FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a composition for the treatment and prevention of benign prostatic hyperplasia. More particularly, the present invention relates to the composition comprising a peptide derived from telomerase and the composition is for the treatment and prevention of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common age-related disease of male which is accompanied by lower urinary tract symptom. Related symptoms began to appear from the age of 40, but the most clinical symptoms appear from the late age of 50. BPH can cause sexual dysfunction by reduced quality of life, and the treatment and surgery for BPH can affect sexual function.
The hyperplasia causing BPH is dependent on male hormones. Especially the male hormones are necessary for normal cell proliferation in prostate as well as for inhibition of normal apoptosis. The most known endogenous cause is aging. Prostate gets bigger by aging and normal testis function. As the male hormone that prostate is depend on, testosterone plays an important role in growing and differentiating prostate and is metabolized by 5-alpha-reducatse to make dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which plays an important role in growing prostate and expressing the genes of prostate.
As exogenous causes of growing prostate, there are male hormones, estrogen, glucocorticoid and materials related to internal secretion enzymes which are induced by diet and circumstances. The physiological effects of these exogenous causes appears via many kinds of growth factor peptides.
BPH occurs in early 20s to late 40s caused by histological changes when the male hormones and estrogen work synergistically to induce BPH. With increasing age, the rate of estrogen/DHT and then BPH increase.
Also, it was commonly known that the prostate grows up until early 20s and then it keeps its size until 50, and it depends on the very complicated interaction such as endogenous growth factors, signal pathway, regulation of cell cycles, cell division and apoptosis that the prostate maintains its balance. If transform occurs to cell cycle regulation factors, BPH may be induced.
The genetic factor can be a major factor which affect BPH. It was reported that patients having a family history of BPH has shown increase of BPH by more than 60%, and it also reported that treatment by 5α-reductase inhibitor is less effective in a group of patients having a family history of BPH. This is because, in such cases, BPH depends on non-androgen dependent pathway.
For treating BPH, surgery and medical treatment can be used. For medical treatment, administration of drugs is adjusted depending on the age and clinical progress of a patient. Recently the number of BPH patients have significantly increased in Korea and worldwide and the disease rate in young patient has also increased. Various drugs are used for treatment but their uses are limited for side-effects.
Sulpiride is type 2 dopamine receptor antagonist, which is commonly used as a depression treatment drug. Dopamine, as an intermediate product made in synthesizing pathway of adrenalin and noradrenalin, is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Sulpiride inhibits binding of dopamine and its receptor which inhibit prolactin secretion as dopaminergic effect and elevates the concentration of prolactin in blood. Increased prolactin by continuous administration of sulpiride induces hyperprolactinemia.
It is reported that prolactin is related to proliferation of prostate, prostate cancer and development and regulation of BPH. Also it is known that prolactin in conjunction with androgen elevates proliferation of prostate. As another mechanism, it is also known that prolactin acts as a stress hormone to elevate expression of 5α-reductase and induces proliferation of prostate. Prolactin, which is one of nonsteroidal factors, relates to proliferation of prostate and induction of BPH. With age, prolactin increases but the level of testosterone declines. It is reported that prolactin induces BPH in elderly human. For rat and human, it is reported that prolactin is involved in proliferation and differentiation of prostate. According to this report, prolactin is considered to be induced by receptors through signal transduction pathways.
[Prior Art Document]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Thus, the present inventors have tried to develop a composition for treatment and prevent of BPH which has minimum side-effect and superior treatment effect, and have completed the present invention.
The present inventors have discovered that the peptide derived from telomerase can have excellent effects for treatment and prevent of BPH and have completed the present invention.
The object of the present invention is to provide a composition having an effect in treating and preventing BPH.
SOLUTIONS FOR THE PROBLEM
To solve the above-mentioned technical problem, according to the present invention, a composition for treating and preventing BPH which includes the peptide or the active fragment of the peptide comprising a sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 (hereinafter, "PEP1", "GV1001", or "GV") or a sequence having homology 80% or more of SEQ ID NO:1 is provided.
In the composition for treating and preventing BPH according to the present invention, said fragment may comprise 3 or more amino acids.
In the composition for treating and preventing BPH according to the present invention, the peptide may be comprised in the concentration of 0.01 mg to 1mg, preferably 0.56mg (4nmol peptide/kg body weight).
In the composition for treating and preventing BPH according to the present invention, the composition may be a pharmaceutical composition.
In the composition for treating and preventing BPH according to the present invention, the composition may be a food composition.
According to another embodiment of the present invention, the method for treating and preventing BPH by administrating the composition for treating and preventing BPH to subject in need of is provided.
In the method for treating and preventing BPH according to the present invention, the administration of the composition may be done in 3 times a week.
EFFECT OF THE INVENTION
The composition, according to the present invention which comprises the peptide having the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 or the sequence of 80% or more homology of it, has excellent effect for treating and preventing BPH with less side effects.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Fig 1 represents a photograph of a process for removing the target organs to measure weight of them.
