The present invention relates to a wireless communication system and, more particularly, to methods for transmitting and receiving signals to and from an eNode B (eNB) by a User Equipment (UE) using a direct communication scheme between UEs in a wireless communication system.
3GPP LTE (3rd generation partnership project long term evolution hereinafter abbreviated LTE) communication system is schematically explained as an example of a wireless communication system to which the present invention is applicable.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of E-UMTS network structure as one example of a wireless communication system. E-UMTS (evolved universal mobile telecommunications system) is a system evolved from a conventional UMTS (universal mobile telecommunications system). Currently, basic standardization works for the E-UMTS are in progress by 3GPP. E-UMTS is called LTE system in general. Detailed contents for the technical specifications of UMTS and E-UMTS refers to release 7 and release 8 of "3rd generation partnership project; technical specification group radio access network", respectively.
Referring to FIG. 1, E-UMTS includes a user equipment (UE), an eNode B (eNB), and an access gateway (hereinafter abbreviated AG) connected to an external network in a manner of being situated at the end of a network (E-UTRAN). The eNode B may be able to simultaneously transmit multi data streams for a broadcast service, a multicast service and/or a unicast service.
One eNode B contains at least one cell. The cell provides a downlink transmission service or an uplink transmission service to a plurality of user equipments by being set to one of 1.25 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz, and 20 MHz of bandwidths. Different cells can be configured to provide corresponding bandwidths, respectively. An eNode B controls data transmissions/receptions to/from a plurality of the user equipments. For a downlink (hereinafter abbreviated DL) data, the eNode B informs a corresponding user equipment of time/frequency region on which data is transmitted, coding, data size, HARQ (hybrid automatic repeat and request) related information and the like by transmitting DL scheduling information. And, for an uplink (hereinafter abbreviated UL) data, the eNode B informs a corresponding user equipment of time/frequency region usable by the corresponding user equipment, coding, data size, HARQ-related information and the like by transmitting UL scheduling information to the corresponding user equipment. Interfaces for user-traffic transmission or control traffic transmission may be used between eNode Bs. A core network (CN) consists of an AG (access gateway) and a network node for user registration of a user equipment and the like. The AG manages a mobility of the user equipment by a unit of TA (tracking area) consisting of a plurality of cells.
 WO 2012/128505 A2
discloses a method and a device for communicating device-to-device. The method for a first device to transmit a signal to a second device enables the first device to request to a base station a resource allocation for transmitting the signal to the second device, receive from the base station scheduling information for transmitting the signal to the second device, and the signal can be transmitted from the first device to the second device on the basis of the scheduling information, wherein the scheduling information includes information on an uplink resource for transmitting the signal from the first device to the second device.
 WO 2012/075630 A1
discloses a method, apparatus, and computer program for supporting simultaneous multi-use of resources of a backhaul link between a relay base station and another base station of a cellular radio network. The relay base station is configured to forward transmission resources of the backhaul link to at least one communication device located in a cell of the relay base station. The communication device(s) is/are then configured to utilize the resources of the backhaul link for device-to-device connections.
Wireless communication technologies have been developed up to LTE based on WCDMA. Yet, the ongoing demands and expectations of users and service providers are consistently increasing. Moreover, since different kinds of radio access technologies are continuously developed, a new technological evolution is required to have a future competitiveness. Cost reduction per bit, service availability increase, flexible frequency band use, simple structure/open interface and reasonable power consumption of user equipment and the like are required for the future competitiveness.
Based on the above discussion, a method for transmitting and receiving signals to and from an eNB by a UE using a direct communication scheme between UE in a wireless communication system and an apparatus therefor will be proposed hereinafter.
The invention is defined by independent claims 1 and 6. In the following, parts of the description and drawings referring to embodiments which are not covered by the claims are not presented as embodiments of the invention, but as examples useful for understanding the invention. In an aspect of the present disclosure, provided herein is a method for receiving a signal using Device-to-Device (D2D) communication by a User Equipment (UE) in a wireless communication system, including receiving information about whether large-scale properties between a D2D communication signal and a downlink signal transmitted by a Base Station (BS) are equal, through a higher layer; and receiving the D2D communication signal from the BS through an uplink resource, based on the information about whether the large-scale properties are equal, as further specified in claim 1.
The method may further include receiving the downlink signal from the BS; and transmitting a response signal to the downlink signal to the BS together with a response signal to the D2D communication signal.
The method may further include receiving the D2D communication signal from another UE and a reception timing of the D2D communication signal from the other UE may be different from a reception timing of the D2D signal from the BS. A reception timing of the D2D communication signal from the BS may be equal to a reception timing of the downlink signal from the BS.
In another aspect of the present disclosure, provided herein is a method for transmitting a signal using Device-to-Device (D2D) communication by a Base Station (BS) in a wireless communication system according to claim 6.
