(19)
(11)EP 3 078 367 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
22.07.2020 Bulletin 2020/30

(21)Application number: 16162215.4

(22)Date of filing:  24.03.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 9/06(2006.01)
A61K 47/10(2017.01)
A61K 47/32(2006.01)
A61K 31/435(2006.01)
A61K 47/02(2006.01)
A61K 47/18(2017.01)
A61K 47/38(2006.01)

(54)

BIOADHESIVE COMPOSITIONS FOR INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATION OF GRANISETRON

BIOADHÄSIVE ZUSAMMENSETZUNGEN ZUR INTRANASALEN VERABREICHUNG VON GRANISETRON

COMPOSITIONS BIOADHÉSIVES POUR ADMINISTRATION INTRANASALE DE GRANISÉTRON


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 08.04.2015 WO PCT/CN2015/000248

(43)Date of publication of application:
12.10.2016 Bulletin 2016/41

(73)Proprietor: Maxinase Life Sciences Limited
Shatin, New Territories (HK)

(72)Inventors:
  • WANG, Yangfeng
    Ma On Shan, New Territories (HK)
  • LEE, Tak Kwong Benjamin
    Shatin, New Territories (HK)
  • LAU, Yiu Nam Johnson
    Newport Beach, California 92660 (US)

(74)Representative: Gill Jennings & Every LLP 
The Broadgate Tower 20 Primrose Street
London EC2A 2ES
London EC2A 2ES (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A1- 2009 047 234
US-B2- 7 947 257
US-A1- 2009 275 668
  
  • DATABASE CA [Online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; 2 October 2008 (2008-10-02), WU, XINGMEI: "Preparation of granisetron hydrochloride nasal thermosensible gels and its release behavior in vitro", XP002760199, retrieved from STN Database accession no. 2008:1179562
  • AHMED SAMI ET AL: "Provesicular granisetron hydrochloride buccal formulations:Invitroevaluation and preliminary investigation ofin vivoperformance", EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, vol. 60, 29 April 2014 (2014-04-29), pages 10-23, XP028849959, ISSN: 0928-0987, DOI: 10.1016/J.EJPS.2014.04.013
 
Remarks:
The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
 
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

Technical Field



[0001] This invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition, particularly a bioadhesive composition comprising granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof, as the active ingredient for intranasal administration with enhanced and prolonged granisetron absorption as well as reduced nasal stinging and dripping. The composition is suitable for rapid and sustained prevention and/or relief of nausea and/or vomiting induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery.

Background Art



[0002] Nausea and vomiting are commonly and severely debilitating adverse events of cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and certain types of surgeries. These symptoms limit patients' ability to eat and drink, remarkably reduce quality of life, threat the success of therapy (Sussman N, Anticancer Drugs 1995; 6(suppl 1):4-8). It has been reported that up to 20% of patients were forced to postpone or refuse potentially curative treatment (Herrstedt J, Support Care Cancer 2002; 10:85-87). The management of chemotherapy-induced, radiotherapy-induced, and postoperative nausea and vomiting (CINV, RINV, and PONV) has improved greatly recently with the introduction of 5-HT3-receptor-antagonists (5-HT3-RAs) (Jordan K et al., Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 2007; 61:162-175). The 5-HT3-RAs, also known as "setrons", are widely regarded as the most efficacious antiemetics available today and currently recommended as the first choice to control CINV, RINV and PONV (Annual Oncology 1998; 9:811-819).

[0003] Granisetron (1-methyl-N-((1R,3r,5S)-9-methyl-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-yl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide; CAS No.: 109889-09-0) is a potent and highly selective 5-HT3-RA, it is effective and well-tolerated for preventing CINV, RINV and PONV (de Genolier CG, The Oncologist 2004; 9:673-686).



[0004] The available dosage forms of granisetron in the market include oral tablet/solution (Kytril®), transdermal patch (Sancuso®), and intravenous injection (Kytril®). The onset of oral tablet or transdermal patch, however, is relatively slow (at least 1 hour for PO route and 24 hrs for transdermal route), and oral dosing of the tablets may be extremely difficult when patients are suffering from nausea and vomiting and the swallowing capacity is compromised. Granisetron IV injection can achieve rapid pharmacological effect (5 minutes), however, it is invasive and patients will suffer unnecessary pains and potential side-effects related to the injection, not to mention the extra staff time and procedure involved in administer the injectable medication. Therefore, it is imperative to seek an alternative dosage form that is ease of use, non-invasive, safe with rapid onset for better manage.

[0005] In light of the aforementioned limitations of oral, transdermal and injectable granisetron products, there is a need for an alternative route of administration, for example, there being interests shown in intranasal administration. Intranasally absorbed melatonin will directly enter into systemic circulation, and the first-pass hepatic metabolism is completely avoided (Bechgaard E et al., Int J Pharm 1999; 182:1-5). Meanwhile, the nasal mucosa has less proteolytic activity than the gastrointestinal tract (Zhou XH and Po LW, Int J Pharm 1990; 68:241-250), thus both rapid pharmacological onset and high bioavailability are expected to achieve after intranasal administration. Intranasal delivery is also ease-of-use, safe, and allow patient self-dose as needed. Granisetron is a small and lipophilic molecule with acceptable water solubility and stability; compared to other setron drugs (i.e. ondansetron), the dose of granisetron is low (1-2 mg/person/day), therefore, it is a possible candidate for intranasal delivery. However, up till now, nobody was able to come up with an effective formulation that works for intranasal delivery.

[0006] Due to nasal mucociliary clearance, substances administered intranasally are rapidly removed from the nasal cavity, with the mean clearance half-life of approximately 21 min (Soane RJ et al., Int J Pharm 1999; 178: 55-65). MCC may result in short nasal residence time, limited drug absorption and insufficient pharmacologic effect (Ugwoke MI et al., J Pharm Pharmacol, 2001; 53, 3-22).

[0007] Intranasal composition comprising granisetron was firstly disclosed in CN patent no. ZL021176716.8. Granisetron hydrochloride, together with preservatives and tonicity agents, were dissolved in water and then filtrated and filled into spray device. After intranasal administration of the solution formulation in beagle dogs, the drug plasma concentration (Cmax) increased 1.5-5 fold as compared to that after administration of oral tablets. The time to reach Cmax (Tmax) was reduced from 1.5 hr (oral) to 0.31 hr (intranasal). However, the relatively bioavailability (intranasal to oral) was only 111.88%, indicating that drug solution was rapidly removed by nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC) after intranasal administration, resulting in low systemic exposure (AUC) despite of much higher Cmax.

[0008] The mucoadhesive technology utilizes the bioadhesive properties of certain water-soluble polymers, which become adhesive on hydration, and hence can be used for targeting a drug to a particular region of the body (i.e. epithelial tissue) for extended periods of time (Asane GS et al., Drug Del Ind Pharm, 2008; 34, 1246-1266).

[0009] US patent no. 7947257 disclosed the compositions containing chitosan (a salt or derivative) for intranasal administration of granisetron or the pharmaceutically salts. Chitosan is a cationic polymer with bioadhesive properties, has been shown to improve the systemic bioavailability of granisetron after intranasal administration in sheep, with shorter time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax). This composition, unfortunately, cause nasal irritation and painful sensation and is not suitable for human use.