Fig 2 represents a photograph of an electrophoresis, in the experiment to verifying the effect of PEP1 to the treatment of BPH, which shows the result of the effect to 5α-reductase expression in the ventral prostate of each experimental group by using RT-PCR.
Fig 3 represents a graph, in the experiment to verifying the effect of PEP1 to the treatment of BPH, which shows the result of the measured weight of seminal vesicle in each experimental group.
Fig 4 represents a graph, in the experiment to verifying the effect of PEP1 to the treatment of BPH, which shows the result of the measured weight of prostate in each experimental group.
Fig 5 represents a graph which shows the amount of cell proliferation in the stromal cell line of the BPH induced animal model (WPMY-1) which was treated by PEP1.
Fig 6 represents a graph which shows the amount of cell proliferation in the epithelial cell line of the BPH induced animal model (RWPE-1) which was treated by PEP1.
Fig 7 represents a graph which shows the binding ability of PEP1 to androgen receptor measured by using the conjugate of PEP1-FITC (Fluorescein isothiocyanate) in the stromal cell line of the BPH induced animal model (WPMY-1).
Fig 8 represents a graph which shows the binding ability of PEP1 to androgen receptor measured by using the conjugate of PEP1-FITC (Fluorescein isothiocyanate) in the epithelial cell line of the BPH induced animal model (RWPE-1).
Fig 9 represents a photograph of an electrophoresis which shows the effect of PEP1 to the expression of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), which is increased in BPH induced model.
Fig 10 represents an immunostaining photograph which shows the effect of PEP1 to the expression of Ki67 (MK67), which is increased in BPH induced model when BPH is induced.
Fig 11 represents a photograph of the results, which show the effect of PEP1 to cells related to BPH tissues in the experiment of BPH animal models by H&E stain method.
Fig 12 represents a photograph of the results, which show the effect of PEP1 to cells related to BPH tissue in the experiment of BPH animal models by Masson's trichrome stain method.
Fig 13 represents a graph which shows the change of body weights of the animals in the experiment for measuring the effect of PEP1 in BPH animal model.
Fig 14 represents a graph which shows the change of prostate weights of the animals models in the experiment for measuring the effect of PEP1 in BPH animal model.
Fig 15 represents a graph which shows the change of seminal vesicle weights of the animals in the experiment for measuring the effect of PEP1 in BPH animal model.
BEST MODE OF EXAMINATING THE INVENTION
Since the present invention can be adapted to various fields of use and in various modifications, the followings are more detailed descriptions of the present invention. Nevertheless, this is no means to limit the form of practical application; it should be understood that the intention is to include the concept and the extent of technology in all of the modifications, equivalents to alternatives. In describing the present invention, if any detailed description about the prior art is considered to deteriorate the fundamental principles of the present invention, the description will be omitted.
Telomere is known as a repetitive sequence of genetic material found at the ends of chromosomes that prevent chromosomes from damage or merging onto other chromosomes. The length of the telomere is shortened at each cell division, and after a certain number of cell division, the telomere length is extremely shortened to the extent in which the cell stops dividing and dies. On the other hand, the elongation of telomeres is known to extend the life span of a cell. For example, cancer cells excrete an enzyme called telomerase, which prevents shortening of telomeres, thus resulting in proliferation of cancer cells. The inventors of the present invention have identified that a peptide derived from telomerase is effective in treating and preventing BPH and have completed the present invention.
In an embodiment of the present disclosure, a peptide of an amino acid sequence SEQ ID NO: 1, an active peptide fragment of the above-mentioned peptide or an active peptide having a sequence identity of 80% or greater to the amino acid sequence of the above-mentioned peptide comprise telomerase, in particular, telomerase derived from Homo sapiens The peptides disclosed herein may include peptides comprising an amino acid sequence at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99% of sequence homology with the peptide of SEQ ID NO 1 or a fragment thereof. Moreover, the peptides disclosed in the present invention may include peptides having differences from SEQ ID NO: 1 or a fragment thereof in at least one amino acids, at least 2 amino acids, at least 3 amino acids, at least 4 amino acids, at least 5 transformed amino acids, at least 6 transformed amino acids, or at least 7 amino acids.
In one embodiment of the present invention, changes in amino acids include modifications of peptide's physical and chemical characteristics. For example, amino acid modification can be performed for improving thermal stability of the peptide, altering substrate specificity, and changing the optimal pH.
The term "amino acid" herein includes not only the 22 standard amino acids that are naturally integrated into a peptide but also the D-isomers and modified amino acids. Therefore, in a specific embodiment of the present invention, a peptide herein includes a peptide having D-amino acids. In addition, a peptide may include non-standard amino acids such as those that have been post-translationally modified. Examples of post-translational modification include phosphorylation, glycosylation, acylation(including acetylation, myristorylation, palmitoylation), alkylation, carboxylation, hydroxylation, glycation, biotinylation, ubiquitinylation, modification in chemical properties (e.g. β-removing deimidation, deamidation) and structural modification (e.g. formation of disulfide bridge). Also, changes of amino acids include the changes of amino acids that occur due to chemical reaction during the combination process with cross-linkers for formation of a peptide conjugate, such as changes in an amino group, carboxyl group or side chain.