The method may further include transmitting the downlink signal to the target UE; and receiving a response signal to the D2D communication signal from the target UE together with a response signal to the downlink signal.
In the above embodiments, the large-scale properties include Doppler spread, Doppler shift, average delay, delay spread, and average gain. The information about whether the large-scale properties are equal includes information about at least the same one parameter as the downlink signal transmitted by the BS among the Doppler spread, the Doppler shift, the average delay, the delay spread, and the average gain. The information about whether the large-scale properties are equal may include an identifier of the BS.
According to embodiments of the present invention, a UE can efficiently transmit and receive signals to and from an eNB using a direct communication scheme between UEs.
It will be appreciated by persons skilled in the art that that the effects that can be achieved through the present invention are not limited to what has been particularly described hereinabove and other advantages of the present invention will be more clearly understood from the following detailed description.
[Description of Drawings]
FIG. 1 illustrates a configuration of an Evolved Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (E-UMTS) network as an example of a wireless communication system.
FIG. 2 illustrates a control-plane protocol stack and a user-plane protocol stack in a radio interface protocol architecture conforming to a 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) radio access network standard between a User Equipment (UE) and an Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN).
FIG. 3 illustrates physical channels and a general signal transmission method using the physical channels in a 3GPP system.
FIG. 4 illustrates a structure of a radio frame in a Long Term Evolution (LTE) system;
FIG. 5 illustrates a structure of a downlink radio frame in the LTE system.
FIG. 6 illustrates a structure of an uplink subframe in the LTE system.
FIG. 7 illustrates a configuration of a general Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) communication system.
FIGS. 8 and 9 illustrate downlink Reference Signal (RS) configurations in an LTE system supporting downlink transmission through four antennas (4-Tx downlink transmission).
FIG. 10 illustrates an exemplary downlink Demodulation Reference Signal (DMRS) allocation defined in a current 3GPP standard specification.
FIG. 11 illustrates Channel State Information-Reference Signal (CSI-RS) configuration #0 of downlink CSI-RS configurations defined in a current 3GPP standard specification.
FIG. 12 is a diagram illustrating the concept of device-to-device (D2D) communication.
FIG. 13 illustrates exemplary signal transmission by an eNB to a UE using D2D communication according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 14 is a block diagram of a communication apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.
The configuration, operation, and other features of the present invention will readily be understood with embodiments of the present invention described with reference to the attached drawings. Embodiments of the present invention as set forth herein are examples in which the technical features of the present invention are applied to a 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) system.
While embodiments of the present invention are described in the context of Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) systems, they are purely exemplary. Therefore, the embodiments of the present invention are applicable to any other communication system as long as the above definitions are valid for the communication system. In addition, while the embodiments of the present invention are described in the context of Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD), they are also readily applicable to Half-FDD (H-FDD) or Time Division Duplexing (TDD) with some modifications.
The term 'Base Station (BS)' may be used to cover the meanings of terms including Remote Radio Head (RRH), evolved Node B (eNB or eNode B), Reception Point (RP), relay, etc.
FIG. 2 illustrates control-plane and user-plane protocol stacks in a radio interface protocol architecture conforming to a 3GPP wireless access network standard between a User Equipment (UE) and an Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN). The control plane is a path in which the UE and the E-UTRAN transmit control messages to manage calls, and the user plane is a path in which data generated from an application layer, for example, voice data or Internet packet data is transmitted.
A PHYsical (PHY) layer at Layer 1 (L1) provides information transfer service to its higher layer, a Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. The PHY layer is connected to the MAC layer via transport channels. The transport channels deliver data between the MAC layer and the PHY layer. Data is transmitted on physical channels between the PHY layers of a transmitter and a receiver. The physical channels use time and frequency as radio resources. Specifically, the physical channels are modulated in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for Downlink (DL) and in Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) for Uplink (UL).
The MAC layer at Layer 2 (L2) provides service to its higher layer, a Radio Link Control (RLC) layer via logical channels. The RLC layer at L2 supports reliable data transmission. RLC functionality may be implemented in a function block of the MAC layer. A Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) layer at L2 performs header compression to reduce the amount of unnecessary control information and thus efficiently transmit Internet Protocol (IP) packets such as IP version 4 (IPv4) or IP version 6 (IPv6) packets via an air interface having a narrow bandwidth.
A Radio Resource Control (RRC) layer at the lowest part of Layer 3 (or L3) is defined only on the control plane. The RRC layer controls logical channels, transport channels, and physical channels in relation to configuration, reconfiguration, and release of radio bearers. A radio bearer refers to a service provided at L2, for data transmission between the UE and the E-UTRAN. For this purpose, the RRC layers of the UE and the E-UTRAN exchange RRC messages with each other. If an RRC connection is established between the UE and the E-UTRAN, the UE is in RRC Connected mode and otherwise, the UE is in RRC Idle mode. A Non-Access Stratum (NAS) layer above the RRC layer performs functions including session management and mobility management.