[0010] US patent no. 8827946 and descripted a dry powder granisetron composition for intranasal delivery. To deliver accurate and sufficient amount of powder into nasal cavity, a complicated and costly spray device by compressed air was utilized. The spray dose uniformity and reproducibility, unfortunately, are poor, with high risk of inhalation into lung. The physicochemical stability of dry powder is more susceptible to the environmental humidity. Furthermore, nasal irritation induced by the high local drug concentration where the drug powder accumulates is a common issue after intranasal delivery of powder formulations.

[0011] In view of the issues existed in the prior art, there is a clear need for a new and special composition with controlled and prolonged drug release when sprayed onto nasal mucosa, reduced the stinging sensation, improved and sustained anti-vomiting/nausea effects.

Summary of Invention



[0012] One object of the present invention is to provide a sprayable aqueous pharmaceutical composition, which comprises granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable inactive ingredients, including at least one water soluble bioadhesive polymer comprising hypromellose and optionally at least one further polymer capable of changing its rheological behavior in relation to ion, pH and temperature, and optionally tonicity agents and preservatives. Granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof in the composition can be rapidly and completely absorbed from nasal mucosa after administration. The compositions are suitable for intranasal administration to a subject in need thereof in the prevention or relief of nausea and vomiting induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery, with the advantages of rapid and prolonged absorption, as well as reduced nasal stinging sensation.

[0013] Thus, the present invention provides a pharmaceutical composition, comprising (a) granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt, and (b) at least one aqueous vehicle polymer that is selected from a group consisting of a bioadhesive polymer comprising hypromellose, wherein the composition is a sprayable aqueous composition.

[0014] It is envisaged that the pharmaceutical composition may further comprise
at least one aqueous vehicle polymer that is selected from a group consisting of a rheology-changeable polymer.

[0015] Preferably the rheology-changeable polymer is selected from a group consisting of a pH-Sensitive polymer, a Temperature-Sensitive polymer, an Ion-sensitive polymer and the combinations thereof.

[0016] The rheology-changeable polymer may also be selected from a group consisting of carbomer, carrageenan, cellulose acetate phthalate, gellan gum, pectin, sodium alginate, poloxamer, and the combinations thereof.

[0017] It is envisaged that the bioadhesive polymer may further include a polymer selected from a group consisting of acacia, albumins, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, cellulose microcrystalline, cellulose acetate, chitosan, dextrin, gelatin, guar gum, hyaluronic acid, hydroxylethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl starch, hydroxypropylcellulose, methyl cellulose, polyethylene glycols, poly(methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride), povidone, rafinose, shellac, sodium alginate, sodium starch glycolate, starch and pregelatinized starch, tragacanth, xanthan gum, and the combinations thereof.

[0018] In another embodiment the pharmaceutical composition may further comprise an aqueous solvent suitable for intranasal spray using a spray device.

[0019] In yet another embodiment granisetron or the pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is at a concentration of 0.5-100 mg/ml.

[0020] The pharmaceutical composition may preferably have a pH in the range from 3.0 to 9.0.

[0021] In yet another embodiment the pH-Sensitive polymer is capable of changing the rheological behavior in relation to pH change, while preferably said pH-Sensitive polymer is carbomer, which may be present at a concentration of e.g. 0.1 to 30 mg/ml.

[0022] In yet another embodiment the pH-Sensitive polymer is cellulose acetate phthalate, which may be present at a concentration of e.g. 1 to 500 mg/ml.

[0023] In yet another embodiment the temperature-sensitive polymer is capable of changing the rheological behavior in relation to a temperature change, while preferably said temperature-sensitive polymer is poloxamer 407, poloxamer 188, or a combination thereof. Poloxamer 407 may be present at a concentration of e.g. 50 to 300 mg/ml, and poloxamer 188 may be present at a concentration of e.g. 5 to 50 mg/ml.

[0024] In yet another embodiment the ion-sensitive polymer is capable of changing the rheological behavior in presence of ions in nasal fluid, while preferably said ion-sensitive polymer is gellan gum. In a one embodiment gellan gum is present at a concentration of 1 to 20 mg/ml.

[0025] In yet another embodiment said ion-sensitive polymer is pectin. In a particular embodiment pectin is present at a concentration of 0.1 to 10 mg/ml.

[0026] In yet another embodiment the pharmaceutical composition comprises three aqueous vehicle polymers capable of changing the rheological behavior in relation to pH change, in relation to temperature change, and in presence of ions in nasal fluid, respectively.

[0027] In a particular embodiment the pharmaceutical composition comprises 1 to 50 mg/ml hypromellose (hydroxymethylpropylcelloluse).

[0028] The aforementioned features may be combined as desired.

[0029] The invention further provides a pharmaceutical composition according to the invention for use in the prevention and/or relief of nausea and/or vomiting induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery. Thus, the pharmaceutical composition for use as herein described may be for administration intranasally spraying an aqueous composition which comprises granisetron or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof with concentration of 0.5-100 mg/ml of the active ingredient, wherein said composition is a solution containing 0.5-100 mg/ml of the active ingredient and wherein said dose is sufficient to generate a plasma concentration of the active ingredient comparable to or higher than intravenous infusion, and achieve therapeutic effects in 15 minutes, with the duration of no less than 3 hours.

[0030] In some embodiments of the invention, the rheology-changeable polymer is selected from a group consisting of pH-Sensitive polymer, Temperature-Sensitive polymer, Ion-sensitive polymer and the combinations thereof. Said pH-Sensitive polymer is capable of changing the rheological behavior in relation to pH change when the drug solution is mixed with nasal fluid. Said Temperature-Sensitive polymer is capable of changing the rheological behavior in relation to temperature change when sprayed into nasal cavity. Said Ion-sensitive polymer is capable of changing the rheological behavior in presence of ions in nasal fluid.

[0031] In some embodiments of the invention, the rheology-changeable polymer is selected from a group consisting of carbomer, carrageenan, cellulose acetate phthalate, gellan gum, pectin, sodium alginate, poloxamer, and the combinations thereof.

[0032] According to the present invention, aqueous vehicle polymers have bioadhesive properties and/or are capable of changing the rheological behavior in relation to ion, pH and temperature, respectively. Such compositions can keep low viscosity when the drug solution is stored in the container, allowing easily spraying into nasal cavity. The viscosity of the solution will then dramatically increase, for instances, by ions in nasal fluids, pH or temperature changes in nasal cavity, resulting in a viscous gel which ensures a better and longer contact with the nasal mucosa as well the reduced nasal stinging sensation by slow release of active ingredient to nasal mucosa. To our surprise, the inventors found that after intranasal administration of the bioadhesive compositions in mammals, an early and high plasma concentration of the active ingredient can be generated, which is comparable to or higher than that after intravenous infusion, the high plasma concentration can be lasted for at least 3 hours. This profile in highly unusual and exceeds our initial expectations.

[0033] According to an embodiment of the present invention, the compositions deliver 0.1 to 20 mg granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof after intranasal administration, with a spray dosage ranging from 10 to 200 µL in each nostril. Again, the ability to deliver an effective clinical dose with such a surprisingly low intranasal administration make this invention into a feasible clinical utility.