A peptide disclosed herein may be a wild-type peptide that has been identified and isolated from natural sources. Meanwhile, when compared to SEQ ID NO: 1 or its fragments, the peptides disclosed herein may be artificial variants that comprise one or more amino acids substituted, deleted and/or inserted. Amino acid alteration in wild-type polypeptides - not only in artificial variants - comprises protein folding and/or conservative substitutions of amino acids that do not influence activities significantly. Examples of conservative substitutions may be within the groups of basic amino acids (arginine, lysine and histidine), acidic amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid), polar amino acids (glutamine and asparagines), hydrophobic amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine and methionine), aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine), and small amino acids (glycine, alanine, serine, and threonine). The amino acid substitutions that do not generally alter the specific activities are known in the art. Most common occurring alterations are Ala/Ser, Val/Ile, Asp/Glu, Thr/Ser, Ala/Gly, Ala/Thr, Ser/Asn, Ala/Val, Ser/Gly, Tyr/Phe, Ala/Pro, Lys/Arg, Asp/Asn, Leu/Ile, Leu/Val, Ala/Glu, Asp/Gly, and the opposite alterations thereof. Other examples of conservative substitutions are shown in the following Table 1:
|Original amino acid||Examples of residue substitution||Preferable residue substitution|
||val; leu; ile
||lys; gln; asn
||gln; his; asp, lys; arg
||asn; gln; lys; arg
||leu; val; met; ala; phe; norleucine
||norleucine; ile ; val; met; ala; phe
||arg; gln; asn
||leu; phe; ile
||leu; val; ile; ala; tyr
||trp; phe ; thr; ser
||ile; leu; met; phe; ala; norleucine
The substantial transformation of the biological properties of peptides are performed by selecting a significantly different substitution in the following efficacies: (a) the efficacy in maintaining the structure of the polypeptide backbone in the area of substitution, such as sheet or helical three-dimensional structures, (b) the efficacy in maintaining electrical charge or hydrophobicity of the molecule in the target area, or (c) the efficacy of maintaining the bulk of the side chain. Natural residues are divided into groups by general side chain properties as the following:
- (1) hydrophobicity: Norleucine, met, ala, val, leu, ile;
- (2) neutral hydrophilicity: cys, ser, thr;
- (3) acidity: asp, glu;
- (4) basicity: asn, gin, his, lys, arg;
- (5) residue that affects chain orientation: gly, pro; and
- (6) aromaticity: trp, tyr, phe.
Non-conservative substitutions may be performed by exchanging a member of the above classes to that of a different class. Any cysteine residues that are not related in maintaining the proper three-dimensional structure of the peptide can typically be substituted into serine, thus increasing the oxidative stability of the molecule and preventing improper cross-linkage. Conversely, improvement of stability can be achieved by adding cysteine bond(s) to the peptide.
Another type of amino acid variants of peptides are those having a changed pattern of peptide glycosylation. The term "change" herein means deletion of at least one carbohydrate residues that are found in a peptide and/or addition of at least one glycosylated residues that do not exist within a peptide.
Glycosylation in peptides are typically N-linked or O-linked. The term "N-linked" herein refers to that carbohydrate residues are attached to the side chain of asparagine residues. As tripeptide sequences, asparagine-X-serine and asparagine-X-threonine (wherein the X is any amino acid except proline) are a recognition sequence for attaching a carbohydrate residue enzymatically to the side chain of asparagine. Therefore, with the presence of one of these tripeptide sequences in a polypeptide, the potential glycosylation sites are created. "O-linked glycosylation" means attaching one of sugar N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, or xylose to hydroxyl amino acids. The hydroxyl amino acids are most typically serine or threonine, but 5-hydroxyproline or 5-hydroxylysine can be used.
Addition of a glycosylation site to a peptide is conveniently performed by changing an amino acid sequence to contain a tripeptide sequence mentioned above (for N-linked glycosylation sites). These changes may be made by addition of at least one from serine or threonine residues to the first antibody sequence, or by substitution with these residues (for O-linked glycosylation sites).
Also the peptide according to the present invention comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, the peptide comprising the amino acid sequence having more than 80% homology with above-mentioned sequence, or fragments of the above-mentioned peptide has the advantage of low toxicity and high stability in living matter. The SEQ ID No: 1 as used herein is a telomerase-derived peptide comprised of 16 amino acids.
SEQ ID NO: 1 EARPALLTSRLRFIPK
An embodiment of the present invention provides the composition for treating and preventing BPH which comprises the peptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, the peptide comprising the amino acid sequence having more than 80% homology with above-mentioned sequence, or fragments of the above-mentioned peptide.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the composition may have applications with all animals including human, dog, chicken, pig, cow, sheep, guinea pig, and monkey.