One cell constituting an eNB is configured to use one of bandwidths of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20MHz and provides a DL or UL transmission service to multiple UEs. Different cells may be configured to provide different bandwidths.
DL transport channels used to deliver data from the E-UTRAN to UEs include a Broadcast Channel (BCH) carrying system information, a Paging Channel (PCH) carrying a paging message, and a Shared Channel (SCH) carrying user traffic or a control message. DL multicast traffic or control messages or DL broadcast traffic or control messages may be transmitted on a DL SCH or a separately defined DL Multicast Channel (MCH). UL transport channels used to deliver data from a UE to the E-UTRAN include a Random Access Channel (RACH) carrying an initial control message and a UL SCH carrying user traffic or a control message. Logical channels that are defined above transport channels and mapped to the transport channels include a Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH), a Paging Control Channel (PCCH), a Common Control Channel (CCCH), a Multicast Control Channel (MCCH), a Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH), etc.
FIG. 3 illustrates physical channels and a general method for transmitting signals on the physical channels in the 3GPP system.
Referring to FIG. 3, when a UE is powered on or enters a new cell, the UE performs initial cell search (S301). The initial cell search involves acquisition of synchronization to an eNB. Specifically, the UE synchronizes its timing to the eNB and acquires a cell Identifier (ID) and other information by receiving a Primary Synchronization Channel (P-SCH) and a Secondary Synchronization Channel (S-SCH) from the eNB. Then the UE may acquire information broadcast in the cell by receiving a Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) from the eNB. During the initial cell search, the UE may monitor a DL channel state by receiving a DownLink Reference Signal (DLRS).
After the initial cell search, the UE may acquire detailed system information by receiving a Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) and receiving a Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) based on information included in the PDCCH (S302).
If the UE initially accesses the eNB or has no radio resources for signal transmission to the eNB, the UE may perform a random access procedure with the eNB (S303 to S306). In the random access procedure, the UE may transmit a predetermined sequence as a preamble on a Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) (S303 and S305) and may receive a response message to the preamble on a PDCCH and a PDSCH associated with the PDCCH (S304 and S306). In the case of a contention-based RACH, the UE may additionally perform a contention resolution procedure.
After the above procedure, the UE may receive a PDCCH and/or a PDSCH from the eNB (S307) and transmit a Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) and/or a Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) to the eNB (S308), which is a general DL and UL signal transmission procedure. Particularly, the UE receives Downlink Control Information (DCI) on a PDCCH. Herein, the DCI includes control information such as resource allocation information for the UE. Different DCI formats are defined according to different usages of DCI.
Control information that the UE transmits to the eNB on the UL or receives from the eNB on the DL includes a DL/UL ACKnowledgment/Negative ACKnowledgment (ACK/NACK) signal, a Channel Quality Indicator (CQI), a Precoding Matrix Index (PMI), a Rank Indicator (RI), etc. In the 3GPP LTE system, the UE may transmit control information such as a CQI, a PMI, an RI, etc. on a PUSCH and/or a PUCCH.
FIG. 4 illustrates a structure of a radio frame used in the LTE system.
Referring to FIG. 4, a radio frame is 10ms (327200xTs
) long and divided into 10 equal-sized subframes. Each subframe is 1ms long and further divided into two slots. Each time slot is 0.5ms (15360xTs
) long. Herein, Ts
represents a sampling time and Ts
(about 33ns). A slot includes a plurality of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbols or SC-FDMA symbols in the time domain by a plurality of Resource Blocks (RBs) in the frequency domain. In the LTE system, one RB includes 12 subcarriers by 7 (or 6) OFDM symbols. A unit time during which data is transmitted is defined as a Transmission Time Interval (TTI). The TTI may be defined in units of one or more subframes. The above-described radio frame structure is purely exemplary and thus the number of subframes in a radio frame, the number of slots in a subframe, or the number of OFDM symbols in a slot may vary.
FIG. 5 illustrates exemplary control channels included in a control region of a subframe in a DL radio frame.
Referring to FIG. 5, a subframe includes 14 OFDM symbols. The first one to three OFDM symbols of a subframe are used for a control region and the other 13 to 11 OFDM symbols are used for a data region according to a subframe configuration. In FIG. 5, reference characters R1 to R4 denote RSs or pilot signals for antenna 0 to antenna 3. RSs are allocated in a predetermined pattern in a subframe irrespective of the control region and the data region. A control channel is allocated to non-RS resources in the control region and a traffic channel is also allocated to non-RS resources in the data region. Control channels allocated to the control region include a Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH), a Physical Hybrid-ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH), a Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH), etc.