[0034] Poloxamers are nonionic triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (poly(propylene oxide)) flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene (poly(ethylene oxide)). Because the lengths of the polymer blocks can be customized, many different poloxamers exist that have slightly different properties. For the generic term "poloxamer", these copolymers are commonly named with the letter "P" (for poloxamer) followed by three digits: the first two digits x 100 give the approximate molecular mass of the polyoxypropylene core, and the last digit x 10 gives the percentage polyoxyethylene content. E.g. P407 represents a Poloxamer with a polyoxypropylene molecular mass of 4,000 g/mol and a 70% polyoxyethylene content.

[0035] The various features of novelty which characterize the invention are pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this disclosure. For a better understanding of the invention, its operating advantages, and specific objects attained by its use, reference should be made to the drawings and the following description in which there are illustrated and described preferred embodiments of the invention.

Brief Description of Drawings



[0036] 

Figure 1 shows granisetron hydrochloride release profile from gellan gum based ion-sensitive composition.

Figure 2 shows the water-holding capacity of gellan gum based ion-sensitive composition at different centrifugation speed.

Figure 3 shows the mean granisetron plasma concentration versus time profiles after intravenous administration of granisetron solution (IV_solution), an intranasal administration of ion-sensitive composition (IN_in situ gel) and a solution composition (IN_solution) at a single dose of 0.4 mg/kg in SD rats.

Figure 4 shows the mean granisetron plasma concentration versus time profiles after intravenous administration of granisetron solution (Kytril® Infusion), oral administration of suspension prepared from Kytril® Tablet, and intranasal administration of bioadhesive composition (GNS-B01), or solution composition (GNS-S01) at a single dose of 0.4 mg/kg in SD rats.

Figure 5 shows (a) the mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and (b) area under the curve (AUC0-inf) after intranasal administration of granisetron bioadhesive compositions containing various percentage of Hypromellose in SD rats.

Figure 6 shows the mean granisetron plasma concentration versus time profiles after intravenous administration of Kytril® Infusion (3mg/3mL), oral administration of Kytril® Tablet (1 mg), and intranasal administration of bioadhesive composition (GNS-B01) at a single dose of 1.0 mg in beagle dogs.

Figure 7 shows the mean 7-hydroxyl granisetron plasma concentration versus time profiles after intravenous administration of Kytril® Infusion (3mg/3mL), oral administration of Kytril® Tablet (1 mg), and intranasal administration of bioadhesive composition (GNS-B01) at a single dose of 1.0 mg in beagle dogs.


Description of Embodiments



[0037] Embodiments of the present invention provide compositions for intranasal delivery of granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof. In comparison to the conventional granisetron intravenous infusion and tablets, intranasal compositions can offer several advantages such as non-invasive, easy to use without water, self-dose, rapid absorption and fast onset, high bioavailability, prolonged pharmacological effects, and reduced nasal stinging sensation, such compositions are therefore especially suitable for rapid and sustained prevention or relief of nausea and vomiting induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery.

[0038] The composition according to the present invention includes the active ingredient granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof. Granisetron used in current invention includes both in the form of free base or the pharmaceutically acceptable salts. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but not limited to acetate, benzenesulfonate, benzoate, bicarbonate, bromide, calcium edentate, camsylate, carbonate, citrate, edatate, edisylate, estolate, esylate, fumarate, gluceptate, gluconate, glutamate, glycollylarsinate, hexylresorcinate, hydrabamine, hydrobromide, hydrochloride, hydroxynapthoate, iodide, isothionate, lactate, lactobionate, malate, maleate, mandelate, mesylate, methylbromide, methylnitrate, methylsulfate, mucate, napsylate, nitrate, pamoate, pantothenate, phosphate, polygalactoronate, salicylate, stearate, subacetate, succinate, sulfate, tartrate, teoclate, triethiodide. The preferable salt used in this invention is granisetron hydrochloride, which is formed between granisetron and hydrochloric acid with a molar ratio of 1:1.

[0039] The dose of granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof in this invention ranges between 0.01 mg and 30 mg, more preferably 0.05 - 10 mg, and most preferably 0.5-5 mg.

[0040] The composition is provided as an aqueous solution, which enables rapid drug release as well as minimal nasal irritation. The aqueous solution contains granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof at a concentration from 0.1 to 300 mg/ml, more preferably from 0.5 to 100 mg/ml, most preferably from 1 to 50 mg/ml. A spray volume of the solution ranges from 10 to 200 µL, more preferably from 20 to 150µL, and most preferably from 50 to 120µL for each nostril.

[0041] One important aspect of the present invention is that the intranasal absorption of granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof is further enhanced by certain aqueous soluble polymers with bioadhesive properties including hypromellose (hydroxymethylpropylcelloluse), which effectively reduce mucocilliary clearance (MCC) and thus resulting in prolonged drug residence time intranasally as well as improved rate and extent of drug absorption. Preferably, granisetron hydrochloride is further mixed with further polymeric materials with bioadhesive properties, i.e. further bioadhesive polymers, which are selected from acacia, albumins, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, cellulose microcrystalline, cellulose acetate, chitosan, dextrin, gelatin, guar gum, hyaluronic acid, hydroxylethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl starch, hydroxypropylcellulose, methyl cellulose, polyethylene glycols, poly(methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride), povidone, rafinose, shellac, sodium alginate, sodium starch glycolate, starch and pregelatinized starch, tragacanth, xanthan gum.

[0042] At present, nasal stinging sensation caused by granisetron and/or excipients has not been adequately controlled by the compositions disclosed in all existing patents known to the inventors. Surprisingly, it was found in the present invention that it is possible to minimize the stinging sensation by adding the aqueous vehicle polymers which are capable of instantly changing the rheological behavior in relation to ion, pH and temperature. These polymers keep low viscosity when the drug solution is stored in the container, therefore the drug solution can be easily and accurately applied using the common nasal spray devices. After delivered into nasal cavity, however, the solution viscosity will quickly and dramatically increase due to the phase transition triggered by the ions in nasal fluids, or by the pH or temperature change in nasal cavity, yielding a viscous gel which ensures a better and longer contact with the nasal mucosa. Absorption of granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof through nasal mucosa is then enhanced and the pharmacological effect is prolonged accordingly. At the same time, the nasal stinging sensation is minimized by the controlled (i.e., slow and sustained) release of granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof to nasal mucosa. Polymers applied to prepare the instant gel formulations include but not limited to carbomer, carrageenan, cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), gellan gum, pectin, sodium alginate, and poloxamer. Although this provides surprisingly good results for Graniestron, once these results are known, a person of ordinary skill in the art may, according to the teaching of the present disclosure, find some other polymers that also provide satisfactory results in practicing the present invention.

[0043] In most situations, pharmaceutically acceptable buffering agents may be used to maintain the optimal pH conditions for achieving physicochemical stability and minimizing local irritation to nasal mucosa. The suitable pH range according to the present invention ranges from 3.0 to 9.0, preferably 4.0 to 7.0. The preferred buffering systems include without limitation to acetic buffer, boric buffer, citrate buffer, phosphate buffer, tartaric buffer, and tris buffer.