In one embodiment of the present invention provides the pharmaceutical composition for treating and preventing BPH which comprises the peptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, the peptide comprising the amino acid sequence having more than 80% homology with above-mentioned sequence, or fragments of the above-mentioned peptide. In the pharmaceutical composition according to one embodiment of the present invention may be administered through oral, rectal, transdermal, intravenous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, in the bone marrow, epidural or subcutaneous routes.
Forms of oral administration may be, but not limited to, tablets, pills, soft or hard capsules, granules, powders, solution, or emulsion. Forms of non-oral administration can be, but not limited to, injections, drips, lotions, ointments, gels, creams, suspensions, emulsions, suppository, patch, or spray.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the pharmaceutical composition, if necessary, may contain additives, such as diluents, excipients, lubricants, binders, disintegrants, buffers, dispersants, surfactants, coloring agents, aromatics or sweeteners. In one embodiment of the present invention, the pharmaceutical composition may be manufactured by conventional methods of the industry in the art.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the dose of the active ingredient of the medical composition may vary according to the patient's age, sex, weight, pathology and state, administration route, or prescriber's judgment. Dosage based on these factors may be determined within levels of those skilled in the art, and the daily dose, for example, may be, but not limited to, 0.01 µg / kg / day to 10 g / kg / day, specifically 0.1 µg / kg / day to 1 mg / kg / day, more specifically the 1 µg / kg / day to 0.1g / kg / day, more specifically the 1 µg / kg / day to 10 mg / kg / day, preferably 1 µg / kg / day to 1 mg / kg / day, preferably 0.005mg / kg / day to 0.05 mg / kg / day, most preferably 0.01 mg / kg / day, but it can be adjusted if there is the differences of the effect according to administration dosage. For an adult, it is preferable that the dosage for the administration is 0.1 mg to 1mg, preferably 0.4mg to 0.6mg, especially the dosage of 0.56mg is most preferred.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the pharmaceutical composition may be administered, but not limited to, 1 to 3 times a day.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the composition may contain 0.01 g/L to 1 kg/L, specifically 0.1g/L to 100g/L, more specifically 1 g/L to 10g/L of a peptide comprising amino acid sequence of at least one of SEQ ID NO: 1, a peptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 80% sequence homology with the above-mentioned sequences, or a fragment of the above-mentioned thereof. When the peptide is contained in the above-mentioned ranges, both of safety and stability of the composition can be satisfied and the ranges are appropriate in terms of cost-effectiveness.
In one embodiment of the present invention provides the food composition for treating and preventing BPH which comprises the peptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, the peptide comprising the amino acid sequence having more than 80% homology with above-mentioned sequence, or fragments of the above-mentioned peptide.
In one embodiment of the present invention, food composition is not limited to specific forms, but, for example, may be tablets, granules, powder, liquid, and solid forms. Each form may be formed with ingredients commonly used in the industry appropriately chosen by those skilled in the art, in addition to the active ingredient, and may produce a synergic effect in combination of other ingredients.
The terms used herein is intended to be used to describe the embodiments, not to limit the present invention. Terms without numbers in front are not to limit the quantity but to show that there may be more than one thing of the term used. The terms "comprising", "having", "including" and "containing" shall be interpreted openly (i.e. "including but not limited to").
The reason why the numeric values are mentioned as the ranges is only because it is convenient to describe in the range rather than individual numbers. Unless otherwise noted, each individual numeric values should be understood to be described individually and integrated into the specification. Thresholds in all ranges are included and can be combined independently.
Unless otherwise noted or clearly contradicting in context, all methods mentioned herein can be performed in a proper order. The use of any one embodiment and all embodiment, or exemplary language (e.g., "such as", "like ∼"), unless included in the claims, is used to more clearly describe the present invention, not to limit the scope of the present invention. Any language herein outside of the claims should not be interpreted as a necessity of the present invention. Unless defined otherwise, technical and scientific terms used herein have meanings ordinarily understood by a person skilled in the art that the present invention belongs to.
The preferred embodiments of the present invention include the best mode known to the inventors to perform the present invention. Variations in the preferred embodiments can become clear to those skilled in the art after reading the statements above. The present inventors' hope that those skilled in the art can use the variations adequately and present invention be conducted in other ways than listed herein.
EMBODIMENTS FOR ESTABLISHING THE PRESENT INVENTION
Hereinafter, the present disclosure will be described in detail through examples and test examples. However, the following examples and test examples are for illustrative purposes only and it will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that the scope of the present disclosure is not limited by the examples and test examples.