The PCFICH is a physical control format indicator channel carrying information about the number of OFDM symbols used for PDCCHs in each subframe. The PCFICH is located in the first OFDM symbol of a subframe and configured with priority over the PHICH and the PDCCH. The PCFICH includes 4 Resource Element Groups (REGs), each REG being distributed to the control region based on a cell Identity (ID). One REG includes 4 Resource Elements (REs). An RE is a minimum physical resource defined by one subcarrier by one OFDM symbol. The PCFICH is set to 1 to 3 or 2 to 4 according to a bandwidth. The PCFICH is modulated in Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK).
The PHICH is a physical Hybrid-Automatic Repeat and request (HARQ) indicator channel carrying an HARQ ACK/NACK for a UL transmission. That is, the PHICH is a channel that delivers DL ACK/NACK information for UL HARQ. The PHICH includes one REG and is scrambled cell-specifically. An ACK/NACK is indicated in one bit and modulated in Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). The modulated ACK/NACK is spread with a Spreading Factor (SF) of 2 or 4. A plurality of PHICHs mapped to the same resources form a PHICH group. The number of PHICHs multiplexed into a PHICH group is determined according to the number of spreading codes. A PHICH (group) is repeated three times to obtain a diversity gain in the frequency domain and/or the time domain.
The PDCCH is a physical DL control channel allocated to the first n OFDM symbols of a subframe. Herein, n is 1 or a larger integer indicated by the PCFICH. The PDCCH occupies one or more CCEs. The PDCCH carries resource allocation information about transport channels, PCH and DL-SCH, a UL scheduling grant, and HARQ information to each UE or UE group. The PCH and the DL-SCH are transmitted on a PDSCH. Therefore, an eNB and a UE transmit and receive data usually on the PDSCH, except for specific control information or specific service data.
Information indicating one or more UEs to receive PDSCH data and information indicating how the UEs are supposed to receive and decode the PDSCH data are delivered on a PDCCH. For example, on the assumption that the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of a specific PDCCH is masked by Radio Network Temporary Identity (RNTI) "A" and information about data transmitted in radio resources (e.g. at a frequency position) "B" based on transport format information (e.g. a transport block size, a modulation scheme, coding information, etc.) "C" is transmitted in a specific subframe, a UE within a cell monitors, that is, blind-decodes a PDCCH using its RNTI information in a search space. If one or more UEs have RNTI "A", these UEs receive the PDCCH and receive a PDSCH indicated by "B" and "C" based on information of the received PDCCH.
FIG. 6 illustrates a structure of a UL subframe in the LTE system.
Referring to FIG. 6, a UL subframe may be divided into a control region and a data region. A Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) including Uplink Control Information (UCI) is allocated to the control region and a Physical uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) including user data is allocated to the data region. The middle of the subframe is allocated to the PUSCH, while both sides of the data region in the frequency domain are allocated to the PUCCH. Control information transmitted on the PUCCH may include an HARQ ACK/NACK, a CQI representing a downlink channel state, an RI for Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), a Scheduling Request (SR) requesting UL resource allocation. A PUCCH for one UE occupies one RB in each slot of a subframe. That is, the two RBs allocated to the PUCCH are frequency-hopped over the slot boundary of the subframe. Particularly, PUCCHs with m=0, m=1, and m=2 are allocated to a subframe in FIG. 6.
Now a description will be given of a MIMO system. MIMO can increase the transmission and reception efficiency of data by using a plurality of Transmission (Tx) antennas and a plurality of Reception (Rx) antennas. That is, with the use of multiple antennas at a transmitter or a receiver, MIMO can increase capacity and improve performance in a wireless communication system. The term "MIMO" is interchangeable with 'multi-antenna'.
The MIMO technology does not depend on a single antenna path to receive a whole message. Rather, it completes the message by combining data fragments received through a plurality of antennas. MIMO can increase data rate within a cell area of a predetermined size or extend system coverage at a given data rate. In addition, MIMO can find its use in a wide range including mobile terminals, relays, etc. MIMO can overcome a limited transmission capacity encountered with the conventional single-antenna technology in mobile communication.
FIG. 7 illustrates the configuration of a typical MIMO communication system.
Referring to FIG. 7, a transmitter has NT
Tx antennas and a receiver has NR
Rx antennas. The use of a plurality of antennas at both the transmitter and the receiver increases a theoretical channel transmission capacity, compared to the use of a plurality of antennas at only one of the transmitter and the receiver. The channel transmission capacity increases in proportion to the number of antennas. Therefore, transmission rate and frequency efficiency are increased. Given a maximum transmission rate Ro
that may be achieved with a single antenna, the transmission rate may be increased, in theory, to the product of Ro
and a transmission rate increase rate Ri
in the case of multiple antennas. Ri
is the smaller value between NT
For instance, a MIMO communication system with four Tx antennas and four Rx antennas may achieve a four-fold increase in transmission rate theoretically, relative to a single-antenna system. Since the theoretical capacity increase of the MIMO system was verified in the middle 1990s, many techniques have been actively proposed to increase data rate in real implementation. Some of the techniques have already been reflected in various wireless communication standards such as standards for 3G mobile communications, future-generation Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), etc.