[0044] The present compositions also contain one of the pharmaceutical preservatives to maintain the microbiological stability. Suitable preservatives include benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, chlorobutanol, chlorhexidine, methylparaben and propylparaben, phenylethyl alcohol, phenylmercuric acetate, thimerosal. The preferred preservatives without adverse effect on cillia include but not limited to benzyl alcohol, benzalconium chloride, chlorhexidine, and thimerosal.

[0045] Finally, the compositions of the present invention may also contain: (1) chelators, i.e. sodium EDTA; (2) antioxidant, i.e. sodium metabisulphite; (3) tonicity agents, including dextrose, glycerin, hydroxpropyl betadex, mannitol, sorbitol, potassium chloride, and sodium chloride.; (4) absorption enhancers including but not limited to bile salts, cyclodextrins, fatty acids, fusidic acid derivatives, phosphatidylcholines, Laureth-9, oleic acid, surfactants, etc. (see Davis SS, Illum L. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003. 42(13):1107-1128).

[0046] The granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof compositions, preferably in solution form, should be sprayed into nasal cavity using a non-pressurized disperser. Suitable dispenser includes a spray pump and a bottle, and can deliver a single dose or multiple doses by mechanical actuation. A spray volume ranges from 10 to 200 µL, more preferably from 50 to 150 µL, and most preferably from 80 to 120 µL in each nostril.

[0047] Compositions of the present invention are administrated intranasally to a patient, for rapid and sustained prevention or relief of nausea and vomiting induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery.

[0048] The following examples of formulations for intranasal administration of granisetron or a pharmaceutically salt thereof serve to illustrate the invention without limiting its scope.

EXAMPLE 1 (not according to the invention) Ion-Sensitive Composition of Granisetron



[0049] This example provides a description of the method for preparing the ion-sensitive composition for intranasal administration in accordance with the invention, which serves to illustrate the present invention without limiting its scope. Briefly, 5 g Gellan Gum was added to deionized water and dissolved by heating to 95 °C with moderate stirring. The solution was then cooled to below 40 °C and 5 mL benzyl alcohol was added under stirring. 5.59 g Granisetron Hydrochloride (equivalent to 5 g/L of granisetron free base) was then added and completely dissolved to obtain a clear solution. The osmolality of solution was adjusted to 280-350 mOsm/kg by Mannitol. The pH of solution was adjusted to 6.95 by 10 mg/ml L-Arginine solution. The solution was then filled into a spray nasal dispenser with and the applicator delivering a quantity comprising 0.5 mg granisetron per actuation (0.1 ml).

EXAMPLE 2 (not according to the invention) Temperature-Sensitive Composition of Granisetron



[0050] This example provides a description for making temperature-sensitive composition for nasal administration in accordance with the invention, which serves to illustrate the present invention without limiting its scope. 5.59 g Granisetron Hydrochloride, 60 g NaCL and 0.125g Benzalconium Chloride was added in a stainless steel equipped with mixer, 0.8 L 0.05N HCL was then introduced under consistent stirring at the room temperature until a clear solution obtained. 175 g Poloxamer 188 was charged into the above solution and stir, after dissolve completely, 12 g Poloxamer 407 was added into the solution and stir for 5 minutes, and then the rest HCL solution was added to the metered amount (1L). The solution was filled into a spray nasal dispenser with and the applicator delivering a quantity comprising 0.5 mg granisetron per actuation (0.1 ml).

EXAMPLE 3 (not according to the invention) pH-Sensitive Composition of Granisetron



[0051] This example provides a description for making pH-sensitive composition for nasal administration in accordance with the invention, which serves to illustrate the present invention without limiting its scope. 5.59g Granisetron Hydrochloride and 0.125 g Benzalconium Chloride were charged in a stainless steel equipped with mixer, about 0.8 L purified water was then introduced and kept stirring at the room temperature until obtaining a clear solution. Solution pH was adjusted to 3.0 by HCL. 9 g Carbopol 934, was added into the above solution under stirring. The solution was then placed at 4°C for 12 hr until a clear solution is obtained. The pH of solution was further adjusted to 4.0 by NaOH. Purified Water was added to the required volume (1 L). The solution was filled into a spray nasal dispenser with and the applicator delivering a quantity comprising 0.5 mg granisetron per actuation (0.1 ml).

EXAMPLE 4 Bioadhesive Composition of Granisetron



[0052] This example provides a description for making a bioadhesive composition without phase-transition property for nasal administration in accordance with the invention, which serves to illustrate the present invention without limiting its scope. 5.59g Granisetron Hydrochloride, 8.9 g Na2HPO4·2H2O, 1.86 g Citric Acid Anhydrous, 0.2g EDTA.2Na and 0.125 g Benzalkonium Chloride were charged in a stainless steel equipped with mixer, about 0.8 L purified water was then introduced and keep stirring at the room temperature until obtaining a clear solution. 2.5 g Hypromellose (Methocel k100m Premium) was added into 25 ml hot distilled water (80-90 °C) with agitation until the powder is homogeneously dispersed. Hypromellose solution was then mixed with the drug solution under stirring until a clear solution obtained. Solution pH was adjusted to 6-7 by HCL or NaOH. Purified Water was added to the required volume (1 L). The solution was filtrated through 0.22-micron filter, and then filled into a spray nasal dispenser with and the applicator delivering a quantity comprising 0.5 mg granisetron per actuation (0.1 ml).

EXAMPLE 5 (not according to the invention) In vitro Release of Ion-Sensitive Composition



[0053] In vitro release study of the Ion-Sensitive Composition described in EXAMPLE 1 were performed using Franz diffusion cell system consisted a vertical Franz-type glass diffusion cells (Hanson Research Corp., USA) with a magnetic stirrer (2mag magnetic® motion, München, Germany) and a thermostatic circulating water bath (PolyScience inc., Warrington, PA, USA). The effective area of diffusion was 1.13 cm2, and the receiver cell volume was 7 ml. The receiver cell was filled with simulated nasal electrolyte solution (SNES, containing 1.29 mg/ml KCl, 7.45 mg/ml NaCl and 0.32 mg/ml CaCl2·H2O) as diffusion medium at 32 ± 0.5 °C, stirred at 100 rpm. The semi-permeable membrane (Spectra/Por® membrane, MWCO: 12000-14000 Da, Spectrum Laboratories Inc., CA, USA), immersed in SNES for 24h prior to study, was mounted on the top of receiver compartment. 0.2 ml of the Ion-Sensitive Composition was then dropped onto the membrane. The donor cap was covered and clamped. Aliquots (0.3 ml) of the receiving phase were collected at proper time intervals at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6 h and replaced with an equal volume of pre-warmed fresh diffusion medium. All collected samples were stored at -30 °C until analysis. The drug concentration in receiving samples were then qualified by a validate HPLC-UV method.

[0054] The cumulative in vitro granisetron hydrochloride release is shown in Figure 1. The cumulative release of granisetron hydrochloride gradually increased with time. The release profile of granisetron hydrochloride from the composition mixed with SNES fits the first-order kinetics.

EXAMPLE 6 (not according to the invention) Water-holding Capacity of Ion-Sensitive Composition



[0055] The Ion-Sensitive Composition described in EXAMPLE 1 was mixed with SNES with a ratio of 2:1 in test tube, and placed for 2 min. Then, about 0.4 g of formed gel was accurately weighted into centriprep filter device of ultrafiltration tube (size: 0.5 ml, MWCO: 30 kDa, Millipore, MA, USA) (total weight Wo), followed by centrifugation at 300 rpm for 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min. The gel with centriprep filter device was reweighted (Wt) to determine the water-holding capacity of the gel: Wt/W0 × 100%.