EXAMPLE 1: Synthesis of a peptide
The peptide of SEQ ID NO: 1 was synthesized according to the conventionally known method of solid phase peptide synthesis. More specifically, the peptide was synthesized by coupling each amino acid from C-terminus through Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis, SPPS, using ASP48S (Peptron, Inc., Daejeon ROK). Those peptides with their first amino acid at the C-terminus being attached to a resin were used as follows:
All the amino acids to synthesize the peptide were protected by Fmoc at the N-terminus, and the amino acid residues were protected by Trt, Boc, t-Bu (t-butylester), Pbf (2,2,4,6,7-pentamethyl dihydro-benzofuran-5-sulfonyl) that can be dissolved in an acid. Examples include the followings:
Fmoc-Ala-OH, Fmoc-Arg(Pbf)-OH, Fmoc-Glu(OtBu)-OH, Fmoc-Pro-OH, Fmoc-Leu-OH, Fmoc-Ile-OH, Fmoc-Phe-OH, Fmoc-Ser(tBu)-OH, Fmoc-Thr(tBu)-OH, Fmoc-Lys(Boc)-OH, Fmoc-Gln(Trt)-OH, Fmoc-Trp(Boc)-OH, Fmoc-Met-OH, Fmoc-Asn(Trt)-OH, Fmoc-Tyr(tBu)-OH, Fmoc-Ahx-OH, Trt-Mercaptoacetic acid.
HBTU[2-(1H-Benzotriazole-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetamethylaminium hexafluorophosphate] / HOBt [N-Hydroxybenzotriazole] /NMM [4-Methylmorpholine] were used as the coupling reagents. Piperidine in 20% DMF was used to remove Fmoc. In order to remove the protection from residues or to separate the synthesized peptides from Resin, cleavage cocktail [TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) /TIS (triisopropylsilane) / EDT (ethanedithiol) / H2
O=92.5/2.5/2.5/2.5] was used.
The peptide synthesis was performed by using solid phase scaffold with the repetition of the following processes: starting with the amino acid protection, separate reaction of each amino acid, washing with solvents, and deprotection. Each peptide was synthesized by using the solid phase scaffold combined to starting amino acid with the amino acid protection, reacting the corresponding amino acids separately, washing with a solvent and deprotected, and repeating the processes. Upon the release from the resin, the synthesized peptides were purified by HPLC, validated by Mass Spectrometry, and freeze-dried, and verify for synthesis by MS, and then freeze-dried.
The purity of the prepared peptide was found to be 95% or higher by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Specific synthesis process of PEP 1 may be as follows:
- 1) Coupling
The amino acid (8 equivalent) protected with NH2-Lys(Boc)-2-chloro-Trityl Resin, and coupling agent HBTU(8 equivalent)/HOBt(8 equivalent.)/NMM(16 equivalent) melted in DMF were mixed together, and incubated at room temperature (RT) for 2 hr. Following the incubation, the reaction mixture was subjected to the sequential washes of DMF, MeOH, and DMF.
- 2) Fmoc deprotection
Piperidine in 20% DMF was added and incubated at RT for 5 minutes 2 times, then sequentially washed with DMF, MeOH, and DMF.
- 3) Making the basic framework of peptide, NH2-E(OtBu)-A-R(Pbf)-P-A-L-L-T(tBu)-S(tBu)-R(Pbf)L-R(Pbf)-F-I-P-K(Boc)-2-chloro-Trityl Resin) by repeating the above mentioned-reactions 1) and 2).
- 4) Cleavage: Cleavage Cocktail was added to the completely synthesized peptide, thus separating the synthesized peptide from the resin.
- 5) Pre-chilled diethyl ether was added into the obtained mixture, and then centrifugation was used to precipitate gathered peptide.
- 6) After purification by Prep-HPLC, the molecular weight was confirmed by LC/MS and lyophilized to produce in a powder form.
EXAMPLE 2: Verifying the effect of PEP1 to BPH by the experiment using BPH induced animal model
1) Preparation of BPH induced animal model
As androgen, the most commonly used hormone in the body is testosterone. But the most powerful hormone of androgens related to development of prostate is 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which is made by combining testosterone and 5α-reductase. In rat, when sulpiride is administrated for 30 days in the concentration of 40mg/kg, it inhibits type 2 dopamine receptor to increase the concentration of prolactin in the body and induce hyperprolactinemia to activate 5α-reductase and it shows the synergic effect by reacting with testosterone. It is reported that DHT made by hyperprolactinemia make more gaining weight in lateral lobe than dorsal lobe or ventral lobe of prostate. Based on this fact, the experiment using PEP1 according to example 1 only or co-administration with other test material to BPH induced animal model was done as follows. Mature Sprague-Dawley male rats (6 weeks old) was purchased from Jae-il Experimental Animal Center and raised a week (7 weeks old, 49 days) for purification, and then it was used for the experiment. For inducing BPH, sulpiride (40mg/kg) was administrated orally per once a day for 30 days. Every experiment followed the result of the prior experiment (Van Coppenolle et al., 2001). Administrating the test materials started in every 10 a.m. for every animal. After administrating the test materials, the general status and special symptoms of every animal were observed every day. Also before administrating the test materials, the body weights of every animal were measured and recorded.