Concerning the research trend of MIMO up to now, active studies are underway in many aspects of MIMO, inclusive of studies of information theory related to calculation of multi-antenna communication capacity in diverse channel environments and multiple access environments, studies of measuring MIMO radio channels and MIMO modeling, studies of time-space signal processing techniques to increase transmission reliability and transmission rate, etc.
Communication in a MIMO system with NT
Tx antennas and NR
Rx antennas as illustrated in FIG. 7 will be described in detail through mathematical modeling. Regarding a transmission signal, up to NT
pieces of information can be transmitted through the NT
Tx antennas, as expressed as the following vector.
A different transmission power may be applied to each piece of transmission information, s1
. Let the transmission power levels of the transmission information be denoted by P1
, respectively. Then the transmission power-controlled transmission information vector is given as
The transmission power-controlled transmission information vector ŝ
may be expressed as follows, using a diagonal matrix P
of transmission power.
transmission signals x1
. may be generated by multiplying the transmission power-controlled information vector ŝ
by a weight matrix W.
The weight matrix W
functions to appropriately distribute the transmission information to the Tx antennas according to transmission channel states, etc. These NT
transmission signals x1
are represented as a vector X,
which may be determined by [Equation 5]. Herein, wij
denotes a weight between a jth
piece of information and an ith
Tx antenna and W
is referred to as a weight matrix or a precoding matrix.
In general, the rank of a channel matrix is the maximum number of different pieces of information that can be transmitted on a given channel, in its physical meaning. Therefore, the rank of a channel matrix is defined as the smaller between the number of independent rows and the number of independent columns in the channel matrix. The rank of the channel matrix is not larger than the number of rows or columns of the channel matrix. The rank of a channel matrix H, rank
) satisfies the following constraint.
A different piece of information transmitted in MIMO is referred to as 'transmission stream' or shortly 'stream'. The 'stream' may also be called 'layer'. It is thus concluded that the number of transmission streams is not larger than the rank of channels, i.e. the maximum number of different pieces of transmittable information. Thus, the channel matrix H is determined by
"# of streams" denotes the number of streams. One thing to be noted herein is that one stream may be transmitted through one or more antennas.
One or more streams may be mapped to a plurality of antennas in many ways. The stream-to-antenna mapping may be described as follows depending on MIMO schemes. If one stream is transmitted through a plurality of antennas, this may be regarded as spatial diversity. When a plurality of streams are transmitted through a plurality of antennas, this may be spatial multiplexing. Needless to say, a hybrid scheme of spatial diversity and spatial multiplexing in combination may be contemplated.
Meanwhile, it is expected that the future-generation mobile communication standard, LTE-A will support Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) transmission in order to increase data rate, compared to the legacy LTE standard. CoMP refers to transmission of data to a UE through cooperation from two or more eNBs or cells in order to increase communication performance between a UE located in a shadowing area and an eNB (a cell or sector).
CoMP transmission schemes may be classified into CoMP-Joint Processing (CoMP-JP) called cooperative MIMO characterized by data sharing, and CoMP-Coordinated Scheduling/Beamforming (CoMP-CS/CB).
In DL CoMP-JP, a UE may instantaneously receive data simultaneously from eNBs that perform CoMP transmission and may combine the received signals, thereby increasing reception performance (Joint Transmission (JT)). In addition, one of the eNBs participating in the CoMP transmission may transmit data to the UE at a specific time point (Dynamic Point Selection (DPS)). In contrast, in downlink CoMP-CS/CB, a UE may receive data instantaneously from one eNB, that is, a serving eNB by beamforming.
In UL CoMP-JP, eNBs may receive a PUSCH signal from a UE at the same time (Joint Reception (JR)). In contrast, in UL CoMP-CS/CB, only one eNB receives a PUSCH from a UE. Herein, cooperative cells (or eNBs) may make a decision as to whether to use CoMP-CS/CB.
Now a detailed description will be given of RS.
In general, a transmitter transmits an RS known to both the transmitter and a receiver along with data to the receiver so that the receiver may perform channel measurement in the RS. The RS indicates a modulation scheme for demodulation as well as the RS is used for channel measurement. The RS is classified into Dedicated RS (DRS) for a specific UE (i.e. UE-specific RS) and Common RS (CRS) for all UEs within a cell (i.e. cell-specific RS). The cell-specific RS includes an RS in which a UE measures a CQI/PMI/RI to be reported to an eNB. This RS is referred to as Channel State Information-RS (CSI-RS).
