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines hochwertigen Biodieselkraftstoffs nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Adsorbens wenigstens eines ist, das aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Siliciumdioxidgel, aktiviertem Ton und Kieselgur besteht.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé de production d'un carburant biodiesel de haute qualité, comprenant :

i) l'hydrogénation d'un carburant biodiesel de manière à convertir sélectivement des monoglycérides d'acides gras insaturés en monoglycérides d'acides gras saturés facilement précipitables, l'hydrogénation étant effectuée à une pression d'hydrogène de 0,2 à 0,7 MPa et à une température de réaction de 80 à 130 °C ;

ii) le fait de laisser le biodiesel reposer à une température prescrite de 10 à 45 °C pendant 24 heures ou plus pour précipiter les monoglycérides d'acides gras ;

iii) l'élimination des monoglycérides d'acide gras précipités ; et

iv) l'élimination des monoglycérides d'acides gras restants à l'aide d'un adsorbant.


 
2. Procédé de production d'un carburant biodiesel de haute qualité selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les monoglycérides d'acide gras précipités sont éliminés au moyen d'un tamis ou d'un papier filtre.
 
3. Procédé de production d'un carburant biodiesel de haute qualité selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les monoglycérides d'acide gras précipités sont éliminés par séparation centrifuge.
 
4. Procédé de production d'un carburant biodiesel de haute qualité selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la température prescrite est de 12 à 40 °C.
 
5. Procédé de production d'un carburant biodiesel de haute qualité selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel l'adsorbant est choisi dans le groupe constitué de gel de silice ; et/ou de minéraux argileux, tels que l'argile activée et la montmorillonite ; et/ou de zéolithes ; et/ou de terre de diatomée ; et/ou de silicates de magnésium ; et/ou d'alumine.
 
6. Procédé de production d'un carburant biodiesel de haute qualité selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel l'adsorbant est choisi dans le groupe constitué de gel de silice, et/ou d'argile activée et/ou de terre de diatomée.
 




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Cited references

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