2) Test materials and dosage of administration
Sulpiride as test material was purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA) and used for the experiment. The inventors make sulpiride (40mg/kg) be administrated once a day for 60 days by intraperitoneal injection sequentially to induce BPH by hyperprolactinemia. Sulpiride was solved in the 0.1 N HCI solution first and then neutralized to pH 7.0 by using the 0.1 N NaOH solution every time before administrating of the test materials. For the group of co-administration, PEP1 according to the example 1 and finasteride was administrated after administration of sulpiride by intraperitoneal injection. PEP1 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10mg/kg) is freshly made before using and administrated by subcutaneous injection. Finasteride was made by using 15% Ethanol/Corn oil (v/v) as vehicle every day. The dosage of the administration was calculated based on the concentration of 0.5ml/kg with reflecting the body weight measured every day. The administration was done to 7 groups each as following Table 2 to verifying the effect of PEP1 to BPH.
||PEP1 (0.01mg/kg, s.c.) + sulpiride (40mg/kg/day, i.p.)
||PEP1 (0.1mg/kg, s.c.) + sulpiride (40mg/kg/day, i.p.)
||PEP1 (1mg/kg, s.c.) + sulpiride (40mg/kg/day, i.p.)
||PEP1 (10mg/kg, s.c.) + sulpiride (40mg/kg/day, i.p.)
||finasteride(10mg/kg, oral) +sulpiride (40mg/kg/day, i.p.)
|(i.p = intraperitoneal, s.c = subcutaneous)|
1) For BPH induced model, after the experiment of administrating PEP1 and the test materials, collecting organs of animals, preserving them and measuring weights of them
In 24 hours after administrating the test materials in 60 days all animals were anesthetized by ether and then their blood collected from abdominal aorta was separated into the serum. The separated serum was preserved at -80°C to analyze hormone.
For all animals, after testing the exist of prepuce separation (PPS), the accessory reproductive glands such as gland penis (Gp), seminal vesicles and coagulating glands (SV), ventral prostate (VP), cowpers's gland (CpG), levator aniplus bulbocavernosus muscle (LABC) ware separated sequentially from the body. The detailed separation process followed OECD protocol.
For the separation of Gp, as mentioned in Fig 1, grip Gp section by using tweezer and cut separation line of prepuce. For a lung, as mentioned in Fig 1, after separating bladder from abdominal muscle layer, expose the left and right lobes of the lung covered by lipid layer, reveal the bladder to SV, separate the lipid from the left and right lobes of the lung by using tweezer, cut the left lobe of the lung from urethra after pulling by using micro tweezer, and cut the right lobe of the lung after exposing from urethra by using forceps. For the SV comprising coagulating gland, as mentioned in Fig 1, prepare paper towels beneath SV to classify muscle, lipid layer and glands. Fix the base of SV comprising seminiferous tubes connected with urethra by using clamp to prevent leakage during the removal of seminal vesicles. After removing the lipid, clean up related accessory organs, remove the clamp and put the seminal vesicles on the dish to measure its weight.
2) The effect of the administration of PEP1 to the expression of 5α-reductase in BPH induced animal test model
After administrating sulpiride with test materials for 60 days and collecting ventral prostate, the effect to the expression of 5α-reductase was measured by using RT-PCR. Specifically, total RNA separated from ventral prostate (25mg) and re-suspended by adding DEPC-treated water. After then RNA was quantified by using spectrophotometer. The first strand cDNA was synthesized by methods of Torres and Ortega (2004). The profile of PCR had denaturing 94°C (30 sec), annealing 55°C (30 sec), extension 72°C (30 sec) and 30-35 cycle times. For the control of quantification in electrophoresis, GAPDH whose expression level is not changed by other drugs was used. As a result, the increased level of 5α-reductase by administration of sulpiride was inhibited in the group of PEP1 administration in dose-dependent and the inhibitory effect in high-dose PEP1 administration group (GV 10, the group of administrating PEP1 in 10mg) was higher than the group of finasteride administration (see Fig 2). Thus PEP1 can give the dose-dependent treatment and improvement effect to BPH by inhibiting 5α-reductase.
3) The effect of PEP1 administration to the organs of BPH induced test animal model
In below Table 3, it is reported that peptide PEP1 effected to the weight of seminal vesicle, the weight of prostate and prostate index in each group of experiment. The prostate index described in Table 3 was calculated by using the equation of "body weight / Final prostate weight".
|Group||Usage||Weight of seminal vesicle (g)||Weight of prostate (g)||Prostate index|
||Sulpiride 40 mg/kg 60 days
||Sulpiride 40 mg/kg 60 days + PEP1 0.01 mg/kg
||Sulpiride 40 mg/kg 60 days + PEP1 0.1 mg/kg
||Sulpiride 40 mg/kg 60 days + PEP1 1 mg/kg
||Sulpiride 40 mg/kg 60 days + PEP1 10 mg/kg
||Sulpiride 40 mg/kg 60 days + Finasteride 5 mg/kg
The result which was described in Table 3 was turn into a graph, i.e. observing the result of measuring the seminal vesicles after administrating PEP1 and finasteride (5mg/kg) in BPH induced animal followed by administrating sulpiride, and the graph shows that the weight of seminal vesicle in the case of high-dose PEP1 administration (10 mg/kg) was significantly decreased (see Fig 3). Also, the case of co-administration of sulpiride and PEP1 shows that the weight of prostate was significantly decreased in BPH induced animal model (see Fig 4). If P-value is under 0.05, it means a significant result.