FIGS. 8 and 9 illustrate RS configurations in an LTE system supporting DL transmission through four antennas (4-Tx DL transmission). Specifically, FIG. 8 illustrates an RS configuration in the case of a normal CP and FIG. 9 illustrates an RS configuration in the case of an extended CP.
Referring to FIGS. 8 and 9, reference numerals 0 to 3 in grids denote cell-specific RSs, CRSs transmitted through antenna port 0 to antenna port 3, for channel measurement and data modulation. The CRSs may be transmitted to UEs across a control information region as well as a data information region.
Reference character D in grids denotes UE-specific RSs, Demodulation RSs (DMRSs). The DMRSs are transmitted in a data region, that is, on a PDSCH, supporting single-antenna port transmission. The existence or absence of a UE-specific RS, DMRS is indicated to a UE by higher-layer signaling. In FIGS. 8 and 9, the DMRSs are transmitted through antenna port 5. 3GPP TS 36.211 defines DMRSs for a total of eight antenna ports, antenna port 7 to antenna port 14.
FIG. 10 illustrates an exemplary DL DMRS allocation defined in a current 3GPP standard specification.
Referring to FIG. 10, DMRSs for antenna ports 7, 8, 11, and 13 are mapped using sequences for the respective antenna ports in a first DMRS group (DMRS Group 1), whereas DMRSs for antenna ports 9, 10, 12, and 14 are mapped using sequences for the respective antenna ports in a second DMRS group (DMRS Group 2).
As compared to CRS, CSI-RS was proposed for channel measurement of a PDSCH and up to 32 different resource configurations are available for CSI-RS to reduce Inter-Cell Interference (ICI) in a multi-cellular environment.
In [Table 1] and [Table 2], (k',l
') represents an RE index where k
' is a subcarrier index and l
' is an OFDM symbol index. FIG. 11 illustrates CSI-RS configuration #0 of DL CSI-RS configurations defined in the current 3GPP standard.
In addition, CSI-RS subframe configurations may be defined, each by a periodicity in subframes, TCSI-RS
and a subframe offset ΔCSI-RS
. [Table 3] lists CSI-RS subframe configurations defined in the 3GPP standard.
|CSI-RS-SubframeConfig ICSI-RS||CSI-RS periodicity TCSI-RS (subframes)||CSI-RS subframe offset ΔCSI-RS (subframes)|
|0 - 4
|5 - 14
||ICSI-RS - 5|
|15 - 34
||ICSI-RS - 15|
|35 - 74
||ICSI-RS - 35|
|75 - 154
||ICSI-RS - 75|
Now a description will be given of Quasi Co-Location (QCL).
If one antenna port is quasi co-located with another antenna port, this means that a UE may assume that the large-scale properties of a signal received from one of the antenna ports (or a radio channel corresponding to the antenna port) are wholly or partially identical to those of a signal received from the other antenna port (or a radio channel corresponding to the antenna port). The large-scale properties may include Doppler spread, Doppler shift, timing offset-related average delay, delay spread, average gain, etc.
According to the definition of QCL, the UE may not assume that antenna ports that are not quasi co-located with each other have the same large-scaled properties. Therefore, the UE should perform a tracking procedure independently for the respective antenna ports in order to the frequency offsets and timing offsets of the antenna ports.
On the other hand, the UE may performing the following operations regarding quasi co-located antenna ports.
- 1) The UE may apply the estimates of a radio channel corresponding to a specific antenna port in power-delay profile, delay spread, Doppler spectrum, and Doppler spread to Wiener filter parameters used in channel estimation of a radio channel corresponding another antenna port quasi co-located with the specific antenna port.
- 2) The UE may acquire time synchronization and frequency synchronization of the specific antenna port to the quasi co-located antenna port.
- 3) Finally, the UE may calculate the average of Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) measurements of the quasi co-located antenna ports to be an average gain.
For example, it is assumed that upon receipt of DM-RS-based DL data channel scheduling information, for example, DCI format 2C on a PDCCH (or an Enhanced PDCCH (E-PDCCH)), the UE performs channel estimation on a PDSCH using a DM-RS sequence indicated by the scheduling information and then demodulates data.
In this case, if an antenna port configured for a DM-RS used in DL data channel estimation is quasi co-located with an antenna port for an antenna port configured for a CRS of a serving cell, the UE may use estimated large-scale properties of a radio channel corresponding to the CRS antenna port in channel estimation of a radio channel corresponding to the DM-RS antenna port, thereby increasing the reception performance of the DM-RS-based DL data channel.