[0056] The water-holding capacity is generally expressed as the amount of water the gel structure can hold, or the capacity of the gel retain this water during storage or when subjected to external force. The ion-sensitive composition exhibited a water-holding capacity above 99% when subjected to a centrifugation (300 rpm) for 30min (Figure 2), suggesting that the in-situ gel has a stable structure of gel matrix, and not easy to be disturbed under low mechanic force.

EXAMPLE 7 (not according to the invention) Rheological Study of Ion-Sensitive Composition



[0057] The static rheological property of Ion-Sensitive Composition described in EXAMPLE 1 was investigated using rotational viscometer (Brookfield DV-II, Brookfield Engineering Laboratories Inc., MA, USA). Prior to measurement, the gel composition was mixed with SNES at different ratios (4:1, 2:1 and 1:1) and placed for 2 min. The mixture was then transferred into the small sample adapter of viscometer, and SC4-18 spindle was installed (the ratio of inner radius to outer radius was 0.92). Viscosity (η) was recorded as a function of increasing shear rate (y) from 3.96 to 132 s-1. The rheological properties of the intact Ion-Sensitive Composition described in EXAMPLE 1 was also investigated and served as control. All the rheological measurements were performed in triplicate.

[0058] The viscosity of Ion-Sensitive Composition increased when mixed with SNES and the maximum viscosity was reached at the mixing ratio of 4:1. The viscosity decreased with the increase of shear rate, all tested samples demonstrated pseudoplastic fluid behavior. The viscosity at a shear rate of 3.96 s-1 was summarized in Table 1. After mixed with SNES at 4:1, the formed gel has a ∼10-fold higher viscosity, which facilitated to prolong the residence time of drug for its absorption in nasal cavity.
Table 1 Viscosity of Ion-Sensitive Composition in absence or presence of SNES
CompositionViscosity (Pa.s)
Ion-Sensitive Composition 1.57 ± 0.21
Ion-Sensitive Composition +SNES (4:1) 2.53 ± 0.59
Ion-Sensitive Composition +SNES (2:1) 4.81 ± 1.02
Ion-Sensitive Composition +SNES (1:1) 17.48 ± 3.24

EXAMPLE 8 Spray Characterization of Bioadhesive Composition



[0059] Nasal sprays containing 3.5 mL Bioadhesive Compositions (granisetron concentration: 0.5% and 1.0%) were prepared according to the method described in EXAMPLE 4. The spray devices were automatically actuated by Mighty Runt Actuation Station, Innova System, Inc., USA. Spray pattern and plume geometry (spray angle) were tested by Spray View, Proveris Scientific Corp., USA; droplet size distribution were measured by Sympatec Helos/BF, Sympatec Gmbh, Germany; the fine droplet less than or equal to 9 µm was determined by Anderson Cascade Impactor, Copley Scientific, UK.

[0060] Results showed that the sprays are in the shape of ellipsoid with the ovality ratios ranging from 1.36 to 1.35 (Table 2). The spray angles are from 42-43° for both batches (Table 3). The droplets of both batches were narrowly distributed between 20 to 80 µm through the container life (Table 4), the fraction of fine droplets (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 9 µm) are less than 1%, indicating the minimal and negligible risk of lung deposition (Table 5).
Table 2 Spray pattern of Bioadhesive Composition
Batch No. (Drug Conc.)Distance (cm)Spray Pattern (Mean, n=3)
GNS-B01-05 (0.5%) 3 Longest diameter: 37.8mm
Shortest diameter: 28.0mm
The ratio of longest diameter to shortest diameter: 1.360
6 The spray shape is too large, the camera can't collect
GNS-B01-10 (1.0%) 3 Longest diameter: 33.7 mm
Shortest diameter: 23.5mm
The ratio of longest diameter to shortest diameter: 1.435
6 The spray shape is too large, the camera can't collect
Table 3 Plume geometry (spray angle) of Bioadhesive Composition
Batch No. (Drug Conc.)Plume Geometry (Mean, n=3)
GNS-B01-05 (0.5%) 43.9°
GNS-B01-10 (1.0%) 42.4°
Table 4 Droplet size distribution of Bioadhesive Composition
Batch No. (Conc.)Distance (cm)PhaseDroplet Size Distribution (µm) (Mean, n=3)
D10D50D90
GNS-B01-05 (0.5%) 3 Benign 16.84 34.09 69.98
End 17.28 34.55 71.43
6 Benign 24.02 41.31 70.02
End 22.80 40.95 68.09
GNS-B01-10 (1.0%) 3 Benign 18.49 37.53 82.06
End 17.84 37.17 80.43
6 Benign 24.08 43.25 75.03
End 22.49 43.00 76.81
Table 5 Fine droplets of Bioadhesive Composition by Anderson Cascade Impactor
Batch No. (Drug Conc.)Droplet size less than or equal to 9 µm (Mean, n=3)
GNS-B01-05 (0.5%) 0.99%
GNS-B01-10 (1.0%) 0.47%

EXAMPLE 9 (not according to the invention) Pharmacokinetic Study on Ion-sensitive Composition in Rats



[0061] The study in this example was aimed at investigating the intranasal absorption of granisetron Ion-Sensitive Composition as compared to the drug solution formulation for intranasal and intravenous routes. SD rats (n = 5-6 for each dose) received an intranasal dose (0.4 mg/kg) of solution composition (IN_solution) which was prepared according to the EXAMPLE 1 in CN Patent No. ZL021176716.8, an intranasal dose (0.4 mg/kg) of granisetron Ion-Sensitive Composition (IN-in situ gel) which was prepared according to the EXAMPLE 1 of this invention, and an intravenous dose (0.4 mg/kg) of granisetron solution (IV_solution) which was prepared by directly dissolving granisetron hydrochloride into saline solution to the final concentration of 0.33 mg/ml (free base). Multiple blood samples were collected from tail vein until 6 hrs. Granisetron concentration in rat plasma was determined using a validated HPLC-FLD method. The standard non-compartmental method was used to generate the pharmacokinetic parameters.

[0062] Figure 3 shows the mean granisetron plasma concentration versus time profiles after intravenous administration of granisetron solution (IV_solution) and intranasal administration of Ion-Sensitive composition (IN_in situ gel), or solution composition (IN_solution) at a single dose of 0.4 mg/kg in rats. Results indicate the intranasal dose of Ion-Sensitive composition can achieve prolonged granisetron plasma concentration than the same intranasal dose of solution composition, especially during the first 3 hours.

[0063] The pharmacokinetic parameters for all formulations were summarized in the table below. Both granisetron Ion-Sensitive composition (IN_in situ gel) and solution composition (IN_solution) were rapidly absorbed after intranasal administration in rats.
Table 6 Pharmacokinetic parameters of granisetron after IV and IN administration of Granisetron formulations at a single dose of 0.4 mg/kg
PK parametersNasal IV
solutionin situ gelsolution
Tmax (min) 5.0±0.0 5.0±0.0 N.A.
Cmax (ng/ml) 61.1±10.6 48.9±13.0 120.8±4.3
AUC0-6h (ng·min/ml) 3053.4±610.6 3364.6±370.3 3405.0±209.9
AUC0-∞ (ng·min/ml) 3134.7±686.8 3499.2±366.0 3429.2±206.2
t1/2 (min) 69.7±25.7 81.5±19.7 72.9±10.9
F (%) 89.7 98.8 N.A.
N.A.: not applicable. *: p < 0.05.