Therefore, through the result of example 2, the administration of PEP1 to BPH induced animal model by sulpiride can be effective to, dose-dependently, the decrease of expression of 5α-reductase, the decrease of the weight of seminal vesicles and the decrease of the weight of prostate. Thus, the administration of PEP1 can be effective to treat and improve BPH related disease symptoms which comes from the expression of 5α-reductase and the weight of reproductive organs.
EXAMPLE 3: VERIFYING THE EFFECT OF PEP1 TO BPH BY OBSERVATION OF CHANGES IN THE PROLIFERATION OF PROSTATE STROMAL CELL AND EPITHELIAL CELL BY DHT
1) Preparation for test cells and process of the experiment
Testosterone changes into DHT by 5α-reductase when it is injected to the body and it induces proliferation of prostate cells to cause BPH. Based on this, the experiment has been done to observe the effect on proliferation of prostate cell line by using administration of PEP1 according to example 1. As the cell lines, the WPMY-1 (prostate stromal cell line) and the RWPE-1 (prostate epithelium cell line) from animal models are used. For the experiment, WPMY-1 (2.5x103
cells) and RWPE-1 (1x104
cells) were seeded to 96 well which has separated experimental groups like Table 4 to observe the proliferation change. The proliferation change was observed by putting CCK-8 solution into each well of the media per 10µL after suctioning the culture media, and measuring optical density for 1-4 hour at 450nm wavelength.
2) Confirmation of the observed result and the effects
In DHT non-treated groups (1-3 groups), there was not significant differences between the group of not administrating PEP1 (1 group) and the groups of administrating PEP1 (2 and 3 groups) in both WPMY-1 and RWPE-1. In DHT treated groups (4-6 groups) there is significant differences between the group of not administrating PEP1 (4 group) and the groups of administrating PEP1 (5 and 6 groups), and the groups which were treated by PEP1 shows significant inhibition effect to proliferation (see Table 4 and Fig 5, 6). Therefore, PEP1 can be effective in the inhibition of proliferation of prostate cells, which affects DHT-induced BPH.
|Treatment condition for each cell line group|
|group (WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 in common)||Treatment|
||Cell line only|
||Treating PEP1 100µM to cell line|
||Treating PEP1 200µM to cell line|
||Treating DHT 25µM to cell line at the same time|
||treating PEP1 (100 µM) and DHT (25µM) to cell line at the same time|
||treating PEP1 (200 µM) and DHT (25µM) to cell line at the same time|
EXAMPLE 4: VERIFYING THE BINDING ABILITY TO ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AND THE MECHANISM OF INHIBITING BPH OF PEP1
1) Preparation for test cells and process of the experiment
DHT created by 5α-reductase promotes proliferation of prostate cell by binding to androgen receptor and causes BPH. Based on this, the experiment related to proliferation of prostate cell which administrates PEP1 according to example 1 to the body has been done. As the cell lines, WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 from animal models were used. WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 were separated into the group of anti-androgen receptor and the group of isotype control, incubated with each anti-bodies to do competitive test by putting PEP1-FITC(fluorescein isothiocyanate) in it, and measured by value of fluorescence for the result. The fluorescence value was measured by using flow-cytometry method.
2) Confirmation of the observed result and the effects
For each of WPMY-1 and RWPE-1, the fluorescence values were measured in which a case reacted to the anti-androgen receptor isotype control antibody first (competed with antibody, peak of the farthest to the right), other case reacted to the anti-androgen receptor antibody (competed with antibody, peak of the middle), and another case not reacted to two antibodies neither bound to FITC (peak of the farthest to the left) (see Fig 7 and Fig 8). In case of competing with anti-androgen receptor isotype control antibody, PEP1 bound to anti-androgen receptor so the value of fluorescence of PEP1-FITC conjugate was increased (the peak shifted to the right of histogram in the graph). In case of competing with anti-androgen receptor, PEP1 bound weakly to anti-androgen receptor so the value of fluorescence was decreased (the peak shifted to the left of histogram in the graph). Therefore, for considering that PEP1 inhibits BPH induced by DHT which binds to anti-androgen receptor, PEP1 can affect BPH by binding to an anti-androgen receptor directly.