Likewise, if the DM-RS antenna port for DL data channel estimation is quasi co-located with the CSI-RS antenna port of the serving cell, the UE may use estimated large-scale properties of the radio channel corresponding to the CSI-RS antenna port in channel estimation of the radio channel corresponding to the DM-RS antenna port, thereby increasing the reception performance of the DM-RS-based DL data channel.
FIG. 12 is a diagram illustrating the concept of device-to-device (D2D) communication.
Referring to FIG. 12, in D2D communication through which a UE directly performs radio communication with another UE, i.e., in direct communication between UEs, an eNB may transmit a scheduling message for indicating D2D transmission/reception. UEs participating in D2D communication receive the D2D scheduling message from the eNB and perform a transmission/reception operation indicated by the D2D scheduling message. In this case, although a UE indicates a user terminal, a network entity may also be regarded as a sort of UE when the network entity such as an eNB transmits/receives a signal according to a communication scheme between UEs.
The present invention proposes a method in which an eNB transmits a signal to a UE using UL resources. The UL resources may be generally defined as resources on which the UE transmits a signal to the eNB. However, in a situation in which, at a specific timing, there is less data that the UE is to transmit, whereas there is much data that the eNB is to transmit, signal transmission by the eNB using partial UL resources aids in improving overall performance. Herein, the UL resources refer to UL bands in an FDD system or UL subframes in a TDD system.
For a method in which the eNB transmits a signal to a UE using the UL resources, a link defined for direct signal transmission/reception between UEs (hereinafter, a D2D link) may be used because the D2D link generally uses the UL resources. Therefore, since a UE capable of performing a D2D link operation has a reception capability for the D2D link transmitted through the UL resources, the UE does not need to have an additional reception function in preparation for the case in which the eNB transmits a signal through the UL resources. In addition, since the UL resources are used by the UE transmitting a signal at a relatively low transmission power, it is desirable that the eNB use a power of a level equivalent to the transmission power by the UE upon transmitting a signal to the UE on the UL resources.
FIG. 13 illustrates exemplary signal transmission by an eNB to a UE using D2D communication according to an embodiment of the present invention. Particularly, FIG. 13 illustrates an operation in which the eNB transmits a signal to the UE through a D2D link defined using UL resources.
According to the present invention, although the eNB transmits a signal to the UE using the D2D link, a corresponding D2D transmitter may be a special D2D transmitter which is distinguished from a normal D2D transmitter, with respect to a reception UE. In normal D2D communication, a UE performs communication after acquiring synchronization for a synchronous signal from an eNB and receives control information about D2D communication, for example, information about a transmission power or used resources, from the eNB. However, if a transmitter of D2D communication is the eNB, the transmitter can perform direct control because the transmitter is synchronized with itself. Therefore, D2D communication can be effectively performed.
Hereinafter, a detailed embodiment of a method in which the eNB as an additional D2D transmitter transmits a D2D signal will be described.
First, an assumption that D2D communication that the eNB performs can be quasi-co-located with a series of signals transmitted by the eNB, for example, a Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS), a Secondary Synchronization Signal (SSS), a Cell-specific Reference Signal (CRS), etc., may be used. In other words, the fact that a normal transmission signal of the eNB, i.e., a DL signal, and a D2D signal transmitted by the eNB are transmitted using the same transmission circuit at the same position is used although resources on which the signals are transmitted or link attributes that the signals use are different.
To this end, a network may indicate that the transmission signal of the eNB which is a D2D transmitter is quasi-co-located with a specific PSS, SSS, and/or CRS, through higher-layer signaling such as RRC signaling. For example, the network may indicate a specific cell ID so that an assumption that a DL signal transmitted by an eNB having the corresponding cell ID is quasi-co-located with a D2D signal transmitted by the corresponding eNB can be made.
Herein, parameters satisfying a QCL assumption may include all of delay spread, Doppler spread, Doppler shift, average delay, and average gain. Alternatively, if a part of transmission circuits are not equal due to a difference in transmission power between the DL signal of the eNB and the D2D signal of the eNB, a CQL assumption may not be made with respect to some parameters.
A reception UE may acquire parameters satisfying the QCL assumption using the PSS/SSS/CRS transmitted by the eNB through DL resources and estimate a channel for the D2D signal transmitted by the eNB using the parameters, thereby raising accuracy of channel estimation. A D2D signal transmitted by an existing UE has a difficulty in using complete QCL information because the transmission position of the D2D signal is different from the signal transmission position of the eNB and an error occurs in synchronization although the D2D signal transmitted by the existing UE is synchronized with the signal of the eNB. If the D2D signal of the existing UE can also partially make a QCL assumption with the DL signal of the eNB, a signal of a special D2D transmitter, transmitted by the eNB, may make the QCL assumption with fewer errors in more types of parameters.