EXAMPLE 10 Pharmacokinetic Study on Bioadhesive Composition in Rats



[0064] The study in this example was aimed at investigating the intranasal absorption of Granisetron Bioadhesive Composition (EXAMPLE 4) as compared to intranasal solution composition and marketed products for intravenous and oral routes. For intravenous administration (IV), 0.3 ml of 0.333 mg/ml test solution Kytril® IV Infusion (3mg/3ml) was given to short-term anesthetized rats via plastic tube (pre-cannulated in jugular vein the day before drug administration). For intranasal administration (IN), 20 µl of drug nasal formulation (10 µl for each nostril) was administrated to rats (5 mm depth into the nostril) by the aid of a micropipette. Rats were placed in supine position during intranasal administration. For oral administration, 1 ml of 0.1 mg/ml oral suspension formulation (prepared by dissolving 1 Kytril® tablet (1 mg) into 10 ml deionized water containing 0.5% CMCNa) was gavaged to rats. Multiple blood samples were collected from tail vein until 6 hrs. Granisetron concentration in rat plasma was determined using a validated HPLC-FLD method. The standard non-compartmental method was used to generate the pharmacokinetic parameters.

[0065] The mean plasma concentration-time profiles after intranasal, oral and intravenous administration of various compositions is shown in Figure 4. The pharmacokinetic parameters are summarized in Table 7. Compared to the incomplete oral absorption of granisetron suspension prepared from tablets, the intranasal absorption of granisetron formulations were faster and complete, with significant earlier and higher drug plasma concentration which was comparable to intravenous administration. The elimination half-lives for all dose levels were around 1-1.5 hour for all routes of dosing. Following intranasal administration of granisetron bioadhesive formulations containing HPMC, Cmax and AUC0-inf increased with Hypromellose concentration (Figure 5).
Table 7 Pharmacokinetic parameters of granisetron following intravenous, oral, and intranasal administration in rats
PK ParameterStatisticsIntravenousOralIntranasal 
Kytril® IV 0.8 mg/kg (n=5)Kytril® Tab 0.8 mg/kg (n=7)GNS-S01 0.8 mg/kg (n=6)GNS-B01 0.8 mg/kg (n=6)
Tmax (min) Mean - 27.9 5.0 5.0
(SD) (29.0) (0.0) (0.0)
Cmax Mean 290.2 3.3 140.4 220.0
(ng/ml) (SD) (97.9) (1.3) (55.3) (44.7)
AUC0-t Mean 9410.0 272.9 8457.9 12741.8
(ng.min/ml) (SD) (2379.2) (42.6) (3304.8) (2464.8)
AUC0-inf Mean 9801.1 315.2 8555.9 13057.6
(ng.min/ml) (SD) (2450.5) (46.8) (3036.1) (2569.9)
T1/2 (min) Mean 68.5 94.9 55.9 65.3
(SD) (13.4) (27.7) (5.4) (12.1)
F (%) Mean - 3.2 87.3 133.2

EXAMPLE 11 Pharmacokinetic Study on Bioadhesive Composition in Beagle Dogs



[0066] This study is meant to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of Granisetron intranasal spray compared to oral tablet and IV injection in Beagle dogs. Eight Beagle dogs (4 male and 4 female) participated in the study. The study was preceded in five cross-over periods, separated by 3-day washout period. For oral administration, dogs were fasted about 16 hours prior to the dosing but had free access to water. Dogs were orally administered 1 Kytril® tablet (1 mg) for the 1.0 mg/dog. Each oral dosing was administered with 20-30 mL of water. For intranasal administration, the spray device was primed 4-5 times prior to dose administration, dogs were allowed to stand or in an upright position, Granisetron bioadhesive composition was sprayed into the right nostril by pressing down the spray device evenly on both sides once. For IV administration, 1 mL Kytril® IV Infusion (3mg/3ml) was infused intravenously at the rate of 1 ml/min. Blood samples were collected at pre-dose (0 min) and at 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 minutes; and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 hours post-dose. After the plasma-separation process, the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method.

[0067] The mean plasma concentration-time profiles after intranasal, oral and intravenous administration of various compositions is shown in Figure 6. All dogs were exposed to the parent drug and all plasma samples were analyzed for Granisetron and its major metabolite 7-OH Granisetron. The mean 7-hydroxyl granisetron plasma concentration versus time profiles after intravenous administration of Kytril® Infusion (3mg/3mL), oral administration of Kytril® Tablet (1 mg), and intranasal administration of bioadhesive composition (GNS-B01) at a single dose of 1.0 mg in beagle dogs is shown in Figure 7. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Granisetron and its major metabolite of 7-OH Granisetron are summarized in Tables 8 and 9.

[0068] At a dose of 1.0 mg/dog, the mean Tmax of Granisetron was 26.3 minutes (ranged 15.0 - 45.0) by intranasal administration compared to 43.1 minutes (ranged 30.0 - 60.0) by oral administration. This finding indicates that the absorption of Granisetron by the intranasal route was faster than that by oral dosing. The mean Cmax of 3.71 ng/mL and AUC0-last of 436 ng/mLmin by intranasal administration were at least twice as much as the mean Cmax of 1.78 ng/mL and AUC0-last of 177 ng/mLmin by oral administration. The terminal half- lives were similar for both dose administrations at about 60 minutes.

[0069] The major metabolite of 7-OH Granisetron was found in all dose levels. The amount of the 7-OH Granisetron was about twice as much as the plasma after oral dosing compared to intranasal administration.
Table 8 Mean pharmacokinetic parameters and absolute bioavailability of Granisetron in Beagle dogs
AnalyteGranisetron
RouteNasal AdministrationOralIV
Dosage (mg/dog)0.51.0211
PK ParameterMean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SD
Cmax (ng/mL) 2.20 ± 1.48 3.71 ± 2.69 8.48 ± 4.21 1.78 ± 0.561 23.8 ± 3.16
Tmax (min) 26.9 ± 18.1 26.3 ± 10.6 23.8 ± 11.9 43.1 ± 12.5 5.63 ± 1.77
t1/2 (min) 59.8 ± 14.7 63.9 ± 15.3 78.3 ± 21.1 58.6 ± 4.12 65.8 ± 10.7
MRT(min) 96.8 ± 33.2 86.9 ± 18.2 101 ± 17.0 90.1 ± 14.6 74.2 ± 12.1
CL/F (L/min) 4.20 ± 4.35 4.26 ± 3.69 2.80 ± 2.18 6.29 ± 2.68 0.61 ± 0.12
Vz/F (L) 348 ± 351 334 ± 217 286 ± 179 531 ± 234 56.9 ± 10.9
AUC0-last (ng/mLmin) 257 ± 210 436 ± 334 1001 ± 567 177 ± 73.7 1703 ± 386
AUC0-∞ (ng/mLmin) 264 ± 211 443 ± 334 1012 ± 571 184 ± 71.4 1714 ± 389
Abs F (%) 30.8 25.8 29.5 10.7 -
Table 9 Mean pharmacokinetic parameters of metabolite 7 OH-Granisetron in Beagle dogs
Analyte7-OH Granisetron   
RouteNasal AdministrationOralIV
Dosage (mg)0.51.0211
PK ParameterMean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SD
Cmax (ng/mL) 1.26 ± 0.845 2.18 ± 1.54 4.56 ± 2.01 5.73 ± 2.17 4.28 ± 1.20
Tmax (min) 60.0 ± 25.4 63.8 ± 23.7 65.6 ± 35.8 37.5 ± 16.0 48.8 ± 13.3
t1/2 (min) 233 ± 72 262 ± 47 306 ± 33 275 ± 61 276 ± 0.2
MRT (min) 235± 49 265 ± 48 325 ± 21 270 ± 41 297 ± 19
CL/F (L/min) 2.98 ± 4.01 2.70 ± 2.36 1.50 ± 0.61 0.90 ± 0.32 0.77± 0.25
Vz/F (L) 1055 ± 1518 996 ± 871 672 ± 322 342 ± 102 317 ± 142
AUC0-last (ng/mLmin) 364 ± 263 664 ± 520 1549 ± 771 1197 ± 446 1389 ± 465
AUC0-∞ (ng/mLmin) 386 ± 264 691 ± 520 1609 ± 810 1246 ± 473 1419 ± 470