EXAMPLE 5: VERIFYING IN VIVO EFFECTIVENESS OF PEP1 TO BPH BY USING BPH INDUCED ANIMAL MODEL
1) Preparation of test animal
The experiment used 6-8 weeks old male C57BL/6 (n=10 / group) mice and the mice were raised in the SPF (specific pathogen free) area of experimental animal laboratory in Medical College of Seoul University. Testosterone enanthate (TE, purchased from EVER Pharma Hena GmbH, Germany) for injection 50mg and estradiol valerate (purchased from EVER Pharma Hena GmbH, Germany) 0.5 mg are respectively mixed into 70µl volume of micro-osmotic pump (Alzet pump, purchased from DURECT Corporation, USA), and the pump was transplanted in the back of mouse under anesthetic. The pump was designed to release the hormone in the concentration of 0.11µl per an hour in 28 days (2 weeks) into the mouse by using osmosis phenomenon.
2) Test materials and administration dosage
As test materials, testosterone and finasteride were used. For prepared animal models, per one subject (25g mouse model) 250 µg of PEP1 according to example 1 and 2500 µg of finasteride (in DMSO or cyclodextrin, purchased from Sigma Aldrich, USA) were administered subcutaneously (injection) respectively every day. After 2 weeks from injecting test materials (4 weeks after transplanting the pump to animal model), the blood was collected from supraorbital vein and centrifuged in 14000rpm, 4°C, 30 min to separate blood serum, and the prostate was extracted and froze in liquid nitrogen at -70°C or fixed in a fixing fluid. The test groups for experiment are described in Table 5 below.
||Normal mouse (treated by neither testosterone nor estradiol)|
||BPH induced mouse model (treated with testosterone and estradiol)|
||Administration of PEP1 to BPH induced mouse model|
||Administration of finasteride to BPH induced mouse model|
3) Measuring the decrease of the factors which induce BPH
Inducing BPH increases PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, compulsory protein for replication) and Ki67 (MK167, compulsory protein for proliferation of cell) in prostate tissues. Based on this, a test is done to measure the effectiveness of PEP1 to inhibiting PCNA and Ki67 expression in BPH induced mouse model. PCNA was measured by using 2D-gel electrophoresis with protein of the extracted from prostate tissue cells, and Ki67 was measured by immunostain method to detect expression level in tissue. As a result, the expression of PCNA and Ki67, which were increased in prostate tissue of BPH induced animal, were decreased by treatment of PEP1 (see Fig 9 and Fig 10). Therefore, PEP1 inhibits the BPH inducing factors and it can be effective to treating and improving BPH.
4) Measuring the change of tissue related to inducing BPH
It is known that BPH was induced by abnormal proliferation of stromal cell and epithelial cell which consist the prostate glands. Based on this, for detecting that PEP1 causes the changes in the prostate tissue of the BPH induced animal model, a histological analysis was done to BPH induced animal model. H&E staining method was used to detect the changes in general tissue and Masson's trichrome Staining method was used to measure the level of inflammatory reaction and to detect the shape of nuclear more clearly. For the result, it was shown that the epithelial layer of the BPH induced group was thicker than that of control group, but, in the group of treating PEP1, it was shown that the epithelial layer was arranged in regular order like that of control group and that the thickness of the epithelium was less thick than that of the BPH induced group (see Fig 11 and 12). Therefore, PEP1 can be effective for to restoring the changes of the BPH induced tissue and turning the tissue to the normal tissue, which does not show BPH.
5) Measuring the changes of BPH related organs
BPH can be detected by the changes of the weights of prostate and seminal vesicle. Based on this, for detecting the effect of PEP1 to the weights of prostate and seminal vesicle which directly show the BPH related symptoms, body weight, prostate weight and seminal vesicles weight were measured in BPH induced animal model. The results of the measurement are shown in Table 5 by group as a graph (see Fig 13, 14 and 15). The change of the overall body weight was not shown, but it was shown that the prostate weight in PEP1 treated group was significantly decreased as compared with the result of hormone treated group and the decrease of the weight in PEP1 treated group was comparable to the result of the group of administering finasteride, which was known as a drug for BPH treatment, and so it is confirmed that the decrease in PEP1 treated group is significant. For seminal vesicle, the seminal vesicle weight of the PEP1 treated group was less than that of the hormone treated group. Therefore, PEP1 can be effective for decreasing significantly the weight of organs having symptom of BPH.
In all examples above, through the experimental in BPH induced animal model in vitro and in vivo, it is shown that PEP1 has good treatment effect to the BPH related inducing factors, the hormone receptors, and the substantive reproductive organs. Therefore, it is considered that PEP1 is effective for treating, improving and preventing BPH, and there is a high likelihood of developing PEP1 into a composition for BPH treatment and a method for treating BPH
SEQUENCE LIST FREE TEXT
Telomerase whole sequence 1132 aa
<110> KAEL-GEMVAX CO., LTD.
<120> A COMPOSITION FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING BENIGN PROSTATE HYPERPLASIA
<150> KR 10-2013-0126666
<170> PatentIn version 3.2
<213> Homo sapiens
<213> Homo sapiens