Alternatively, the transmission signal of the existing UE adjusts only time/frequency synchronization with the DL signal of the eNB and is irrelevant to propagation delay of an actual channel. Therefore, while the QCL assumption may be made only with respect to Doppler shift and Doppler spread, the D2D signal transmitted by the eNB may make the QCL assumption with the DL signal of the eNB with respect to parts including propagation delay of an actual channel, such as Doppler shift, Doppler spread, average delay, and delay spread.
In addition, in terms of actual propagation delay rather than average delay, a reception timing of the D2D signal transmitted by the eNB is different from a reception timing of the D2D signal transmitted by the existing UE. Specifically, the reception timing of the D2D signal transmitted by the eNB may be perfectly equal to the reception timing of the existing PSS/SSS/CRS. Meanwhile, the D2D signal transmitted by the existing UE may be received with a predetermined difference from the reception timing of the existing PSS/SSS/CRS. Because the UE transmits the D2D signal after adjusting synchronization with the PSS/SSS/CRS, a path is as follows: eNB -> transmission UE-> reception UE and this path is different from a path through which the eNB directly transmits the PSS/SSS/CRS to the reception UE.
Additionally, HARQ-ACK for the D2D signal transmission performed by the eNB may be transmitted together with HARQ-ACK for a PDSCH transmitted by the eNB using DL resources. The HARQ-ACK signals can be simultaneously fed back because the D2D signal and the PDSCH are transmitted substantially from the same transmitter. For simultaneous transmission of multiple HARQ-ACK signals, an existing HARQ-ACK scheme may be used, including a method for transmitting a logical product of information about respective HARQ-ACK bits, a method for determining resources to be used for HARQ-ACK transmission from a combination of information about respective HARQ-ACK bits, and a method for encoding information about multiple HARQ-ACK bits into one codeword and transmitting the encoded information. For the D2D signal transmitted by the existing UE, an additional HARQ-ACK may not be present or, even when HARQ-ACK is present, HARQ-ACK should be transmitted to a transmission UE rather than to the eNB. Therefore, since HARQ-ACK is not transmitted together with the PDSCH transmitted by the eNB, the D2D signal transmitted by the eNB is different from the D2D signal transmitted by the existing UE. Thus, a network may indicate whether HARQ-ACK for transmission of a specific D2D signal can be transmitted together with HARQ-ACK for the PDSCH and, if so, in which cell or on which carrier HARQ-ACK for the D2D signal can be transmitted with HARQ for the PDSCH, through higher layer signaling such as RRC signaling.
FIG. 14 is a block diagram of a communication apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Referring to FIG. 14, a communication apparatus 1400 includes a processor 1410, a memory 1420, an RF module 1430, a display module 1440, and a User Interface (UI) module 1450.
The communication device 1400 is shown as having the configuration illustrated in FIG. 14, for the convenience of description. Some modules may be added to or omitted from the communication apparatus 1400. In addition, a module of the communication apparatus 1400 may be divided into more modules. The processor 1410 is configured to perform operations according to the embodiments of the present invention described before with reference to the drawings. Specifically, for detailed operations of the processor 1410, the descriptions of FIGS. 1 to 13 may be referred to.
The memory 1420 is connected to the processor 1410 and stores an Operating System (OS), applications, program codes, data, etc. The RF module 1430, which is connected to the processor 1410, upconverts a baseband signal to an RF signal or downconverts an RF signal to a baseband signal. For this purpose, the RF module 1430 performs digital-to-analog conversion, amplification, filtering, and frequency upconversion or performs these processes reversely. The display module 1440 is connected to the processor 1410 and displays various types of information. The display module 1440 may be configured as, not limited to, a known component such as a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), a Light Emitting Diode (LED) display, and an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) display. The UI module 1450 is connected to the processor 1410 and may be configured with a combination of known user interfaces such as a keypad, a touch screen, etc.
The term 'BS' may be replaced with the term 'fixed station', 'Node B', 'evolved Node B (eNode B or eNB)', 'Access Point (AP)', etc.
The embodiments of the present invention may be achieved by various means, for example, hardware, firmware, software, or a combination thereof. In a hardware configuration, the methods according to exemplary embodiments of the present invention may be achieved by one or more Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), Digital Signal Processing Devices (DSPDs), Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), processors, controllers, microcontrollers, microprocessors, etc.
In a firmware or software configuration, an embodiment of the present invention may be implemented in the form of a module, a procedure, a function, etc. Software code may be stored in a memory unit and executed by a processor. The memory unit is located at the interior or exterior of the processor and may transmit and receive data to and from the processor via various known means.
The scope of the invention should be determined by the appended claims.
While the above-described method for reporting aperiodic channel state information in a multi-cell based wireless communication system and the apparatus therefor have been described based on an example applied to a 3GPP LTE system, the present invention is also applicable to various wireless communication systems in addition to the 3GPP LTE system.