EXAMPLE 12 Acute Toxicology and Toxicokinetic Study in Rats



[0070] A repeated dose 7-day intranasal instillation toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rat was performed to evaluate the potential toxicity and toxicokinetics of Granisetron Nasal Spray.

[0071] Male and female rats were administered the vehicle solution or GNS at 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mg/rat via daily intranasal instillation once daily for 7 consecutive days. The blood and urine were collected scheduled for clinical pathology. The animals were scheduled for necropsy on Study Day 8.

[0072] All the animals survived through the entire length of the study. There were no treatment-related gross or organ weight changes in the study animals examined. The only treatment-related finding was lymphoid hyperplasia in the tracheobronchial lymph node in GNS-treated males and females at 0.8 mg/animal.

[0073] Although there were no apparent fender differences in Cmax on D1 and D7, females had slightly higher AUCs than males. Increasing GNS level resulted in increases of Cmax and AUC0-24h of D1 were not proportional to increase of GNS; those of D7 were fairly proportional. There were no apparent systemic accumulations by repeating daily dose for 7 consecutive days.

Industrial Applicability



[0074] The method of the present invention can be applied to the field of preparation of pharmaceutical composition for intranasal administration.


Claims

1. A pharmaceutical composition, comprising:

(a) granisetron or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and

(b) at least one aqueous vehicle polymer that is selected from a group consisting of a bioadhesive polymer comprising hypromellose,

wherein the composition is a sprayable aqueous composition.
 
2. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1, wherein the at least one aqueous vehicle polymer further includes a rheology-changeable polymer.
 
3. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, wherein the rheology-changeable polymer is selected from a group consisting of a pH-Sensitive polymer, a temperature-Sensitive polymer, an ion-sensitive polymer and combinations thereof
 
4. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, wherein the rheology-changeable polymer is selected from a group consisting of carbomer, carrageenan, cellulose acetate phthalate, gellan gum, pectin, sodium alginate, poloxamer, and combinations thereof
 
5. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1, wherein the bioadhesive polymer further includes a polymer selected from a group consisting of acacia, albumins, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, cellulose microcrystalline, cellulose acetate, chitosan, dextrin, gelatin, guar gum, hyaluronic acid, hydroxylethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl starch, hydroxypropylcellulose, methyl cellulose, polyethylene glycols, poly(methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride), povidone, rafinose, shellac, sodium alginate, sodium starch glycolate, starch and pregelatinized starch, tragacanth, xanthan gum, and the combinations thereof
 
6. The pharmaceutical composition of any of claims 1 to 5, further comprising an aqueous solvent suitable for intranasal spray using a spray device.
 
7. The pharmaceutical composition of any of claims 1 to 6, wherein granisetron or the pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is at a concentration of 0.5-100 mg/ml.
 
8. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 6 or 7, which has a pH from 3.0 to 9.0.
 
9. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 3, wherein said pH-Sensitive polymer is carbomer capable of changing the rheological behaviour in relation to pH change, which is present at a concentration of 0.1 to 30 mg/ml, and/or cellulose acetate phthalate, which is present at a concentration of 1 to 500 mg/ml.
 
10. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 3, wherein said temperature-sensitive polymer is poloxamer 407, poloxamer 188, or both, and capable of changing the rheological behaviour in relation to temperature, wherein poloxamer 407 is present at a concentration of 50 to 300 mg/ml, and poloxamer 188 is present at a concentration of 5 to 50 mg/ml.
 
11. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 3, wherein said ion-sensitive polymer is gellan gum which is capable of changing the rheological behaviour in presence of ions in nasal fluid, wherein gellan gum is at a concentration of 1 to 20 mg/ml, and/or said ion-sensitive polymer is pectin, which is present at a concentration of 0.1 to 10 mg/ml.
 
12. The pharmaceutical composition of any preceding claim, comprising 1 to 50 mg/ml hypromellose.
 
13. A pharmaceutical composition according to any preceding claim for use in the prevention and/or relief of nausea and/or vomiting induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery.
 
14. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 13, wherein the composition is for administration intranasally by spraying an aqueous composition which comprises granisetron or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof with concentration of 0.5-100 mg/ml of the active ingredient, wherein said composition is a solution containing 0.5-100 mg/ml of the active ingredient and wherein said dose is sufficient to generate a plasma concentration of the active ingredient comparable to or higher than intravenous infusion, and achieve therapeutic effects in 15 minutes, with the duration of no less than 3 hours.
 


Ansprüche

1. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, umfassend:

(a) Granisetron oder ein pharmazeutisch unbedenkliches Salz davon, und

(b) wenigstens ein wässriges Vehikel-Polymer, das aus einer Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus einem bioadhäsiven Polymer besteht, das Hypromellose umfasst,

wobei die Zusammensetzung eine sprühbare wässrige Zusammensetzung ist.
 
2. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei das wenigstens eine wässrige Vehikel-Polymer ferner ein Rheologie-veränderbares Polymer enthält.
 
3. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 2, wobei das Rheologieveränderbare Polymer aus einer Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus einem pH-Wertempfindlichen Polymer, einem temperaturempfindlichen Polymer, einem ionenempfindlichen Polymer und Kombinationen davon besteht.
 
4. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 2, wobei das Rheologieveränderbare Polymer aus einer Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus einem Carbomer, einem Carrageen, einem Celluloseacetatphthalat, einem Gellan, einem Pektin, einem Natriumalginat, einem Poloxamer und Kombinationen davon besteht.
 
5. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei das bioadhäsive Polymer ferner ein Polymer enthält, das aus einer Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Akazie, Albuminen, Carboxymethylcellulose-Natrium, Carrageen, mikrokristalliner Cellulose, Celluloseacetat, Chitosan, Dextrin, Gelatine, Guarkernmehl, Hyaluronsäure, Hydroxylethylcellulose, Hydroxypropylstärke, Hydroxypropylcellulose, Methylcellulose, Polyethylenglykolen, Poly(methylvinylether/Maleinsäureanhydrid), Povidon, Rafinose, Schellack, Natriumalginat, Natriumstärkeglykolat, Stärke und Quellstärke, Tragant, Xanthan und den Kombinationen davon besteht.
 
6. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, ferner umfassend ein wässriges Lösungsmittel, das für ein intranasales Spray unter Verwendung einer Sprühvorrichtung geeignet ist.
 
7. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, wobei Granisetron oder das pharmazeutisch unbedenkliche Salz davon bei einer Konzentration von 0,5 bis 100 mg/ml liegt.
 
8. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 6 oder 7, die einen pH-Wert von 3,0 bis 9,0 aufweist.
 
9. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 3, wobei das pH-Wertempfindliche Polymer ein Carbomer ist, das dazu in der Lage ist, das rheologische Verhalten in Bezug auf die pH-Wert-Veränderung, die in einer Konzentration von 0,1 bis 30 mg/ml vorliegt und/oder Celluloseacetatphthalat, das in einer Konzentration von 1 bis 500 mg/ml vorliegt, zu ändern.
 
10. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 3, wobei das temperaturempfindliche Polymer Poloxamer 407, Poloxamer 188 oder beides ist und dazu in der Lage ist, das rheologische Verhalten in Bezug auf die Temperatur zu ändern, wobei Poloxamer 407 in einer Konzentration von 50 bis 300 mg/ml vorliegt und Poloxamer 188 in einer Konzentration von 5 bis 50 mg/ml vorliegt.
 
11. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 3, wobei das ionenempfindliche Polymer Gellan ist, das dazu in der Lage ist, das rheologische Verhalten in Gegenwart von Ionen in nasalem Fluid zu ändern, wobei das Gellan bei einer Konzentration von 1 bis 20 mg/ml liegt, und/oder das ionenempfindliche Polymer Pektin ist, das in einer Konzentration von 0,1 bis 10 mg/ml vorliegt.
 
12. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, umfassend 1 bis 50 mg/ml Hypromellose.
 
13. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche für die Verwendung bei der Vorbeugung und/oder Linderung von Übelkeit und/oder Erbrechen, die/das durch zytotoxische Chemotherapie, Bestrahlung oder Chirurgie induziert wird.
 
14. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 13, wobei die Zusammensetzung für eine intranasale Verabreichung durch das Sprühen einer wässrigen Zusammensetzung dient, die Granisetron oder ein pharmazeutisch unbedenkliches Salz davon mit einer Konzentration von 0,5 bis 100 mg/ml des Wirkstoffes umfasst, wobei die Zusammensetzung eine Lösung ist, die 0,5 bis 100 mg/ml des Wirkstoffes enthält, und wobei die Dosis ausreichend ist, um eine Plasmakonzentration des Wirkstoffes zu erzeugen, die vergleichbar mit oder höher als eine intravenöse Infusion ist, und therapeutische Wirkungen in 15 Minuten zu erreichen, wobei die Dauer nicht weniger als 3 Stunden beträgt.
 


Revendications

1. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant :

(a) du granisétron ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci et

(b) au moins un polymère véhicule aqueux qui est sélectionné dans un groupe consistant en un polymère bioadhésif comprenant une hypromellose,

où la composition est une composition aqueuse pulvérisable.
 
2. Composition pharmaceutique de la revendication 1, où le au moins un polymère véhicule aqueux inclut en outre un polymère de rhéologie variable.
 
3. Composition pharmaceutique de la revendication 2, où le polymère de rhéologie variable est sélectionné dans un groupe consistant en un polymère sensible au pH, un polymère sensible à la température, un polymère sensible aux ions et des combinaisons de ceux-ci.
 
4. Composition pharmaceutique de la revendication 2, où le polymère de rhéologie variable est sélectionné dans un groupe consistant en un carbomère, un carraghénane, l'acétophtalate de cellulose, une gomme gellane, une pectine, l'alginate de sodium, un poloxamère et des combinaisons de ceux-ci.
 
5. Composition pharmaceutique de la revendication 1, où le polymère bioadhésif comprend en outre un polymère sélectionné dans un groupe consistant en les suivants : acacia, albumines, carboxyméthylcellulose sodique, carraghénane, cellulose microcristalline, acétate de cellulose, chitosane, dextrine, gélatine, gomme guar, acide hyaluronique, hydroxyléthylcellulose, hydroxypropylamidon, hydroxypropylcellulose, méthylcellulose, polyéthylène glycols, poly(méthylvinyléther/anhydride maléique), povidone, raffinose, gomme shellac, alginate de sodium, glycolate d'amidon sodique, amidon et amidon prégélatinisé, gomme adragante, gomme xanthane et les combinaisons de ceux-ci.
 
6. Composition pharmaceutique de l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, comprenant en outre un solvant aqueux approprié pour une pulvérisation intranasale au moyen d'un dispositif de pulvérisation.
 
7. Composition pharmaceutique de l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, où le granisétron ou le sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci est à une concentration de 0,5-100 mg/ml.
 
8. Composition pharmaceutique de la revendication 6 ou 7 ayant un pH qui va de 3,0 à 9,0.
 
9. Composition pharmaceutique de la revendication 3, où ledit polymère sensible au pH est un carbomère capable de changer de comportement rhéologique en réponse à une modification du pH qui est présent à une concentration qui va de 0,1 à 30 mg/ml, et/ou l'acétophtalate de cellulose qui est présent à une concentration qui va de 1 à 500 mg/ml.
 
10. Composition pharmaceutique de la revendication 3, où ledit polymère sensible à la température est le poloxamère 407, le poloxamère 188 ou les deux et est capable de changer de comportement rhéologique en réponse à la température, le poloxamère 407 étant présent à une concentration qui va de 50 à 300 mg/ml et le poloxamère 188 étant présent à une concentration qui va de 5 à 50 mg/ml.
 
11. Composition pharmaceutique de la revendication 3, où ledit polymère sensible aux ions est une gomme gellane qui est capable de changer de comportement rhéologique en réponse à la présence d'ions dans le fluide nasal, la gomme gellane étant à une concentration qui va de 1 à 20 mg/ml, et/ou ledit polymère sensible aux ions est une pectine qui est présente à une concentration qui va de 0,1 à 10 mg/ml.
 
12. Composition pharmaceutique de l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes comprenant de 1 à 50 mg/ml d'hypromellose.
 
13. Composition pharmaceutique selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes pour une utilisation dans la prévention et/ou le soulagement de nausées et/ou vomissements induits par une chimiothérapie cytotoxique, une irradiation ou une chirurgie.
 
14. Composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 13, où la composition est destinée à être administrée par voie intranasale par pulvérisation d'une composition aqueuse comprenant du granisétron ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci à une concentration en ingrédient actif de 0,5-100 mg/ml, où ladite composition est une solution contenant 0,5-100 mg/ml de l'ingrédient actif et où ladite dose est suffisante pour générer une concentration plasmatique en ingrédient actif comparable ou supérieure à celle atteinte par perfusion veineuse et produire, en l'espace de 15 minutes, des effets thérapeutiques d'une durée qui n'est pas inférieure à 3 heures.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description